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  • 51. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Stenling, Andreas
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Dimensionality of stress experiences: Factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-recent; Levenstein, Prantera, Varvo et al., 1993) in a large (N = 1516; 35-95 years) population-based Swedish sample (Nilsson, Adolfsson, Backman et al., 2004; Nilsson, Backman, Erngrund et al., 1997). Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on a first, randomly drawn subsample (n = 506). Next, the model based on the PCA was tested in a second sample (n = 505). Finally, a third sample (n = 505) was used to cross-validate the model. Five components were extracted in the PCA (eigenvalue > 1) and labeled Demands, Worries/Tension, Lack of joy, Conflict, and Fatigue, respectively. Twenty-one out of the 30 original PSQ items were retained in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model that included the five (first-order) factors and, additionally, a general (second-order) stress factor, not considered in prior models. The model showed reasonable goodness of fit [chi(2)(184) = 511.2, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.059; and SRMR = 0.063]. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the established model. The results are discussed in relation to prior investigations of the factorial structure of the PSQ.

  • 52. Salomonsson, Sigrid
    et al.
    Santoft, Fredrik
    Lindsäter, Elin
    Ejeby, Kersti
    Ingvar, Martin
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Effects of cognitive behavioural therapy and return-to-work intervention for patients on sick leave due to stress-related disorders: Results from a randomized trial2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate specific effects for patients with adjustment or exhaustion disorder, the Stress subgroup (n = 152), regarding symptom severity and sick leave after CBT, a return-to-work intervention (RTW-I), and a combination of them (COMBO), using data from a randomized trial. In the original study, primary care patients on sick leave (N = 211) were randomized to CBT (n = 64), RTW-I (n = 67), or COMBO (n = 80). Blinded Clinician Severity Rating (CSR) of symptoms and sick leave registry data were primary outcomes. Subgroup analyses showed that for the Stress subgroup, CBT led to greater reduction of symptoms than RTW-I posttreatment, but COMBO did not differ from CBT or RTW-I. Regarding sick leave, there was no difference between treatments in the Stress subgroup. An exploratory analysis of the treatment effects in a subgroup of patients with depression, anxiety or insomnia indicates that RTW-I reduced sick leave faster than CBT. We conclude that CBT may be promising as an effective treatment of stress and exhaustion disorder.

  • 53.
    Sand, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    A gentle reminder that mean does not imply modal behavior: Few are in-group biased in minimal groups2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 794-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research reports that people organized into newly formed, arbitrary groups (i.e., minimal groups) areon averagein-group biased. However, that people onaveragebehave in a certain way does not imply thatmostpeople behave that way. Here, I report four studies (n = 224) demonstrating in-group biasedaveragebehaviors driven by a minority of about 30% participants. Further, only 14% reported allocating resources in a group-biased manner because they favored the in-group. I investigate and discuss how methodological issues related to non-normally distributed data, not taking participants' intentions into account, and using fixed response matrices can lead to overestimations of how widespread in-group bias is in minimal groups.

  • 54.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Grill, Martin
    A validity study of a work sample test of leadership behavior using supervisor and subordinate ratings as criteria2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work sample tests gather information about behavior that is consistent with the behavior being predicted. This criterion-related validity study examines whether a work sample test can predict behaviors more than 6 months later among managers (N = 127) in a large municipal organization. Ratings from both the subordinates (SOR) and supervisors (SVR) of the managers were used as criteria for the leadership dimensions of Influencing others, Consideration, and Planning. In total, six hypotheses were tested. The results were corrected for range restriction in the predictors and for unreliability in the criteria. The hypothesis that the work sample test score of Consideration predicted subordinates' ratings of Consideration received full support (𝛒¯ = 0.33; CI [0.06–0.56]). The Consideration work sample test score also showed a positive relationship with supervisor ratings of Consideration (𝛒¯ = 0.22; CI [−0.01 to 0.43]), although the confidence interval includes zero. No significant criterion-related validity was found for Influencing others or Planning. Given the results, the work sample test can primarily be used to predict Consideration. The results are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided.

  • 55.
    Sjöberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using individual differences to predict job performance: Correcting for direct and indirect restriction of range2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 368-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sjoberg, S., Sjoberg, A., Naswall, K. & Sverke, M. (2012). Using individual differences to predict job performance: Correcting for direct and indirect restriction of range. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 368373. The present study investigates the relationship between individual differences, indicated by personality (FFM) and general mental ability (GMA), and job performance applying two different methods of correction for range restriction. The results, derived by analyzing meta-analytic correlations, show that the more accurate method of correcting for indirect range restriction increased the operational validity of individual differences in predicting job performance and that this increase primarily was due to general mental ability being a stronger predictor than any of the personality traits. The estimates for single traits can be applied in practice to maximize prediction of job performance. Further, differences in the relative importance of general mental ability in relation to overall personality assessment methods was substantive and the estimates provided enables practitioners to perform a correct utility analysis of their overall selection procedure.

  • 56.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examination of the processing speed account in a population-based longitudinal study with narrow age cohort design2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 419-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processing speed account suggests that general slowing of mental processing speed results in an overall decline, especially age-related decline, in other cognitive domains. Support for the speed account comes mainly from cross-sectional studies with participants that vary in age (age-heterogeneous samples). This study investigated how well variations in processing speed predict change of episodic recall in a longitudinal framework and examined with the Narrow Age Cohort (NAC) design. Data were obtained from Betula, a population-based longitudinal study. Both 5-year (n= 490; Time 3 – Time 4) and 10-year follow-up results (n= 608; Time 1 – Time 3) were used. In both samples, which were subjected to prospective dementia screening, we found considerably weaker associations in longitudinal data compared to cross-sectional, and also weaker associations in age-homogeneous than in age-heterogeneous samples. The results provide little support for the speed account.

  • 57.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Memon, Amina
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Information about expert decision and post-decision distortion of facts of own decision2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive representations of decision problems are dynamic. During and after a decision, evaluations and representations of facts change to support the decision made by a decision maker her- or himself (Svenson, 2003). We investigated post-decision distortion of facts (consolidation). Participants were given vignettes with facts about two terminally ill patients, only one of whom could be given lifesaving surgery. In Study 1, contrary to the prediction, the results showed that facts were distorted after a decision both by participants who were responsible for the decisions themselves and when doctors had made the decision. In Study 2 we investigated the influence of knowledge about expert decisions on a participant's own decision and post-decisional distortion of facts. Facts were significantly more distorted when the participant's decision agreed with an expert's decision than when the participant and expert decisions disagreed. The findings imply that knowledge about experts' decisions can distort memories of facts and therefore may obstruct rational analyses of earlier decisions. This is particularly important when a decision made by a person, who is assumed to be an expert, makes a decision that is biased or wrong.

  • 58.
    Svenson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jakobsson, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Creating coherence in real-life decision processes: Reasons, differentiation and consolidation2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation and Consolidation Theory describes human decision making as a process in which attractiveness values are restructured in order to reach a decision and support the decision made. Here, the theory was developed to include reasons pro and con alternatives and tested on students making decisions between two university psychotherapy training programs (cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic therapy). Before and also after the decision, the attractiveness of the chosen alternative was upgraded and the non-chosen alternative downgraded. Different measures of evaluations of an alternative, such as ""best"" or ""worse"" converged over time until shortly after the decision. The number of reasons pro and con alternatives give a more complete picture than attractiveness and increased from the first to the last session. The reasons supporting the chosen alternative increased in strength, but reasons against the non-chosen alternative decreased. In informal comments participants reported that the study also served as a decision aid.

  • 59. Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    et al.
    Stormoen, Sara
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Sundstrom, Erik
    Investigating medical decision-making capacity in patients with cognitive impairment using a protocol based on linguistic features2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 386-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical question is whether cognitively impaired patients have the competence for autonomous decisions regarding participation in clinical trials. The present study aimed to investigate medical decision-making capacity by use of a Swedish linguistic instrument for medical decision-making (LIMD) in hypothetical clinical trials in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Three comparable groups (age, education) participated in the study: AD (n=20; MMSE: 24.1 +/- 3.3) and MCI (n=22; MMSE: 26.7 +/- 2.4) patients and healthy controls (n=37; MMSE: 29.1 +/- 1.0). Medical decision-making capacity was operationalized as answers to questions regarding participation in three hypothetical clinical trials. Answers were scored regarding comprehension, evaluation and intelligibility of decisions, and a total LIMD score was used as the measure of medical decision-making ability. Groups differed significantly in LIMD with AD patients performing worst and MCI poorer than the control group. A strong association was found between all LIMD scores and diagnosis which supported the assertion that LIMD as it is designed is a one-dimensional instrument of medical decision-making capacity (MDMC). The results indicate that a fundamental communicative ability has an impact on the competence for autonomous decisions in cognitive impairment.

  • 60. Thalén, Liv
    et al.
    Heimann Mühlenbock, Katarina
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Sundström, Erik
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Do adapted vignettes improve medical decision-making capacity forindividuals with Alzheimer's disease?2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD). Two vignettes from LIMD were altered linguistically with the aim to facilitate understanding for individuals with AD. An experimental within-subject design was used to study the influence on MDC of readability (original/adapted vignettes) and content (two different clinical trials). We included 24 patients with mild AD in this prospective study, which read all four vignettes along with a few other tests. This allowed us to investigate the association between MDC and cognitive function. Adapted vignettes did not yield significant differences regarding MDC as compared with original vignettes using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. A difference was found between the two clinical trials where LIMD score was significantly higher for Kidney disease than hypertension vignettes. Our results indicate that adapted vignettes may not improve MDC for individuals with mild AD. MDC was affected by which clinical trial the vignettes regarded, which implies that other factors affecting MDC need to be investigated, like length of text and vocabulary used.

  • 61.
    Thorburn, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Significance testing, interval estimation or Bayesian inference: comments to "Extracting a maximum of useful information from statistical research data" by S. Sohlberg and G. Andersson2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 79-82Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistical inference plays an important part in the formation of scientific knowledge in psychology. Starting from a paper by Sohlberg and Andersson (2005; Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 46, 69-77) these issues are discussed. It is argued that interval estimates are easy to understand and that they are more suitable than significance testing for most problems. Bayesian inference is a coherent description of the information building process. With some examples it is shown that null hypothesis significance testing is full of contradictions. Finally, some other important issues like convenience sampling and model selection are shortly mentioned.

  • 62. Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Engström, Elisabet
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Using a multi-feature paradigm to measure mismatch responses to minimal sound contrasts in children with cochlear implants and hearing aids2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to explore whether a multi-feature paradigm (Optimum-1) for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) would objectively capture difficulties in perceiving small sound contrasts in children with hearing impairment (HI) listening through their hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Children aged 5-7 years with HAs, CIs and children with normal hearing (NH) were tested in a free-field setting using a multi-feature paradigm with deviations in pitch, intensity, gap, duration, and location. There were significant mismatch responses across all subjects that were positive (p-MMR) for the gap and pitch deviants (F(1,43) = 5.17, p = 0.028 and F(1,43) = 6.56, p = 0.014, respectively) and negative (MMN) for the duration deviant (F(1,43) = 4.74, p = 0.035). Only the intensity deviant showed a significant group interaction with MMN in the HA group and p-MMR in the CI group (F(2,43) = 3.40, p = 0.043). The p-MMR correlated negatively with age, with the strongest correlation in the NH subjects. In the CI group, the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was replaced by a late positivity with a significant group interaction for the location deviant. Children with severe HI can be assessed through their hearing device with a fast multi-feature paradigm. For further studies a multi-feature paradigm including more complex speech sounds may better capture variation in auditory processing in these children.

  • 63. Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ) in a population based sample2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 218-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reports on the development of a questionnaire for assessment of adult cognitive dysfunction (CDQ). Participants in a population-based sample (65 +/- 15 years, N = 370) responded to a 90-item pilot version covering multiple aspects of memory/cognition. Based on exploratory principal components analyses and correlations with criterion measures of cognitive functioning (MMSE, Block Design, semantic/episodic memory), 20 items loading on 6 components were selected for the final version of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha for the total score was 0.90. There was evidence of construct validity as judged by correlations between CDQ scores, objective cognitive measures, and a subjective memory measure (PRMQ). Discriminant validity was demonstrated by a low and non-significant correlation with depressive symptoms. Further evidence of construct validity was provided by correlations with age and educational attainment. In conclusion, the CDQ is promising as a self-rating screening tool for cognitive dysfunction, and will be the subject of further development and validation.

  • 64. Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire: Instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vestergren, P., Ronnlund, M., Nyberg, L. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2012). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire: Instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 390400. The study adopted Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to investigate the factorial structure and reduce the number of items of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ). The analyses were based on data for a total of 1,115 participants from population based samples (mean age: 63.0 +/- 14.5 years, range: 2595) randomly split into a refinement (N = 569) and a cross-validation (N = 546) sample. Equivalence of the measurement and structural portions of the refined model was demonstrated across the refinement and cross-validation samples. Among competing models the best fitting and parsimonious model had a hierarchical factor structure with five first-order and one second-order general factor. For the final version of the CDQ, 20 items within five domains were selected (Procedural actions, Semantic word knowledge, Face recognition, Temporal orientation, and Spatial navigation). Internal consistency reliabilities were adequate for the total scale and for the subscales. Multigroup CFAs indicated measurement invariance across age and sex up to the scalar level. Finally, higher levels of cognitive dysfunction as reflected by CDQ scores were predicted by advancing age, fewer years of education, and with deficits in general cognitive functioning as reflected by scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, the CDQ appears to be psychometrically sound and shows the expected relationships with variables known to be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Future studies should apply it among clinical groups to further test its usefulness.

  • 65.
    Virta, Erkki
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Sam, David L.
    Westin, Charles
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Adolescents with Turkish background in Norway and Sweden.: A comparative study of their psychological adaptation2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virta, E., Sam, D. L. & Westin, C. (2004). Adolescents with Turkish background in Norway and Sweden: A comparative study of their psychological adaptation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45, 15–25. Using a questionnaire survey, this study compared psychological adaptation (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and mental health problems) of Turkish adolescents in Norway and Sweden, and examined to what extent ethnic and majority identities, acculturation strategies, and perceived discrimination accounted for adaptation among Turkish adolescents. The samples consisted of 407 Turks (111 in Norway and 296 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.2 years and 433 host adolescents (207 in Norway, 226 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.6 years. Turks in Norway reported poorer psychological adaptation than Turks in Sweden. Predictors of good adaptation were Turkish identity and integration, whereas poor adaptation was related to marginalization and perceived discrimination. The results indicated that the poorer adaptation of Turks in Norway compared to that of Turks in Sweden could be due to lower degree of Turkish identity and higher degree of perceived discrimination.

  • 66.
    von Essen, Jan D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enactment Enhances Integration Between Verb and Noun, but Not Relational Processing, in Episodic Memory2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 315-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved recall has consistently been demonstrated following motor activation at encoding (SPT), compared to traditional verbal learning (VT). Enhancements of item-specific processing and relational processing have been proposed as possible mechanisms to account for this SPT effect. There is ample evidence supporting the notion of enhanced item-specific processing, however it is still unclear whether enhancement of relational processing contributes to improved recall. In the present study, 2 experiments were designed to address this issue. In Experiment 1, memory under 2 encoding conditions (VT vs. SPT) and 3 recall conditions (free recall vs. category-cued recall vs. verb-cued recall) were studied in 3 large samples (N= 500–600). Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1, and controlled for the use of actual objects, short-term memory effects, and carryover effects, in Experiment 1. The results in both experiments showed an interaction between type of encoding and type of recall. Verb-cued recall was affected differently by SPT encoding, as compared to category-cued recall and free recall. The results indicate that enhanced integration between verb and noun is an effect of SPT encoding, whereas enhanced relational processing is not.

  • 67. von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

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