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  • 51. Liu, Jiaying
    et al.
    Martin, Leah J.
    Dinu, Irina
    Field, Catherine J.
    Dewey, Deborah
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Interaction of prenatal bisphenols, maternal nutrients, and toxic metal exposures on neurodevelopment of 2-year-olds in the APrON cohort2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 155, article id 106601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a developmental neurotoxicant, but the modifying effects of maternal nutrient status or neurotoxicant metal co-exposures have not been reported. Bisphenol-S (BPS) is being used as a BPA-alternative, but few epidemiological studies have evaluated its effects.

    Objectives: To examine if prenatal maternal BPA or BPS exposure are associated with children's neurodevelopment at two years of age while adjusting for effect-measure modification by sex, maternal nutrients, and co-exposure to neurotoxic metals.

    Methods: Total BPA and BPS concentrations were analyzed in spot maternal urine from the second trimester; metals and maternal nutrient status were analyzed in blood. Child neurodevelopment was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (Bayley-III) at age 2 (394 maternal-child pairs) and linear regression was used to investigate associations.

    Results: Among nutrients and neurotoxic metals, selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) were the most significant predictors of Bayley-III scale scores. Higher maternal Cd was significantly correlated with poorer motor performance (p < 0.01), and higher levels of maternal Se were significantly associated with poorer performance on the cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior scales (p < 0.05). While maternal Cd did not modify relationships between bisphenol exposures and Bayley-III scores, both maternal Se and child sex were significant effectmeasure modifiers. Associations between BPA exposure and social emotional scores were negative for boys (p = 0.056) but positive for girls (p = 0.046). Higher exposure to bisphenols was associated with lower motor scores among children with lower levels of maternal Se.

    Conclusion: Higher maternal Cd was associated with poorer motor development, but it was not an effect-measure modifier of bisphenols' effects on motor development. Maternal Se may be protective against adverse effects of bisphenols, and additional nutrient-bisphenol interaction studies examining sex-specific effects of BPA and BPS on child development are warranted.

  • 52. Liu, Jiaying
    et al.
    Wattar, Nour
    Field, Catherine J.
    Dinu, Irina
    Dewey, Deborah
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Exposure and dietary sources of bisphenol A (BPA) and BPA-alternatives among mothers in the APrON cohort study2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 119, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet is regarded as the main source of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure, but comparatively little is known about dietary sources of BPA-alternatives. Here we measured exposure of BPA and BPA-alternatives among pregnant women in Canada, estimated their 24-h intakes and examined the importance of various dietary sources. Free and total BPA, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) were measured in 467 second trimester maternal urine samples, and in 455 paired samples collected M three months postpartum. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between urinary concentrations of bisphenols and 24-h dietary recall data. The geometric means of total BPA in second trimester and postpartum urine (1.2 and 0.95 ng/mL, respectively) were 5-7 times higher than corresponding total BPS (0.16 and 0.17 ng/mL). The detection frequency of BPF was only 9% (i.e. > 1.0 ng/mL). However, M both time points 95th percentiles of total BPF (7.3 and 4.2 ng/mL, respectively) were similar to total BPA (8.2 and 5.0 ng/mL). Free BPS and BPF were detected in < 2% of samples, but were detectable when total BPS or BPF concentrations were highest, always M < 1% of the total concentration. The tolerable daily intake for total BPA (i.e. 18 nmol/kg BW/d) was not exceeded, but for BPS the estimated 24-h intake was as high as 14 nmol/kg BW/d (95th percentile: 0.12 nmol/kg BW/d), and for BPF was even higher among the highest centile of exposure (maximum and 95th percentile: 30, 0.81 nmol/kg BW/d). Canned food consumption was associated with higher total BPA, but was not associated with BPS. For BPF, mustard consumption may be an important exposure source, particularly among the highest exposed. Relatively high exposure to BPS and BPF in a minority of pregnant women highlights the need to better understand the associated health risks and exposure sources of BPA-alternatives.

  • 53. Liu, Shuo
    et al.
    Jørgensen, Jeanette T.
    Ljungman, Petter
    Pershagen, Göran
    Bellander, Tom
    Leander, Karin
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Strak, Maciej
    Chen, Jie
    Mehta, Amar
    Atkinson, Richard W.
    Bauwelinck, Mariska
    Varraso, Raphaëlle
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Fecht, Daniela
    Gulliver, John
    Hertel, Ole
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Janssen, Nicole A. H.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Klompmaker, Jochem O.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Oftedal, Bente
    Peters, Annette
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Rodopoulou, Sophia P.
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Bekkevold, Terese
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Hoek, Gerard
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The ELAPSE project2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, article id 106267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but evidence is sparse and inconsistent.

    Objectives: We examined the association between long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and COPD incidence.

    Methods: Within the 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE) study, we pooled data from three cohorts, from Denmark and Sweden, with information on COPD hospital discharge diagnoses. Hybrid land use regression models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) in 2010 at participants' baseline residential addresses, which were analysed in relation to COPD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models.

    Results: Of 98,058 participants, 4,928 developed COPD during 16.6 years mean follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations with COPD incidence were 1.17 (1.06, 1.29) per 5 mu g/m(3) for PM2.5, 1.11 (1.06, 1.16) per 10 mu g/m(3) for NO2, and 1.11 (1.06, 1.15) per 0.5 10(-5) m(-1) for BC. Associations persisted in subset participants with PM2.5 or NO2 levels below current EU and US limit values and WHO guidelines, with no evidence for a threshold. HRs for NO2 and BC remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas the HR for PM2.5 was attenuated to unity with NO2 or BC.

    Conclusions: Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution is associated with the development of COPD, even below current EU and US limit values and possibly WHO guidelines. Traffic-related pollutants NO2 and BC may be the most relevant.

  • 54. Liu, Yanna
    et al.
    Pereira, Alberto S.
    Beesoon, Sanjay
    Vestergren, Robin
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Olsen, Geary W.
    Glynn, Anders
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Temporal trends of perfluorooctanesulfonate isomer and enantiomer patterns in archived Swedish and American serum samples2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) body burdens are attributable to both direct PFOS and indirect PFOS precursor (PreFOS) exposure. The relative importance of these two pathways has been estimated, but the relative temporal trajectory of exposure to PFOS and PreFOS has not been examined. Here, two hypothesized biomarkers of PreFOS exposure, PFOS isomer profiles (quantified as percent branched PFOS, %br-PFOS) and chiral 1m-PFOS enantiomer fractions (1m-PFOS EF) were analyzed in archived human serum samples of individual American adults (1974-2010) and pooled samples of Swedish primiparous women (1996-2010). After correcting for potential confounders, significant correlations between %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EFs were observed in American samples and in Swedish samples for the 1996-2000 period, supporting the hypothesis that both %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EF are biomarkers of PreFOS exposure. Significant trends of increasing %br-PFOS, from 2000 to 2010, and increasingly non-racemic 1m-PFOS EFs, from 1996 to 2000, were detected in Swedish samples. No statistically significant trend for %br-PFOS or 1m-PFOS EF was observed in American samples, but American males had significantly higher %br-PFOS and significantly lower 1m-PFOS EF (i.e. more non-racemic) than females, and a similar significant difference was shown in the older age group, relative to the younger age group. These temporal trends in %br-PFOS and 1m-PFOS EF are not easily explained and the results highlight uncertainties about how humans are exposed to PFOS.

  • 55. Martin, Olwenn
    et al.
    Adams, Julie
    Beasley, Amy
    Belanger, Scott
    Breton, Roger L.
    Brock, Theo C. M.
    Buonsante, Vito A.
    Burgos, Malyka Galay
    Green, John
    Guiney, Patrick D.
    Hall, Tilghman
    Hanson, Mark
    Harris, Meagan J.
    Henry, Tala R.
    Huggett, Duane
    Junghans, Marion
    Laskowski, Ryszard
    Maack, Gerd
    Moermond, Caroline T. A.
    Panter, Grace
    Pease, Anita
    Poulsen, Veronique
    Roberts, Mike
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Schlekat, Christian E.
    Schoeters, Ilse
    Solomon, Keith R.
    Staveley, Jane
    Stubblefield, Bill
    Sumpter, John P.
    Warne, Michael St J.
    Wentsel, Randall
    Wheeler, James R.
    Wolff, Brian A.
    Yamazaki, Kunihiko
    Zahner, Holly
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Improving environmental risk assessments of chemicals: Steps towards evidence-based ecotoxicology2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 128, p. 210-217Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 56. Martinez, Andres
    et al.
    Norström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wang, Kai
    Hornbuckle, Keri C.
    Polychlorinated biphenyls in the surficial sediment of Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, Lake Michigan2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 849-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results of the first intensive survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surficial sediment of the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago, Indiana. a part of the Calumet River tributary of Lake Michigan that will be dredged to maintain depth for ship traffic. The tributary has previously been reported to be a large source of PCBs to Lake Michigan. PCB congeners were measured using tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, a method that provides a high level selectivity and sensitivity for PCBs in complex environmental samples. The PCB concentrations (sum of 163 congeners or coeluting peaks) range from 53 to 35,000 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and are comparable to other PCB concentrations at contaminated tributaries in the United States, most of them (although not IHSC) established by law as Superfund sites. The PCB congener signal strongly resembles the original technical mixture Aroclor 1248 that has experienced a small amount of weathering - less than 2.5% by mass for the statistically different congeners consistent with desorption, volatilization, and microbial dechlorination. The origin of the PCBs in IHSC is not known but Aroclor 1248 was used in hydraulic fluids, vacuum pumps, plasticizers and adhesives. Possible uses of this mixture in East Chicago included the equipment and auxiliary services for the adjacent steel mill and gas refinery and/or lubrication for the drawbridges spanning the canal.

  • 57.
    Möckel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Breivik, Knut
    Haugdahl Nost, Therese
    Sankoh, Alhaji
    Jones, Kevin C.
    Sweetman, Andrew
    Soil pollution at a major West African E-waste recycling site: Contamination pathways and implications for potential mitigation strategies2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 137, article id 105563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated paraffins (CPs)) and heavy metals and metalloids (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Zn) were analysed in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing and dumping site in Accra (Ghana). In order to identify which of the pollutants are likely to be linked specifically to handling of e-waste, samples were also collected from the Kingtom general waste site in Freetown (Sierra Leone). The results were compared using principal component analyses (PCA). PBDE congeners found in technical octa-BDE mixtures, highly chlorinated PCBs and several heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Ag and Hg) showed elevated concentrations in the soils that are likely due to contamination by e-waste. PCAs associated those compounds with pyrogenic PAHs, suggesting that burning of e-waste, a common practice to isolate valuable metals, may cause this contamination. Moreover, other contamination pathways, especially incorporation of waste fragments into the soil, also appeared to play an important role in determining concentrations of some of the pollutants in the soil. Concentrations of several of these compounds were extremely high (especially PBDEs, heavy metals and SCCPs) and in some cases exceeded action guideline levels for soil. This indicates that exposure to these contaminants via the soil alone is potentially harmful to the recyclers and their families living on waste sites. Many organic contaminants and other exposure pathways such as inhalation are not yet included in such guidelines but may also be significant, given that deposition from the air following waste burning was identified as a major pollutant source.

  • 58. Norström, Karin
    et al.
    Czub, Gertje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hu, Dingfei
    Thorne, Peter S
    Hornbuckle, Keri C
    External exposure and bioaccumulation of PCBs in humans living in a contaminated urban environment.2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 855-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are exposed to different mixtures of PCBs depending on the route of exposure. In this study we investigated the potential contribution of inhalation to the overall human exposure to PCBs in an urban area. For this purpose, the mechanistically based, non-steady state bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN was applied to predict the PCB body burden in an adult living in the Midwestern United States who eats a typical North American diet and inhales air contaminated with PCBs. Dietary exposure was estimated using measured data for eighteen PCB congeners in different food groups (fish, meat and egg, dairy products). Two scenarios for inhalation exposure were evaluated: one using air concentrations measured in Chicago, and a second using air measurements in a remote area on Lake Michigan, Sleeping Bear Dunes. The model predicted that exposure via inhalation increases the accumulated mass of PCBs in the body by up to 30% for lower chlorinated congeners, while diet is by far the dominant source of exposure for those PCB congeners that accumulate most in humans.

  • 59. Nyanza, Elias C.
    et al.
    Bernier, Francois P.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). University of Alberta, Canada.
    Manyama, Mange
    Hatfield, Jennifer
    Dewey, Deborah
    Effects of prenatal exposure and co-exposure to metallic or metalloid elements on early infant neurodevelopmental outcomes in areas with small-scale gold mining activities in Northern Tanzania2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 149, article id 106104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is associated with release of neurotoxic metallic or metalloid chemical elements including lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As).

    Objective: To examine associations between prenatal exposure and co-exposure to total lead (T-Pb), total mercury (T-Hg), total cadmium (T-Cd) and total arsenic (T-As) and infant neurodevelopment at 6 to 12 months of age in areas with ASGM activities in Tanzania.

    Methods: Women in their second trimester of pregnancy who resided in ASGM areas were enrolled from 2015 to 2017 (n = 883). At 6 to 12 months of age, children were assessed with the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) (n = 439). We measured T-Pb, T-Hg, and T-Cd in maternal dried blood spots and T-As in maternal urines. Poisson regression was used to examine associations between prenatal concentrations of these elements and neurodevelopmental outcomes.

    Results: Prenatal T-Hg concentration was associated with global neurodevelopment status (aPR 1.03, CI:1.01-1.04; p < 0.001) and language impairment (aPR 1.05, CI:1.03-1.07; p < 0.001) on the MDAT. When prenatal T-Hg and T-As values were at or above the human biomonitoring reference values (>= 95%) of the German Environmental Survey for Human Biomonitoring, that is 0.80 mu g/L and 15 mu g/L, respectively, the prevalence ratio of global neurodevelopmental impairment was two times higher (aPR 2.1, CI:1.0-4.3; p = 0.034). There was a 40% increase in the prevalence ratio of global neurodevelopmental impairment (aPR 1.4, CI:0.90-2.10, p = 0.027), when prenatal T-Hg was at or above the reference value of 0.80 mu g/L and T-Pb was at or above the reference value of 35 mu g/L. When prenatal T-Hg was at or above the reference value of 0.80 mu g/L and T-As was at or above the reference value of 15 mu g/L, the prevalence ratio of global neurodevelopmental impairment was two times higher (aPR 2.1, CI:1.0-4.3; p < 0.034).

    Discussion: Infants born to women in areas with ASGM activities are at significant risk for neurodevelopmental impairment and this is associated with exposure to higher concentrations of Hg prenatally. Co-exposure to high concentrations of Hg and Pb, or Hg and As appeared to have negative potentiated effects on infants' neurodevelopment.

  • 60. Nyanza, Elias C.
    et al.
    Dewey, Deborah
    Manyama, Mange
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Hatfield, Jennifer
    Bernier, Francois P.
    Maternal exposure to arsenic and mercury and associated risk of adverse birth outcomes in small-scale gold mining communities in Northern Tanzania2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 137, article id 105450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to arsenic and mercury in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) communities is an issue that predominantly affects low and middle-income countries. Large epidemiology studies in these communities are rare, and the impact of such exposures on reproductive outcomes are not well understood.

    Objective: To examine associations between prenatal maternal arsenic and mercury exposure and birth outcomes in both ASGM and non-ASGM communities in Northern Tanzania.

    Methods: This longitudinal prospective study included 961 women (ASGM = 788, non-ASGM = 173) of the original cohort of 1056 who were followed until a pregnancy outcome was registered. Maternal spot urine samples and dried blood spots were used to measure total arsenic (T-As) and total mercury (T-Hg) in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data on adverse birth outcomes were collected in 5 categories: spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and visible congenital anomalies. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to test for differences between median T-As and T-Hg by area of residence. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of stillbirth and visible congenital anomalies given maternal T-As and T-Hg levels. Modified Poisson regressions were used to estimate relative risk ratios between maternal T-As and T-Hg levels and composite adverse birth outcome, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, and preterm birth.

    Results: Statistically significant differences were found in median T-As (9.6 vs. 6.3 mu g/L, Mann-Whitney U-tests, Z = -3.50, p < 0.001) and median T-Hg blood concentrations (1.2 vs. 0.70 mu g/L, Z = -9.88, p-value < 0.001) between women living in ASGM and non-ASGM areas respectively. In ASGM areas, the adjusted relative risk (aRR) of a composite adverse birth outcome increased with increasing T-As (aRR 1.23, 95%CI: 1.14-1.33, p < 0.0001) and T-Hg (aRR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.1-1.25, p < 0.0001) exposure. Spontaneous abortion (aRR 1.53, 95%CI: 1.28-1.83), stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.97, 95%CI: 1.45-2.66) and preterm birth (1.17, 95%CI: 1.01-1.36) were significantly associated with elevated T-As, whereas elevated T-Hg was significantly associated with stillbirth (aOR 2.49, 95%CI: 1.88-3.29) and visible congenital anomalies (aOR 2.24, 95%CI: 1.3-3.87).

    Conclusion: Over half (54.7%) of women in ASGM areas of Northern Tanzania had adverse birth outcomes and the risk of adverse birth outcomes was significantly associated with increased prenatal exposure to arsenic and mercury.

  • 61. Nyström-Kandola, Jennifer
    et al.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Glynn, Anders
    Johanson, Gunnar
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Gyllenhammar, Irina
    Lignell, Sanna
    Vogs, Carolina
    Low concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in municipal drinking water associated with serum PFAA concentrations in Swedish adolescents2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 180, article id 108166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While highly contaminated drinking water (DW) is a major source of exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), the contribution of low-level contaminated DW (i.e. < 10 ng/L of individual PFAAs) to PFAA body burdens has rarely been studied. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated the association between concentrations of perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and their sum (∑4PFAAs) in DW and serum in Swedish adolescents using weighted least squares regression. We paired serum PFAA concentrations in adolescents (age 10–21 years, n = 790) from the dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016–17 (RMA) with mean PFAA concentrations in water samples collected in 2018 from waterworks (n = 45) supplying DW to the participant residential and school addresses. The median concentrations of individual PFAAs in DW were < 1 ng/L. Median concentrations of PFNA and PFHxS in serum were < 1 ng/g, while those of PFOA and PFOS were 1–2 ng/g. Significant positive associations between PFAA concentrations in DW and serum were found for all four PFAAs and ∑4PFAAs, with estimated serum/DW concentration ratios ranging from 210 (PFOA) to 670 (PFHxS), taking exposure from sources other than DW (background) into consideration. The mean concentrations of PFHxS and ∑4PFAA in DW that would likely cause substantially elevated serum concentrations above background variation were estimated to 0.9 ng/L and 2.4 ng/L, respectively. The European Food Safety Authority has determined a health concern concentration of 6.9 ng ∑4PFAAs/mL serum. This level was to a large degree exceeded by RMA participants with DW ∑4PFAA concentrations above the maximum limits implemented in Denmark (2 ng ∑4PFAAs/L) and Sweden (4 ng ∑4PFAAs/L) than by RMA participants with DW concentrations below the maximum limits. In conclusion, PFAA exposure from low-level contaminated DW must be considered in risk assessment for adolescents.

  • 62. Pega, Frank
    et al.
    Náfrádi, Bálint
    Momen, Natalie C.
    Ujita, Yuka
    Streicher, Kai N.
    Prüss-Üstün, Annette M.
    Descatha, Alexis
    Driscoll, Tim
    Fischer, Frida M.
    Godderis, Lode
    Kiiver, Hannah M.
    Li, Jian
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Sørensen, Kathrine
    Woodruff, Tracey J.
    Global, regional, and national burdens of ischemic heart disease and stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours for 194 countries, 2000-2016: A systematic analysis from the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 154, article id 106595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: World Health Organization (WHO) and International Labour Organization (ILO) systematic reviews reported sufficient evidence for higher risks of ischemic heart disease and stroke amongst people working long hours (>= 55 hours/week), compared with people working standard hours (35-40 hours/week). This article presents WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of global, regional, and national exposure to long working hours, for 194 countries, and the attributable burdens of ischemic heart disease and stroke, for 183 countries, by sex and age, for 2000, 2010, and 2016.

    Methods and Findings: We calculated population-attributable fractions from estimates of the population exposed to long working hours and relative risks of exposure on the diseases from the systematic reviews. The exposed population was modelled using data from 2324 cross-sectional surveys and 1742 quarterly survey datasets. Attributable disease burdens were estimated by applying the population-attributable fractions to WHO's Global Health Estimates of total disease burdens.

    Results: In 2016, 488 million people (95% uncertainty range: 472-503 million), or 8.9% (8.6-9.1) of the global population, were exposed to working long hours (>= 55 hours/week). An estimated 745,194 deaths (705,786-784,601) and 23.3 million disability-adjusted life years (22.2-24.4) from ischemic heart disease and stroke combined were attributable to this exposure. The population-attributable fractions for deaths were 3.7% (3.4-4.0) for ischemic heart disease and 6.9% for stroke (6.4-7.5); for disability-adjusted life years they were 5.3% (4.9-5.6) for ischemic heart disease and 9.3% (8.7-9.9) for stroke.

    Conclusions: WHO and ILO estimate exposure to long working hours (>= 55 hours/week) is common and causes large attributable burdens of ischemic heart disease and stroke. Protecting and promoting occupational and workers' safety and health requires interventions to reduce hazardous long working hours.

  • 63.
    Pierozan, Paula
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Kosnik, Marissa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    High-content analysis shows synergistic effects of low perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOA) mixture concentrations on human breast epithelial cell carcinogenesis2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 172, article id 107746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been associated with cancer, but the potential underlying mechanisms need to be further elucidated and include studies of PFAS mixtures. This mechanistic study revealed that very low concentrations (500 pM) of the binary PFOS and PFOA mixture induced synergistic effects on human epithelial breast cell (MCF-10A) proliferation. The cell proliferation was mediated by pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation, an increase in cyclin D1 and CDK6/4 levels, decrease in p21 and p53 levels, and by regulation of phosphor-Akt and β-catenin. The PFAS mixture also altered histone modifications, epigenetic mechanisms implicated in tumorigenesis, and promoted cell migration and invasion by reducing the levels of occludin. High-content screening using the cell painting assay, revealed that hundreds of cell features were affected by the PFAS mixture even at the lowest concentration tested (100 pM). The detailed phenotype profiling further demonstrated that the PFAS mixture altered cell morphology, mostly in parameters related to intensity and texture associated with mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleoli. Exposure to higher concentrations (≥50 µM) of the PFOS and PFOA mixture caused cell death through synergistic interactions that induced oxidative stress, DNA/RNA damage, and lipid peroxidation, illustrating the complexity of mixture toxicology. Increased knowledge about mixture-induced effects is important for better understanding of PFAS’ possible role in cancer etiology, and may impact the risk assessment of these and other compounds. This study shows the potential of image-based multiplexed fluorescence assays and high-content screening for development of new approach methodologies in toxicology.

  • 64. Raaschou-Nielsen, O.
    et al.
    Beelen, R.
    Wang, M.
    Hoek, G.
    Andersen, Z. J.
    Hoffmann, B.
    Stafoggia, M.
    Samoli, E.
    Weinmayr, G.
    Dimakopoulou, K.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.
    Xun, W. W.
    Fischer, P.
    Eriksen, K. T.
    Sorensen, M.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Ricceri, F.
    De Hoogh, K.
    Key, T.
    Eeftens, M.
    Peeters, P. H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Meliefste, K.
    Oftedal, B.
    Schwarze, P. E.
    Nafstad, P.
    Galassi, C.
    Migliore, E.
    Ranzi, A.
    Cesaroni, G.
    Badaloni, C.
    Forastiere, F.
    Penell, J.
    De Faire, U.
    Korek, M.
    Pedersen, N.
    Ostenson, C. -G.
    Pershagen, G.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Concin, H.
    Nagel, G.
    Jaensch, A.
    Ineichen, A.
    Naccarati, A.
    Katsoulis, M.
    Trichpoulou, A.
    Keuken, M.
    Jedynska, A.
    Kooter, I. M.
    Kukkonen, J.
    Brunekreef, B.
    Sokhi, R. S.
    Katsouyanni, K.
    Vineis, P.
    Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 87, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models for meta-analysis. Results: The 245,782 cohort members contributed 3,229,220 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean, 13.1 years), 1878 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. In the meta-analyses, elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer were associated with all elements except V; none was statistically significant In analyses restricted to participants who did not change residence during follow-up, statistically significant associations were found for PM2.5 Cu (HR, 125; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.53 per 5 ng/m(3)), PM10 Zn (1.28; 1.02-1.59 per 20 ng/m3), PMio S (1.58; 1.03-2.44 per 200 ng/m(3)), PM10 Ni (1.59; 1.12-2.26 per 2 ng/m(3)) and PM10K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100 ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PMio and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. Conclusions: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed to various PM components and sources. PM containing S and Ni might be particularly important.

  • 65.
    Raza, Auriba
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Partonen, Timo
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Asp, Magnus
    Engström, Erik
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Halonen, Jaana I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Daylight during winters and symptoms of depression and sleep problems: A within-individual analysis2024In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With climate change Northern areas of the globe are expected to have less daylight during winters due to less snow and more cloudiness. While wintertime has been linked to mental health problems, the role of wintertime daylight has been scarcely studied. We examined longitudinal associations for wintertime objective exposure to global radiation and self-reported daylight exposure with symptoms of depression and sleep problems.

    Methods: Our analytical sample included 15,619 respondents from three Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Surveys of Health (2012, 2014 and 2016). Objective exposure was global radiation (MJ/m2, November-January and November-February). Subjective exposure was based on self-reported time spent outdoors in daylight (<1 h vs. ≥ 1 h, November-January). Symptoms of depression were evaluated using a six-item subscale of the (Hopkins) Symptom Checklist. Fixed-effects method with conditional logistic regression controlled for time-invariant participant characteristics by design and time-varying covariates were added into models.

    Results: One unit increase in the four-month averaged global radiation was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms (OR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.52–0.91). These findings were confirmed using four-month cumulative exposure (OR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.85–0.98). Individuals reporting ≥ 1 h exposure to daylight during winter months were less likely to report depressive symptoms (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.60–0.82) compared to time when their exposure was < 1 h. Higher three-month exposure to global radiation suggested a protective association for sleep problems.

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that higher exposure to daylight during winters may contribute to lower likelihood of depression symptoms.

  • 66. Reardon, Anthony J. F.
    et al.
    Hajihosseini, Morteza
    Dinu, Irina
    Field, Catherine J.
    Kinniburgh, David W.
    MacDonald, Amy M.
    Dewey, Deborah
    England-Mason, Gillian
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    APrON Study, The APrON
    Maternal co-exposure to mercury and perfluoroalkyl acid isomers and their associations with child neurodevelopment in a Canadian birth cohort2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 178, article id 108087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) within the broader class of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are present in human serum as isomer mixtures, but epidemiological studies have yet to address isomer-specific associations with child development and behavior. Objectives: To examine associations between prenatal exposure to 25 PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) isomers, and child neurodevelopment among 490 mother-child pairs in a prospective Canadian birth cohort, the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. To consider the influence of a classic neurotoxicant, total mercury (THg), based on its likelihood of co-exposure with PFAAs from common dietary sources. Methods: Maternal blood samples were collected in the second trimester and child neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition (Bayley-III). Linear or curvilinear multiple regression models were used to examine associations between exposures and neurodevelopment outcomes. Results: Select PFAAs were associated with lower Cognitive composite scores, including perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (& beta; = -0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.7, -0.06) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) (& beta; = -2.0, 95% CI: -3.9, -0.01). Non-linear relationships revealed associations of total PFOS (& beta; = -4.4, 95% CI: -8.3, -0.43), and linear-PFOS (& beta; = -4.0, 95% CI: -7.5, -0.57) and 1m-PFOS (& beta; = -1.8, 95% CI: -3.3, -0.24) isomers with lower Language composite scores. Although there was no effect modification, including THg interaction terms in PFAA models revealed negative associations between perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and Motor (& beta; = -3.3, 95% CI: -6.2, -0.33) and Social-Emotional (& beta; = -3.0, 95% CI: -5.6, -0.40) composite scores. Discussion: These findings reinforce previous reports of adverse effects of maternal PFAA exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment. The unique hazards posed from isomers of PFOS justify isomer-specific analysis in future studies. To control for possible confounding, mercury co-exposure may be considered in studies of PFAAs.

  • 67. Reardon, Anthony J. F.
    et al.
    Moez, Elham Khodayari
    Dinu, Irina
    Goruk, Susan
    Field, Catherine J.
    Kinniburgh, David W.
    MacDonald, Amy M.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Longitudinal analysis reveals early-pregnancy associations between perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and thyroid hormone status in a Canadian prospective birth cohort2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 129, p. 389-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been linked to disruption of maternal thyroid hormone homeostasis, but results have varied between studies which we hypothesized was due to timing of the thyroid hormone measurements, variability in PFAA isomer patterns, or presence of other stressors. In a longitudinal study design, we investigated the time-dependency of associations between PFAA isomers and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and post-partum while considering thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status and mercury (Hg) co-exposure. In participants of a prospective Canadian birth cohort (n = 494), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and TPOAb were quantified in maternal plasma collected in each trimester and 3-months postpartum, and 25 PFAAs (15 linear and 10 branched) and Hg were quantified in samples collected during the second trimester. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and total branched isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were positively associated with TSH in mixed-effect models, with strongest associations early in gestation. Throughout pregnancy and post-partum, PFHxS was inversely associated with FT4, consistent with elevated TSH, while Hg was inversely associated with FT3. In TPOAb-positive women, negative associations were found between PFUnA and FT4, and 1m-PFOS and TSH, supporting previous studies that thyroid disorder could increase susceptibility to PFAA-mediated hormone dysregulation. Hg did not confound associations but was a significant interaction term, revealing further positive associations between PFOS isomers (Sigma 3m + 4m-PFOS) and TSH. Higher perfluoroalkyl sulfonate exposures were associated with higher TSH and/or lower FT4, strongly suggestive that PFHxS and branched PFOS isomers are risk factors for subclinical maternal hypothyroidism. Isomer-specific analysis is important in future studies, as crude measures of 'totalPFOS' masked the associations of branched isomers. A concerning result was for PFHxS which had consistent negative associations with FT4 at all time points and a positive association with TSH in early pregnancy when fetal development is most sensitive to disruption.

  • 68. Rousis, Nikolaos I.
    et al.
    Li, Zhe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Bade, Richard
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    O'Brien, Jake W.
    Samanipour, Saer
    Tscharke, Benjamin J.
    Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.
    Thomas, Kevin V.
    Socioeconomic status and public health in Australia: A wastewater-based study2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 167, article id 107436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of untreated municipal wastewater is recognized as an innovative approach to assess population exposure to or consumption of various substances. Currently, there are no published wastewater-based studies investigating the relationships between catchment social, demographic, and economic characteristics with chemicals using advanced non-targeted techniques. In this study, fifteen wastewater samples covering 27% of the Australian population were collected during a population Census. The samples were analysed with a workflow employing liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry and chemometric tools for non-target analysis. Socioeconomic characteristics of catchment areas were generated using Geospatial Information Systems software. Potential correlations were explored between pseudo-mass loads of the identified compounds and socioeconomic and demographic descriptors of the wastewater catchments derived from Census data. Markers of public health (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia, cardiovascular disease, anxiety disorder and type 2 diabetes) were identified in the wastewater samples by the proposed workflow. They were positively correlated with descriptors of disadvantage in education, occupation, marital status and income, and negatively correlated with descriptors of advantage in education and occupation. In addition, markers of polypropylene glycol (PPG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) related compounds were positively correlated with housing and occupation disadvantage. High positive correlations were found between separated and divorced people and specific drugs used to treat cardiac arrhythmia, cardiovascular disease, and depression. Our robust non-targeted methodology in combination with Census data can identify relationships between biomarkers of public health, human behaviour and lifestyle and socio-demographics of whole populations. Furthermore, it can identify specific areas and socioeconomic groups that may need more assistance than others for public health issues. This approach complements important public health information and enables large-scale national coverage with a relatively small number of samples.

  • 69.
    Short, Rebecca E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Exeter Medical School, UK; Royal Cornwall Hospital, UK.
    Cox, Daniel T. C.
    Tan, Yin Ling
    Bethel, Alison
    Eales, Jacqualyn F.
    Garside, Ruth
    Review of the evidence for oceans and human health relationships in Europe: A systematic map2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, article id 106275Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, there is increasing scientific evidence of critical links between the oceans and human health, with research into issues such as pollution, harmful algal blooms and nutritional contributions. However, Oceans and Human Health (OHH) remains an emerging discipline. As such these links are poorly recognized in policy efforts such as the Sustainable Development Goals, with OHH not included in either marine (SDG14) or health (SDG3) goals. This is arguably short-sighted given recent development strategies such as the EU Blue Growth Agenda.

    Objectives: In this systematic map we aim to build on recent efforts to enhance OHH in Europe by setting a baseline of existing evidence, asking: What links have been researched between marine environments and the positive and negative impacts to human health and wellbeing?

    Methods: We searched eight bibliographic databases and queried 57 organizations identified through stakeholder consultation. Results include primary research and systematic reviews which were screened double blind against pre-defined inclusion criteria as per a published protocol. Studies were limited to Europe, US, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Data was extracted according to a stakeholder-defined code book. A narrative synthesis explores the current evidence for relationships between marine exposures and human health outcomes, trends in knowledge gaps and change over time in the OHH research landscape. The resulting database is available on the website of the Seas, Oceans and Public Health in Europe website (https://sophie2020.eu/).

    Results: A total of 1,542 unique articles were included in the database, including those examined within 56 systematic reviews. Research was dominated by a US focus representing 50.1% of articles. A high number of articles were found to link: marine biotechnology and cardiovascular or immune conditions, consumption of seafood and cardiovascular health, chemical pollution and neurological conditions, microbial pollution and gastrointestinal or respiratory health, and oil industry occupations with mental health. A lack of evidence relates to direct impacts of plastic pollution and work within a number of industries identified as relevant by stakeholders. Research over time is dominated by marine biotechnology, though this is narrow in focus. Pollution, food and disease/injury research follow similar trajectories. Wellbeing and climate change have emerged more recently as key topics but lag behind other categories in volume of evidence.

    Conclusions: The evidence base for OHH of relevance to European policy is growing but remains patchy and poorly co-ordinated. Considerable scope for future evidence synthesis exists to better inform policy-makers, though reviews need to better incorporate complex exposures. Priorities for future research include: proactive assessments of chemical pollutants, measurable impacts arising from climate change, effects of emerging marine industries, and regional and global assessments for OHH interactions. Understanding of synergistic effects across multiple exposures and outcomes using systems approaches is recommended to guide policies within the Blue Growth Strategy. Co-ordination of research across Europe and dedicated centres of research would be effective first steps.

  • 70. Smythe, Tristan A.
    et al.
    Su, Guanyong
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Letcher, Robert J.
    Metabolic transformation of environmentally-relevant brominated flame retardants in Fauna: A review2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 161, article id 107097Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, production trends of the flame retardant (FR) industry, and specifically for brominated FRs (BFRs), is for the replacement of banned and regulated compounds with more highly brominated, higher molecular weight compounds including oligomeric and polymeric compounds. Chemical, biological, and environmental stability of BFRs has received some attention over the years but knowledge is currently lacking in the transformation potential and metabolism of replacement emerging or novel BFRs (E/NBFRs). For articles published since 2015, a systematic search strategy reviewed the existing literature on the direct (e.g., in vitro or in vivo) non-human BFR metabolism in fauna (animals). Of the 51 papers reviewed, and of the 75 known environmental BFRs, PBDEs were by far the most widely studied, followed by HBCDDs and TBBPA. Experimental protocols between studies showed large disparities in exposure or incubation times, age, sex, depuration periods, and of the absence of active controls used in in vitro experiments. Species selection emphasized non-standard test animals and/or field-collected animals making comparisons difficult. For in vitro studies, confounding variables were generally not taken into consideration (e.g., season and time of day of collection, pollution point-sources or human settlements). As of 2021 there remains essentially no information on the fate and metabolic pathways or kinetics for 30 of the 75 environmentally relevant E/BFRs. Regardless, there are clear species-specific and BFR-specific differences in metabolism and metabolite formation (e.g. BDE congeners and HBCDD isomers). Future in vitro and in vivo metabolism/biotransformation research on E/NBFRs is required to better understand their bioaccumulation and fate in exposed organisms. Also, studies should be conducted on well characterized lab (e.g., laboratory rodents, zebrafish) and commonly collected wildlife species used as captive models (crucian carp, Japanese quail, zebra finches and polar bears).

  • 71. Sun, Chenxing
    et al.
    Zhang, Yifeng
    Alessi, Daniel S.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Nontarget profiling of organic compounds in a temporal series of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced waters2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, article id UNSP 104944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) flowback and produced water (FPW) can be toxic to aquatic life but its chemical content is largely unknown, variable and complex. Seven FPW samples were collected from a HF operation in the Duvernay Formation (Alberta, Canada) over 30 days of flowback and characterized by a nontarget workflow based on high performance liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A modified Kendrick mass defect plot and MS/MS spectral interpretation revealed seven series of homologues composed of ethylene oxide (i.e. -CH2CH2O-), among which a series of aldehydes was proposed as degradation products of polyethylene glycols, and two series of alkyl ethoxylate carboxylates could be proprietary HF additives. Many other ions were confidently assigned a formula by accurate mass measurement and were subsequently prioritized for identification by matching to records in ChemSpider and the US EPA's CompTox Chemistry Dashboard. Quaternary ammonium compounds, amine oxides, organophosphorous compounds, phthalate diesters and hydroxyquinoline were identified with high confidence by MS/MS spectra (Level 3), matching to reference spectra in MassBank (Level 2) or to authentic standards (Level 1). Temporal trends showed that most of the compounds declined in abundance over the first nine days of flowback, except for phthalate diesters and hydroxyquinoline that were still observed on Day 30 and had disappearance half-lives of 61 and 91 days, respectively. All the compounds followed first-order disappearance kinetics in flowback, except for polyoxygenated acids which followed second-order kinetics. This analysis and the workflow, based largely on public on-line databases, enabled profiling of complex organic compounds in HF-FPW, and will likely be useful for further understanding the toxicity and chemical fate of HF-FPW.

  • 72.
    Sundström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Ehresman, David
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Bignert, Anders
    Enheten för miljögiftsforskning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Butenhoff, John L.
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Olsen, Geary
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Chang, Shu-Ching
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 178-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread presence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in human general populations and their slow elimination profiles have led to renewed interest in understanding the potential human neonatal exposures of perfluoroalkyls (PFAs) from consumption of human milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk samples obtained in Sweden between 1972 and 2008 (a period representing the most significant period of PFA production) and to see whether the time trend of these analytes parallels that indicated in human serum. Chemical analysis of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA was performed on pooled Swedish human milk samples from 1972 to 2008 after methodological refinements. The 20 samples which formed the 2007 pool were also analyzed individually to evaluate sample variations. Analyses were performed by HPLC-MS/MS. Due to the complexities of the human milk matrix and the requirement to accurately quantitate low pg/mL concentrations, meticulous attention must be paid to background contamination if accurate results are to be obtained. PFOS was the predominant analyte present in the pools and all three analytes showed statistically significant increasing trends from 1972 to 2000, with concentrations reaching a plateau in the 1990s. PFOA and PFOS showed statistically significant decreasing trends during 2001-2008. At the end of the study, in 2008, the measured concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk were 75 pg/mL, 14 pg/mL, and 74 pg/mL, respectively. The temporal concentration trends of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA observed in human milk are parallel to those reported in the general population serum concentrations.

     

  • 73.
    Tay, Joo Hui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio
    Haug, Line Småstuen
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Assessment of dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants: Comparison using direct measurements from hand wipes with an indirect estimation from settled dust concentrations2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 115, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies estimating dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants in adults. To fill this gap, sixty-one hand wipe samples were collected from a Norwegian adult cohort using gauze pads immersed in isopropanol. BDE-47, BDE-209, bis(2‑ethyl‑hexyl)‑3,4,5,6‑tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the most frequently detected chemicals. The highest median mass in hand wipes was that of sumEHFR (570 ng), followed by sumHBCDD (180 ng) and sumPBDE (2.9 ng). The high EHFR level was mainly driven by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) which accounted for 77% of the total mass. Positive and significant correlations were observed between FR levels in hand wipes and settled dust (0.26 < r < 0.56, p < 0.05), as well as between FR levels in hand wipes and the number of electronic consumer products at home (0.27 < r < 0.40, p < 0.05). Significant bivariate associations with number of laptops/tablets and phones/mobiles were further confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. Dermal exposure was estimated using the levels measured in handwipes. The estimated median dermal exposure was 2600, 840 and 6.2 pg/kg bw/d for sumEHFR, sumHBCDD and sumPBDE, respectively. Further, we compared these results with the dermal exposure as estimated indirectly by utilizing previously reported FR levels in settled dust collected from the residences of the same studied cohort. With the indirect approach, higher dermal exposures to sumPBDE but lower exposures to sumEHFR and sumHBCDD were observed compared to the direct dermal exposure estimated via hand wipes. Comparable exposure estimates between hand wipes and the indirect method were obtained for α‑, β‑tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), DBDPE, BDE-28, -35, -49, -99, -153, 154, and -183. For other individual HFRs, the exposure estimates obtained from the two approaches were significantly different (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Both methods gave similar dermal exposure estimates for many individual FRs. However, it is important to be aware of the value and limitations of each method when using them to estimate human exposure.

  • 74.
    Tekle, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gromadzinska, Jolanta
    Joksic, Gordana
    Antic, Ruza
    Nilsson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Dallner, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Undén, Anna-Lena
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E in female populations from Poland, Serbia and Sweden2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 188-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), life style and nutritional status of a population are important factors that may influence normal serum levels of antioxidants and the insulin-like growth factor system. In this study we examined serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) and vitamin E in healthy female populations (n = 4 x 100) aged 19-59 years from Poland (PL), Sweden (SE), Serbia I (SR I) and Serbia II (SR II). The last group lived in an environmental emergency area affected by the bombings of 1999 in Serbia. The Polish and SR I cohorts exhibited low IGFSD-score levels, (-2 to +/-0), compared to females from SE with IGFSD-score 0. In the SIR II population, the IGFSD range was between -1 and 1. The IGFBP-1 levels of the Polish and SIR I groups were lower than in the Swedish population, while the SR II levels showed a broader distribution, 20-80 mu g/l. The CoQ values in the Swedish and Polish samples were around 1 nmol/ml. In contrast. the SIR I cohorts exhibited higher concentrations, 1.5-3.5 nmol/ml and the SIR II group had extremely low levels, <0.5 nmol/ml. The vitamin E concentrations were similar in the Polish and Swedish populations, 20-40 nmol/ml, while it was twice as high, 40-80 nmol/ml in the SR I and very low in the SIR II group, which is half of the Polish and Swedish cohorts. These results suggest that different lifestyles and environmental factors affect both the IGF system and the antioxidants CoQ10 and vitamin E in female populations in Europe. The females living in the polluted area had different patterns of both the IGF and antioxidant systems. These findings may explain differences in morbidity and mortality in these countries.

  • 75. Tettamanti, Giorgio
    et al.
    Auvinen, Anssi
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kojo, Katja
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Heinävaara, Sirpa
    Elliott, Paul
    Schüz, Joachim
    Deltour, Isabelle
    Kromhout, Hans
    Toledano, Mireille B.
    Harbo Poulsen, Aslak
    Johansen, Christoffer
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Feychting, Maria
    Hillert, Lena
    Long-term effect of mobile phone use on sleep quality: Results from the cohort study of mobile phone use and health (COSMOS)2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 140, article id 105687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EMF) from mobile phone use on sleep quality has mainly been investigated in cross-sectional studies. The few previous prospective cohort studies found no or inconsistent associations, but had limited statistical power and short follow-up. In this large prospective cohort study, our aim was to estimate the effect of RF-EMF from mobile phone use on different sleep outcomes.

    Materials and methods: The study included Swedish (n = 21,049) and Finnish (n = 3120) participants enrolled in the Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) with information about operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline and sleep outcomes both at baseline and at the 4-year follow-up. Sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, daytime somnolence, sleep latency, and insomnia were assessed using the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) sleep questionnaire.

    Results: Operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline was not associated with most of the sleep outcomes. For insomnia, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.51 was observed in the highest decile of mobile phone call-time (> 258 min/week). With weights assigned to call-time to account for the lower RF-EMF exposure from Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS, 3G) than from Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM, 2G) the OR was 1.09 (95% CI 0.89-1.33) in the highest call-time decile.

    Conclusion: Insomnia was slightly more common among mobile phone users in the highest call-time category, but adjustment for the considerably lower RF-EMF exposure from the UMTS than the GSM network suggests that this association is likely due to other factors associated with mobile phone use than RF-EMF. No association was observed for other sleep outcomes. In conclusion, findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that RF-EMF from mobile phone use has long-term effects on sleep quality.

  • 76. Thacher, Jesse D.
    et al.
    Oudin, Anna
    Flanagan, Erin
    Mattisson, Kristoffer
    Albin, Maria
    Roswall, Nina
    Pyko, Andrei
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Borgquist, Signe
    Brandt, Jorgen
    Broberg, Karin
    Cole-Hunter, Thomas
    Eriksson, Charlotta
    Eneroth, Kristina
    Gudjonsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    Helte, Emilie
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Lanki, Timo
    Lim, Youn-Hee
    Leander, Karin
    Ljungman, Petter
    Manjer, Jonas
    Mannisto, Satu
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Pershagen, Goran
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sandsveden, Malte
    Selander, Jenny
    Simonsen, Mette K.
    Stucki, Lara
    Spanne, Marten
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Tiittanen, Pekka
    Valencia, Victor H.
    Ogren, Mikael
    Akesson, Agneta
    Sorensen, Mette
    Exposure to long-term source-specific transportation noise and incident breast cancer: A pooled study of eight Nordic cohorts2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 178, article id 108108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Environmental noise is an important environmental exposure that can affect health. An association between transportation noise and breast cancer incidence has been suggested, although current evidence is limited. We investigated the pooled association between long-term exposure to transportation noise and breast cancer incidence. Methods: Pooled data from eight Nordic cohorts provided a study population of 111,492 women. Road, railway, and aircraft noise were modelled at residential addresses. Breast cancer incidence (all, estrogen receptor (ER) positive, and ER negative) was derived from cancer registries. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models, adjusting main models for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together with long-term exposure to air pollution. Results: A total of 93,859 women were included in the analyses, of whom 5,875 developed breast cancer. The median (5th-95th percentile) 5-year residential road traffic noise was 54.8 (40.0-67.8) dB Lden, and among those exposed, the median railway noise was 51.0 (41.2-65.8) dB Lden. We observed a pooled HR for breast cancer (95 % confidence interval (CI)) of 1.03 (0.99-1.06) per 10 dB increase in 5-year mean exposure to road traffic noise, and 1.03 (95 % CI: 0.96-1.11) for railway noise, after adjustment for lifestyle and sociodemographic covariates. HRs remained unchanged in analyses with further adjustment for PM2.5 and attenuated when adjusted for NO2 (HRs from 1.02 to 1.01), in analyses using the same sample. For aircraft noise, no association was observed. The associations did not vary by ER status for any noise source. In analyses using <60 dB as a cutoff, we found HRs of 1.08 (0.99-1.18) for road traffic and 1.19 (0.95-1.49) for railway noise. Conclusions: We found weak associations between road and railway noise and breast cancer risk. More high -quality prospective studies are needed, particularly among those exposed to railway and aircraft noise before conclusions regarding noise as a risk factor for breast cancer can be made.

  • 77.
    Törnqvist, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Karimov, Bakhtiyor
    Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Trends in Central Asia2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 435-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited data on the pollution status of spatially extensive water systems constrain health-risk assessments at basin-scales. Using a recipient measurement approach in a terminal water body, we show that agricultural and industrial pollutants in groundwaters urface water systems of the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (covering the main part of Central Asia) yield cumulative health hazards above guideline values in downstream surface waters, due to high concentrations of copper, arsenic, nitrite, and to certain extent dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Considering these high-impact contaminants, we furthermore perform trend analyses of their upstream spatial–temporal distribution, investigating dominant large-scale spreading mechanisms. The ratio between parent DDT and its degradation products showed that discharges into or depositions onto surface waters are likely to be recent or ongoing. In river water, copper concentrations peak during the spring season, after thawing and snow melt. High spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in river water could reflect its local presence in the top soil of nearby agricultural fields. Overall, groundwaters were associated with much higher health risks than surface waters. Health risks can therefore increase considerably, if the downstream population must switch to groundwater-based drinking water supplies during surface water shortage. Arid regions are generally vulnerable to this problem due to ongoing irrigation expansion and climate changes.

  • 78.
    Ullah, Shahid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Huber, Sandra
    Bignert, Anders
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 65, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a cleanup and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors-in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (<MDL)-10 pg/g), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS, 9-38 pg/g), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 240-930 pg/g), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS, <MDL-4 pg/g), N-methyl and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA, 2-39 and 2-31 pg/g, respectively) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA, 78-920 pg/g). The highest concentrations were found for PFOS and FOSA around the turn of the century. Shorter disappearance half-lives were observed for precursors compared to PFSAs. Assuming that these trend differences are representative for fish consumed by the general Swedish population, this observation suggests that the relative contribution of precursors to total human exposure to PFOS via fish intake has decreased in Sweden over the study period. PFOS precursors in fish may have constituted a significant indirect exposure pathway for PFOS in the 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFOS and FOSA revealed <10% relative contributions of branched isomers to total PFOS and total FOSA. Furthermore, the percentage branched isomers decreased over time for both compounds. These findings are contrary to patterns and temporal trends of PFOS isomers commonly found in human serum. In combination with literature data on isomer patterns in other edible fish species and on isomer-specific human toxicokinetics, our results suggest that fish consumption alone cannot account for the PFOS isomer patterns and trends observed in humans.

  • 79.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Glynn, Anders
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids for the Swedish population in 1999, 2005 and 20102012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary intake has been hypothesized to be the major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). However, difficulties associated with the analysis of PFAAs at ultra trace levels in food samples have prevented the confirmation of this hypothesis. In this study, the dietary intake of PFAAs for the general Swedish population was estimated by applying a highly sensitive analytical method to a set of archived food market basket samples from 1999, 2005 and 2010. Dietary exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (860-1440 pg kg(-1) day(-1)), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (90-210 pg kg(-1) day(-1)), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (50-110 pg kg(-1) day(-1)) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (70-80 pg kg(-1) day(-1)) was dominated by the consumption of fish and meat. In contrast, dietary exposure to PFOA (350-690 pg kg(-1) day(-1)) originated from low levels (8-62 pg g(-1)) found in several high consumption food categories including cereals, dairy products, vegetables and fruit. The dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA estimated in this study were 4 to 10 times lower compared to previous exposure modeling studies. Nevertheless, the dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA was still a factor of 6 to 10 higher than exposure through ingestion of household dust and drinking water estimated for the general Swedish population. For perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) drinking water intake was the major exposure pathway (36-53% of the total exposure) whereas dust ingestion made a significant contribution (27-49%) to the total exposure for PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA). Dietary intakes varied by less than a factor of three for all PFAAs during the different sampling years which demonstrates that dietary intake has been fairly constant over the past decade when many manufacturing changes occurred.

  • 80. Wang, Meng
    et al.
    Beelen, Rob
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Fischer, Paul
    Houthuijs, Danny
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Vineis, Paolo
    Xun, Wei W.
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lanki, Timo
    Turunen, Anu W.
    Oftedal, Bente
    Schwarze, Per
    Aamodt, Geir
    Penell, Johanna
    De Faire, Ulf
    Korek, Michal
    Leander, Karin
    Pershagen, Göran
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Thorup Eriksen, Kirsten
    Sörensen, Mette
    Tjönneland, Anne
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Bots, Michiel L.
    Meliefste, Kees
    Kraemer, Ursula
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Key, Timothy
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Peters, Annette
    Cyrys, Josef
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Phuleria, Harish
    Ineichen, Alex
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Vilier, Alice
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Declerq, Christophe
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Keuken, Menno
    Jedynska, Aleksandra
    Kooter, Ingeborg M.
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Sokhi, Ranjeet S.
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Hoek, Gerard
    Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts: Results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 66, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the association of PM composition with cardiovascular mortality. Methods: We used data from 19 European ongoing cohorts within the framework of the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and TRANSPHORM (Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter) projects. Residential annual average exposure to elemental constituents within particle matter smaller than 2.5 and 10 pm (PM2.5 and PM10) was estimated using Land Use Regression models. Eight elements representing major sources were selected a priori (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc). Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models with a standardized protocol. Random-effects metaanalysis was used to calculate combined effect estimates. Results: The total population consisted of 322,291 participants, with 9545 CVD deaths. We found no statistically significant associations between any of the elemental constituents in PM2.5 or PM10 and CVD mortality in the pooled analysis. Most of the hazard ratios (HRs) were close to unity, e.g. for PM10 Fe the combined HR was 0.96 (0.84-1.09). Elevated combined HRs were found for PM2.5 Si (1.17, 95% Cl: 0.93-1.47), and S in PM2.5 (1.08,95% Cl: 0.95-1.22) and PM10 (1.09,95% Cl: 0.90-132). Conclusion: In a joint analysis of 19 European cohorts, we found no statistically significant association between long-term exposure to 8 elemental constituents of particles and total cardiovascular mortality.

  • 81. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Hungerbuhler, Konrad
    Scheringer, Martin
    Comparative assessment of the environmental hazards of and exposure to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs): Current knowledge, gaps, challenges and research needs2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 89-90, p. 235-247Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs) are sub-groups of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that have been commercialized since the 1970s, particularly as defoamers in pesticide formulations and wetting agents in consumer products. Recently, C-4/C-4 PFPiA and its derivatives have been presented as alternatives to long-chain PFASs in certain applications. In this study, we systematically assess the publicly available information on the hazardous properties, occurrence, and exposure routes of PFPAs and PFPiAs, and make comparisons to the corresponding properties of their better-known carboxylic and sulfonic acid analogs (i.e. PFCAs and PFPAs). This comparative assessment indicates that [i] PFPAs likely have high persistence and long-range transport potential; [ii] PFPiAs may transform to PFPAs (and possibly PFCAs) in the environment and biota; [iii] certain PFPAs and PFPiAs can only be slowly eliminated from rainbow trout and rats, similarly to long-chain PFCAs and PFPAs; [iv] PFPAs and PFPiAs have modes-of-action that are both similar to, and different from, those of PFCAs and PFSAs; and [v] the measured levels of PFPAs/PFPiAs in the global environment and biota appear to be low in comparison to PFCAs and PFPAs, suggesting, for the time being, low risks from PFPAs and PFPiAs alone. Although risks from individual PFPAs/PFPiAs are currently low, their ongoing production and use and high persistence will lead to increasing exposure and risks over time. Furthermore, simultaneous exposure to PFPAs, PFPiAs and other PFASs may result in additive effects necessitating cumulative risk assessments. To facilitate effective future research, we highlight possible strategies to overcome sampling and analytical challenges.

  • 82. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Buck, Robert C.
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Global emission inventories for C-4-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, Part I: production and emissions from quantifiable sources2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 70, p. 62-75Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify global emissions of C-4-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues during the life-cycle of products based on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic add (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF), and fluorotelomer compounds. We estimate emissions of 2610-21400 tonnes of C-4-C-14 PFCAs in the period from 1951 to 2015, and project 20-6420 tonnes to be emitted from 2016 to 2030. The global annual emissions steadily increased in the period 1951-2002, followed by a decrease and then another increase in the period 2002-2012. Releases from fluoropolymer production contributed most to historical PFCA emissions (e.g. 55-83% in 1951-2002). Since 2002, there has been a geographical shift of industrial sources (particularly fluoropolymer production sites) from North America, Europe and Japan to emerging Asian economies, especially China Sources differ between PFCA homologues, sometimes Considerably, and the relative contributions of each source change over time. For example, whereas 98-100% of historical (1951-2002) PFOA emissions are attributed to direct releases during the life-cycle of products containing PFOA as ingredients or impurities, a much higher historical contribution from PFCA precursor degradation is estimated for some other homologues (e.g. 9-78% for PFDA). We address the uncertainties of the PFCA emissions by defining a lower and a higher emission scenario, which differ by approximately a factor of eight.

  • 83. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Buck, Robert C.
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Global emission inventories for C-4-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: The remaining pieces of the puzzle2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 69, p. 166-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We identify eleven emission sources of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic adds (PFCAs) that have not been discussed in the past. These sources can be divided into three groups: [i] PFCAs released as ingredients or impurities, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and their derivatives; [ii] PFCAs formed as degradation products, e.g., atmospheric degradation of some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrofluoroethers (HFEs); and [iii] sources from which PFCAs are released as both impurities and degradation products, e.g., historical and current use of perfluorobutane sulfonyl fluoride (PBSF)- and perfluorohexane sulfonyl fluoride (PHxSF)-based products. Available information confirms that these sources were active in the past or are still active today, but due to a lack of information, it is not yet possible to quantify emissions from these sources. However, our review of the available information on these sources shows that some of the sources may have been significant in the past (e.g., the historical use of PFBA-, PFHxA-, PBSF- and PHxSF-based products), whereas others can be significant in the long-term (e.g., (bio)degradation of various side-chain fluorinated polymers where PFCA precursors are chemically bound to the backbone). In addition, we summarize critical knowledge and data gaps regarding these sources as a basis for future research.

  • 84. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their potential precursors2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, p. 242-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2000 there has been an on-going industrial transition to replace long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic adds (PFSAs) and their precursors. To date, information on these replacements including their chemical identities, however, has not been published or made easily accessible to the public, hampering risk assessment and management of these chemicals. Here we review information on fluorinated alternatives in the public domain. We identify over 20 fluorinated substances that are applied in [i] fluoropolymer manufacture, [ii] surface treatment of textile, leather and carpets, [iii] surface treatment of food contact materials, [iv] metal plating, [v] fire-fighting foams, and [vi] other commercial and consumer products. We summarize current knowledge on their environmental releases, persistence, and exposure of biota and humans. Based on the limited information available, it is unclear whether fluorinated alternatives are safe for humans and the environment. We identify three major data gaps that must be filled to perform meaningful risk assessments and recommend generation of the missing data through cooperation among all stakeholders (industry, regulators, academic scientists and the public).

  • 85. Wang, Zhanyun
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Scheringer, Martin
    Hungerbuehler, Konrad
    Hazard assessment of fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors: Status quo, ongoing challenges and possible solutions2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of concerns over the impact of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on humans and the environment, PFAAs and their precursors are being substituted by alternative substances including fluorinated alternatives that are structurally similar to the substances they replace. Using publicly accessible information, we aimed to identify the status quo of the hazard assessment of identified fluorinated alternatives, to analyze possible systemic shortcomings of the current industrial transition to alternative substances, and to outline possible solutions. Fluorinated alternatives, particularly short-chain PFAAs and perfluoroether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), possess high environmental stability and mobility implying that they have a high global contamination potential. In addition to their potential for causing global exposures, certain fluorinated alternatives have been identified as toxic and are thus likely to pose global risks to humans and the environment. Various factors, particularly the information asymmetry between industry and other stakeholders, have contributed to the current lack of knowledge about the risks posed by fluorinated alternatives. Available cases show that a non-fluorinated substitution strategy (employing either chemical or functionality substitutions) can be a possible long-term, sustainable solution and needs to be further developed and assessed.

  • 86. Waspe, Jennifer
    et al.
    Bui, Thuy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Dishaw, Laura
    Kraft, Andrew
    Luke, April
    Beronius, Anna
    Evaluating reliability and risk of bias of in vivo animal data for risk assessment of chemicals - Exploring the use of the SciRAP tool in a systematic review context2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, article id 106103Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of health risk assessment, it is essential that evaluations of reliability or validity of toxicity data are conducted with structure and transparency. To this end, different tools for evaluating toxicity studies have been developed by different groups and organizations, for different specific purposes. The Science in Risk Assessment and Policy (SciRAP) tool was developed for use in the regulatory health risk assessment of chemicals and to promote structured and transparent evaluation of study reliability within European regulatory frameworks. As such, the SciRAP tool is not specifically tailored for use in a systematic review context. However, in light of the current movement towards applying systematic review in the field of environmental health and chemical assessments and European chemicals regulation, we were interested in exploring how SciRAP could be applied in such a context. To achieve this, the scope of the SciRAP tool was first compared to two tools developed based on systematic review principles at the US Environmental Protection Agency's IRIS program and the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT). Next, the SciRAP and IRIS tools were both applied in a case study to evaluate the same nine in vivo animal studies and the resulting evaluations were compared. The SciRAP tool was found to address the majority of the elements included for study evaluation in the OHAT and IRIS tools. In the case study, no major differences were found in the conclusions drawn when using SciRAP or IRIS tools. However, future developments to bring the SciRAP tool more in line with systematic review principles were identified and are discussed. Overall, this work illustrates the advantages of applying structured and pre-defined methods for study evaluation and provides a unique case study comparing the impact of using different tools for evaluating animal toxicity studies.

  • 87. Weinmayr, Gudrun
    et al.
    Pedersen, Marie
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Munkenast, Jule
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Oftedal, Bente
    Krog, Norun H.
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Goran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sorensen, Mette
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Concin, Hans
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Forastiere, Francesco
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kooter, Ingeborg
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Particulate matter air pollution components and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts of Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter < 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults.

    Methods: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses.

    Results: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m(3) of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13; 3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I-2= 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88; 3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I-2= 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust.

    Conclusion: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5 S but not PM10 S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.

  • 88. Whaley, Paul
    et al.
    Halsall, Crispin
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Aiassa, Elisa
    Benford, Diane
    Bilotta, Gary
    Coggon, David
    Collins, Chris
    Dempsey, Ciara
    Duarte-Davidson, Raquel
    FitzGerald, Rex
    Galay-Burgos, Malyka
    Gee, David
    Hoffmann, Sebastian
    Lam, Juleen
    Lasserson, Toby
    Levy, Len
    Lipworth, Steven
    Ross, Sarah Mackenzie
    Martin, Olwenn
    Meads, Catherine
    Meyer-Baron, Monika
    Miller, James
    Pease, Camilla
    Rooney, Andrew
    Sapiets, Alison
    Stewart, Gavin
    Taylor, David
    Implementing systematic review techniques in chemical risk assessment: Challenges, opportunities and recommendations2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-93, p. 556-564Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic review (SR) is a rigorous, protocol-driven approach designed to minimise error and bias when summarising the body of research evidence relevant to a specific scientific question. Taking as a comparator the use of SR in synthesising research in healthcare, we argue that SR methods could also pave the way for a step change in the transparency, objectivity and communication of chemical risk assessments (CRA) in Europe and elsewhere. We suggest that current controversies around the safety of certain chemicals are partly due to limitations in current CRA procedures which have contributed to ambiguity about the health risks posed by these substances. We present an overview of how SR methods can be applied to the assessment of risks from chemicals, and indicate how challenges in adapting SR methods from healthcare research to the CRA context might be overcome. Regarding the latter, we report the outcomes from a workshop exploring how to increase uptake of SR methods, attended by experts representing a wide range of fields related to chemical toxicology, risk analysis and SR Priorities which were identified include: the conduct of CRA-focused prototype SRs; the development of a recognised standard of reporting and conduct for SRs in toxicology and CRA; and establishing a network to facilitate research, communication and training in SR methods. We see this paper as a milestone in the creation of a research climate that fosters communication between experts in CRA and SR and facilitates wider uptake of SR methods into CRA.

  • 89.
    Winkens, Kerstin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Koponen, Jani
    Vestergren, Robin
    Berger, Urs
    Karvonen, Anne M.
    Pekkanen, Juha
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in floor dust of children's bedrooms - Implications for indoor exposure2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 119, p. 493-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analysed floor dust samples from 65 children's bedrooms in Finland collected in 2014/2015 for 62 different per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with a simple and highly efficient method. Validation results from the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) 2585 were in good agreement with literature data, while 24 PFASs were quantified for the first time. In the dust samples from children's bedrooms, five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in more than half of the samples with the highest median concentration of 5.26 ng/g for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). However, the dust samples were dominated by polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) (highest medians: 53.9 ng/g for 6:2 diPAP and 45.7 ng/g for 8:2 FTOH). Several significant and strong correlations (up to p = 0.95) were found among different PFASs in dust as well as between PFASs in dust and air samples (previously published) from the same rooms. The logarithm of dust to air concentrations (log K-dust/air) plotted against the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficient (log K-oa) resulted in a significant linear regression line with R-2 > 0.88. Higher dust levels of PFOS were detected in rooms with plastic flooring material in comparison to wood (p < 0.05). Total estimated daily intakes via dust (EDIdust) and air (EDIair) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA), including biotransformation of precursors to PFAAs, were calculated for 10.5-year-old children. The total EDIdust, for PFOA and PFOS were estimated to be 0.007 ng/kg bw/day and 0.006 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, in an intermediate exposure scenario. The sum of the total EDIs for all PFAAs was slightly higher for dust than air (0.027 and 0.019 ng/kg bw/day). Precursor biotransformation was generally important for total PFOS intake, while for the PFCAs, FTOH biotransformation was estimated to be important for air, but not for dust exposure.

  • 90.
    Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bounding uncertainties in intrinsic human elimination half-lives and intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the North American population2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 168-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the balance between intake, intrinsic elimination half-lives and human body burdens measured in biomonitoring for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the North American population using the population-level pharmacokinetic model developed by Ritter et al. (2011). Empirical data are collected from two studies that made total intake estimates for the North American population for the years 2004 and 2005, and eight biomonitoring studies for the years 1992 to 2009. We assume intake of PBDEs increased exponentially to a peak in 2004, and has since exponentially declined. The model is fitted to the empirical PBDE intake and biomonitoring data on PBDE body burden using a least-square optimization method by adjusting the intake in 2004 and 2038, and the intrinsic elimination rate constants, which can be expressed as equivalent half-lives. We. fit the model in two types of scenarios using different combinations of PBDE intake estimates and biomonitoring data. Our modeling results indicate that there is an inconsistency between the PBDE intake estimates and the biomonitoring data, and that the inconsistency is likely due to underestimation of population-level intake. More efforts are needed to better characterize intake rates and identify potentially-unrecognized exposure pathways. Additional age-stratified biomonitoring data, and time trends of PBDE intakes would better constrain the model and provide an improved estimation of the intrinsic elimination half-lives.

  • 91.
    Wu, Jing
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Grande, Giulia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Pyko, Andrei
    Laukka, Erika J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden .
    Pershagen, Göran
    Ögren, Mikael
    Bellander, Tom
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden .
    Long-term exposure to transportation noise in relation to global cognitive decline and cognitive impairment: Results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort2024In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 185, article id 108572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Transportation noise is an environmental exposure with mounting evidence of adverse health effects. Besides the increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, recent studies suggest that long-term noise exposure might accelerate cognitive decline in older age. We examined the association between transportation noise and cognitive function in a cohort of older adults.

    Methods: The present study is based on 2594 dementia-free participants aged 60 + years from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). Global cognition score and CIND (cognitive impairment, no dementia) were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline and up to 16 years. Residential transportation noise resulting from road traffic, railway, and aircraft were estimated at the most exposed façade and the time-weighted average exposure was assessed. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the effect of long-term traffic noise exposure on the rate of change in global cognition score. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of CIND by transportation noise exposure were obtained with Cox proportional hazard models.

    Results: Global cognition score decreased at an average rate of −0.041 (95 %CI −0.043, −0.039) per year. Aircraft noise was associated with a 0.007 (per 10 dB Lden; 95 %CI −0.012, −0.001) faster annual rate of decline. Global cognition score seems to be not affected by road traffic and railway noise. During the follow-up, 422 (21 %) participants developed CIND. A 10-dB Lden difference in exposure to aircraft and railway noise was associated with a 16 % (HR 1.16, 95 %CI 0.91, 1.49) and 26 % (HR 1.26, 95 %CI 1.01, 1.56) increased hazard of CIND in the multi-pollutant model, respectively. No association was found for road traffic (HR 1.00, 95 %CI 0.83, 1.21).

    Conclusions: Transportation noise was linked to cognitive impairment and faster cognitive decline among older adults. Future studies are warranted to confirm our results.

  • 92.
    Wu, Jing
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Grande, Giulia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Ljungman, Petter
    Laukka, Erika J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    Bellander, Tom
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Air pollution as a risk factor for Cognitive Impairment no Dementia (CIND) and its progression to dementia: A longitudinal study2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 160, article id 107067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Accumulation of evidence has raised concern regarding the harmful effect of air pollution on cognitive function, but results are diverging. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association of long-term exposure to air pollutants and cognitive impairment and its further progression to dementia in older adults residing in an urban area.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). Cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) was assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (scoring >= 1.5 standard deviations below age-specific means in >= 1 cognitive domain). We assessed long-term residential exposure to particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with dispersion modeling. The association with CIND was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models with 3-year moving average air pollution exposure. We further estimated the effect of long-term air pollution exposure on the progression of CIND to dementia using Cox proportional hazards models.

    Results: Among 1987 cognitively intact participants, 301 individuals developed CIND during the 12-year followup. A 1-mu g/m(3) increment in PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 75% increased risk of incident CIND (HR = 1.75, 95 %CI: 1.54, 1.99). Weaker associations were found for PM10 (HR for 1-mu g/m(3) = 1.08, 95 %CI: 1.03-1.14) and NOx (HR for 10 mu g/m(3) = 1.18, 95 %CI: 1.04-1.33). Among those with CIND at baseline (n = 607), 118 participants developed dementia during follow-up. Results also show that exposure to air pollution was a risk factor for the conversion from CIND to dementia (PM2.5: HR for 1-mu g/m(3) = 1.90, 95 %CI: 1.48-2.43; PM10 : HR for 1-mu g/m(3) = 1.14, 95 %CI: 1.03-1.26; and NOR: HR for 10 mu g/m(3) = 1.34, 95 %CI: 1.07-1.69).

    Conclusion: We found evidence of an association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and incidence of CIND. Of special interest is that air pollution also was a risk factor for the progression from CIND to dementia.

  • 93. Xu, Fuchao
    et al.
    Tay, Joo-Hui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Haug, Line Småstuen
    Neels, Hugo
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Assessment of dietary exposure to organohalogen contaminants, legacy and emerging flame retardants in a Norwegian cohort2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 102, p. 236-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated flame retardants (EHFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in 24 h duplicate diet samples from a Norwegian cohort (n = 61), with concentrations ranging from <method limit of quantification (MLQ)-0.64 ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.70 ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.93 ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.14 ng/g ww, and <MLQ-150 ng/g ww, respectively. All studied contaminants were detected in the duplicate diet samples with detection frequencies (DF) ranging from 1.6 to 98%. The major contaminants were CB153 (median 0.042 ng/g ww), alpha-HCH (median 0.22 ng/g ww), BDE209 (median 0.45 ng/g ww), ethyl hexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP) (median 3.0 ng/g ww) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) (< MLQ-0.14 ng/g ww). Human dietary exposure assessment was conducted for each participant based on individual body weight and contaminant concentrations in their collected duplicate diet samples. The estimated median (95th percentile) dietary exposures for Sigma PFR, Sigma PCB, Sigma OCP, Sigma PBDE, and Sigma EHFR were 87 (340), 5.8 (27),11 (31), 1.3 (14), and <0.01 (3.4) ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The median and 95th percentile dietary exposures of most of the target analytes did not exceed the reference dose (RID), except for PCBs where 16% of the participants exceeded the RID. However, a relatively short period of such high intake is not expected to result in any adverse health effects. Participants of this cohort were exposed to higher levels of EHDPHP than any other FRs. Fish was the major dietary route for PCB, OCP and PBDE exposure, while meat was the main dietary exposure route for PFRs.

  • 94.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Bignert, Anders
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    West, Christina E.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Polychlorinated alkanes in paired blood serum and breast milk in a Swedish cohort study: Matrix dependent partitioning differences compared to legacy POPs2024In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) constitute a large group of individual congeners originating from commercial chlorinated paraffin (CP) products with carbon chain lengths of PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, and PCAs-C18-32, occasionally containing PCAs-C6-9 impurities. The extensive use of CPs has led to global environmental pollution of PCAs. This study aimed to quantify PCAs in paired serum and breast milk of lactating Swedish mothers, exploring their concentration relationship.

    Methods: Twenty-five paired samples of mothers’ blood serum and breast milk were analysed and concentrations were determined for PCAs C6-32 and compared to 4,4′-DDE, the PCB congener 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

    Results: The median concentrations of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs in serum were 14, 790, 520, 16 and 1350 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, and in breast milk 0.84, 36, 63, 6.0 and 107 ng/g lw. Levels of 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were comparable in the two matrices, serum and breast milk at 17, 12 and 4.9 ng/g lw. The results show significant differences of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17 in breast milk with 22– and 6.2-times lower lw-based concentrations than those measured in serum. On wet weight the differences serum/breast milk ratios of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs were 1.7, 3.2, 1.0, 0.4 and 1.6, respectively, while the ratio for 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were each close to 0.1.

    Conclusion: Swedish lactating mothers had high serum concentrations of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17, with the ΣPCAs median serum concentration of 1350 ng/g lw. The breast milk concentration, although considerably lower at 107 ng/g lw, still surpassed those of 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB, suggesting an exposure risk of infants to PCAs. The variation in blood and breast milk accumulation between PCAs and studied legacy POPs, is rarely discussed but warrants further studies on partitioning properties as well as associated toxicological implications.

  • 95.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nyström, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chlorinated paraffins leaking from hand blenders can lead to significant human exposures2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 109, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. & para;& para;Objectives: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. & para;& para;Methods: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1 g oil/100 mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders. & para;& para;Results: Dietary intake of CPs from food market baskets was calculated to be 4.6 mu g/day per capita for Swedish adults. Total CP amounts in oil/water leakage samples ranged from < 0.09 to 120 mu g using the hand blenders once. CP leakage showed no decreasing levels after 20 times of hand blender usage. CP profiles in the leakage samples matched those of self-lubricating bearings and/or polymer components disassembled from the hand blenders. & para;& para;Conclusions: Usage of 75% of the hand blenders tested will lead to increased human exposure to CPs. The intake of CPs for Swedish adults by using hand blenders once a day can raise their daily dietary intake by a factor of up to 26. The 95th percentile intake of CPs via using the hand blenders once a day exceeded the TDI for Swedish infants with a body weight < 7.2 kg. CP leakage came from blender components which contain CPs. The leakage may last several hundred times of hand blender use.

  • 96. Zhang, Yifeng
    et al.
    Pelletier, Rick
    Noernberg, Tommy
    Donner, Mark W.
    Grant-Weaver, Iain
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Shotyk, William
    Impact of the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfires on atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements to surrounding ombrotrophic bogs2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 158, article id 106910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fort McMurray and the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) experienced major wildfires in 2016, but the impact of these on regional deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements has not been reported nor compared to industrial sources of these pollutants in the region. Living moss (Sphagnum fuscum) was collected in triplicate from five ombrotrophic bogs in the AOSR after the wildfires, and analyzed for PAHs and trace elements. These post-wildfire data were compared to data from previous years at the same sites, and also to remote reference bogs in Alberta and Ontario. Elevated post-wildfire concentrations and flux of naphthalene and fluorene were observed at all five bogs in the AOSR, but no consistent trend was evident for higher molecular weight PAHs or the sum of priority PAHs ( n-ary sumation 13PAH). Trace elements at most AOSR bogs were not elevated postwildfire, except at one bog in the burned area (MIL), but even here the elements that were increased (1.7-5.6 x ) were likely of bitumen-origin (i.e., V, Ni, Se, Mo and Re). Significant post-wildfire correlations between PAHs and most trace elements suggested a common source, and few significant correlations were observed with retene, suggesting that wildfires were not the dominant source of most contaminants detected. Mass balance receptor models were used to apportion sources, indicating that the major sources of trace elements among five AOSR bogs post-wildfire were oil sands ore (mean 42%), haul road dust (17%), and petcoke (11%), whereas wildfire was always a minor source (3-4%). For PAHs at the most contaminated site (MIL), delayed petcoke (27%) and wildfire (25%) were the major sources, but the contribution of wildfire to PAHs at other sites was less or not discernable. Impacts of the 2016 wildfires on regional atmospheric deposition of major pollutants was less than from ongoing deposition of anthropogenic dust from oil sands activities.

  • 97. Zhang, Yifeng
    et al.
    Shotyk, William
    Pelletier, Rick
    Zaccone, Claudio
    Noernberg, Tommy
    Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Sources, spatial-distributions and fluxes of PAH-contaminated dusts in the Athabasca oil sands region2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 182, article id 108335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased in northern Alberta, Canada, due to industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). However, the sources, summertime deposition fluxes and associated spatial patterns are poorly characterized, and the magnitude of contamination has not been directly contrasted with comparable measurements around large Canadian cities. PAHs were measured in Sphagnum moss collected from 30 bogs in the AOSR and compared with reference moss collected from various remote, rural and near-urban sites in Alberta and Ontario. At all 39 locations, strong correlations between depositional fluxes of PAHs and accumulation rates of ash (n = 117, r = 0.877, p < 0.001) implied that the main source of PAHs to moss was atmospheric deposition of particles. Average PAH concentrations at near-field AOSR sites (mean [SD], 62.4 [24.3] ng/g) were significantly higher than at far-field AOSR sites (44.9 [20.8] ng/g; p = 0.038) or the 7 reference sites in Alberta (20.6 [3.5] ng/g; p < 0.001). In fact, average PAH concentrations across the entire AOSR (7,850 km2) were approximately twice as high as in London, Ontario, or near petroleum upgrading and major traffic corridors in Edmonton, Alberta. A chemical mass balance model estimated that both delayed petcoke (33 % of PAHs) and fine tailings (38 % of PAHs) were the major sources of PAHs in the AOSR. Over the 2015 summer growing season, we estimate that 101–110 kg of PAHs (on 14,300–17,300 tonnes of PAH-containing dusts) were deposited to the AOSR within a 50 km radius of surface mining. Given that the highest PAH deposition was to the northern quadrant of the AOSR, which includes the First Nations community of Fort MacKay, further dust control measures should be considered to protect human and environmental health in the region.

  • 98. Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Shimadzu (China) Co. LTD., China.
    Du, Xinyu
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Shorter than short-chain: Very short-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs) found in wildlife from the Yangtze River Delta2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 130, article id 104955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very short-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, C6-9) occurred in 94% of wildlife samples from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, with CnClm comparable to that of a local CP product, CP-52. Therefore, we determined the content of vSCCPs in CP-52 using a mathematical deconvolution technique. Then with CP-52 and several other reference standards, vSCCPs together with short-, medium-, and long-chain CPs were quantified in 21 wildlife species from an artificial wetland ecosystem and a freshwater ecosystem in the YRD. Concentrations of vSCCPs ranged from 2.6 to 8400 ng/g lipid. These concentrations were 1.2-380 fold lower than SCCPs, but were significantly correlated with those of SCCPs. vSCCP concentrations were comparable to or higher than reported for brominated flame retardants in the same samples. Bioaccumulation tendency of vSCCPs was identified in two benthic species, indicating congener-specific accumulation of vSCCPs in the environment.

  • 99.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Beronius, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Weight of evidence evaluation and systematic review in EU chemical risk assessment: Foundation is laid but guidance is needed2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-93, p. 590-596Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review was to investigate if and how the application of weight of evidence (WoE) evaluation or systematic review (SR) in chemical risk assessment is promoted within different regulatory frameworks in the European Union. Legislative and relevant guidance documents within nine regulatory frameworks were scrutinized and compared. WoE evaluation or SR is promoted in seven of the investigated frameworks but sufficient guidance for how to perform these processes is generally lacking. None of the investigated frameworks give enough guidance for generating robust and reproducible WoE evaluations or SRs. In conclusion, the foundation for use of WoE evaluation and SR is laid-in the majority of the investigated frameworks, but there is a need to provide more structured and detailed guidance. In order to make the process of developing guidance as efficient as possible, and to ensure smooth transfer of risk assessment's between frameworks if a chemical is risk assessed both as, for example, a biocide and an industrial chemical, it is recommended that guidance is developed jointly by the European regulatory agencies.

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