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  • 51.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Dietze, Paul
    Influences on the drinking of heavier drinkers: Interactional realities in seeking to 'change drinking cultures'2016In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. 'Changing drinking culture' is a prominent goal in the Australian state of Victoria's current alcohol strategy-seeking a shift so that 'excessive drinking isn't seen as the norm'. As a social activity, there is a strong collective aspect to drinking and associated behaviour: customs within the drinking group and at the level of social worlds of drinking operate both to increase and to control drinking patterns and associated behaviours. The paper considers how risky drinkers and those in social worlds of heavy drinking experience others' expectations about drinking.

    Design and Methods. Using Victorian population survey responses (n = 2092 adults who had consumed alcohol in previous year) to identify those in a social world of group drinking, and a subcategory who are also risky drinkers, the paper explores pressures on those in these categories both to drink more and to drink less, whether from family members, from work colleagues, or from friends.

    Results. Those who are both risky and social drinkers are much more likely than other drinkers to report pressures to drink more from friends and workmates, and even from family members, although they more often report pressures from family members to drink less than to drink more.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Efforts to change a drinking culture, it is argued, must take account of the collective nature of drinking and of the interplay of influences at interpersonal and subcultural levels if they are to be effective in reducing rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems.

  • 52.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rehm, Juergen
    Clear criteria based on absolute risk: Reforming the basis of guidelines on low-risk drinking2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 135-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues. The paper discusses the approach behind the Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking of 2009. The Guidelines involved a new approach to the central conundrum of low-risk drinking guidelines: how to set a guideline threshold on smooth risk curves. Approach. The context of the 2009 Guidelines is discussed in terms of previous Australian guidelines and of risk analyses and threshold setting for other risks to health and well-being, such as environmental and food toxins. The Guidelines were accordingly based on new lifetime risk modelling of absolute risk, with specification of the risk attached to the guideline thresholds of 1 in 100 lifetime mortality risk. The Guidelines thus specify no more than two Australian standard drinks a day, and no more than four drinks on any occasion. Implications and Conclusions. The approach described brings alcohol guidelines within a general analytical frame of guidelines and standards for hazards to health. At the level of 1 in 100 lifetime risk, there is little justification for different guidelines for men and women. On grounds of differential risk, separate guidelines for young adults might be considered, but could not be based on lifetime risk. [ Room R, Rehm J. Clear criteria based on absolute risk: Reforming the basis of guidelines on low-risk drinking.

  • 53.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Studying alcohol in its societal context: The Finnish tradition of analysis of population surveys2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 829-830Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 54. Scheffel Birath, Christina
    et al.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Stenbacka, Marlene
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Women with alcohol problems: The possible significance of personality clustering for treatment planning2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Establishing subgroups in clinical practice is important for treatment planning. The aim of the study was to cluster the study group subjects according to personality traits and psychological health variables and to establish possible differences in treatment outcome in terms of: (i) drinking outcomes (gram and number of drinking days); (ii) perceived physiological health; and (iii) use of treatment resources (length of time in treatment and number of visits) among 134 treatment-seeking women with alcohol problems in a clinical context, between the two clusters obtained. Design and Methods. Data were collected from 134 consecutive women at a Swedish clinic specialised in treating women with alcohol problems. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the basis of self-rated personality scale scores and psychological health variables. Results. Two clusters were identified: one in which the women displayed personality and psychological health scores indicating problems (Cluster 1); and another where the women showed personality and psychological health scores within the norm range (Cluster 2). Alcohol consumption rates at the start of treatment were the same in both clusters. The consumption rates were also the same at the end of treatment for the cluster, showing a significant decrease in alcohol consumption in each. The Cluster 1 women, however, had a significantly higher number of visits at the clinic, and rated the consequences of their alcohol drinking as being significantly worse than Cluster 2 women. Discussion and Conclusions. The importance of individual differences according to personality traits for treatment planning is discussed in terms of the need for variation in treatment time and methods.

  • 55. Sjödin, Lars
    et al.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Psychosocial correlates of drinking transitions: A longitudinal study among adolescents in Sweden2024In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 643-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Non-drinkers have been shown in older studies to have poorer mental health and social life compared to their alcohol-using counterparts. Given the profound decline in adolescent drinking observed in most high-income countries, this pattern may have changed. This study explores drinking transitions and examines psychosocial factors among adolescents by longitudinal drinking status.

    Methods: Data were based on two waves of a prospective longitudinal nationwide study (n = 4018). The first wave (T1) of data was collected in 2017 (age 15/16) and the second wave (T2) was in 2019 (age 17/18). Respondents were asked about their past year drinking status, general health, psychosomatic problems, psychiatric medication, school enjoyment, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, prosocial ability, friendships satisfaction and satisfaction with relation to mother/father. Comparisons by mean values were assessed and multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine associations.

    Results: Abstainers and later drinkers differed significantly from early drinkers on 9/10 factors respectively at T1. Fewer psychosomatic problems, less psychiatric medication, higher school enjoyment, more emotional symptoms, higher parental relationship satisfaction, more peer problems and lower friendships satisfaction at T1 were associated with abstaining and/or later drinking. All factors were more strongly associated with abstaining. School enjoyment predicted abstaining but not later drinking.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Longitudinal drinking status relates to small to moderate systematic psychosocial differences. Adolescents with better mental health, more content relationships with parents and lower friendships satisfaction are more often abstainers. Those generally worse off are more likely early drinkers but they also have better friendships.

  • 56. Sjödin, Lars
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Associations between trust and drinking among adolescents2022In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Trust is closely linked with health, but previous research on its association with alcohol use has yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study is to examine: (i) how two different dimensions of trust (general/institutional) are associated with alcohol use among adolescents; (ii) how these dimensions interact with alcohol use; and (iii) whether the associations are moderated by sex, parenting, health, school satisfaction or economic disadvantage. Methods: A nationwide sample of 5549 adolescents (aged 15–16 years) in Sweden answered a questionnaire in school. General and institutional trust were measured with five items each. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations between drinking and the trust dimensions, and the cross-combinations of these. Moderation by sex, parenting, health, school satisfaction and economic disadvantage was tested. Results: General and institutional trust were both significantly associated with drinking. High scores on both dimensions simultaneously were associated with the lowest probability of drinking, and low scores on both with the highest. Low institutional trust had a stronger association than low general trust. The combination of high institutional/low general trust was more protective than low institutional/high general trust. The association between general trust and drinking was moderated by school satisfaction, and the relationship between institutional trust and drinking was moderated by parental support and control. Discussion and Conclusions: High trust is associated with a lower probability of past-year drinking among 15–16-year-olds. Parents and schools can be useful in endeavours to prevent low-trusting individuals in this age group from drinking.

  • 57. Smit, Koen
    et al.
    Dowling, Rowan
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Ferrier, Adamm
    Livingstone, Charles
    Borland, Ron
    Jiang, Heng
    Trends in alcohol expenditure in Australia from 1984 to 2015-2016: An exploratory study2023In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1235-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Excessive alcohol use is associated with non-communicable diseases and social problems, such as work absence, financial problems and family violence. Expenditure and expenditure shares on alcohol are valuable measures to monitor financial activities on this risk behaviour. The aim of this paper is to report trends in alcohol expenditure in Australia over the last two decades.

    Methods: Data are from six waves of Australian Household Expenditure Surveys from 1984 to 2015–2016. We explored trends of alcohol expenditure among Australians and in different socio-demographic groups in the last 30 years. We further examined changes of expenditure on different on- and off-premises beverages over time.

    Results: Absolute alcohol expenditure has remained the same between the 1980s and 2016, after accounting for inflation. However, a declining trend in relative alcohol expenditure as a proportion of total household expenditure was found across nearly all demographic groups (e.g., sex, age, employment, household income), except for women aged 45–54, who showed an increasing trend of alcohol expenditure after 1998–1999.

    Discussion and Conclusions: The current study shows declines in relative alcohol expenditure, which may reflect declines in alcohol's relative importance within the elements of the person's lifestyle they need to pay for and/or increased awareness of alcohol's health and social harms. Further longitudinal analysis should explore additional predictors of household expenditure on alcohol. Results suggest that current bi-annual indexation increases in alcohol tax should account for increases in income to ensure the effectiveness of pricing. Moreover, attention is needed to address drinking among middle-aged females.

  • 58.
    Stenbacka, Marlene
    et al.
    Karolinska Hospital Stockholm Sweden.
    Leifman, Anders
    Karolinska Hospital Stockholm Sweden.
    Romelsjö, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Department of Public Health Sciences Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    The impact of methadone treatment on registered convictions and arrests in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men and women with one or more treatment periods2003In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates criminality among 331 opiate abusers admitted to Stockholm's methadone maintenance programme (SMMP) between 1988 and 1992, and a comparison group of 1483 untreated opiate abusers. Information on arrests, criminal convictions, and intravenous drug abuse was obtained from official records. For both genders the annual rate of convictions decreased from 2.2 convictions per year during the 4 years prior to the first treatment, to 0.5 convictions during treatment, compared to 2.0 convictions for the comparison group. There was an even greater decrease in the rate of arrests for patients on methadone treatment. The decline was observed for both genders and in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Rates of convictions among patients who had more than one treatment period were clearly reduced during each treatment period, and while the rate increased after they were expelled from treatment it remained at a lower level than during the 4 years prior to treatment. Thus, the methadone treatment is shown to have a profound positive effect on arrests and convictions, not only for patients remaining in treatment but also for those patients who were expelled from treatment involuntarily.

  • 59. Stockwell, Tim
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Constructing and responding to low-risk drinking guidelines: conceptualisation, evidence and reception2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 121-125Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Implications of enrolment eligibility criteria in alcohol treatment outcome research: generalisability and potential bias in 1- and 6-year outcomes2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 604-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been acknowledged that participants in clinical trials differ from real-world service users,primarily due to the extensive use of research eligibility criteria (EC). Generalisability and outcome bias become pressing issueswhen evidence-based treatment guidelines, crystallised from outcome research, influence treatment provision.This study reportson the effects of EC on generalisability and short- and long-term outcomes among real-world treatment-seekers.

    Ten of the most commonly used EC were operationalised and applied to a large representative service user sample(n = 1125) from Stockholm County, Sweden, to determine the percentage of real-world problem alcohol users that would havebeen excluded by each EC and the extent to which EC bias the 1 and 6-year alcohol outcomes.

    Individual EC excluded between 5% and 80% of real-world service users and 96% would have been excluded by at least one EC. Most of the EC introduced a positive/upwards bias in 1- and 6-year outcomes. Most notably, the removal of the unmotivated/non-compliantservice users caused an upwards bias that would considerably boost estimates of treatment effectiveness. Other bias effects weresmaller. Six-year effects were generally higher than for 1 year.

    Outcome studies that excludecomplex and non-compliant cases are not representative of real-world service users, and thus effectiveness estimates from clinicaltrials are biased by several commonly used EC.EC should be used judiciously and be taken into account in practice guidelines.This burgeoning research area should be further developed. [Storbjörk J. Implications of enrolment eligibility criteria inalcohol treatment outcome research: Generalisability and potential bias in 1- and 6-year outcomes.

  • 61.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    One model to rule them all? Governing images in the shadow of the disease model of addiction2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 726-728Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment providers demonstrate a quite strong support for a disease model of addiction, particularly so in the United States. However, conceptions vary and the problems may be perceived as primarily a disease, moral or social problems, or a combination of these (Barnett et al. in press). This commentary discusses the ongoing and dynamic process of defining addiction problems and notes that non-medical perspectives often appear in the shadow of and tend to oppose the disease model that stands quite inviolable – i.e., like the One Ring to rule them all by citing The Lord of the Rings. Recent changes in the Swedish Addiction treatment system, well known for its social perspective on the nature and handling of addiction problems, are highlighted to demonstrate that the world may be changing, or not. It is argued that there cannot be just one model. 

  • 62. Sundin, Erica
    et al.
    Landberg, Jonas
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Are differences in population prevalence of alcohol's harm to others related to survey administration mode?2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 375-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study assessed the comparability of estimates of alcohol's harm to others across different administration modes in Swedish general population surveys. Harm was categorised as harm from strangers' drinking and harm from heavy drinkers known to the respondent. Design and Methods. Three surveys were conducted in 2011/2012 (n=6841), including identical questions. One was based on self-administered postal or Web questionnaires, and two were based on computer-assisted telephone interviews of which one included a more ambitious procedure in terms of for example monetary incentives to the respondents. Pearson (2)-tests were used to compare differences in the prevalence of harm. To estimate potential effects of survey mode, the samples were pooled, and multivariate Poisson regression models with mode as explanatory variable were used, adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Results. Respondents in the two computer-assisted telephone interviews were more likely to report harm from strangers' drinking compared with respondents in the self-administered postal or Web questionnaires. However, no significant differences were found between survey modes concerning reports of harm from known people's drinking. Discussion and Conclusions. A survey mode based on interviews seems to facilitate reports of harm from strangers' drinking. This does not apply to reports of harm from known people's drinking. Therefore, the comparability of estimates of alcohol's harm to others between survey modes depends on the type of harm being studied.

  • 63. Torney, Alexandra
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Cask wine: Describing drinking patterns associated with Australia's cheapest alcohol2023In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1322-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Australia, cask wine is the cheapest alcoholic beverage available, offering the lowest price per standard drink. Despite this, there is little research on the contextual correlates of cask wine consumption. Therefore, the current study aims to describe how cask wine consumption has changed over the last decade. Then, through comparisons between cask and bottled wine, how prices, typical drinking locations, and patterns of consumption differ between the beverages.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data was drawn from two sources. Four waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used (2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019) in order to examine consumption trends over time. The International Alcohol Control study (2013) in Australia was additionally used to explore pricing and consumption trends in greater detail.

    Results: Cask wine was considerably cheaper than other forms of wine at $0.54 per standard drink (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–0.62, p < 0.05). Consumption trends associated with cask wine differed from that of bottled wine, being consumed almost entirely at home and in significantly greater quantity (standard drinks per day 7.8, 95% CI 6.25–9.26, p < 0.05). Among the heaviest drinkers, 13% (95% CI 7.2–18.8, p < 0.05) consumed cask wine as their main drink, compared to 5% (95% CI 3.76–6.24, p < 0.05) consuming bottled wine.

    Conclusions: Cask wine drinkers are disproportionately more likely to consume higher amounts of alcohol, paying less per drink doing so compared to bottled wine drinkers. As all cask wine purchases were under $1.30, a minimum unit price may largely affect cask wine purchases, applying to a far smaller proportion of bottled wine.

  • 64. Torney, Alexandra
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Jiang, Heng
    Huckle, Taisia
    Holmes, John
    Callinan, Sarah
    Where do high-risk drinking occasions occur more often? A cross-sectional, cross-country study2024In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The current paper examines the proportion of drinking occasions and total alcohol consumed that takes place at off-premise locations. Comparisons are made between high-income countries: Australia, New Zealand, England and Scotland, and across drinker-types: high-risk and lower-risk.

    Methods: Data were taken from the International Alcohol Control study in Australia (N = 1789), New Zealand (N = 1979), England (N = 2844) and Scotland (N = 1864). The cross-national survey measures location and beverage-specific alcohol consumption. The number of drinking occasions and mean consumption across on- and off-premise locations and the proportion of drinking occasions that high- and lower-risk drinkers had at on- and off-premise locations was estimated for each country.

    Results: The majority of drinking occasions among high-risk drinkers occurred at off-premise locations across all four countries; Australia 80.1%, New Zealand 72.0%, England 61.7% and Scotland 60.7%. High-risk drinkers in Australia had significantly larger proportions of drinking occasions occurring at off-premise locations compared to England and Scotland. Across all countries, high-risk drinkers and lower-risk drinkers consumed significantly larger quantities of alcohol per occasion at off-premise locations compared to on-premises locations. Finally, the majority of total alcohol consumed occurred at off-premise locations across all countries for high- and lower-risk drinkers.

    Discussion and Conclusions: As the accessibility to alcohol outside of licensed premises continues to increase, particularly with the expansion of home delivery services, it is important to be mindful of the high proportion of heavy drinking occasions that occur off-premise.

  • 65. Torney, Alexandra
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Jiang, Heng
    Livingston, Michael
    Callinan, Sarah
    Shifts in the Australian public's opinions towards alcohol policies: 2004-20192023In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 1785-1795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: After a period of stagnation, alcohol policy in Australia has received increased attention in the past decade, with Sydney's lockout laws and Queensland's restrictions on trading hours garnering media attention. This study will investigate any changing trends in support towards alcohol policy and identify any demographic-specific shifts.

    Methods: Respondents from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (conducted every 3 years from 2004 to 2019) were asked to gauge their level of support for 16 alcohol policy items proposed to reduce the problems associated with excessive alcohol use. Mean levels of support for various policy options, as well as demographic predictors of support, were assessed.

    Results: After an increase from 2004 to 2013, support for more evidence-based policies on alcohol (e.g., restricting the availability of alcohol) has decreased since 2013. Support for policy items that focus less on the restriction of the availability of alcohol and more on education remained relatively stable in comparison. While demographic groups continue to vary in their extent of support, shifts appear to be occurring fairly uniformly across sex, age, states and drinking groups.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Support for public health-oriented alcohol policies has been decreasing since 2013. The introduction of high-profile policies and less of a media focus on alcohol may be contributing to decreases in support.

  • 66. Weatherall, Teagan J.
    et al.
    Conigrave, James H.
    Conigrave, Katherine M.
    Perry, Jimmy
    Wilson, Scott
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Fitts, Michelle S.
    Hayman, Noel
    Lee, K. S. Kylie
    Prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence in an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander representative sample: Using the Grog Survey App2022In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 125-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Little is known about the prevalence of current alcohol dependence in Indigenous Australian communities. Here we identify the frequency of reported symptoms, estimate the prevalence and describe the correlates of current alcohol dependence. Methods. A representative sample of Indigenous Australians (16+ years) was recruited from an urban and remote community in South Australia. Data were collected between July and October 2019 via a tablet computer-based application. Participants were likely dependent if they reported two or more dependence symptoms (ICD-11; in the last 12 -months), weekly or more frequently. Chi-square tests described the relationship between demographics, remoteness and alcohol dependence. Spearman correlations estimated the relationship between symptoms of dependence, consumption characteristics and demographics. Results. A total of 775 Indigenous Australians participated. The most frequently reported symptoms were prioritising alcohol over other things and loss of control. Overall, 2.2% were likely dependent on alcohol (n = 17/775). Prevalence did not vary by remoteness. Participants who drank more and more frequently tended to report more frequent symptoms of dependence. In the urban site, men tended to report more frequent symptoms of dependence than women. Age, income and schooling were not linked to dependence. Discussion and Conclusions. The prevalence of current alcohol dependence in this representative sample was similar to that of the general Australian and international estimates. Understanding risk factors for current alcohol dependence will be useful to inform the allocation of funding and support. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of current alcohol dependence are important to better identify specialist treatment needs.

  • 67.
    Wilkinson, C
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.2009In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 28, p. 426-435Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68. Wilkinson, C
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Livingston, M
    Mapping Australian public opinion on alcohol policies in the new millenium.2009In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 28, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
12 51 - 68 of 68
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