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  • 51.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Self-Organized Governance Networks for Ecosystem Management: Who Is Accountable?2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance networks play an increasingly important role in ecosystem management. The collaboration within these governance networks can be formalized or informal, top-down or bottom-up, and designed or self-organized. Informal self-organized governance networks may increase legitimacy if a variety of stakeholders are involved, but at the same time, accountability becomes blurred when decisions are taken. Basically, democratic accountability refers to ways in which citizens can control their government and the mechanisms for doing so. Scholars in ecosystem management are generally positive to policy/governance networks and emphasize its potential for enhancing social learning, adaptability, and resilience in social-ecological systems. Political scientists, on the other hand, have emphasized the risk that the public interest may be threatened by governance networks. I describe and analyze the multilevel governance network of Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR) in Southern Sweden, with the aim of understanding whether and how accountability is secured in the governance network and its relation to representative democracy. The analysis suggests that the governance network of KVBR complements representative democracy. It deals mainly with low politics; the learning and policy directions are developed in the governance network, but the decisions are embedded in representative democratic structures. Because several organizations and agencies co-own the process and are committed to the outcomes, there is a shared or extended accountability. A recent large investment in KVBR caused a major crisis at the municipal level, fueled by the financial crisis. The higher levels of the governance network, however, served as a social memory and enhanced resilience of the present biosphere development trajectory. For self-organized networks, legitimacy is the bridge between adaptability and accountability; accountability is secured as long as the adaptive governance network performs well, i.e., is perceived as legitimate. Governing and ensuring accountability of governance networks, without hampering their flexibility, adaptability, and innovativeness, represents a new challenge for the modern state.

  • 52.
    Hahn, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Are adaptations self-organized, autonomous, and harmonious? Assessing the social-ecological resilience literature2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes how adaptability (adaptive capacity and adaptations) is constructed in the literature on resilience of social-ecological systems (SES). According to some critics, this literature views adaptability as the capacity of SES to self-organize in an autonomous harmonious consensus-building process, ignoring strategies, conflicting goals, and power issues. We assessed 183 papers, coding two dimensions of adaptability: autonomous vs. intentional and descriptive vs. normative. We found a plurality of framings, where 51% of the papers perceived adaptability as autonomous, but one-third constructed adaptability as intentional processes driven by stakeholders; where social learning and networking are often used as strategies for changing power structures and achieving sustainability transformations. For the other dimension, adaptability was used normatively in 59% of the assessed papers, but one-third used descriptive framings. We found no evidence that the SES literature in general assumes a priori that adaptations are harmonious consensus-building processes. It is, rather, conflicts that are assumed, not spelled out, and assertions of desirable that are often not clarified by reference to policy documents or explicit normative frameworks. We discuss alternative definitions of adaptability and transformability to clarify or avoid the notion of desirability. Complex adaptive systems framing often precludes analysis of agency, but lately self-organization and emergence have been used to study actors with intentions, strategies, and conflicting interests. Transformations and power structures are increasingly being addressed in the SES literature. We conclude that ontological clashes between social science and SES research have resulted in multiple constructive pathways.

  • 53.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    van Oudenhoven, Frederik J. W.
    Food as a daily art: ideas for its use as a method in development practice2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food is the only art form that is also a basic need. It requires knowledge and labor for cultivation and cooking and offers a space where tastes, hospitality, and other cultural values are expressed and created. As a daily practice in agricultural societies, food is a holistic concept that incorporates ideas of health, spirituality, community, technology, and trade, and connects the most marginalized with the most powerful. Conventional international development aid is dominated by a limited number of relatively narrow ideas informed by scientific processes: progress, economic growth, market development, and agricultural production. Such ideas are often at odds with endogenous ideas about development and often work against biological and cultural diversity. Here, we reflect on our experiences documenting the food culture of the Pamiri people of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. We trace the trajectory of ideas about development, local and foreign, and explore how at different stages in those trajectories, the qualities of food can help promote local perspectives, challenge dominant power relationships, and challenge scientific practices to incorporate these perspectives better. We show how, as a method and a daily art form, food helps nurture an ecology of ideas in which traditional knowledge and science can come together to create locally meaningful solutions toward development and sustainability.

  • 54. Harrison, Paula A.
    et al.
    Harmáčková, Zuzana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karabulut, Armagan Aloe
    Brotons, Lluis
    Cantele, Matthew
    Claudet, Joachim
    Dunford, Robert W.
    Guisan, Antoine
    Holman, Ian P.
    Jacobs, Sander
    Kok, Kasper
    Lobanova, Anastasia
    Moran-Ordonez, Alejandra
    Pedde, Simona
    Rixen, Christian
    Santos-Martin, Fernando
    Schlaepfer, Martin A.
    Solidoro, Cosimo
    Sonrel, Anthony
    Hauck, Jennifer
    Synthesizing plausible futures for biodiversity and ecosystem services in Europe and Central Asia using scenario archetypes2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 2, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenarios are a useful tool to explore possible futures of social-ecological systems. The number of scenarios has increased dramatically over recent decades, with a large diversity in temporal and spatial scales, purposes, themes, development methods, and content. Scenario archetypes generically describe future developments and can be useful in meaningfully classifying scenarios, structuring and summarizing the overwhelming amount of information, and enabling scientific outputs to more effectively interface with decision-making frameworks. The Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) faced this challenge and used scenario archetypes in its assessment of future interactions between nature and society. We describe the use of scenario archetypes in the IPBES Regional Assessment of Europe and Central Asia. Six scenario archetypes for the region are described in terms of their driver assumptions and impacts on nature (including biodiversity) and its contributions to people (including ecosystem services): business-as-usual, economic optimism, regional competition, regional sustainability, global sustainable development, and inequality. The analysis shows that trade-offs between nature's contributions to people are projected under different scenario archetypes. However, the means of resolving these trade-offs depend on differing political and societal value judgements within each scenario archetype. Scenarios that include proactive decision making on environmental issues, environmental management approaches that support multifunctionality, and mainstreaming environmental issues across sectors, are generally more successful in mitigating tradeoffs than isolated environmental policies. Furthermore, those scenario archetypes that focus on achieving a balanced supply of nature's contributions to people and that incorporate a diversity of values are estimated to achieve more policy goals and targets, such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi targets. The scenario archetypes approach is shown to be helpful in supporting science-policy dialogue for proactive decision making that anticipates change, mitigates undesirable trade-offs, and fosters societal transformation in pursuit of sustainable development.

  • 55.
    Hebinck, Aniek
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Vervoort, Joost M.
    Hebinck, Paul
    Rutting, Lucas
    Galli, Francesca
    Imagining transformative futures: participatory foresight for food systems change2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 2, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformations inherently involve systems change and because of the political nature of change, are subject to contestation. A potentially effective strategy to further transformative change that builds on interdisciplinary, multiactor, and multiscalepractices and values is the use of foresight. Foresight covers a wide range of methods to systematically investigate the future. Foresight exercises offer collaborative spaces and have the potential to conceptualize and even initiate transformative change. But there is no clear understanding of the possibilities and limitations of foresight in this regard. This explorative paper builds on foresight and sociology and interrogates the role of foresight in transformative change, building on four cases. These cases are embedded in different contexts and characterized by different organizational approaches and constellations of actors. Nevertheless, they share the common goal of transformative food systems change. By reflecting on the processes that play a role in foresight workshops, we analyze what created conditions for transformative change in these four empirical cases. We have operationalized these conditions by distinguishing layers in the structuring processes that influence the impact of the foresight process. Based on this analysis, we conclude that there are three roles, ranging from modest to more ambitious, that foresight can play in transformative change: preconceptualization of change; offering an avenue for the creation of new actor networks; and creation of concrete strategies with a high chance of implementation. Furthermore, contributing to future design of foresight processes for transformative change, we offer some crucial points to consider before designing foresight processes. These include the role of leading change makers (including researchers), the risk of co-option by more regime-driven actors, and the ability to attract stakeholders to participate.

  • 56.
    Henriksson Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Jewitt, Graham P. W.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    On the other side of the ditch: exploring contrasting ecosystem service coproduction between smallholder and commercial agriculture2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing for increased multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes is a crucial step toward a sustainable global agriculture. We studied two contrasting agricultural landscapes that exist in parallel on two sides of a ditch in the South African Drakensberg Mountains. The large-scale commercial and smallholder farmers operate within a similar biophysical context but have different farming intensities, management practices, socioeconomic positions, ethnic identities, cultural contexts, and land tenure systems. To assess multifunctionality, we examined the ecosystem services coproduced within these two social-ecological systems, by applying a mixed-method approach combining in-depth interviews, participatory mapping, and expert assessments. The results indicate clear differences between the two farming systems and farmer groups in terms of supply, demand, and the capacity of the farmers to influence ecosystem service production within their landscapes. Commercial farmers can generally produce agricultural products to meet their demand and have the capacity to mitigate land degradation and erosion. Smallholder food production is low, and the demand for ecosystem services is high. Since the smallholders lack the resources to mitigate unsustainable use, this leads to overuse and land degradation. Both landscape types manifest aspects of multifunctionality but vary in the outcomes. Unequal access to land; skills; and natural, financial, and technical resources can hamper multifunctionality and the development toward an equitable and sustainable agriculture in South Africa.

  • 57. Hinkel, Jochen
    et al.
    Bots, Pieter W. G.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enhancing the Ostrom social-ecological system framework through formalization2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 51-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frameworks play an important role in analyzing social-ecological systems (SESs) because they provide shared concepts and variables that enable comparison between and accumulation of knowledge across multiple cases. One prominent SES framework focusing on local resource use has been developed by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues. This framework is an extensive multi-tier collection of concepts and variables that have demonstrated relevance for explaining outcomes in a large number of case studies in the context of fishery, water, and forestry common-pool resources. The further development of this framework has raised a number of issues related to the formal relationships between the large number of concepts and variables involved. In particular, issues related to criteria for ordering the concepts into tiers, adding new concepts, defining outcomes metrics, and representing dynamics in the framework have been identified. We address these issues by applying methods from research fields that study formal relationships between concepts such as domain-specific languages, knowledge representation, and software engineering. We find that SES frameworks could include the following seven formal components: variables, concepts, attribution relationships, subsumption relationships, process relationships, aggregation relationships, and evaluation metrics. Applying these components to the Ostrom framework and a case study of recreational fishery, we find that they provide clear criteria for structuring concepts into tiers, defining outcome metrics, and representing dynamics. The components identified are generic, and the insights gained from this exercise may also be beneficial for the development of other SES frameworks.

  • 58. Hinkel, Jochen
    et al.
    Cox, Michael E.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Binder, Claudia R.
    Falk, Thomas
    A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES) framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS) and resource units (RU), which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however, remains a challenge. Reasons for this are that case studies examine other types of RS than those for which the framework has been developed or consider RS for which different actors obtain different kinds of RU. We explore these difficulties and relate them to antecedent work on common-pool resources and public goods. We propose a diagnostic procedure which resolves some of these difficulties by establishing a sequence of questions that facilitate the step-wise and unambiguous application of the SES framework to a given case. The questions relate to the actors benefiting from the SES, the collective goods involved in the generation of those benefits, and the action situations in which the collective goods are provided and appropriated. We illustrate the diagnostic procedure for four case studies in the context of irrigated agriculture in New Mexico, common property meadows in the Swiss Alps, recreational fishery in Germany, and energy regions in Austria. We conclude that the current SES framework has limitations when applied to complex, multiuse SES, because it does not sufficiently capture the actor interdependencies introduced through RS and RU characteristics and dynamics.

  • 59. Homer-Dixon, Thomas
    et al.
    Walker, Brian
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lambin, Eric F.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Synchronous failure: the emerging causal architecture of global crisis2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global crises reveal an emerging pattern of causation that could increasingly characterize the birth and progress of future global crises. A conceptual framework identifies this pattern's deep causes, intermediate processes, and ultimate outcomes. The framework shows how multiple stresses can interact within a single social-ecological system to cause a shift in that system's behavior, how simultaneous shifts of this kind in several largely discrete social-ecological systems can interact to cause a far larger intersystemic crisis, and how such a larger crisis can then rapidly propagate across multiple system boundaries to the global scale. Case studies of the 2008-2009 financial-energy and food-energy crises illustrate the framework. Suggestions are offered for future research to explore further the framework's propositions.

  • 60. Hopkins, Tom S.
    et al.
    Bailly, Denis
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Glegg, Gillian
    Sandberg, Audun
    Stottrup, Josianne G.
    A Systems Approach Framework for the Transition to Sustainable Development: Potential Value Based on Coastal Experiments2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 39-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical aspects of (a) governance in terms of policy effectiveness, (b) sustainability science in terms of applying transdisciplinary science to social-ecological problems, and (c) simulation analysis in terms of quantifying dysfunctions in complex systems. This new knowledge can help broaden our perspectives on how research can be changed to better serve society. The infusion of systems thinking into research and policy making leads to a preference for multi-issue instead of single-issue studies, an expansion from static to dynamic indicators, an understanding of the boundaries between system-dependent and system-independent problems, and the inclusion of non-market evaluations. It also develops a real partnership among research, management, and stakeholders to establish a quantitative basis for collaborative decision making. Furthermore, the article argues that the transition to sustainable development for coastal systems requires consideration of the scale interdependency from individual to global and recognition of the probable global reorganizational emergence of scale-free networks that could cooperate to maximize the integrated sustainability among them.

  • 61. Huitema, Dave
    et al.
    Adger, William Neil
    Berkhout, Frans
    Massey, Eric
    Mazmanian, Daniel
    Munaretto, Stefania
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Termeer, Catrien C. J. A. M.
    The governance of adaptation: choices, reasons, and effects. Introduction to the Special Feature2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 3, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative principles to guide problem solution and institution building. We argue that actors involved in governing climate change adaptation, as climate change governance regimes evolve, inevitably must engage in making choices, for instance on problem definitions, jurisdictional levels, on modes of governance and policy instruments, and on the timing of interventions. Yet little is known about how and why these choices are made in practice, and how such choices affect the outcomes of our efforts to govern adaptation. In this introduction we review the current state of evidence and the specific contribution of the articles published in this Special Feature, which are aimed at bringing greater clarity in these matters, and thereby informing both governance theory and practice. Collectively, the contributing papers suggest that the way issues are defined has important consequences for the support for governance interventions, and their effectiveness. The articles suggest that currently the emphasis in adaptation governance is on the local and regional levels, while underscoring the benefits of interventions and governance at higher jurisdictional levels in terms of visioning and scaling-up effective approaches. The articles suggest that there is a central role of government agencies in leading governance interventions to address spillover effects, to provide public goods, and to promote the long-term perspectives for planning. They highlight the issue of justice in the governance of adaptation showing how governance measures have wide distributional consequences, including the potential to amplify existing inequalities, access to resources, or generating new injustices through distribution of risks. For several of these findings, future research directions are suggested.

  • 62. Hänke, Hendrik
    et al.
    Barkmann, Jan
    Coral, Claudia
    Enfors Kaustky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marggraf, Rainer
    Social-ecological traps hinder rural development in southwestern Madagascar2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiarid Mahafaly region in southwestern Madagascar is not only a unique biodiversity hotspot, but also one of the poorest regions in the world. Crop failures occur frequently, and despite a great number of rural development programs, no effective progress in terms of improved yields, agricultural income, or well-being among farming households has been observed. In addition to the severe development challenges in the region, environmental degradation and the loss of biodiversity are prevailing issues. This paper takes a social-ecological systems perspective to analyze why the region appears locked in poverty. Specifically, we address the social-ecological interaction between environmental factors such as low and variable precipitation, the lack of sustainable intensification in agriculture resulting in recalcitrant hunger, and several environmental degradation trends. The study is based on (i) longitudinal data from 150 farming households interviewed at high temporal resolution during the course of 2014, and (ii) extensive recall surveys from the southwestern Madagascar project region. The analysis reveals a complex interplay of pronounced seasonality in income generation due to recurrent droughts and crop failures making local farmers highly risk averse. This interplay results in a gradual depletion of environmental assets and hinders the accumulation of capital in the hands of smallholder farmers, and improvements in agricultural production even where environmental conditions would allow for it. As a result, households are insufficiently buffered and insured against repetitive income and food security shocks. This can be understood as a set of interacting, partly nested social-ecological traps, which entrench the Mahafalian smallholder population in deep poverty while the productivity of the environment declines. We provide new insights on the interplay between hunger, poverty, and loss of environmental assets in a global biodiversity hotspot. Finally, we propose a set of key issues that need to be considered to unlock this severe lock-in and enable transformation toward a more sustainable development in southwestern Madagascar.

  • 63.
    Jansson, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polasky, Steven
    Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota.
    Quantifying Biodiversity for Building Resilience for Food Security in Urban Landscapes: Getting Down to Business2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Johansson, Maria U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Senay, Senait D.
    Creathorn, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kassa, Habtemariam
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Change in heathland fire sizes inside vs. outside the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia, over 50 years of fire-exclusion policy: lessons for REDD2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 4, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In flammable shrublands fire size often depends on local management. Policy and land use change can drastically alter fire regimes, affecting livelihoods, biodiversity, and carbon storage. In Ethiopia, burning of vegetation is banned, but the burn ban is more strongly enforced inside the Bale Mountains National Park. We investigated if and how policy and land use change have affected fire regimes inside/outside the park. The park was established in 1969, and both studied areas have been part of a new REDD+ project since 2013. Our hypothesis is that burnt heath-land stands are nonflammable and act as fuel breaks, and hence that reduced ignition rates leads to larger fires. To quantify change we analyzed remote-sensed imagery from 10 fire-seasons between 1968 and 2017, quantifying sizes of resprouting Erica stands and recording their postfire age. To elucidate underlying mechanisms of change we interviewed 41 local smallholders. There was a five order of magnitude variation in patch size (< 0.01- > 1000 ha). A significant interaction was found between year and site (inside/outside park) in explaining patch size, indicating that the park establishment has affected fire size. Inside the park there was a tendency of patch size increase and outside a clear decrease. Especially the largest fires (> 100 ha) increased in numbers inside the park but not outside. Respondents confirmed that large fires have increased in frequency and attributed this mainly to lack of fuel breaks and the fact that fires today are ignited in a more uncontrolled manner later in the dry season. Outside the park respondents explained that fires have become smaller because of increased ignition and intensified grazing. Both situations degrade pasture and threaten Erica shrub survival. For flammable ecosystems, REDD+ fire-exclusion policies need updating, and in this case complemented with a community-based fire management program making use of the vivid local traditional fire knowledge.

  • 65.
    Kininmonth, Stuart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Vaccaro, Ismael
    Chapman, Lauren J.
    Chapman, Colin A.
    Microeconomic relationships between and among fishers and traders influence the ability to respond to social-ecological changes in a small-scale fishery2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the cross-scale nature of how natural resource trading links to local extraction patterns remains a topic of great relevance to stewardship and sustainable use of ecological systems. Microeconomic influences on a society's pattern of small-scale natural resources utilization can exacerbate resource overuse, especially under increased population pressure. In many rural communities that are based on a limited diversity of resource industries, quantifying the response of extractors and traders to market and environmental fluctuations is critical to understanding management constraints. We examine the fishing practices of a small lake in Uganda, East Africa, from the dual perspectives of the traders and the fishers using a Bayesian Belief Network approach based on detailed interview surveys. Fishers in this small lake target Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), two fish species of high commercial and food security significance in East Africa. We combined data on financial, social, and ecological systems to understand how aspects of trading quantitatively relate to fish extraction patterns in Lake Nabugabo Uganda. Importantly, we find that the patron-client type relationships generate incentives to extract specific fish, whereas freelancer independent fishers are able to create responsive and flexible extraction practices that match market and environmental fluctuations. Management of fishing administered by local Beach Management Units will likely have a higher probability of success when in synchrony with trading relationships and ecological dynamics. We use this study in Uganda to reflect on methodological challenges and opportunities of combining multiple types of data sets for cross-scale analysis of social-ecological system dynamics.

  • 66. Kremer, Peleg
    et al.
    Hamstead, Zoe
    Haase, Dagmar
    McPhearson, Timon
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Larondelle, Neele
    Rall, Emily L.
    Voigt, Annette
    Baro, Francesc
    Bertram, Christine
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kaczorowska, Anna
    Kain, Jaan-Henrik
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Rehdanz, Katrin
    Schewenius, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    van Ham, Chantal
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 2, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing >50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  • 67. Lim, Michelle M. L.
    et al.
    Søgaard Jørgensen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Wyborn, Carina A.
    Reframing the sustainable development goals to achieve sustainable development in the Anthropocene-a systems approach2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Griggs et al. (2013) redefine sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present while safeguarding Earth's life-support system, on which the welfare of current and future generations depend. We recommend this as the end goal that the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs) should strive to achieve. Integration across the SDGs is less than what is required from a science perspective. Effective implementation of the SDGs will require States to attend to trade-offs and overlaps. We argue that continuous failure to address integration within the SDGs will jeopardize realization of this ultimate end goal. Therefore, we adopt a systems approach to identify gaps and connections across the goals and targets of the SDGs as well as leverage points for effective intervention. We triangulate across methods of critical analysis, conceptual modeling, and keyword network analysis to draw out seven overarching directions that could provide a prioritization framework to enhance efficient implementation of the SDGs. Our results identify main gaps as exclusion of key actors (e.g., corporations) and issues (e.g., intergenerational equity and population); inadequate reconciliation of economic growth with maintaining the Earth system; and deficient consideration of the relationship with international law. Conceptual mapping identifies education and innovation; governance and implementation; sustainable consumption and production; and addressing the key drivers of climate change as key leverage points. The keyword analysis highlights greater integration within the SDGs than what appears at face value. Keywords access, women, resources,and finance feature across the SDGs and provide further leverage points. Targeting these issues will facilitate realization of a high proportion of SDGs and correspondingly could have a disproportional impact on effective SDG implementation. We conclude that the success of the SDGs needs to be evaluated by the extent to which it contributes to human development while advancing protection of planetary must-haves for current and future generations.

  • 68.
    Lundmark, Linda J. T.
    et al.
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Fredman, Peter
    ETOUR; Mittuniversitetet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Stockholm University.
    National Parks and Protected Areas and the Role for Employment in Tourism and Forest Sectors: a Swedish Case2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 19-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and local development and from the adversary point of view that protection of land is making it more difficult for 15 sparsely populated mountain municipalities in Sweden to prosper. We used a database covering the entire population of the area for 1991 to 2001. Our results show that factors other than the protected areas are connected to the development of a tourism labor market. The most positively correlated variables for change in tourism employment are population growth and proximity to ski lifts. Positive population development is also correlated to a positive change in the number of people employed in forest sectors. Thus, one of the main outcomes is that the assumed and almost automatic positive relation between nature conservation and tourism can is questionable.

  • 69.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jewitt, Graham
    Using Participatory Scenario Planning to Identify Ecosystem Services in Changing Landscapes2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, article id UNSP 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in assessing ecosystem services to improve ecosystem management in landscapes containing a mix of different ecosystems. While methodologies for assessing ecosystem services are constantly improving, only little attention has been given to the identification of which ecosystem services to assess. Service selection is mostly based on current state of the landscape although many landscapes are both inherently complex and rapidly changing. In this study we examine whether scenario development, a tool for dealing with uncertainties and complexities of the future, gives important insights into the selection of ecosystem services in changing landscapes. Using an agricultural landscape in South Africa we compared different sets of services selected for an assessment by four different groups: stakeholders making the scenarios, experts who have read the scenarios, experts who had not read the scenarios, and services derived from literature. We found significant differences among the services selected by different groups, especially between the literature services and the other groups. Cultural services were least common in literature and that list was also most dissimilar in terms of identity, ranking, and numbers of services compared to the other three groups. The services selected by experts and the scenario stakeholders were relatively similar indicating that knowledge of a study area gained through the scenario exercise is not very different from that of experts actively working in the area. Although our results show limited value in using scenario development for improved ecosystem service selection per se, the scenario development process triggers important discussions with local and regional stakeholders about key issues of today, helping to more correctly assess changes in the future.

  • 70.
    Marín, Andrés
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Carlos Castilla, Juan
    Ecosystem Services and Abrupt Transformations in a Coastal Wetland Social-Ecological System: Tubul-Raqui after the 2010 Earthquake in Chile2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters can trigger sudden transformations and move ecosystems to different states where the provision of ecosystem services is altered. These changes in ecosystem services affect local communities' well-being and challenge users' adaptation capacities. We used the ecosystem services framework to understand the impacts of abrupt transformations, in a coastal wetland, associated to a similar to 1.6 meter coseismic uplift after an 8.8 magnitude earthquake in Chile. Using mixed methods we (1) identified and prioritized ecosystem services from Tubul-Raqui wetland; (2) assessed conditions of services and human well-being before and after the earthquake; (3) investigated postcatastrophe human adaptations and responses; and (4) explored users' interests and visions about possible future social-ecological pathways. Results show spatially diversified effects of the uplift on ecosystem services, both negative and positive, representing threats and opportunities for different user groups around the wetland. The total loss of the cultivated seaweed pelillo is associated with the most manifest reduction in perceptions of well-being among coastal users. Adaptive capacities triggered by pre-existing livelihood portfolios generated intensification in the exploitation of less impacted or enhanced ecosystem services which could be reducing resilience. Results show that two years after the transformation there is little attempt to create untried, new beginnings in the Tubul-Raqui wetland from which user groups could evolve to a more innovative livelihood and resource management system after the shift. Although visions about the future are not homogeneous among users, common interests regarding the conservation of key services are shared. The analysis of abrupt transformations through an ecosystem services approach provides a powerful framework for the study of environmental change and associated impacts on local communities.

  • 71.
    Marín, Andrés
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Castilla, Juan C.
    Berkes, Fikret
    Exploring Social Capital in Chile's Coastal Benthic Comanagement System Using a Network Approach2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comanagement success relies on the proper administration of resources and on the capacity of users to establish and maintain positive social relationships with multiple actors. We assessed multifunctional relationships of small-scale artisanal fisher organizations engaged in a coastal benthic resources comanagement system in Chile to explore bridging and linking social capital, using an egocentric network approach. The formal leaders of 38 small-scale fisher organizations were surveyed to investigate (1) similarities and differences in social capital among fisher organizations and regions, and (2) possible effects of social capital levels on comanagement performance. Results show that the best performing fisher organizations are those with higher levels of linking and bridging social capital. Positive and strong correlations exist between linking social capital levels and comanagement performance variables. Importantly, fisher organizations considered to manage resources successfully consistently presented high levels of linking social capital, irrespective of variability in bridging social capital. Using egocentric networks allows understanding actors' differences in the comanagement social structure, thus providing critical insights for improving comanagement systems.

  • 72.
    Masterson, Vanessa A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mahajan, Shauna L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Photovoice for mobilizing insights on human well-being in complex social-ecological systems: case studies from Kenya and South Africa2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of diverse perspectives in social-ecological systems research and transdisciplinarity is well recognized. Human well-being and how it is derived from dynamic ecosystems is one area where local knowledge and perspectives are critical for designing interventions for sustainable pathways out of poverty. However, to realize the potential to enrich the understanding of complex dynamics for sustainability, there is a need for methods that engage holistic ways of perceiving human-nature interactions from multiple worldviews that also acknowledge inequalities between scientific and other forms of knowledge. To date, photovoice has been used to elicit local knowledge and perspectives about ecosystem changes and ecosystem services. We expand this to explore the utility of the method for facilitating the mobilization of plural insights on human well-being, which is subject to complex social-ecological dynamics, and its role in processes for coproduction of knowledge that acknowledges the need for equity and usefulness for all actors. Drawing on two cases, one in community-based marine protected areas in Kenya and one dealing with agricultural decline and rural-urban migration in South Africa, we demonstrate two modes of application of photovoice: as a scoping exercise and as a deep learning tool. The studies descriptively illustrate how photovoice can depict the hidden and often neglected intangible connections to ecosystems, plural and disaggregated perceptions of complex social-ecological dynamics, and issues of access and distribution of ecosystem benefits. The studies also show how photovoice can encourage equitable participation of nonacademic actors in research processes and in particular contribute to mobilization of knowledge and translation of knowledge across knowledge systems. We discuss how local perspectives may be further recognized and incorporated in transdisciplinary research and reflect on the practical and ethical challenges posed by using photographs in participatory research on social-ecological systems.

  • 73.
    Masterson, Vanessa A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stedman, Richard C.
    Enqvist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wahl, Darin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The contribution of sense of place to social-ecological systems research: a review and research agenda2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To develop and apply goals for future sustainability, we must consider what people care about and what motivates them to engage in solving sustainability issues. Sense of place theory and methods provide a rich source of insights that, like the social-ecological systems perspective, assume an interconnected social and biophysical reality. However, these fields of research are only recently beginning to converge, and we see great potential for further engagement. Here, we present an approach and conceptual tools for how the sense of place perspective can contribute to social-ecological systems research. A brief review focuses on two areas where relation to place is particularly relevant: stewardship of ecosystem services, and responses to change in social-ecological systems. Based on the review, we synthesize specific ways in which sense of place may be applied by social-ecological systems researchers to analyze individual and social behaviors. We emphasize the importance of descriptive place meanings and evaluative place attachment as tools to study the patterned variation of sense of place within or among populations or types of places and the implications for resilience and transformative capacity. We conclude by setting out an agenda for future research that takes into account the concerns of resilience thinking such as the effects of dynamic ecology, interactions between temporal and spatial scales, and the interplay of rapid and incremental change on sense of place and place-related behaviors. This future research agenda also includes concerns from the broader sense of place literature such as the importance of structural power relationships on the creation of place meanings and how scaling up a sense of place may influence pro-environmental behavior.

  • 74. May, Bradley
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Accommodating the Challenges of Climate Change Adaptation and Governance in Conventional Risk Management: Adaptive Collaborative Risk Management (ACRM)2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk management is a well established tool for climate change adaptation. It is facing new challenges with the end of climate stationarity and the need to meaningfully engage people in governance issues. The ways in which conventional approaches to risk management can respond to these challenges are explored. Conventional approaches to risk management are summarized, the manner in which they are being advanced as a tool for climate change adaptation is described, and emerging themes in risk management and climate change adaption are documented. It is argued that conventional risk management for climate change adaptation can benefit from the insights and experiences of adaptive co-management. A hybrid approach termed adaptive collaborative risk management is thus envisaged that enriches conventional risk management with the critical features of adaptive co-management, i.e., collaboration and adaptation. Adaptive Collaborative Risk Management overcomes some of the challenges with conventional risk management, builds upon and complements other approaches to community climate change adaptation, and innovatively addresses both technical and governance concerns in a single integrated process.

  • 75. McDermott, Constance L.
    et al.
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Safeguarding what and for whom? The role of institutional fit in shaping REDD plus in Mexico2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), and its associated multitude of global to local safeguards, as they apply to a single ejido on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. It draws on written sources and interviews to analyze the ways in which broad international norms articulated through the REDD+ safeguards, including support for human rights and sustainable livelihoods for local communities, are translated at national, regional, and local levels. Our findings indicate a wide range of perspectives on what constitutes sustainability, from strict conservation to more forest use-oriented strategies, such as community forestry and traditional Mayan shifting cultivation. These visions, in turn, shape what types of REDD+ interventions are considered a good environmental fit,i. e., that fit the environmental problems they aim to address. Fits and misfits also occur between institutions, and play a core role in determining whose visions of sustainability prevail. We found a good fit in the case study ejido between REDD+ and the Payment for Ecosystem service (PES) scheme, which sets the parameters for what counts as sustainable livelihoods within a strict conservation paradigm. We likewise found a good fit between REDD+ safeguards and institutions supporting local community rights to reject REDD+ projects. However, despite the strength of procedural safeguards, the parameters of the PES scheme constrained the choice of REDD+ activities available, including the possibilities of local people to work on the farm and in the forest, and hence the scope of its distributive benefits. This highlights the important, but also problematic, roles of institutional and environmental fit in determining whose rights are safeguarded and what is recognized as a sustainable livelihood strategy. It also calls for more proactive efforts to expand the range of REDD+ activities in ways that safeguard livelihood diversity.

  • 76.
    Meacham, Megan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological drivers of multiple ecosystem services: what variables explain patterns of ecosystem services across the Norrstrom drainage basin?2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In human dominated landscapes many diverse, and often antagonistic, human activities are intentionally and inadvertently determining the supply of various ecosystem services. Understanding how different social and ecological factors shape the availability of ecosystem services is essential for fair and effective policy and management. In this paper, we evaluate how well alternative social-ecological models of human impact on ecosystems explain patterns of 16 ecosystem services (ES) across the 62 municipalities of the Norrstrom drainage basin in Sweden. We test four models of human impact on ecosystems, land use, ecological modernization, ecological footprint, and location theory, and test their ability to predict both individual ES and bundles of ES. We find that different models do best to predict different types of individual ES. Land use is the best model for predicting provisioning services, standing water quality, biodiversity appreciation, and cross-country skiing, while other models work better for the remaining services. However, this range of models is not able to predict some of the cultural ES. ES bundles are predicted worse than individual ES by these models, but provide a clear picture of variation in multiple ecosystem services based on limited information. Based on our results, we offer suggestions on how social-ecological modeling and assessments of ecosystems can be further developed.

  • 77. Miller, Fiona
    et al.
    Osbahr, Henny
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thomalla, Frank
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bharwani, Sukaina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Ziervogel, Gina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Birkmann, Joern
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    Downing, Tom
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nelson, Donald
    Resilience and vulnerability: complementary or conflicting concepts?2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience and vulnerability represent two related yet different approaches to understanding the response of systems and actors to change; to shocks and surprises, as well as slow creeping changes. Their respective origins in ecological and social theory largely explain the continuing differences in approach to social-ecological dimensions of change. However, there are many areas of strong convergence. This paper explores the emerging linkages and complementarities between the concepts of resilience and vulnerability to identify areas of synergy. We do this with regard to theory, methodology, and application. The paper seeks to go beyond just recognizing the complementarities between the two approaches to demonstrate how researchers are actively engaging with each field to coproduce new knowledge, and to suggest promising areas of complementarity that are likely to further research and action in the field.

  • 78. Moen, Jon
    et al.
    Aune, Karin.
    Edenius, Lars
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Potential effects of climate change on treeline position in the Swedish mountains2004In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 9, no 1, p. Article Number 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change may strongly influence species distribution and, thus, the structure and function of ecosystems. This paper describes simulated changes in the position of the upper treeline in the Swedish mountains in response to predicted climate change. Data on predicted summer temperature changes, the current position of the treeline, and a digital elevation model were used to predict the position of the treeline over a 100-year timeframe. The results show the treeline advancing upward by 233-667 m, depending on the climate scenario used and location within the mountain chain. Such changes hypothetically caused a 75-85% reduction in treeless alpine heaths, with 60-93% of the remaining areas being scree slopes and boulder fields. For this change to occur, the migration rate of the trees would be in the order of 23-221 m yr(-1), which is well within published migration rates for wind-dispersed deciduous trees. The remaining alpine areas would be strongly fragmented. These drastic changes would influence all aspects of mountain ecosystems, including biodiversity conservation and human land-use patterns.

  • 79.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Warren
    Rose, Loretta
    Westley, Frances R.
    Navigating emergence and system reflexivity as key transformative capacities: experiences from a Global Fellowship program2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 2, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between adaptive and transformative capacities is still not well understood, and in this study we aimed to build a transformative learning space to strengthen transformative capacities. We proposed that two capacities will be essential to transformation: the capacity to navigate emergence and cross-scale systems reflexivity. We outline our efforts to design and deliver a Global Fellowship program in social innovation, intended to strengthen these two capacities among practitioners already engaged in socially innovative work. Results indicated that the concepts, frameworks, and experiences introduced through the Fellowship led to four key insights about these capacities. Firstly, individual Fellows and their organizations were able to see some complex system dynamics that were previously invisible, which in turn, allowed Fellows to see the distribution of resources and agency across the system in new ways. Secondly, engaging with diversity is essential in social innovation and transformative change processes, and system reflexivity aided in doing this. Additionally, Fellows indicated they were able to identify different kinds of opportunities and the generative potential that can lie within social-ecological systems. Lastly, the findings demonstrate the challenging nature of crossing scales and how a transformative space, such as a Fellowship, helps to practice the experience of contestation, unpredictability, and the uncontrollable dynamics of transformation and social innovation.

  • 80. Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Tjornbo, Ola
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knapp, Corrie
    Hodbod, Jennifer
    Baggio, Jacopo A.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Duan
    Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 54-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES) that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  • 81.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Bouamrane, Meriem
    Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society: Knowledge for sustainable stewardship of social-ecological systems2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Norström, Albert V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dannenberg, Astrid
    McCarney, Geoff
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    Diekert, Florian
    Engström, Gustav
    Fishman, Ram
    Gars, Johan
    Kyriakopoolou, Efthymia
    Manoussi, Vassiliki
    Meng, Kyle
    Metian, Marc
    Sanctuary, Mark
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schoon, Michael
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Three necessary conditions for establishing effective Sustainable Development Goals in the Anthropocene2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the United Nations-guided process to establish Sustainable Development Goals is to galvanize governments and civil society to rise to the interlinked environmental, societal, and economic challenges we face in the Anthropocene. We argue that the process of setting Sustainable Development Goals should take three key aspects into consideration. First, it should embrace an integrated social-ecological system perspective and acknowledge the key dynamics that such systems entail, including the role of ecosystems in sustaining human wellbeing, multiple cross-scale interactions, and uncertain thresholds. Second, the process needs to address trade-offs between the ambition of goals and the feasibility in reaching them, recognizing biophysical, social, and political constraints. Third, the goal-setting exercise and the management of goal implementation need to be guided by existing knowledge about the principles, dynamics, and constraints of social change processes at all scales, from the individual to the global. Combining these three aspects will increase the chances of establishing and achieving effective Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 83.
    Nykvist, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spontaneous order of adaptability: An assessment of the literature on social-ecological resilience2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how adaptability is conceptualized (framed) in the literature on resilience and social-ecological systems (SES). SES are sometimes analyzed as complex adaptive systems (CAS) where human responses are seen as spontaneous and self-organized adaptations by autonomous agents with no analysis of their intentions or strategies. However, in other studies of SES, intentions and conflicts are emphasized and analyzed. Research on SES furthermore tends to differ in the degree of normative connotations associated with resilience and adaptability. For these two dimensions – spontaneous vs. intentional, and descriptive vs. normative – we developed a coding scheme and analyzed the complete sample of 183 papers in the field of found in ISI web of science published before 1st of Jan 2011. The results reveal a plurality of framings. We discuss the strengths and problems with this, aiming to provide a better understanding of some of the normative challenges in research on adaptive governance, resilience, and SES. We discuss CAS and find that the problem is not the use of self-organization in relation to scales or levels of governance, e.g. that responses can emerge through leadership and stakeholder interaction at a local level without being forced by external factors. The problem is when such interaction is as assumed to be autonomous and harmonious. Finally we provide our own definition of adaptability as necessarily ecologically informed, but we do not equate adaptability with “successful responses” in order to not confuse the concept with the outcome. Evaluating outcomes is ultimately an empirical question.

  • 84.
    Nykvist, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    von Heland, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological memory as a source of general and specified resilience2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored why social-ecological memory (SEM) is a source of inertia and path dependence, as well as a source of renewal and reorganization in social-ecological systems (SESs). We have presented two case studies: the historical case of the Norse settlement on Greenland and an empirical case from contemporary southern Madagascar. The cases illustrate how SEM is linked to specific pathways of development and a particular set of natural resource management practices. We have shown that in each case, a broader diversity of SEM is present in the SESs, but not drawn upon. Instead, SEMs are part of what explains community coherence and the barriers to adoption of more diverse practices. We have elaborated on how specific SEMs are linked to specified resilience, and we have shown that this fits existing notions of resilience, robustness, inertia, and path dependence. We have proposed that to change the dynamics of development pathways that do not produce desired results, it is necessary for managers to shift from specific to general SEM, which would also mirror the shift from specified to general resilience. The challenge lies in the interplay between the specified and the general. In this critical work, it is important to recognize that the valued diversity of SEM necessary for general resilience might actually reside in a different community.

  • 85.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Victoria, Canada.
    Westley, Frances R.
    McCarthy, Daniel D. P.
    The concept of the Anthropocene as a game-changer: a new context for social innovation and transformations to sustainability2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After tracing the antecedents of the concept and considering its intersection in social innovation research, we put forward the argument that the Anthropocene concept points to three areas of thought that are strategically imperative and must be accelerated if social innovation theory and practice is to prove transformative and respond to the challenges associated with the Anthropocene. First, we contend that the current debate on social innovation for sustainability lacks a deeper focus on human-environmental interactions and the related feedbacks, which will be necessary to understand and achieve large-scale change and transformations to global sustainability. Many innovations focus on only the social or the ecological, and we believe a more integrated approach will be needed moving forward. Second, social innovation research must confront the path-dependencies embedded within systems, and we propose that the act of "bricolage," which recombines existing elements in novel ways, will be essential, rather than single variable solutions, which currently dominate social innovation discussions. Finally, we put forward the idea that confronting the cross-scalar nature of the Anthropocene requires revisiting both the scope and temporal nature of social innovations that are most typically focused upon by scholars and funders alike. We believe the concept of the Anthropocene creates new opportunities for social innovation scholars to imagine new possibilities.

  • 86. Oteros-Rozas, Elisa
    et al.
    Martín-López, Berta
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bohensky, Erin L.
    Butler, James R. A.
    Hill, Rosemary
    Martin-Ortega, Julia
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Ravera, Federica
    Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mistry, Jayalaxshmi
    Palomo, Ignacio
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Waylen, Kerry A.
    Beach, Dylan M.
    Bohnet, Iris C.
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Vilardy, Sandra P.
    Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research: insights and experiences from 23 case studies2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 4, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory scenario planning (PSP) is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect on existing practices and their appropriate application for different objectives and contexts at the local scale, as well as on their potential perceived outcomes. We contribute to theoretical and empirical frameworks by analyzing how and why researchers assess social-ecological systems using place-based PSP, hence facilitating the appropriate uptake of such scenario tools in the future. We analyzed 23 PSP case studies conducted by the authors in a wide range of social-ecological settings by exploring seven aspects: (1) the context; (2) the original motivations and objectives; (3) the methodological approach; (4) the process; (5) the content of the scenarios; (6) the outputs of the research; and (7) the monitoring and evaluation of the PSP process. This was complemented by a reflection on strengths and weaknesses of using PSP for the place-based social-ecological research. We conclude that the application of PSP, particularly when tailored to shared objectives between local people and researchers, has enriched environmental management and scientific research through building common understanding and fostering learning about future planning of social-ecological systems. However, PSP still requires greater systematic monitoring and evaluation to assess its impact on the promotion of collective action for transitions to sustainability and the adaptation to global environmental change and its challenges.

  • 87. Pereira, Laura M.
    et al.
    Hichert, Tanja
    Hamann, Maike
    Preiser, Rika
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Using futures methods to create transformative spaces: visions of a good Anthropocene in southern Africa2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique challenges posed by the Anthropocene require creative ways of engaging with the future and bringing about transformative change. Envisioning positive futures is a first step in creating a shared understanding and commitment that enables radical transformations toward sustainability in a world defined by complexity, diversity, and uncertainty. However, to create a transformative space in which truly unknowable futures can be explored, new experimental approaches are needed that go beyond merely extrapolating from the present into archetypal scenarios of the future. Here, we present a process of creative visioning where participatory methods and tools from the field of futures studies were combined in a novel way to create and facilitate a transformative space, with the aim of generating positive narrative visions for southern Africa. We convened a diverse group of participants in a workshop designed to develop radically different scenarios of good Anthropocenes, based on existing seeds of the future in the present. These seeds are innovative initiatives, practices, and ideas that are present in the world today, but are not currently widespread or dominant. As a result of a carefully facilitated process that encouraged a multiplicity of perspectives, creative immersion, and grappling with deeply held assumptions, four radical visions for southern Africa were produced. Although these futures are highly innovative and exploratory, they still link back to current real-world initiatives and contexts. The key learning that arose from this experience was the importance of the imagination for transformative thinking, the need to capitalize on diversity to push boundaries, and finally, the importance of creating a space that enables participants to engage with emotions, beliefs, and complexity. This method of engagement with the future has the potential to create transformative spaces that inspire and empower people to act toward positive Anthropocene visions despite the complexity of the sustainability challenge.

  • 88. Pereira, Laura M.
    et al.
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Designing transformative spaces for sustainability in social-ecological systems2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformations toward sustainability have recently gained traction, triggered in part by a growing recognition of the dramatic socio-cultural, political, economic, and technological changes required to move societies toward more desirable futures in the Anthropocene. However, there is a dearth of literature that emphasizes the crucial aspects of sustainability transformations in the diverse contexts of the Global South. Contributors to this Special Feature aim to address this gap by weaving together a series of case studies that together form an important navigational tool on the how to as well as the what and the where to of sustainability transformations across diverse challenges, sectors, and geographies. They propose the term transformative space as a safe-enough collaborative process whereby actors invested in sustainability transformations can experiment with new mental models, ideas, and practices that can help shift social-ecological systems onto more desirable pathways. The authors also highlight the challenges posed to researchers as they become transformative space-makers, navigating the power dynamics inherent in these processes. Because researchers and practitioners alike are challenged to provide answers to complex and often ambiguous or incomplete questions around sustainability, the ideas, reflections and learning gathered in this Special Feature provide some guidance on new ways of engaging with the world.

  • 89.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Adaptive Co-Management Process: an Initial Synthesis of Representative Models and Influential Variables2009In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative and adaptive approaches to environmental management have captured the attention of administrators, resource users, and scholars. Adaptive co-management builds upon these approaches to create a novel governance strategy. This paper investigates the dynamics of the adaptive co-management process and the variables that influence it. The investigation begins by summarizing analytical and causal models relevant to the adaptive co-management process. Variables that influence this process are then synthesized from diverse literatures, categorized as being exogenous or endogenous, and developed into respective analytical frameworks. In identifying commonalities among models of the adaptive co-management process and discerning influential variables, this paper provides initial insights into understanding the dynamic social process of adaptive co-management. From these insights conjectures for future inquires are offered in the conclusion.

  • 90.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Baird, Julia
    Armitage, Derek
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Diagnosing adaptive comanagement across multiple cases2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive comanagement is at an important cross-road: different research paths forward are possible, and a diagnostic approach has been identified as a promising one. Accordingly, we operationalize a diagnostic approach, using a framework, to set a new direction for adaptive comanagement research. We set out three main first-tier variables: antecedents, process, and outcomes, and these main variables are situated within a fourth: the setting. Within each of these variables, significant depth of study may be achieved by investigating second-and third-tier variables. Causal relationships among variables, and particularly related to the outcomes of adaptive comanagement, may also be investigated at varying depths using the diagnostic framework and associated nomenclature. We believe that the diagnostic approach we describe offers a unifying methodological approach to advancing adaptive comanagement research as well as similar approaches. There are significant benefits to be gained, including building a database of case studies using this common framework, advancing theory, and ultimately, improving social and ecological outcomes.

  • 91. Preiser, Rika
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    De Vos, Alta
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems: organizing principles for advancing research methods and approaches2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of social-ecological systems (SES) has been significantly shaped by insights from research on complex adaptive systems (CAS). We offer a brief overview of the conceptual integration of CAS research and its implications for the advancement of SES studies and methods. We propose a conceptual typology of six organizing principles of CAS based on a comparison of leading scholars' classifications of CAS features and properties. This typology clusters together similar underlying organizing principles of the features and attributes of CAS, and serves as a heuristic framework for identifying methods and approaches that account for the key features of SES. These principles can help identify appropriate methods and approaches for studying SES. We discuss three main implications of studying and engaging with SES as CAS. First, there needs to be a shift in focus when studying the dynamics and interactions in SES, to better capture the nature of the organizing principles that characterize SES behavior. Second, realizing that the nature of the intertwined social-ecological relations is complex has real consequences for how we choose methods and practical approaches for observing and studying SES interactions. Third, engagement with SES as CAS poses normative challenges for problem-oriented researchers and practitioners taking on real-world challenges.

  • 92. Pulver, Simone
    et al.
    Ulibarri, Nicola
    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Maryland, USA; University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Johnson, Michelle L.
    McCord, Paul F.
    Dell'Angelo, Jampel
    Frontiers in socio-environmental research: components, connections, scale, and context2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex and interdisciplinary nature of socio-environmental (SE) problems has led to numerous efforts to develop organizing frameworks to capture the structural and functional elements of SE systems. We evaluate six leading SE frameworks, i.e., human ecosystem framework, resilience, integrated assessment of ecosystem services, vulnerability framework, coupled human-natural systems, and social-ecological systems framework, with the dual goals of (1) investigating the theoretical core of SE systems research emerging across diverse frameworks and (2) highlighting the gaps and research frontiers brought to the fore by a comparative evaluation. The discussion of the emergent theoretical core is centered on four shared structuring elements of SE systems: components, connections, scale, and context. Cross-cutting research frontiers include: moving beyond singular case studies and small-n studies to meta-analytic comparative work on outcomes in related SE systems; combining descriptive and data-driven modeling approaches to SE systems analysis; and promoting the evolution and refinement of frameworks through empirical application and testing, and interframework learning.

  • 93.
    Rathwell, Kaitlyn J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Connecting social networks with ecosystem services for watershed governance: a social ecological network perspective highlights the critical role of bridging organizations2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many densely settled agricultural watersheds, water quality is a point of conflict between amenity and agricultural activities because of the varied demands and impacts on shared water resources. Successful governance of these watersheds requires coordination among different activities. Recent research has highlighted the role that social networks between management entities can play to facilitate cross-scale interaction in watershed governance. For example, bridging organizations can be positioned in social networks to bridge local initiatives done by single municipalities across whole watersheds. To better understand the role of social networks in social-ecological system dynamics, we combine a social network analysis of the water quality management networks held by local governments with a social-ecological analysis of variation in water management and ecosystem services across the Monteregie, an agricultural landscape near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We analyze municipal water management networks by using one-mode networks to represent direct collaboration between municipalities, and two-mode networks to capture how bridging organizations indirectly connect municipalities. We find that municipalities do not collaborate directly with one another but instead are connected via bridging organizations that span the water quality management network. We also discovered that more connected municipalities engaged in more water management activities. However, bridging organizations preferentially connected with municipalities that used more tourism related ecosystem services rather than those that used more agricultural ecosystem services. Many agricultural municipalities were relatively isolated, despite being the main producers of water quality problems. In combination, these findings suggest that further strengthening the water management network in the Monteregie will contribute to improving water quality in the region. However, such strengthening requires developing a network that better connects both agricultural and tourism oriented municipalities. Furthermore, these findings show that consideration of the social-ecological context of social networks, can help explain the structure of networks and reveal social-ecological clusters and disconnects in a network.

  • 94. Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara
    et al.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scale and ecosystem services: how do observation, management, and analysis shift with scale-lessons from Quebec2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 3, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem service assessment and management are shaped by the scale at which they are conducted; however, there has been little systematic investigation of the scales associated with ecosystem service processes, such as production, benefit distribution, and management. We examined how social-ecological spatial scale impacts ecosystem service assessment by comparing how ecosystem service distribution, trade-offs, and bundles shift across spatial scales. We used a case study in Quebec, Canada, to analyze the scales of production, consumption, and management of 12 ecosystem services and to analyze how interactions among 7 of these ecosystem services change across 3 scales of observation (1, 9, and 75 km(2) ). We found that ecosystem service patterns and interactions were relatively robust across scales of observation; however, we identified 4 different types of scale mismatches among ecosystem service production, consumption, and management. Based on this analysis, we have proposed 4 aspects of scale that ecosystem service assessments should consider.

  • 95.
    Rocha, Juan C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Baraibar, Matilda M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    de Bremond, Ariane
    Oestreicher, Jordan S.
    Rositano, Florencia
    Gelabert, Cecilia C.
    Toward understanding the dynamics of land change in Latin America: potential utility of a resilience approach for building archetypes of land-systems change2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, financial shocks, and fluctuations in international trade are some of the reasons why resilience is increasingly invoked in discussions about land-use policy. However, resilience assessments come with the challenge of operationalization, upscaling their conclusions while considering the context-specific nature of land-use dynamics and the common lack of long-term data. We revisit the approach of system archetypes for identifying resilience surrogates and apply it to land-use systems using seven case studies spread across Latin America. The approach relies on expert knowledge and literature-based characterizations of key processes and patterns of land-use change synthesized in a data template. These narrative accounts are then used to guide development of causal networks, from which potential surrogates for resilience are identified. This initial test of the method shows that deforestation, international trade, technological improvements, and conservation initiatives are key drivers of land-use change, and that rural migration, leasing and land pricing, conflicts in property rights, and international spillovers are common causal pathways that underlie land-use transitions. Our study demonstrates how archetypes can help to differentiate what is generic from context dependant. They help identify common causal pathways and leverage points across cases to further elucidate how policies work and where, as well as what policy lessons might transfer across heterogeneous settings.

  • 96.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    de Wit, Chynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rodhe, Henning
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Constanza, Robert
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity2009In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97. Santos-Martín, Fernando
    et al.
    González García-Mon, Blcatca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    González, Jose A.
    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene
    García-Llorente, Marina
    Montes, Carlos
    Ravera, Federica
    López-Santiago, Cesar A.
    Carpintero, Oscar
    Benayas, Javier
    Martín-López, Berta
    Identifying past social-ecological thresholds to understand long-term temporal dynamics in Spain2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 2, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough understanding of long-term temporal social-ecological dynamics at the national scale helps to explain the current condition of a country's ecosystems and to support environmental policies to tackle future sustainability challenges. We aimed to develop a methodological approach to understand past long-term (1960-2010) social-ecological dynamics in Spain. First, we developed a methodical framework that allowed us to explore complex social-ecological dynamics among biodiversity, ecosystem services, human well-being, drivers of change, and institutional responses. Second, we compiled 21 long-term, national-scale indicators and analyzed their temporal relationships through a redundancy analysis. Third, we used a Bayesian change point analysis to detect evidence of past social-ecological thresholds and historical time periods. Our results revealed that Spain has passed through four social-ecological thresholds that define five different time periods of nature and society relationships. Finally, we discussed how the proposed methodological approach helps to reinterpret national-level ecosystem indicators through a new conceptual lens to develop a more systems-based way of understanding long-term social-ecological patterns and dynamics.

  • 98. Scheffer, Marten
    et al.
    Bascompte, Jordi
    Bjordam, Tone K.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Clarke, Laurie B.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Marquet, Pablo
    Mazzeo, Nestor
    Meerhoff, Mariana
    Sala, Osvaldo
    Westley, Frances R.
    Dual thinking for scientists2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 2, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces reasoning. System-I can help see novel solutions and associations instantaneously, but is prone to error. System-II has other biases, but can help checking and modifying the system-I results. Although thinking is the core business of science, the accepted ways of doing our work focus almost entirely on facilitating system-II. We discuss the role of system-I thinking in past scientific breakthroughs, and argue that scientific progress may be catalyzed by creating conditions for such associative intuitive thinking in our academic lives and in education. Unstructured socializing time, education for daring exploration, and cooperation with the arts are among the potential elements. Because such activities may be looked upon as procrastination rather than work, deliberate effort is needed to counteract our systematic bias.

  • 99.
    Schill, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Collective action and the risk of ecosystem regime shifts: insights from a laboratory experiment2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystems can undergo regime shifts that potentially lead to a substantial decrease in the availability of provisioning ecosystem services. Recent research suggests that the frequency and intensity of regime shifts increase with growing anthropogenic pressure, so understanding the underlying social-ecological dynamics is crucial, particularly in contexts where livelihoods depend heavily on local ecosystem services. In such settings, ecosystem services are often derived from common-pool resources. The limited capacity to predict regime shifts is a major challenge for common-pool resource management, as well as for systematic empirical analysis of individual and group behavior, because of the need for extensive preshift and postshift data. Unsurprisingly, current knowledge is mostly based on theoretical models. We examine behavioral group responses to a latent endogenously driven regime shift in a laboratory experiment. If the group exploited the common-pool resource beyond a certain threshold level, its renewal rate dropped drastically. To determine how the risk of such a latent shift affects resource management and collective action, we compared four experimental treatments in which groups were faced with a latent shift with different probability levels (0.1, 0.5, 0.9, 1.0). Our results suggest that different probability levels do not make people more or less likely to exploit the resource beyond its critical potential threshold. However, when the likelihood of the latent shift is certain or high, people appear more prone to agree initially on a common exploitation strategy, which in turn is a predictor for averting the latent shift. Moreover, risk appears to have a positive effect on collective action, but the magnitude of this effect is influenced by how risk and probabilities are communicated and perceived.

  • 100.
    Schlüter, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lade, Steven J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Lindkvist, Emilie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Martin, Romina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Orach, Kirill
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wijermans, Nanda
    Univ Stockholm, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Capturing emergent phenomena in social-ecological systems: an analytical framework2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 3, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological systems (SES) are complex adaptive systems. Social-ecological system phenomena, such as regime shifts, transformations, or traps, emerge from interactions among and between human and nonhuman entities within and across scales. Analyses of SES phenomena thus require approaches that can account for (1) the intertwinedness of social and ecological processes and (2) the ways they jointly give rise to emergent social-ecological patterns, structures, and dynamics that feedback on the entities and processes that generated them. We have developed a framework of linked action situations (AS) as a tool to capture those interactions that are hypothesized to have jointly and dynamically generated a social-ecological phenomenon of interest. The framework extends the concept of an action situation to provide a conceptualization of SES that focusses on social-ecological interactions and their links across levels. The aim of our SE-AS (social-ecological action situations) framework is to support a process of developing hypotheses about configurations of ASs that may explain an emergent social-ecological phenomenon. We suggest six social-ecological ASs along with social and ecological action situations that can commonly be found in natural resource or ecosystem management contexts. We test the ability of the framework to structure an analysis of processes of emergence by applying it to different case studies of regime shifts, traps, and sustainable resource use. The framework goes beyond existing frameworks and approaches, such as the SES framework or causal loop diagrams, by establishing a way of analyzing SES that focuses on the interplay of social-ecological interactions with the emergent outcomes they produce. We conclude by discussing the added value of the framework and discussing the different purposes it can serve: from supporting the development of theories of the emergence of social-ecological phenomena, enhancing transparency of SES understandings to serving as a boundary object for interdisciplinary knowledge integration.

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