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  • 51.
    Bengtsson, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Watching video or studying?: An investigation of the extramural activities and Japanese language proficiency of foreign language learners of Japanese2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extramural activities, that is, what a language learner does with the target language outside of class time, in Japanese of adult beginner level foreign language learners of Japanese studying at Stockholm University, Sweden, and how these activities relate to Japanese language proficiency. The study looked at both extramural activities and foreign language proficiency from a holistic and quantitative perspective. The participants' extramural activities were measured through self-reported data in a questionnaire, and several measures; a cloze test, earlier grades, and self-evaluations; were triangulated and used to provide an adequate measure of general Japanese language proficiency.

       The results indicate that extramural activities which provide a foreign language learner with enough time for thorough processing of input and support through the usage of several cooperating modalities seem to have a positive effect on general foreign language acquisition.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Bengtsson_A_Watching video or studying?_an investigation of the extramural activities and Japanese language proficiency of foreign language learners of Japanese
  • 52.
    Benner, Mats
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Bjare, Ulrika
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Sverige.
    Hylmö, Anders
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Mattson, Pauline
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Perez Vico, Eugenia
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Salö, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Sverige.
    Wise, Emily
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Wormbs, Nina
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Sverige.
    Fel av utredningen att främst fokusera på kommersialisering2021In: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen om ett utvecklat innovationsstöd vid lärosätena riktar tydligt in sig på kommersialisering för industriell utveckling. Men nyttiggörande av forskning är ett bredare begrepp, skriver nio forskare vid den Vinnova­finansierade forskningsplattformen Making Universities Matter. 

  • 53. Berghoff, Robyn
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    L2 activation during L1 processing is increased by exposure but decreased by proficiency2023In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The study investigates the effects of L2 proficiency and L2 exposure on L2-to-L1 cross-language activation (CLA) in L1-dominant bilinguals. In so doing, it tests the predictions made by prominent models of the bilingual lexicon regarding how language experience modulates CLA. Design: The participants (27 L1-dominant L1 English-L2 Afrikaans speakers) completed a visual world eye-tracking task, conducted entirely in English, in which they saw four objects on a screen: a target object, which they were instructed to click on; a competitor object, whose Afrikaans label overlapped phonetically at onset with the English target object label; and two unrelated distractors. Language background data were collected using the Language History Questionnaire 3.0. Analysis: A growth curve analysis was performed to investigate the extent to which the background variables modulated looks to the Afrikaans competitor item versus to the two unrelated distractor items. Findings: Increased L2 exposure was associated with greater CLA, which is consistent with models suggesting that exposure modulates the likelihood and speed with which a linguistic item becomes activated. Moreover, CLA was reduced at higher levels of L2 proficiency, which aligns with accounts of the bilingual lexicon positing that parasitism of the L2 on the L1 is reduced at higher proficiency levels, leading to reduced CLA. Originality: L2 activation during L1 processing and the variables that modulate it are not well documented, particularly among L1 speakers with limited proficiency in and exposure to the L2. Significance: The findings contribute to the evaluation of competing accounts of bilingual lexical organization.

  • 54. Berghoff, Robyn
    et al.
    McLoughlin, Jayde
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    L1 activation during L2 processing is modulated by both age of acquisition and proficiency2021In: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 58, article id 100979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that access to the bilingual lexicon is non-selective: even in an entirely monolingual context, elements of the non-target language are active. Research has also shown that activation of the non-target language is greater at higher proficiency levels, suggesting that it may be proficiency that drives cross-language lexical activation. At the same time, the potential role of age of acquisition (AoA) in cross-language activation has gone largely unexplored, as most studies have either focused on adult L2 learners or have conflated AoA with L2 proficiency. The present study examines the roles of AoA and L2 proficiency in L2 lexical processing using the visual world paradigm. Participants were a group of early L1 Afrikaans-L2 English bilinguals (AoA 1-9 years) and a control group of L1 English speakers. Importantly, in the bilingual group, AoA and proficiency were not correlated. In the task, participants viewed a screen with four objects on it: a target object, a competitor object whose Afrikaans translation overlapped phonetically with the target object, and two unrelated distractor objects. The results show that the L2 English group was significantly more likely to look at the cross-language competitor than the L1 English group, thus providing evidence of cross-language activation. Importantly, the extent to which this activation occurred was modulated by both L2 proficiency and AoA. These findings suggest that while these two variables may have been confounded in previous research, they actually both exert effects on cross-language activation. The locus of this parallel activation effect is discussed in terms of connectionist models of bilingualism.

  • 55.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Språkattityder2013In: Sociolingvistik / [ed] Eva Sundgren, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 2., [uppdaterade] uppl., p. 122-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    ”Rinkebysvenska” och andra konstruktioner av språklig variation i dagens flerspråkiga Sverige2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] K. Hyltenstam & I. Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., p. 369-396Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Svenskan i dagens flerspråkiga storstadsmiljöer: en explorativ studie av unga stockholmares perceptioner av variation och varieteter2008In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, E-ISSN 2535-3381, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58. Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    What's the target? A folk linguistic study of young Stockholmers' constructions of linguistic norm and variation2016In: Language Awareness, ISSN 0965-8416, E-ISSN 1747-7565, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 17-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To account for the full range of language use in contemporary multilingual urban contexts, the notion of target language (TL) needs to be reconsidered. In studies of second language acquisition and language variation, taking TL for granted implies that people agree on what constitutes 'good' language, or the standard norm. The TL of language learners and users is, however, more heterogeneous than is often assumed. To gain insight into what people are actually targeting in their language development and use, we need to study their perceptions of ambient sociolinguistic variation. In this folk linguistic listener study involving 343 upper secondary school students, a range of data types were analysed: attitude scales, variety labelling, and assessments of speakers' social and linguistic backgrounds. This article highlights some results pointing to a considerable divergence in the listeners' perceptions, in particular with regard to speech representing what is here characterised as migration-related social dialects. Several listeners labelled these samples as 'good' Swedish, possibly suggesting that they do not simply aim at or even relate to a TL identical with the dominating monolingual norm, but may instead have a less narrow view of the kind of Swedish they consider appropriate for use in more formal situations.

  • 59. Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    What’s the target? A folk linguistic study of young Stockholmers’ constructions of linguistic norm and variation2018In: High-Level Language Proficiency in Second Language and Multilingual Contexts / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 196-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Bjerking, Mandella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Kulturskolans inkludering av familjer med utländsk bakgrund2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den offentligt subventionerade kulturskolan ska verka för jämlikhet och som social brobyggare. Statistiken visar dock att barn i familjer med utländsk bakgrund är underrepresenterade i kulturskolans verksamhet. Denna studie jämför befintliga data över kulturskolans andel elever med utländsk bakgrund och enkätsvar från 108 kulturskolor gällande insatser och behov för att inkludera familjer med utländsk bakgrund. Resultatet analyseras med diskurs som förklaringsmodell, där begreppen policy och inkludering är centrala. Studien visar att kulturskolan behöver verka för att göra sin ordinarie verksamhet mer inkluderande genom en särskilt anpassad marknadsföring med hjälp av retoriskt anpassade verktyg, utöver språklig översättning, för att nå och påverka familjer med utländsk bakgrund till ett ökat deltagande i kulturskolans verksamhet.

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    MandellaBjerking_Kulturskolans inkludering av familjer med utländsk bakgrund
  • 61.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    “Put a meeting in my calendar!” The literacy practice of the digital calendar in workplaces2019In: Sakprosa, ISSN 1502-6000, E-ISSN 1891-5108, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern work life includes many digital tools, of which the shared digital calendar has attracted little attention in applied linguistics. The framework for this study is mediated discourse analysis applied to ethnographic data from one workplace and eight contextual interviews from eight other workplaces. The data were analyzed 1) qualitatively, using Wertsch’s (1998) concepts for agency, and 2) quantitatively, through an SFG (Systemic Functional Grammar) analysis of the interviews. The quantitative analysis reveals a high degree of agency. The qualitative analysis shows that discourses of managerialism, globalization, democratization and “flat organizations” can be mapped to the digital calendar. The calendar is also related to other text media such as whiteboards and time report systems, where squares with colors and writing constitute the discursive shapes that are common to the digital calendar. The ability to search and book meetings in the calendars of others is an affordance, although regulated through digital or verbal access. In this and other ways, the individual is strongly connected to the digital tool. The boundary between private and public has been challenged by digital tools. Social actors can resist, e.g., by non-compliance in using the digital calendar, thus increasing their sense of agency. Additional features include the ability to combine different media and develop practices that are not directly offered by the design of the tool. The digital tool both widens the agency of the actors, e.g., in keeping a great deal of information connected to one meeting, and delimits it, e.g., in sometimes rendering individuals helpless to what they see in their own calendars.

  • 62.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Sannholm, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Fasta regler för fri kommunikation2017In: Nio-fem: tidskrift om arbetsliv & profession, ISSN 2001-9688, no 2, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag jobbar många hemma eller på resande fot, och allt färre har ett fast skrivbord. Hur påverkar det förutsättningarna för kommunikationen? Hur ser kommunikationen ut jämfört med arbetsplatser där man fortfarande har eget skrivbord? I den här artikeln tar några språkvetenskapliga forskare från Stockholms universitet upp aktuella fynd från olika forskningsprojekt om kommunikation i arbetslivet.

  • 63.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mångfald, möten och mejl: En forskningsöversikt och tre fallstudier om arbetslivskommunikation2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här antologin beskrivs människor, redskap och situationer som många känner igen från dagens komplexa och rörliga arbetsliv:

    • En mellanchef vars arbetsdagar i hög grad styrs av de många möten som andra lagt in i hennes kalender.
    • En whiteboardtavla som kopplar samman olika delar av en verksamhet, och även kopplar möten till andra aktiviteter.
    • Flera samverkande organisationer som gör det svårt att skilja internkommunikation från annan kommunikation, och som både ökar behovet av kommunikation och försvårar den.

    Dessa skildras i tre uppsatser av Angie Gravett, Emma Legaard och Sofia Johansson. I en forskningsöversikt sammanfattar forskarna Mona Blåsjö och Carla Jonsson sociolingvistisk forskning om arbetslivskommunikation, med fokus på skrivbordsyrken. Översikten visar ur ett individperspektiv hur enskilda anställda förhåller sig till språk i sin vardag på arbetsplatsen, och ur ett organisatoriskt perspektiv diskuteras hur flera språk kan användas på en och samma arbetsplats. De studier som presenteras bygger på olika metoder (kvalitativa, kvantitativa, etnografiska osv.) och ger därigenom en bild av hur man kan gå tillväga för att analysera arbetslivskommunikation. Översikten fokuserar på tre teman: mångfald, dvs. olika aspekter av flerspråkighet på arbetsplatser, möten och annan muntlig kommunikation samt mejl eller snarare mejlande: textprocesser och digitala redskap i arbetslivet.

    Antologin är lämplig för studenter på grundnivå och forskarnivå, men kan även läsas av alla som är intresserade av hur moderna organisationer arbetar med sin kommunikation.

  • 64. Bock, Zannie
    et al.
    Dalwai, Nausheena
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Cool mobilities: Youth style and mobile telephony in contemporary South Africa2018In: Multilingual Youth Practices in Computer Mediated Communication / [ed] Cecelia Cutler, Unn Røyneland, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 51-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65. Bokander, Lars
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Probing the Internal Validity of the LLAMA Language Aptitude Tests2020In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 11-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the LLAMA language aptitude test battery has come to play an increasingly important role as an instrument in research on individual differences in language development. However, a potentially serious problem that has been pointed out by several scholars is that the LLAMA has not yet been carefully validated. We addressed this issue by examining the internal validity of this test battery. We collected LLAMA data from 350 participants and assessed these data using classical item analysis, Rasch analysis, and principal component analysis within a framework of best practices in educational and psychological test validation. The results show that only one out of the four subtests (LLAMA B) produced scores that fit a latent trait model with sufficient accuracy. This suggests that researchers using the LLAMA battery must treat their results with appropriate carefulness and also that there is potential for refining the LLAMA further.

  • 66.
    Borg, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Facilitative Online Processing of Gender in Swedish as a Second Language2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to other Indo-European languages, Swedish makes use of grammatical gender and distinguishes between two noun categories: common and neuter nouns. This study aimed to examine whether L1 speakers whose L2 lacks gender are capable of utilizing gender agreement markers in a timed picture naming task in Swedish. The participants consisted of 24 L1 speakers of Finnish, and they were tested in a picture naming task, a gender assignment task, and a lexical proficiency test. The study firstly focused on whether the learners can obtain a novel feature in their L2 and if the gender informative agreement markers are used to facilitate naming times. Then, it was examined if this process differs as a function of the noun’s markedness status (common nouns; default, neuter nouns; marked), and the number of informative cues (one or two).  In the gender assignment task, participants showed greater assignment accuracy on common nouns. In the picture naming task, informativeness or the level of informativeness did not affect naming times. The naming accuracy for neuter nouns was lower than for common nouns and the naming times for neuter nouns were slower. These effects, however only reached significance in the comparisons between conditions providing two vs. zero gender cues. The consistency in grammatically correct gender assignment facilitated naming times significantly for all conditions. Since this study did not find any significant effect of informativeness, the facilitation effects found occurred even in the absence of a gender cue, suggesting that the connections between nouns and gender markers that the learners have created are not strong enough to become activated before the presentation of the actual noun. 

    Keywords: Facilitation, Picture Naming, Gender, Markedness, Second Language Acquisition.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 67.
    Botsis, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Subjectivity, Language and the Postcolonial: Beyond Bourdieu in South Africa2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Subjectivity, Language and the Postcolonial, Hannah Botsis draws on theoretical work that exists at the intersection of critical social psychology, sociolinguistics and the political economy of language, to examine the relationships between language, subjectivity, materiality and political context.

    The book foregrounds the ways in which the work of Bourdieu could be read in conjunction with ‘poststructural’ theorists such as Butler and Derrida to offer a critical understanding of subjectivity, language and power in postcolonial contexts. This critical engagement with theorists traditionally from outside of psychology allows for a situated approach to understanding the embodied and symbolic possibilities and constraints for the postcolonial subject. This exploration opens up how micro-politics of power are refracted through ideological categories such as language, race and class in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Also drawing on the empirical findings of original research undertaken in the South African context on students’ linguistic biographies, the book offers a unique perspective – critical social theory is brought to bear on the empirical linguistic biographies of postcolonial subjects, offering insight into how power is negotiated in the postcolonial symbolic economy.

    Ideal for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students on courses including social psychology, sociolinguistics, sociology, politics, and education, this is an invaluable resource for students and researchers alike.

  • 68.
    Botsis, Hannah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Bradbury, Jill
    Metaphorical sense-making: Visual-narrative language portraits of South African students2018In: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, E-ISSN 1478-0895, Vol. 15, no 2-3, p. 412-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects on a creative visual-narrative approach to understanding South African students' lived experiences of languages. Data were collected in two interviews: the first entailing a biographical history and the drawing of a linguistic portrait on a simple body outline and the second a narrative interview utilising the portrait generated in the first as a basis for talking about language and identity. Framing the research process in this creative visual mode shifts the focus of narrative talk, simultaneously grounding it in affective, embodied experience, and enabling a reflexive position from which to analyse the taken-for-granted role of language in the minutiae of everyday life. The theoretical lenses of identity and subjectivity are invigorated through these metaphorical representations, and new creative possibilities are released for analysing the role of language in mediating shifting power dynamics in post-apartheid and postcolonial South African life.

  • 69.
    Bremberg Abboud, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    "Hur kan det vara fel när hon ändå kan språket?": En kvalitativ studie om flerspråkighet mellan generationer och regelbundenheter i vardagens språkliga praktiker.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie vill fördjupa förståelsen för hur flerspråkighet i familjens vardagsspråk kan se ut. Genom observationer och intervjuer med informanterna undersöker denna studie de regelbundenheter i de språkliga praktiker som informanterna använder sig av i deras vardag. Frågeställningarna till denna studie är: 1. Vad utmärker regelbundenheterna i informanternas språkliga praktiker? 2. Hur upplever och rationaliserar informanterna sina språkliga praktiker? Allt fler familjer i dagens samhälle är flerspråkiga och mycket forskning ligger i barns utveckling i flerspråkiga familjer. Denna studie vill dock fokusera på flerspråkiga ungdomar och deras språkliga praktiker i vardagen, mer specifikt i konversationer med vårdnadshavare. Genom intervjuerna får informanterna observera sitt eget sätt att konversera samt uttrycka sina tankar och åsikter om observationerna, diskurs och metadiskurs. Resultaten visar på att de sociala kontrakt som vårdnadshavarna upprättade innan barnens födsel har barnen anammat vilket i sin tur lett till att barnen har lingvistiska habitus. Men ju äldre barnen har blivit, desto mer språkmedvetna blir de. Observationerna och intervjuerna gjorda för denna studie visar att de två tonårsinformanterna börjar motarbeta de sociala kontrakt vårdnadshavarna upprättade. Resultaten visade att motstånden mot det sociala kontraktet får föräldrarna att ifrågasätta upprättandet av den språkliga praktiken inom familjen. Men samtidigt i och med att det ligger i deras lingvistiska habitus har vårdnadshavarna själva svårt att frångå de sociala kontrakten.

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    Hur kan det vara fel
  • 70. Brännstedt, Lovisa
    et al.
    Salö, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Reseberättelse från Bryssel2023In: HumtankarArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71.
    Bursac, Vesna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    "Jag vakna upp och va Suedi": En studie om identitet och grupptillhörighet i svensk hiphop2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hiphop har under en längre tid fungerat som ett forum för individer att utrycka sitt motstånd mot politiska åtaganden samtidigt som det har fungerat som ett forum där olika identiteter skapas och uttrycks. Tidigare studier har bland annat visat att hiphop skildrar ämnen som rasism, etnicitet och kultur, någonting som i många fall ligger som grund till förtryck. Med utgångspunkt i det intersektionella perspektivet som belyser hur samhällets maktstrukturer formas och upprätthålls undersöker denna studie hur kategorierna etnicitet, hudfärg, kultur, klass och språk utrycks och förmedlas i samtida svensk hiphop. Studien syftar på att undersöka hur eventuella intersektioner som uppstår mellan dessa kategorier sammanfaller med identitetsskapande och utanförskap. För att undersöka hur detta kommer till uttryck anläggas en kritisk diskursanalys på tre svenska hiphoplåtar skapade av fyra aktuella artister i Sverige. Resultatet visar att den svenska hiphopen gestaltar olika typer av samhällshierarkier där kategorierna etnicitet, hudfärg, kultur, klass och språk ligger till grund för dessa. Det påvisades även att ens identitet är beroende av omgivningens syn på dessa kategorier samt deras roll i samhället, vilket kan leda till känslor av utanförskap. I det utanförskapet som utsatta individer upplever finnas i samhället blir hiphop en accepterande gemenskap där olika identiteter tillåts ta plats.

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  • 72.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Flerspråkighet och tanke2021In: Språk och stil, ISSN 1101-1165, E-ISSN 2002-4010, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 143-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does language influence the way we think and reason about reality? If so, what happens if youspeak more than one language? These questions have been at the centre stage of the field ofpsycholinguistics since the early 2000’s. The aim of this article is to review the state-of-the-artin research on language and thought, focusing particularly on multilingualism. First, a historicaloverview of the field is provided, which serves as the backdrop against which current findingson multilingualism and cognitive processing are discussed. Subsequently, the article analyseshow biographical variables, such as language proficiency, age of acquisition, and frequency oflanguage use, may modulate the way in which language influences multilingual thought. Thearticle closes by discussing specific issues in research on language and thought that merit further study.

  • 73.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language attrition2010In: Language, ISSN 0097-8507, E-ISSN 1535-0665, Vol. 88, no 4Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Unomathotholo or i-radio? Factors predicting the use of English loanwords among L1 isiXhosa - L2 English bilinguals2014In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of English loanwords in L1 isiXhosa-L2 English bilinguals living in Cape Town, South Africa. The specific aim of the study is to investigate which individual background factors may increase or reduce the presence of English loanwords in a L1 isiXhosa speaker's repertoire. Data on English loanword use and individual background were collected through a picture naming task and a background questionnaire, respectively. Results showed that those speakers who frequently used English for interactive purposes were more prone to using English loanwords when naming pictures in isiXhosa. Moreover, it was documented that those who arrived at an early age in Cape Town (from the isiXhosa-dominant Eastern Cape Province) were also less prone to using isiXhosa words in the naming task. Marginal, negative effects were found for non-interactive isiXhosa use (i.e. radio, books, etc.) and attitudes towards English, such that those speakers with high indices on these variables used more often English loanwords. A marginal, positive effect of the presence of isiXhosa in primary and secondary school on the use of isiXhosa words was also found.

  • 75.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Norrman, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Revisiting the bilingual lexical deficit: The impact of age of acquisition2019In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 182, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the cognitive advantages brought about by bilingualism have recently been called into question, the so-called ‘lexical deficit’ in bilinguals is still largely taken for granted. Here, we argue that, in analogy with cognitive advantages, the lexical deficit does not apply across the board of bilinguals, but varies as a function of acquisition trajectory. To test this, we implement a novel methodological design, where the variables of bilingualism and first/second language status have been fully crossed in four different groups. While the results confirm effects of bilingualism on lexical proficiency and processing, they show more robust effects of age of acquisition. We conclude that the traditional view of the linguistic costs of bilingualism need to give way to a new understanding of lexical development in which age of acquisition is seen as a major determinant.

  • 76.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Andersson Konke, Linn
    Las metáforas espacio-temporales y la percepción del tiempo: un estudio comparativo sobre el español y el sueco2015In: Festival Romanistica: Contribuciones lingüísticas – Contributions linguistiques – Contributi linguistici – Contribuições linguísticas / [ed] Gunnel Engwall, Lars Fant, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 2015, p. 113-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Antfolk, Jan
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Haug Olstad, Anne Marte
    Norrman, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Lehtonen, Minna
    Does bilingualism come with linguistic costs? A meta-analytic review of the bilingual lexical deficit2023In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 897-913Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of recent studies have shown that the once-assumed cognitive advantage of bilingualism finds little support in the evidence available to date. Surprisingly, however, the view that bilingualism incurs linguistic costs (the so-called lexical deficit) has not yet been subjected to the same degree of scrutiny, despite its centrality for our understanding of the human capacity for language. The current study implemented a comprehensive meta-analysis to address this gap. By analyzing 478 effect sizes from 130 studies on expressive vocabulary, we found that observed lexical deficits could not be attributed to bilingualism: Simultaneous bilinguals (who acquired both languages from birth) did not exhibit any lexical deficit, nor did sequential bilinguals (who acquired one language from birth and a second language after that) when tested in their mother tongue. Instead, systematic evidence for a lexical deficit was found among sequential bilinguals when tested in their second language, and more so for late than for early second language learners. This result suggests that a lexical deficit may be a phenomenon of second language acquisition rather than bilingualism per se.

  • 78.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Introduction: Cognition, Motion Events, and SLA2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This opening article introduces the reader to current topics in research on language and thought in monolingual speakers and second language (L2) learners, with particular attention to the domain of motion. The article also delineates the rationale that underlies the special issue at hand, and provides a contextualisation of the individual contributions. It is argued that the centrality of motion in everyday human life, in combination with the vast cross-linguistic variation in motion construal, makes motion events a suitable topic for SLA research, both in terms of ecological validity and learnability challenge. The pedagogical aspects of this line of research are discussed in terms of, first, whether it is desirable to include the acquisition of language-specific thought patterns in curricular goals, and second, whether the knowledge about language specificity in thought can be used in teaching as a means to facilitate learning.

  • 79.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Language and thought in a multilingual context: The case of isiXhosa2014In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 431-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within the grammatical aspect approach to motion event cognition, this study takes a first step in investigating language and thought in functional multilinguals by studying L1 isiXhosa speakers living in South Africa. IsiXhosa being a non-aspect language, the study investigates how the knowledge and use of additional languages with grammatical aspect influence cognition of endpoint-oriented motion events among L1 isiXhosa speakers. Results from a triads-matching task show that participants who often used aspect languages and had greater exposure to English in primary education were less prone to rely on endpoints when categorising motion events.

  • 80.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Motion event categorisation in a nativised variety of South African English2015In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 588-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study seeks to expand the current focus on acquisition situations in linguistic relativity research by exploring the effects of nativisation (the process by which a L2 is acquired as a L1) on language-specific cognitive behaviour. Categorisation preferences of goal-oriented motion events were investigated in South African speakers who learnt English as a L1 from caregivers who spoke English as a L2 and Afrikaans as a L1. The aim of the study was to establish whether the categorisation patterns found in the nativised English variety: (1) resemble patterns of L2 speakers of English with Afrikaans as a L1, (2) resemble patterns of L1 English speakers of a non-nativised English variety and (3) do not pattern with either of the above, but instead exhibit a distinct behaviour. It was found that simultaneous, functional bilinguals (Afrikaans and nativised English) patterned with L1 Afrikaans speakers, but the extent to which they did so was modulated by their frequency of use of Afrikaans. Functionally monolingual speakers of nativised English, on the other hand, patterned with L1 speakers of British English. This suggests that bilingualism, rather than nativisation, was a reliable predictor of event categorisation preferences.

  • 81.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Televised Whorf: Cognitive Restructuring in Advanced Foreign Language Learners as a Function of Audiovisual Media Exposure2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, p. 123-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The encoding of goal-oriented motion events varies across different languages. Speakers of languages without grammatical aspect (e.g., Swedish) tend to mention motion endpoints when describing events (e.g., two nuns walk <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>to a house</styled-content>) and attach importance to event endpoints when matching scenes from memory. Speakers of aspect languages (e.g., English), on the other hand, are more prone to direct attention to the ongoingness of motion events, which is reflected both in their event descriptions (e.g., two nuns <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>are walking</styled-content>) and in their nonverbal similarity judgements. This study examines to what extent native speakers (L1) of Swedish (n=82) with English as a foreign language (FL) restructure their categorisation of goal-oriented motion as a function of their proficiency and experience with the English language (e.g., exposure, learning history, etc.). Seventeen monolingual native English speakers from the United Kingdom (UK) were recruited for comparison purposes. Data on motion event cognition were collected through a memory-based triads matching task in which a target scene with an intermediate degree of endpoint orientation was matched with two alternative scenes with low and high degrees of endpoint orientation. Results showed that the preference among the Swedish speakers of FL English to base their similarity judgements on ongoingness rather than event endpoints was correlated with exposure to English in everyday life, such that those who often watched television in English approximated the ongoingness preference of the English native speakers. These findings suggest that event cognition patterns may be restructured through exposure to FL audiovisual media. The results add to the emerging picture that learning a new language entails learning new ways of observing and reasoning about reality.

  • 82.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    The Whorfian Time Warp: Representing Duration Through the Language Hourglass2017In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 146, no 7, p. 911-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do humans construct their mental representations of the passage of time? The universalist account claims that abstract concepts like time are universal across humans. In contrast, the linguistic relativity hypothesis holds that speakers of different languages represent duration differently. The precise impact of language on duration representation is, however, unknown. Here, we show that language can have a powerful role in transforming humans' psychophysical experience of time. Contrary to the universalist account, we found language-specific interference in a duration reproduction task, where stimulus duration conflicted with its physical growth. When reproducing duration, Swedish speakers were misled by stimulus length, and Spanish speakers were misled by stimulus size/quantity. These patterns conform to preferred expressions of duration magnitude in these languages (Swedish: long/short time; Spanish: much/small time). Critically, Spanish-Swedish bilinguals performing the task in both languages showed different interference depending on language context. Such shifting behavior within the same individual reveals hitherto undocumented levels of flexibility in time representation. Finally, contrary to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, language interference was confined to difficult discriminations (i.e., when stimuli varied only subtly in duration and growth), and was eliminated when linguistic cues were removed from the task. These results reveal the malleable nature of human time representation as part of a highly adaptive information processing system.

  • 83.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Oostendorp, Marcelyn
    Motion event cognition and grammatical aspect: Evidence from Afrikaans2013In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 929-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the relationship between grammatical aspect and motion event construal has posited that speakers of non-aspect languages are more prone to encoding event endpoints than are speakers of aspect languages (e. g., von Stutterheim and Carroll 2011). In the present study, we test this hypothesis by extending this line of inquiry to Afrikaans, a non-aspect language which is previously unexplored in this regard. Motion endpoint behavior among Afrikaans speakers was measured by means of a linguistic retelling task and a non-linguistic similarity judgment task, and then compared with the behavior of speakers of a non-aspect language (Swedish) and speakers of an aspect language (English). Results showed the Afrikaans speakers' endpoint patterns aligned with Swedish patterns, but were significantly different from English patterns. It was also found that the variation among the Afrikaans speakers could be partially explained by taking into account their frequency of use of English, such that those who used English more frequently exhibited an endpoint behavior that was more similar to English speakers. The current study thus lends further support to the hypothesis that speakers of different languages attend differently to event endpoints as a function of the grammatical category of aspect.

  • 84.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Gygax, Pascal
    Samuel, Steven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of Essex, UK.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Back to the future? The role of temporal focus for mapping time onto space2020In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do we conceptualise the future as being behind us or in front of us? Although this question has traditionally been investigated through the lens of spatiotemporal metaphors, new impetus was recently provided by the Temporal-Focus Hypothesis. This hypothesis holds that the mapping of temporal concepts onto the front-back axis is determined by an individual's temporal focus, which varies as a function of culture, age, and short-term attention shifts. Here, we instead show that participants map the future on to a frontal position, regardless of cultural background and short-term shifts. However, one factor that does influence temporal mappings is age, such that older participants are more likely to map the future as behind than younger participants. These findings suggest that ageing may be a major determinant of space-time mappings, and that additional data need to be collected before concluding that culture or short-term attention do influence space-time mappings.

  • 85.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of acquisition – not bilingualism – is the primary determinant of less than nativelike L2 ultimate attainment2021In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been suggested that bilingualism, rather than age of acquisition, is what underlies less than nativelike attainment in childhood L2 acquisition. Currently, however, the empirical evidence in favor of or against this interpretation remains scarce. The present study sets out to fill this gap, implementing a novel factorial design in which the variables age of acquisition and bilingualism have been fully crossed. Eighty speakers of Swedish, who were either L1 monolinguals, L1 simultaneous bilinguals, L2 sequential monolinguals (international adoptees), or L2 sequential bilinguals (childhood immigrants), were tested on phonetic, grammatical, and lexical measures. The results indicate consistent effects of age of acquisition, but only limited effects of bilingualism, on ultimate attainment. These findings thus show that age of acquisition – not bilingualism – is the primary determinant of L2 ultimate attainment.

  • 86.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of acquisition effects or effects of bilingualism in second language ultimate attainment?2013In: Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment / [ed] Granena, Gisela & Long, Michael, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 69-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Khafif, Zainab
    Berghoff, Robyn
    Linguistic and geographic diversity in research on second language acquisition and multilingualism: An analysis of selected journals2023In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study assesses linguistic and geographic diversity in selected outlets of SLA and multilingualism research. Specifically, we examine over 2,000 articles published in specialized top-tier journals, recording the languages under study and their acquisition order, author affiliations, the country in which the research was conducted, and citations. In the sample, there were 183 unique languages and 174 unique pairings, corresponding to 3 per cent of the world’s 7,000 languages and less than 0.001 per cent of 24.5 million possible language combinations. English was overwhelmingly the most common language, followed by Spanish and Mandarin Chinese. North America and Western Europe were both the main producers of knowledge and the main sites for research on multilingualism in the sample. Crucially, the regions with the highest levels of linguistic diversity and societal multilingualism (typically the Global South) were only marginally represented. The findings also show that studies on English and northern Anglophone settings were likely to elicit more citations than studies on other languages and settings, and that less studied languages were included more frequently in article titles.

  • 88.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Ramirez-Galan, Pedro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language Aptitude in First Language Attrition: A Study on Late Spanish-Swedish Bilinguals2016In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 621-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language aptitude remains one of the most understudied predictor variables in L1 attrition research. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the effects of language aptitude on L1 retention in late attriters. Forty L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden participated in the study, along with 20 functionally monolingual L1 speakers of Spanish. L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the LLAMA Language Aptitude Test (Meara 2005). Additional data on the participants' linguistic background were also collected. Results revealed a robust difference in GJT scores between the bilinguals and the control group. However, degree of language aptitude was not found to exert a significant influence on the bilinguals' GJT performance. Instead, the only significant predictor for GJT performance was linguistic identification, showing that those participants with strong L1 identification were more accurate in judging L1 grammaticality. The lack of aptitude effects on L1 attrition is discussed against the background of age-related attrition susceptibility.

  • 89.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Samuel, Steven
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Crosslinguistic Differences in Food Labels Do Not Yield Differences in Taste Perception2024In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that speakers of different languages may differ in their cognitive and perceptual processing of reality. A common denominator of this line of investigation has been its reliance on the sensory domain of vision. The aim of our study was to extend the scope to a new sense—taste. Using as a starting point crosslinguistic differences in the category boundaries of edible bulbs, we examined whether monolingual speakers of English and bilingual speakers of Norwegian and English were influenced by language-specific categories during tasting. The results showed no evidence of such effects, not even for the Norwegian participants in an entirely Norwegian context. This suggests that crosslinguistic differences in visual perception do not readily generalize to the domain of taste. We discuss the findings in terms of predictive processing, with particular reference to trigeminal stimulation (a central tasting component) and the interplay between chemosensory signals and top-down linguistic modulation.

  • 90.
    Candido Fleury, Luana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Can algorithms translate the world?: A digital discourse analysis of Google Translate’s algorithmic agency in the translation of news reports2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Google Translate’s mission is “to enable everyone, everywhere, to understand the world and express themselves across languages” (Pitman, 2021). But are algorithms capable of leading us beyond the translation of the word toward an understanding of the world? Computational linguistics research has been interested in assessing this kind of real-world effects of technology and invited other disciplines to join their effort. With this purpose, this study examines the ways the algorithmic agency (Maly, 2022) elicits a ‘movement of meanings’ (Silverstone, 1999) when mediating news reports from English to Portuguese – the official language of Brazil, the country with the greatest use of Google Translate (Turovsky, 2016). For that, it investigates how algorithms convert appraisal and semiotic elements that carry ideological stances. The bilingual sample consists of six news articles on the U.S. Capitol attack published in U.S. outlets, two each of right, center, and left political leaning, along with their translations obtained through Google Translate. The analytical framework encompasses Fairclough’s (2003) CDA methods that allow an exploration of how discourses embedded in these texts represent the social phenomena that are being depicted. This lens is complemented by the Appraisal theory (Martin & White, 2005) to investigate how value positions are constructed within texts through evaluation. A third analytical tool is necessary to engage with the ways in which meanings are moved from source to target texts. For this, van Leeuwen’s (2008) notion of recontextualization affords an assessment of the processes inherent to translations. The analysis showed that algorithms neutralized appraisal through lexical choices, changed semiotic elements through recontextualization, and blurred stances by standardizing the target language. The paper, thus, concludes that Google Translate constructed power by renaming reality and enacted it by reshaping evaluations, advancing research that seeks to examine algorithms’ impacts on digital discourse. Speaking from the epistemic locus of the Global South, this thesis proposes a critical reflection on the ideologies concealed by the self-proclaimed discourse of the universality of digital technologies.

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  • 91.
    Cassel, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    J. Torstenson, Elsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Språkliga påverkansfaktorer vid moraliskt beslutsfattande: En kvantitativ studie av svenska som andraspråkstalare2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utgörs av en kvantitativ undersökning vars syfte är att utröna vilka språkliga bakgrundsfaktorer som potentiellt påverkar huruvida vuxna andraspråkstalare av svenska tar ett deontologiskt eller utilitaristiskt beslut i moraliska frågeställningar. För att testa i vilken omfattning de språkliga bakgrundsfaktorerna påverkar det moraliska beslutsfattandet har sex hypoteser ställts. De sex ställda hypoteserna har utformats mot bakgrund av tidigare forskning inom området och de motsvarar sex olika språkliga bakgrundsfaktorer: språkbehärskningsnivå av svenska som andraspråk, startålder för inlärning av svenska som andraspråk, modersmålets språkliga närhet till svenska, vistelsetid i Sverige, språkanvändning av svenska i emotionella kontexter och kulturell exponering av svenska. Respondenternas moraliska beslutsfattande testades genom footbridgedilemmat. Undersökningen bygger på data insamlad genom en online-enkät bestående av tre delar: footbridgedilemmat, ett språkbehärskningstest i form av en lucktext och en bakgrundsenkät. Enkätresultaten har analyserats genom Pearsons korrelationsanalys och Walds χ2-analys. Resultaten visar att det inte finns någon samvariation mellan respondenternas svar på det moraliska dilemmat och de olika språkliga bakgrundsfaktorerna, vilket innebär att ingen undersökt språklig bakgrundsfaktor påverkar respondenternas moraliska beslutsfattande i föreliggande studie. 

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    Språkliga påverkansfaktorer vid moraliskt beslutsfattande
  • 92.
    Choi, Natalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Perspectives on the Occupy Central Demonstrations in Hong Kong: A Critical Discourse Analysis on English-language Press in Hong Kong S.A.R, Taiwan and China2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with media perceptions and how these manifest as hegemonic practices. Exploring the theme ‘language and politics’, against the backdrop of the Occupy Central with Love and Peace (OCLP) demonstrations in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), this paper sheds light on the discursive constructions of media representations in three ‘Chinese’[1] regions as well as on how such representations constitute vested interests. By addressing mediatised social, political and institutional discourses in the ‘Chinese’ context, this leads to an exploration as to how perceptions are embedded within larger socio-political discourses of sovereignty and legitimacy. The focus of analysis is the English-language press in Hong Kong (HK/HKSAR), China (PRC) and Taiwan (ROC). Critical discourse analysis is carried out on a series of thirteen newspaper articles[2] with the objective of making explicit the invisible ‘work’ that discursive strategies do in influencing interpretations and understanding of a political event in a non-Western context. Guided by Martin & White’s (2005) appraisal theory, the analysis views newspaper discourses not only as value-laden texts but by doing so also reveals readers’ and writers’ stance thus dispelling the myth that ‘news’ is objective. Findings depict varied perspectives on the Occupy Central demonstrations – Mainland and HK newspapers’ treatment were rather critical, while Taiwanese perceptions tended towards the analytical. This difference suggests HK and Mainland media as ideologically aligned – hegemonic – and positions Taiwanese media as potentially counter-hegemonic. Amidst issues of declining press freedoms, considerable variations were also found among the HK newspapers suggesting the presence press plurality. Regardless, media hegemony over public perceptions were found not only to contribute to and uphold certain interests vested in the maintenance of ‘Chinese’ sovereignty over HK under the ‘one country, two systems’ framework. Overall, findings confirmed just how influential a role the media plays as an extension of and in the realm of politics as well as in shaping public opinion. Through the lens ‘language and politics’, this paper explores the notion of ‘language’ and ‘discourse’, its functions and significance within non-English/Western national media systems. Such an examination thus highlights concepts and issues relevant in the field of bi-/multilingualism in society.

    [1] The term ‘Chinese’ is used in inverted commas throughout this paper and is mainly employed as an umbrella term to refer to the regions of Hong Kong, Taiwan and China for expediency. However, the inverted commas also denote that caution should be exercised when using the term as a referent to either language, culture and/or people as it may index different norms depending on context. This point is further elucidated in the introductory part of this paper as the term ‘Chinese’ is viewed as a social construction.

    [2] The data is taken from two newspapers per region with two news articles per newspaper, with the exception of Hong Kong’s South China Morning Post (SCMP) where 3 news articles were analysed.

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    nchoi_mastersthesis_oclp perspectives
  • 93. Creese, Angela
    et al.
    Blackledge, Adrian
    Bhatt, Arvind
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Juffermans, Kasper
    Li, Jinling
    Martin, Peter
    Muhonen, Anu
    Takhi, Jaspreet Kaur
    Researching Bilingual and Multilingual Education Multilingually: A Linguistic Ethnographic Approach2015In: The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education / [ed] Wayne E. Wright, Sovicheth Boun, Ofelia García, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, p. 127-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an opportunity to deconstruct the reflexive accounts researchers provide about their bilingualism. It describes how researchers wrote vignettes to discuss their role in the research team, and their researcher identities. These vignettes became an invaluable resource in the understandings of bilingualism as a social construct. Researching multilingualism involves bringing into play different voices which are in a complex and dynamic relationship with one another. There are discourses about equality which clash with discourses about social hierarchies; there are also discourses about bilingualism and blurred boundaries, which run concurrently with ideologies about language separation, ethnicity, and the right to represent. In selecting particular extracts, the chapter focuses on how notions of “language” and “bilingualism” appear in the vignettes, and shape one's research on multilingualism.  

  • 94.
    Djerf, Farangis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Lärares metoder och synsätt gällande samtal och interaktion i språkutvecklande undervisning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte med mitt arbete är att dels ta reda på lärares metoder och synsätt gällande samtal och interaktion och dels undersöka hur de ser på att arbeta språkutvecklande i praktiken. Mot bakgrund av forskning inom samtal och interaktion, samt språkutveckling har vi genom denna studie sett hur verksamma språklärare tillämpar teorierna i praktiken. I detta syfte har jag valt att intervjua tre verksamma lärare som i dagsläget arbetar i en gymnasieskola i Skåne.

     

    Enigheten kring interaktionens positiva effekter i undervisningen anses vara stor på det praktiska respektive teoretiska planet. Socialt medierande lärandeform föredras framför en mer eller mindre isolerad sådan, både i teori och i praktik.

     

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    fulltext
  • 95.
    Donoso, Alejandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    The Construal of Goal-Oriented Motion Events by Swedish Speakers of L2 Spanish: Encoding of motion endpoints and Manner of motion2015In: The Acquisition of Spanish in Understudied Language Pairings / [ed] Tiffany Judy, Silvia Perpiñán, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 233-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates motion event construal in Swedish speakers of L2 Spanish. In particular, the study examines the encoding of motion endpoints and manner of motion through elicited video clip descriptions of everyday motion event situations. The results show that Swedish learners of Spanish exhibit the same, high endpoint frequencies as their monolingual Swedish peers, thus deviating from the Spanish native pattern. Moreover, the learners used the same amount of manner verbs as Spanish natives, but were more prone to give additional manner information in periphrastic constructions. These findings are interpreted in relation to previous literature on the construal of motion events in L2 learners and the notion of conceptual transfer (Cadierno & Ruiz, 2006; Jarvis & Pavlenko, 2008; von Stutterheim, 2003).

  • 96.
    Ekberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Flerspråkigheten och den nordiska språkgemenskapen2015In: Språk i Norden, E-ISSN 2246-1701, p. 9-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln diskuteras vilken roll flerspråkigheten har i nordisk språkpolitik, med utgångspunkt i Deklaration om nordisk språkpolitik. Vidare diskuteras ideologin bakom några av de centrala begreppen i den språkpolitiska diskursen, däribland den nordiska språkgemenskapen. Trots att flerspråkighet är en av fyra arbetsfrågor som pekas ut i deklarationen, är andraspråksperspektivet näst intill osynligt. Målet att alla nordbor i första hand ska kunna kommunicera med varandra på ett skandinaviskt språk ignorerar att runt en fjärdedel inte har ett skandinaviskt språk som modersmål. Slutsatsen är att en översyn av deklarationen är motiverad med hänsyn till de nya immigrationsmönster och språkkontaktsituationer som globaliseringen för med sig.

  • 97.
    Ekberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Flerspråkigheten och språkpolitiken: svenskan, engelskan och alla andra språk2013In: Profession, politik och passion: Inger Lindberg som andraspråksforskare - en vänbok / [ed] Monica Axelsson, Marie Carlson, Qarin Franker, Karin Sandwall, Göteborg: Om institutionen Arbetsmiljö Beredningsgrupper Bibliotek Doktorand Institutionsråd Internt Ledningsgruppen Likabehandling Miljö och hållbar utveckling Styrdokument Institutionen för svenska språket, Göteborgs universitet , 2013, p. 121-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Ekberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Grammatik och lexikon i svenska som andraspråk på nästan infödd nivå2013In: Svenska som andraspråk - i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] K. Hyltenstam; I. Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2013, 2. uppl., p. 259-279Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Ekberg, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Opsahl, Toril
    Wiese, Heike
    Functional gains: a cross-linguistic case study on three particles in Swedish, Norwegian and German2015In: Language, Youth and Identity in the 21st Century: Linguistic practices across urban spaces / [ed] Jacomine Nortier, Bente A. Svendsen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 93-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Ekberg, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Östman, Jan-Ola
    Medlare – eller dubbelt marginaliserad? Identitetskonstruktion hos immigranter i Österbotten2017In: Svenskans beskrivning 35: Förhandlingar vid trettiofemte sammankomsten, Göteborg 11–13 maj 2016 / [ed] Emma Sköldberg, Maia Andréasson, Henrietta Adamsson Eryd, Filippa Lindahl, Sven Lindström, Julia Prentice, Malin Sandberg, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2017, p. 81-92Conference paper (Refereed)
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