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  • 51.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Tolkad tolkutbildning2018In: Tolking: språkarbeid og profesjonsutøvelse / [ed] Hilde Haualand, Anna-Lena Nilsson, Eli Raanes, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2018, p. 317-335Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet fokuseras olika aspekter av tolkanvändning inom ramen för teckenspråkstolkutbildningen. Kapitlet bygger på intervjuer med studenter, lärare och tolkar och analysen visar att tolkstudenter under utbildningen genomgår en process från att vara rena nykomlingar till att bli legitima perifera deltagare (Lave och Wenger, 1991) i en teckenspråkstolkgemenskap. Genom att använda tolk i utbildningen får studenterna ett situerat lärande där de genom att möta professionella tolkar övergår från att mer eller mindre omedvetet använda tolk i syfte att tillägna sig undervisningsinnehållet, till att bli medvetna såväl om tolkyrket som profession som om tolkens maktposition gentemot döva tolkanvändare.

  • 52.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråkskommunikation och nyttjande av teckenrummet i dialog mellan personer med dövblindhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns i Sverige runt 2000 personer under 65 år med dövblindhet. En andel av dem är döva sedan barndomen och har förvärvat sin synnedsättning senare i livet. De har då vanligen svenskt teckenspråk som sitt förstaspråk och har i takt med att synen blivit sämre övergått till att använda sig av taktilt teckenspråk som är en del av det svenska teckenspråket, men som inte i samma utsträckning grundar sig i vad som kan uppfattas visuellt. I den här forskningsrapporten studeras taktil teckenspråkskommunikation och hur de personer med dövblindhet som först lärt sig det visuella svenska teckenspråket innan de övergår till att använda taktilt svenskt teckenspråk använder sig av teckenrummet i dialoger med varandra. Till grund för analysen ligger en korpus som består av åtta informanter i varierande åldrar från olika delar av Sverige. Denna korpus har kunnat skapas tack vare medel från Mo Gårds forskningsfond och arbetet med att annotera dialogerna har pågått allt sedan inspelningarna genomfördes år 2013. Idag har strax under hälften av korpusen annoterats och det är den annoterade delen som ligger till grund för analysen som redovisas i denna rapport. Bland annat beskrivs hur informanterna skapar gemensam mening och förståelse när de inte ser varandra och hur de ger återkopplingar på ett sätt som skiljer sig från hur man gör i det visuella svenska teckenspråket. Dessutom visas skillnader mellan det visuella och taktila svenska teckenspråket avseende andelen bokstaveringar, som är högre i det taktila, liksom förekomsten av pekningar som istället är mindre vanliga där.

  • 53.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Teckenspråksforskningen under 2000-talet: En översikt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många olika inriktningar inom teckenspråksforskningen idag och en avsevärd mängd studier utifrån olika perspektiv och på olika språkliga nivåer. I den här forskningsrapporten görs en översikt över svensk och internationell teckenspråksforskning under 2000-talet, med särskilt fokus på allmänspråkvetenskap. Rapporten berör dock även kognitiv lingvistik, psyko- och neurolingvistik samt sociolingvistik. Dessutom fokuseras i ett varsitt avsnitt barns teckenspråk och inlärning av teckenspråk som andraspråk. Det som tas upp är ett urval av den forskning som bedrivits och rapporten gör inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande, men ger utöver de översiktliga beskrivningarna också ett stort antal referenser för fortsatt egen läsning inom de olika områden som tas upp.

  • 54.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Resources for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in mainstream schools in Sweden: A survey2017In: Deafness and Education International, ISSN 1464-3154, E-ISSN 1557-069X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although once placed solely in deaf schools, a growing number of deaf students in Sweden are now enrolling in mainstream schools. In order to maintain a functional educational environment for these students, municipalities are required to provide a variety of supporting resources, e.g. technological equipment and specialized personnel. However, the functions of these resources and how these relate to deaf students’ learning is currently unknown. Thus, the present study examines public school resources, including the function of a profession called a hörselpedagog (HP, a kind of pedagogue that is responsible for hard-of-hearing students). In particular, the HPs’ perspectives on the functioning and learning of deaf students in public schools were examined. Data were collected via (i) two questionnaires: one quantitative (n = 290) and one qualitative (n = 26), and (ii) in-depth interviews (n = 9). These show that the resources provided to deaf children and their efficacy are highly varied across the country, which holds implications for the language situations and learning of deaf students.

  • 55.
    Ivarsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    En tankepaus i svenskt teckenspråk: En korpusundersökning av spelande fingrar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a corpus-based study of the hesitation paus wiggly-fingers in Swedish sign language. A suggestion how to categorise hesitation pauses are presented and how often different kind of hesitation pauses appears. Wiggly-fingers is the third biggest group of hesitation pauses in in the corpus, the majority of pauses with wiggly-fingers appears within a turn of conversation and a majority of all the repairs connected to wiggly-fingers are successful repairs.

  • 56. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    GIVE or TAKE: Transitivity prominence of Finnish Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language verbs2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we apply methodology presented in Kimmelman (2016) and investigate the transitivityprominence of verbs in Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). Specifically,we ask how similar or different FinSL and SSL verbs are in terms of their transitivity prominence,and how the transitivity prominence of FinSL and SSL verbs compares with that of verbs inother languages. The term transitivity prominence refers to the relative frequency with which a verboccurs with an object. Haspelmath (2015) has shown that in spoken languages, verbs form a rankedcontinuum between those that are highly transitivity prominent and those that occur with no objectat all. Recently, Kimmelman (2016) has argued that Haspelmath's ranking applies also to the verbsof Russian Sign Language (RSL).Our investigation is based on annotated corpus data comprising narratives, conversations andpresentations. For FinSL, we use material from 20 signers (2h 40min, 18446 sign tokens) and forSSL from 28 signers (1h 54min, 15186 sign tokens). From this data, we identified 18 verb lexemeswhich all have enough tokens and which are all comparable between languages. In FinSL, the totalnumber of verb tokens is 745 and in SSL the corresponding number is 579. All the verbs were annotatedfor overt direct and indirect objects and for overt clausal complements. The annotation workwas carried out by different annotators following common guidelines.Concerning the results, our data suggests that there are clear similarities in what verbs rankhighest (e.g. GIVE, TAKE) and what lowest (e.g. HAPPY, COLD) in terms of their transitivity prominencein FinSL and SSL. On the basis of Haspelmath (2015) and Kimmelman (2016), these are thesame verbs that are ranked highest and lowest also in spoken languages and in RSL (Table 1).However, the data also shows that certain verbs (e.g. SEARCH, TALK, PLAY) may differ considerablyin the position they occupy in the ranking. Although some of these differences can be assumed to betrue differences between languages, we suspect that some may, despite our best efforts, be traceableback to issues relating to the type of data as well as to the way the samples were formed and objectsannotated. In our presentation, we will present the results of our comparative study and discuss thedata and methodology-related issues in more detail.

  • 57. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Puupponen, Anna
    Aspects of the rhythm in Finnish and Swedish Sign Language2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate a hypothesis, derived from the intuitions of native signers, that there is a rhythmic difference between two historically related sign languages, Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). We define the notion of rhythm as 'the organization of units in time' and presume that the rhythmic feel of a language is determined by the phonetic properties and events that are used in the marking of the areas and borders of temporally ordered units such as signs and sentences (Patel & Daniele 2003; Patel 2006). In previous studies (Boyes Braem 1999; Sandler 2012), it has been suggested that the markers of rhythmic sequences in signed language are, for example, temporal duration, punctual indices (e.g. head nods), and articulatory contours. Accordingly, we approach our hypothesis with three main research questions: (i) Are the signing speed and sign duration different in FinSL and SSL, (ii) Are head nods aligned differently in terms of syntactic units in FinSL and SSL, and (iii) Is the motion of the head different in terms of its articulatory contour in FinSL and SSL sentences? The study is based on narratives collected with identical tasks in both languages (5 Snowman and Frog, where are you? stories per language). The total amount of video material is one hour (30+30 minutes) and it includes signing from twenty (10+10) signers. All of the material has been annotated for signs, sentences and nods. The material also includes 3D numerical data on the head motion of signers (the yaw, pitch, and roll angles). The 3D data has been obtained with computer-vision technology implemented in SLMotion software (Karppa et. al 2014). Concerning question (i), we have not so far found any significant differences in the signing speed and sign duration of the two languages. With a pilot sample of 4+4 signers and 1100 signs per language, we have determined the average signing speed to be two signs per second in both languages, and the average duration of (the core of) the sign to be 0.27 seconds in SSL and 0.29 seconds in FinSL. Concerning (ii), the average number of nods per story was higher in FinSL than in SSL but both languages tended to align nods with syntactic boundaries: of the total number of nods, 81% in FinSL and 77% in SSL occurred on a syntactic boundary, and generally also at the end of the sentence (Figure 1). Concerning question (iii), our initial tests with Snowman revealed that, for example, the amplitude of the tilting-like (roll) motion of the head decreased similarly toward the end of sentences in both languages (Figure 2) but FinSL signers employed this particular type of motion more often in the marking of syntactic junctures than SSL signers (Figure 3). The preliminary results indicate some differences between FinSL and SSL. In our presentation we will present the final results and discuss them in detail with respect to our initial hypothesis.

  • 58. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Puupponen, Anna
    Laaksonen, Jorma
    On the rhythm of head movements in Finnish and Swedish Sign Language sentences2016In: The Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2016 / [ed] Jon Barnes, Alejna Brugos, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, Nanette Veilleux, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2016, p. 850-853Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates, with the help of computer-vision technology,the similarities and differences in the rhythm of themovements of the head in sentences in Finnish (FinSL) andSwedish Sign Language (SSL). The results show that themovement of the head in the two languages is often very similar:in both languages, the instances when the movement of thehead changes direction were distributed similarly with regardto clause-boundaries, and the contours of the roll (tilting-like)motion of the head during the sentences were similar. Concerningdifferences, direction changes were found to be usedmore effectively in the marking of clause-boundaries in FinSL,and in SSL the head moved nearly twice as fast as in FinSL. However, the small amount of data means that the results canbe considered to be only preliminary. The paper indicates theroll angle of the head as a domain for further work on head related rhythm.

  • 59. Kristensson, Christy
    et al.
    Steiner, Edit
    Mesch, Urban
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    110 fantastiska år med Idrottsklubben Surd2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 60. Lepic, Ryan
    et al.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Sandler, Wendy
    Taking meaning in hand: Iconic motivations in two-handed signs2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally in sign language research, the issue of whether a lexical sign is articulated with one hand or two has been treated as a strictly phonological matter. We argue that accounting for two-handed signs also requires considering meaning as a motivating factor. We report results from a Swadesh list comparison, an analysis of semantic patterns among two-handed signs, and a picture-naming task. Comparing four unrelated languages, we demonstrate that the two hands are recruited to encode various relationship types in sign language lexicons. We develop the general principle that inherently "plural" concepts are straightforwardly mapped onto our paired human hands, resulting in systematic use of the two hands across sign languages. In our analysis, "plurality" subsumes four primary relationship types — interaction, location, dimension, and composition — and we predict that signs with meanings that encompass these relationships — such as 'meet', 'empty', 'large', or 'machine' — will preferentially be two-handed in any sign language.

  • 61. Lillo-Martin, Diane
    et al.
    Rathmann, Christian
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign Language Linguistics Society: Sign language research and sign language rights for all2019In: Sign Language Rights for All: Programme & Abstracts, 2019, p. 128-128Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international Sign Language Linguistics Society was founded by a group of sign language linguists in 2000 and aims to promote sign language research on an international scale and the maintenance of high scientific and ethical standards of research into the languages of deaf communities. SLLS encourages the exchange of information through meetings and publications, particularly the Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research (TISLR) conference series. SLLS signed a memorandum of understanding with the WFD in 2016. In this presentation, we will discuss some of the ways that SLLS members are involved in activities that support sign language rights for all. Many SLLS members work on research into sign language acquisition by deaf and hearing children (Chen Pichler et al., 2018), and on promoting linguistic human rights and the avoidance of language deprivation for deaf children (Humphries et al., 2016). Most SLLS members also work in other less obvious ways in supporting sign language rights, particularly in the linguistic description and documentation of the sign languages of deaf communities. In the last decade, we have seen the rise of corpus-based approaches to sign language linguistics. Corpora are large representative samples of language data that can be search by computer and which can provide a collection for many uses. We have also seen more online dictionaries of sign languages, many of them supported by the work done by sign language researchers. Linguists also work on reference grammars, and work with deaf communities in many parts of the world to document their sign languages, including many endangered village sign languages. Sign language researchers provide evidence to language policy makers, and work to promote linguistic and cultural diversity to government. Sign language corpora, reference grammars and online dictionaries provide invaluable resources to sign language teachers, students and trainee interpreters. The increased understanding of sign language structure and use that comes from the work of linguists leads to improved sign language teaching resources that describe how the language is used within deaf communities. This will in turn enable us to create more reliable and valid sign language assessment instruments, for example. The greater understanding of and improved resources for sign language teaching and learning will also provide an evidence base for policy makers in supporting appropriate education, training and services for deaf children and adults. More appropriate resources for the bilingual education of deaf children and for sign language teaching interpreter training will lead to improved quality of educational and interpreting services for deaf people and provide more opportunities for self-development and employment. All of these aspects of the struggle for sign language rights are supported by the work of SLLS members.

  • 62. Meir, Irit
    et al.
    Aronoff, Mark
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hwang, So-One
    Ilkbasaran, Deniz
    Kastner, Itamar
    Lepic, Ryan
    Lifshitz Ben-Basat, Adi
    Padden, Carol
    Sandler, Wendy
    The effect of being human and the basis of grammatical word order: Insights from novel communication systems and young sign languages2017In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 158, p. 189-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies a central factor that gives rise to the different word orders found in the world’s languages. In the last decade, a new window on this long-standing question has been provided by data from young sign languages and invented gesture systems. Previous work has assumed that word order in both invented gesture systems and young sign languages is driven by the need to encode the semantic/syntactic roles of the verb’s arguments. Based on the responses of six groups of participants, three groups of hearing participants who invented a gestural system on the spot, and three groups of signers of relatively young sign languages, we identify a major factor in determining word order in the production of utterances in novel and young communication systems, not suggested by previous accounts, namely the salience of the arguments in terms of their human/animacy properties: human arguments are introduced before inanimate arguments (‘human first’). This conclusion is based on the difference in word order patterns found between responses to depicted simple events that vary as to whether both subject and object are human or whether the subject is human and the object inanimate. We argue that these differential patterns can be accounted for uniformly by the ‘human first’ principle. Our analysis accounts for the prevalence of SOV order in clauses with an inanimate object in all groups (replicating results of previous separate studies of deaf signers and hearing gesturers) and the prevalence of both SOV and OSV in clauses with a human object elicited from the three groups of participants who have the least interference from another linguistic system (nonliterate deaf signers who have had little or no exposure to another language). It also provides an explanation for the basic status of SOV order suggested by other studies, as well as the scarcity of the OSV order in languages of the world, despite its appearance in novel communication systems. The broadest implication of this study is that the basic cognitive distinction between humans and inanimate entities is a crucial factor in setting the wheels of word ordering in motion.

  • 63.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Att använda ELAN: Bruksanvisning för annotering och studie av teckenspråkstexter: Version 22009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Att använda ELAN: Bruksanvisning för annotering och studie av teckenspråkstexter: Version 32011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Available but not accessible: Options for adapting old Swedish Sign Language archives to modern documentation conventions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Video is an important medium for linguistic and historic research on signed language. Video recordings of Swedish Sign Language (SSL), mainly from the 1970s, have been preserved for the next generation, but the organizing, archiving, and sharing of this material is not standardized. The Swedish National Association for the Deaf (SDR) has been one of the biggest producers of SSL material, before the production moved to Swedish Broadcasting (SVT). A large amount of video recordings, produced 1970-1990, are in the SDR archive, preserved but not systematically archived and documented. SSL material by SVT since 1974 is available through streaming in their “open archive” (“Öppet arkiv”)—about 72 entries—and the Swedish Media Database at the National Library of Sweden (KB)—about 7,100 entries. The CLARIN Research Infrastructure and the national Swedish consortium SWE-CLARIN is one way for scholars in the humanities and social sciences to access data, and provides tools for exploring, annotating, and analyzing data (Nilsson Björkenstam et al, 2014). Corpus-based work on SSL started in 2003, preceding the SSL Corpus project (2009-2011), and this work provides a model for annotation work, and metadata and archiving procedures. This could be applied to older archives, such as the SDR material.

  • 66.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Challenges of creating a sign dictionary2018In: Records of Visible Language: Sign Language Dictionary, Seoul: The National Institute of Korean Langauge (NIKL) , 2018, p. 61-77Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article will describe how the Swedish Sign Language Dictionary has developed, and why it takes a long time to establish such a dictionary. A lexicographic work of Swedish Sign Language was initiated in 1988 at Stockholm University, and it resulted, in 2001, the first dictionary online. The Swedish Sign Language Dictionary was created in 2008 and has been in development since. When the direction of the corpus construction started in 2003, and when the corpus data, thanks to the three-years project of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus 2009-2011, expanded with gloss annotations, a discussion has arisen about how the Online Swedish Sign Language Dictionary should continue to be in its development and in which direction, and how to use the SSL Corpus as a source of input for new signs and lexical variation in the SSL Dictionary.

  • 67.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Dialog, kollektivt lärande och språkresurser: Möjligheter och problem med campusutbildning och nätbaserad utbildning för studenter i ämnet teckenspråk (lingvistik)2012Other (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    International Sign: Linguistic, Usage, and Status Issues, edited by Rachel Rosenstock and Jemina Napier (Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2016)2017In: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, E-ISSN 1533-6263, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 403-406Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Manual backchannel responses in signers' conversations in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 50, p. 22-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study aims to determine the manual backchannel responses that signers use in Swedish Sign Language discourse by analyzing a subset of the SSL Corpus. The investiga- tion found 20% of the backchannel responses in this data to be manual. The study focuses on the manual backchannel responses that consist of signs (mostly the sign gloss YES) and gesture-like signs (PU “palms up”), and other manual activities, which can occur at a relatively low height in signing space. With respect to age groups, younger signers engage in more weak manual activity than older signers.

  • 70.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Narratives in Tactile Sign Language2006In: The Deaf Way II Reader : Perspectives from the Second International Conference on Deaf Culture / [ed] Goodstein, Harvey, Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press , 2006, p. 344-348Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Perspectives on the concept and definition of International Sign2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 72.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Påminner nationella teckenspråk varandra?2006In: Teckenspråk: Sociala och historiska perspektiv / [ed] Karin Hoyer, Monica Londen och Jan-Ola Östman, Helsingfors: Nordica Institutionen för nordiska språk och nordisk litteratur, Helsingfors universitet , 2006, p. 71-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Ruotsalaisen ja suomalaisen viittomakielen välisistä yhteyksistä2008In: Kieliviesti, ISSN 0280-350X, no 4, p. 9-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Sex och samlevnad2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign Language: Tactile2016In: The SAGE Deaf Studies Encyclopedia / [ed] Genie Gertz, Patrick Boudreault, Sage Publications, 2016, p. 820-821Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Signing and showing in tactual modality2018In: Sign CAFÉ 1: The first international workshop on cognitive and functional explorations in sign language linguistics, 2018, p. 16-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tactile sign languages are described as sign language variants for DeafBlind (DB) signers. When losing their sight, they sign in the tactile modality, while holding each other's hand/s (Edwards, 2015; Mesch, 2001, 2016). Presence of constructed action through eye gaze, and also other articulators such as head and body, requests modification of indicating verbs or depicting verbs (Cormier, Smith, & Sevcikova-Sehyr, 2015). DB signers can be a part of the event and imagine themselves as other referents when producing indicating verbs, or tend to imagine themselves as other referents during production of these verbs in a motivated way (cf. surrogate space of Liddell (2003)). An earlier study (Mesch, Raanes, & Ferrara, 2015) shows that the signer can use her/his own or the other interlocutor’s hand or body part as part of the utterance to create joint attention/meaning.The Tactile Sign Language Corpus currently features one long and 60 short video files (totally 4:30 hours) with accompanying annotation files created in the multimodal annotation tool ELAN. Annotation work with glosses and translation is ongoing. Only two of the video files are selected, with two DB male signers, to highlight the study on referring people and constructing events without gaze directions and head movements. The elicitation method for data collection differs from other sign language corpora because of limited possibilities to use a picture book, cartoons or video. In this presentation, we will describe tactual elicitation methods.In general, the results show that the use of constructed action by DB signers differs from the one by sighted signers. The DB signers use different strategies to show what the referents are doing in the narratives. The results also show that they create fewer surrogate and token spaces, but they are able to complete them tactually through placing signs in different directions and distances, and also using the other interlocutor’s hand or arm as part of the mental space, see Figures 1-3.

  • 77.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Svensk teckenspråkskorpus - dess tillkomst och uppbyggnad2015Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Swedish Sign Language Corpus2012In: Deaf Studies Digital Journal, ISSN 2158-1398, Vol. 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenrummet i taktilt teckenspråk av personer med förvärvad dövblindhet: en förstudie2013In: Kropslig og taktil sprogudvikling: En antologi om forskellige sprogmodaliteters muligheder og umuligheder, undersøgt med afsæt i personer med medfødt døvblindhed / [ed] Jesper Dammeyer & Anja Nielsen, Aalborg: Materialecentret , 2013, p. 157-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Signing space in tactile signing for persons with acquired deafblindness - a pilot study

    The article describes how signing space is used in tactile Swedish Sign Language. Signers with acquired deafblindness, partly or fully deaf-blind, who have grown up using sign language, communicate with each other and other people who use sign language with hand contact and using signing space (the so-called spatial room) as a joint signing space. The signing space has two different functions - both for turn-taking and also for the produc­tion of signs in the neutral position in front of the signer, with the possibi­lity of modifying the direction/location of the articulator/s. The spatial part of the sign language also has an important role in the creation of mental images (pictures), which requires a visual concept.

  • 80.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråk i IT-stödd undervisning2013In: Lärarkonferens 2013 :, 2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenskt teckenspråk är ett gestuellt-visuellt språk. På sistone har det skett en förändring när det gäller undervisningsformer och analysverktyg för lingvistiska studier i teckenspråk vid Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet. Att utveckla IT-stödd undervisning ställer större krav på videoteknik och ämnesdidaktik. I presentationen delger vi våra erfarenheter för a) webbaserad kommunikation via Adobe Connect och Skype, b) redovisning och inlämningsuppgift på teckenspråkoch c) digitala språkresurser.

  • 81.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Teckenspråk i taktil form2006In: Teckenspråk: Sociala och historiska perspektiv / [ed] Karin Hoyer, Monica Londen och Jan-Ola Östman, Helsingfors: Nordica, Institutionen för nordiska språk och nordisk litteratur, Helsingfors universitet , 2006, p. 129-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråkets framtid2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 83.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Variations in tactile signing - the case of one-handed signing2011In: ESUKA – JEFUL, no 2-1, p. 273-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tactile sign language is a variety of a national sign language.Tactile signing among persons with deafblindness also includessome minor variations. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language(e.g. Mesch 1998, 2001) show how interactants use both theirhands in tactile communication in two different positions: dialogueposition and monologue position. This paper examines the signingvariations that partially or functionally blind signers encounter whenusing one hand to communicate with each other in a conversationdyad in what is one of the most advanced types of sign languagecommunication. In tactile one-handed signing, the signer uses herright hand both for producing and receiving signs, while the addresseeuses her left hand not only for receiving but also for producing signsafter turn-taking, even though it is the non-dominant hand and, therefore,is not normally used to produce one-handed signs. In this study,conversation analysis was conducted on the discourse of four groups.The results show that some variations depend on the linguistic backgroundof individuals and their everyday communication. A comparativestudy of a two-handed and a one-handed system is thenpresented, focusing on issues of simplicity, flexibility, turn-taking, andfeedback. Some results showing changes in the sign structures ofboth communication types are also presented.

  • 84.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Viipleme koos. Teavet taktiilse viipekeele kohta2005Book (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Viitotaan yhdessä. Tietoa taktiilista viittomakielestä2004Book (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Viittomien glossit ja ajalliset pituudet [The glosses and temporal durations of signs questions relating to sign language annotation]: annotointityöskentelyyn liittyviä kysymyksiä [questions relating to sign language annotation]2010In: Näkökulmia viittomaan ja viittomistoon [Perspectives on sign and lexicon] / [ed] Tommi Jantunen, Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, questions relating to sign language annotation are discussed. ELAN, the computer-assisted annotation tool that has been applied in and tested for sign language annotation since 2002, has already shown its potential in synchronizing sign language texts in video format with transcription. However, during the annotation work two questions have arisen. The first concerns the selection and nature of the gloss for the sign, and the second the duration of the glossed annotation, that is, the question of where the sign begins and ends on a video. These questions have emerged especially from work on the large corpora of sign language texts, and in the teaching of sign language linguistics. The findings discussed here suggest that more unified linguistic transcription conventions should be developed for glossing so that, for example, searching the annotations in ELAN would be easier in the larger sign language corpora made available for researchers and students.

  • 87.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Bäckström, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Siffertecken2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 88.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Clark, Becky
    Birley, Dawn Jani
    WSI on Breaking Barriers and Empowering Deaf and Hard of Hearing Girls and Women in Sport2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kaneko, Michiko
    Signed renga: Exploration of collaborative forms in sign language poetry2017In: African Studies, ISSN 0002-0184, E-ISSN 1469-2872, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 381-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South African Sign Language (SASL) poetry is still exploring many forms of poetry genres. This article describes the recent development of a new ‘genre’ in sign language poetry: signed renga (group poetry). The article will outline the form – what it is, how it has developed and spread, and why it is an apparently successful poetic genre. A sketch of a workshop from Signing Hands Across the Water 2 (SHAW 2) will also be provided to illustrate how renga emerges out of group work. First we will briefly explain common features of signed renga, drawing on a body of signed renga in British, Irish and Swedish Sign Languages. The second half of the article is an in-depth analysis of one signed renga, titled South Africa, which emerged from the SHAW 2 festival, with a focus on transitions as collaborative performance using shared signing space and eye gaze direction

  • 90.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Urban
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Den framstående idrottsmannen Johan Alfred Selenius Dahlström2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 91.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Raanes, Eli
    Sør-Trøndelag University College, Department Faculty of teacher and interpreter education, Trondheim, Norge.
    Joint attention through shared movements - analyzing deafblind signers’ expressions in dialogues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When signing in the tactile modality, the interlocutors produce signs while holding each other's hand/s. This presentation is based on a comparative study of some specific expressions which are found in videotaped materials of conversations with Swedish and Norwegian signers with deafblindness (Mesch, 2001, Raanes, 2006). In some of the signing expressions in tactile modality, the signer uses her/his own or the other interlocutor’s hand or body part as part of the utterance. The examples point to these expressions as being part of sign language in the tactile modality when the sign refers to objects and activities.

    Two different theories are combined in this linguistic study of dialogue material in Norwegian and Swedish tactile sign language. Based on the theory of place of articulation and signing space (e.g., Engberg-Pedersen, 1993; Bergman 1990) and cognitive grammar (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002) we present a preliminary study of how joint attention is constructed. The theory of cognitive grammar is brought in to examine how the expressions are formed and how interaction builds on the input given by touch and by involving the interlocutor's body part in the constructions of tactile expressions involved (Rommetveit, 1974; Taub, 2001; Fauconnier & Turner, 2002; Liddell, 2003; Wertsch, 2003,). We discuss different approaches to describe the meaning potential in conversations in the tactile modality.

    Our findings point to principles which are as yet not well described on how language may be used and how information may be presented in tactile signing. This study considers expanding the view of possible repertoires for human use of communication and language. We discuss how cognitive grammar may be able to describe the meaning construction in two different sign languages in the tactile modality.

  • 92.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Raanes, Eli
    Questions and response in tactile sign language use2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we will focus on questions and responses of deafblind people in two sign languages in tactual modality: Swedish Sign Language and Norwegian Sign Language. Everyday conversation in sign language works by the combination of manual expressions made by the hands and body in combination with non-manual (visual) expressions. The visual non-manual expressions may include eye gaze, facial expressions and mouth movement. The usage of interrogative structures (how to express questions) is a typical part of signed languages where the visual and non-manual components have specific importance as signals of a question or a wish for response. Many studies have focused on various aspects of question and response in several sign languages, giving insight on the importance of precise usage of the non-manual parts of signing (e.g. Zeshan, 2006). Tactile sign languages are used in dialogical situations where those involved in the interaction not are able to see each other. Based on earlier studies of tactile sign languages (Mesch, 1998, 2013; Mesch, Raanes, & Ferrara, 2015; Raanes, 2006, 2011), we are investigating understanding practices and mistakes concerning questions and responses. Based on our empirical data from natural interaction between adult deafblind signers, we will focus on a selection on ways of getting attention towards request for response and how to question-constructions are formed in datasets from those two sign languages. The findings from this study show that there are different type of questions (content, polar, rhetorical) and type of social actions (e.g. request for confirmation or clarification, repair, etc.), where deafblind signers have their own strategies (e.g. fingerspelling, repetition etc.) to understand each other.

  • 93.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Raanes, Eli
    Ferrara, Lindsay
    Co-forming real space blends in tactile signed language dialogues2015In: Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 0936-5907, E-ISSN 1613-3641, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 261-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a linguistic study examining the use of real space blending in the tactile signed languages of Norwegian and Swedish signers who are both deaf and blind. Tactile signed languages are typically produced by interactants in contact with each other’s hands while signing. Of particular interest to this study are utterances which not only consist of the signer producing signs with his or her own hands (or other body parts), but which also recruit the other interactant’s hands (or another body part). These utterances, although perhaps less frequent, are co-constructed, in a very real sense, and they illustrate meaning construction during emerging, embodied discourse. Here, we analyze several examples of these types of utterances from a cognitive linguistic and cognitive semiotic perspective to explore how interactants prompt meaning construction through touch and the involvement of each other’s bodies during a particular type of co-regulation.

  • 94.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    A second language learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes work on an ongoing learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). The purpose of this learner corpus is to provide a solid database for second language research in SSL, as there is a lack of research regarding how adults learn a signed language as a second language, and the availability of such a corpus for research would ultimately lead to new insights in the field. Work on this SSL learner corpus started in 2013 (Schönström & Mesch, 2014), and it now contains longitudinal data collected from 2013 to 2016. The corpus consists of data from two groups of learners. Data collection for the first group was completed in 2014 and contains 9:06 hours of data from a total of 18 learners. Data collection from the second group is ongoing.

    The longitudinal data collection consisted of interviews as well as picture and video retellings recorded on four occasions over a period of 1.5 years. The learners consisted of students from a sign language interpreter program at university level. The first collection began one month after course onset, and the second one 1.5 years after onset. The aim was to obtain a wider range of data illustrating the learners’ different developmental stages. The recorded material has been annotated and transcribed in the multimodal annotation tool ELAN using current SSL annotation conventions, especially for annotation of glosses as well as a special annotation schema for L2 analysis according to our particular research objectives.

    For those who are learning SSL, we hypothesize that simultaneous and spatial structures in a gestural-visual modality are challenging to learn (cf. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). Earlier we began analyzing the mouth actions of L2 learners (Mesch, Schönström, Riemer-Kankkonen & Wallin, 2016). Data was annotated according to annotation tiers for mouthing categories, such as mouth movements borrowed from Swedish (mouthing without sound), and mouth gestures, as well as L2 tiers. The next step is to analyze a set of complex sign categories (i.e. signs modified according to meaning and space). We are interested in how learners acquire depicting signs as well as other complex sign categories, i.e. modified signs and indicating signs. This overlaps partly with the use of space for meaning and reference, which is a challenge to annotate. In our presentation, we will show our annotation scheme and discuss the challenges of annotating these structures in an L2 context. 

  • 95.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    From Design and Collection to Annotation of a Learner Corpus of Sign Language2018In: 8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings / [ed] Mayumi Bono, Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Yutaka Osugi, European Language Resources Association, 2018, p. 121-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to present part of the project “From Speech to Sign – learning Swedish Sign Language as a second language” which include a learner corpus that is based on data produced by hearing adult L2 signers. The paper describes the design of corpus building and the collection of data for the Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2). Another component of ongoing work is the creation of a specialized annotation scheme for SSLC-L2, one that differs somewhat from the annotation work in Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC), where the data is based on performance by L1 signers. Also, we will account for and discuss the methodology used to annotate L2 structures.

  • 96.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Use of non-manual mouth actions in L1 and L2 signers based on data from two different SL corpora (SSLC and SSLC-L2)2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on non-manual mouth actions performed by deaf signers and adult second language (L2) learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The discussion of the linguistic status of mouth actions in the literature motivates our work and study. Based data from SSLC (Swedish Sign Language Corpus) (Mesch & Wallin 2015) and SSLC-L2 (L2 learner corpus in SSL) (Mesch & Schönström 2018), we compare the use of mouth actions in L1 as well as L2learners. The presentation will also describe the annotation work of non-manual mouth actions. The annotation and analysis depart from Crasborn et al.’s (2008) categories of mouth actions that have been applied to several sign languages. Distribution, frequency and spreading patterns of use of mouth actions are observed and described. The results reveal some similarities as well as differences in use of mouth actions between the groups. Furthermore, the analysis reveals qualitative differences related to the interaction and synchronization of mouth actions and hand movements among L2 learners of SSL. Challenges of annotating mouth actions will also be discussed. 

  • 97.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Larsson, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Use of ENTITY, HANDLE and DESCRIPTOR in L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language2018In: Sign CAFÉ 1: The first international workshop on cognitive and functional explorations in sign language linguistics, 2018, p. 27-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our paper, we describe the acquisition of classifier constructions of L2 learners of SSL. Previous studies show that learning a sign language, contributes a high degree of iconically motivated lexicon and enable L2 learners to gesturally imitate the tasks or events from stimulus in an elicited narrative task. However, despite of this “gestural advantage”, L2 learners have been reported to differ in the phonological structure of iconically motivated lexical signs (e.g. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). In addition, regarding the L2 acquisition of the classifier constructions, it has been shown that the location seems to be acquired before the handshape parameter (e.g. Marshall & Morgan, 2015). However, research on this area is limited, especially on authentic data, i.e. corpus-based studies on L2 acquisition. In our study, the use of classifier constructions by L2 learners at different developmental stages using SSL was investigated. The corpus consists of a set of longitudinal data of adult L2-learners’ signed production. In total, the corpus consists of 20:38 hours of data from 38 learners, along with a control cohort consisting of 9 L1 signers ( 01:22 hours). For this study, a sampled annotated data, consists of 05:55 hours of a video retelling of a movie clip “The plank” from 23 learners, at two phases i.e. six months after course onset (N=14), and 1.5 years after onset (N=9), was analyzed. Comparisons to an L1 cohort (9 fluent signers) was made. Specifically, three broad types of classifier constructions were analyzed: ENTITY (entity handshapes), HANDLE (handle handshapes), and DESCRIPTOR (size and shape descriptive handshapes) (c.f. Schembri, 2003). A total of 779 tokens were identified and analyzed. The results show that the L2 learners tend to differ in the use in comparison with the L1 signers. First, L1 signers use classifier constructions to a greater extent (Table 1). Second, there were some qualitative differences with the regard of use. For example, in respect of HANDLE, simultaneous use of two separate handshape units were more common in L1 signers. Concerning ENTITY, the handshapes were more identically used across the groups, apart fromthe handshape unit representing ‘human being’. The third type: DESCRIPTOR, was more identically used within the L1 group, whereas the use of handshapes and movements varied in the L2 group. The study assumes that this finding can be explained by the way L2 learners imitate task events in comparison to L1 signers. Implications for the acquisition of classifier constructions in terms of conventionalism and L2 acquisition will be discussed.

  • 98.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The interaction between mouth actions and signs in Swedish Sign Language as an L22016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we observed several patterns related to interaction and the synchronization of mouth actions and hands among L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) compared to native signers. Previous research on signed languages has examined the synchronization of mouthings and mouth gestures (e.g. the edited volume by Boyes Braem & Sutton-Spence 2001; Crasborn et al. 2008; Johnston et al. in press). Another line of sign language research has investigated phonological errors made by L2 learners of sign languages (adult learners of signing as a second language) across a limited number of languages, primarily in the use of manual parts (e.g. Rosen 2004) as well as in the use of non-manual parts (e.g. McIntire & Reilly 1988), not including mouth actions. The current study draws from both of these research areas in an effort to answer two questions: (i) Do L2 learners use mouthings borrowed from spoken language to a greater extent than L1 (native) signers? And (ii) how do borrowed mouthings and mouth gestures interact with manual signs? In other words, what are the distribution and the scope of mouthings with respect to prosodic constituents of SSL? We based this study on an analysis of an L2 Swedish Sign Language corpus (Mesch & Schönström 2014), which consists of 9:06 hours of data from 17 different L2 signers, and a control group of 3 deaf native L1 signers who provided 0:34 hours of video. For the analysis, we sampled data consisting of various materials (interviews, picture and video retellings) from six L2 learners and compared it to parallel data from the control group. With respect to question (i), our analysis revealed a greater use of mouthings borrowed from spoken Swedish among the L2 group, and for (ii), we found a lack of prosodic features in spreading/interaction between mouthings and signs in SSL as an L2. Compared to the L1 control group, L2 learners either overused or avoided mouthing. Among L2 speakers, our analysis also revealed that Swedish function words (e.g. som ‘as’) often appeared as mouthings without corresponding manual signs, thus being articulated simultaneously with a “mismatched” sign (as in Example 1). Furthermore, the interaction of signs and mouthing was often dependent on Swedish mouthing: whereas L1 signers produced the pattern in Example 2, in which mouthing belonging to the first unit spread to the second unit, the L2 learners’ mouthings often followed a strict 1-to-1 pattern, in which mouthings accompanied single manual signs and rarely spread across sign boundaries. As shown in this study, linguistic factors impacting SSL as an L2 include bilingualism and different modalities, i.e. how mouthing and signs interact. This has implications for L2 teaching, in how L2 learners should be taught to use “unvoiced” articulations of spoken words with manual signs. For future research, it would be useful to compare these results with those of deaf people who are late learners of SSL, since they rarely have a spoken language as an L1 (and thus lack that type of interference).

  • 99.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    From meaning to signs and back:Lexicography and the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2012In: Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Interactions between Corpus and Lexicon., 2012, p. 123-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we will present the advantages of having a reference dictionary, and how having a corpus makes dictionary making easier and more effective. It also gives a new perspective on sign entries in the dictionary, for example, if a sign uses one or two hands, or which meaning “genuine signs” have, and it helps find a model for categorization of polysynthetic signs that is not found in the dictionary. Categorizing glosses in the corpus work has compelled us to revisit the dictionary to add signs from the corpus that are not already in the dictionary and to improve sign entries already in the dictionary based on insights that have been gained while working on the corpus.

  • 100.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gloss annotations in the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2015In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, E-ISSN 1569-9811, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 102-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) was compiled during the years 2009–2011 and consists of video-recorded conversations with 42 informants between the ages of 20 and 82 from three separate regions in Sweden. The overall aim of the project was to create a corpus of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) that could provide a core data source for research on language structure and use, as well as for dictionary work. A portion of the corpus has been annotated with glosses for signs and Swedish translations, and annotation of the entire corpus is ongoing. In this paper, we outline our scheme for gloss annotation and discuss issues that are relevant in creating the annotation system, with unique glosses for lexical signs, fingerspelling and productive signs. The annotation guidelines discussed in this paper cover both one- and two-handed signs in SSL, based on 33,600 tokens collected for the SSLC.

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