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  • 51. Areström, Irene
    et al.
    Zuber, Bartek
    Bengtsson, Theresa
    Ahlborg, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Immunology. Mabtech, Sweden.
    Measurement of human latent transforming growth factor beta 1 using a latency associated protein reactive elisa2012In: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, E-ISSN 1872-7905, Vol. 379, no 1-2, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-beta 1, one of three TGF-beta isoforms, is a pleotropic cytokine critical for many physiological and immunological processes. TGF-beta 1 is secreted in a latent form, linked to Latency Associated Protein (LAP). Analysis of Latent TGF-beta 1 by TGF-ELISA requires dissociation of TGF-beta 1 from LAP, e.g. by acidification of samples. The ELISA then measures total TGF-beta 1, equivalent to dissociated Latent TGF-beta 1 plus any free TGF-beta 1 present prior to acidification. Evolutionary conservation of TGF-beta 1 across mammals also renders TGF-beta 1 ELISAs reactive with TGF-beta 1 in bovine serum often used in human cell cultures. To enable a direct analysis of Latent TGF-beta 1, monoclonal antibodies were made against LAP from human latent TGF-beta 1 and used to develop a LAP ELISA detecting Latent TGF-beta 1. The ELISA did not react with LAP from human Latent TGF-beta 2 or 3, respectively, nor with Latent TGF-beta in bovine serum. EDTA-containing plasma from healthy subjects (n = 20) was analyzed by conventional TGF-beta 1 ELISA and LAP ELISA. By TGF-beta 1 ELISA, total TGF-beta 1 were detected in all samples (median 133 pM, range 34-348 pM); low levels of free TGF-beta 1 found in 8/20 non-addified samples showed that >98.5% of the total TGF-beta 1 derived from Latent TGF-beta 1. Latent TGF-beta 1 found in non-acidified samples by LAP ELISA (median 154 pM, range 48-403 pM) was comparable in molar levels to, and correlated with, total TGF-beta 1 (r(s) 0.96, p<0.0001). A similar agreement between the total TGF-beta 1 and the LAP ELISA was found with citrate- and heparin-containing plasma. The LAP ELISA facilitates analysis of Latent TGF-beta 1 without sample acidification and is not compromised by the presence of bovine serum in human cell supernatants.

  • 52. Arkestål, Kurt
    et al.
    Sibanda, Elopy
    Thors, Cecilia
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Mduluza, Takafira
    Valenta, Rudolf
    Grönlund, Hans
    van Hage, Marianne
    Impaired allergy diagnostics among parasite-infected patients caused by IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope galactose-alpha 1,3-galactose2011In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 127, no 4, p. 1024-1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The carbohydrate epitope galactose-alpha 1,3galactose (a-Gal) is abundantly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins. We have recently shown that alpha-Gal is responsible for the IgE binding to cat IgA, a newly identified cat allergen (Fel d 5). Objective: We sought to investigate the diagnostic relevance of IgE antibodies to Fel d 5 and a-Gal among parasite-infected patients from central Africa without cat allergy compared with patients with cat allergy from the same region. Methods: Sera from 47 parasite-infected patients and 31 patients with cat allergy were analyzed for total IgE and IgE antibodies against cat dander extract (CDE) by using the ImmunoCAP system. Inhibition assay was performed with a-Gal on solid phase-bound CDE. The presence of IgE specific for the major cat allergen Fel d 1, Fel d 5, and alpha-Gal was analyzed by means of ELISA. Results: Among the 47 parasite-infected patients, 85% had IgE antibodies against alpha-Gal (OD; median, 0.175; range, 0.1021.466) and 66% against Fel d 5 (OD; median, 0.13; range, 0.1031.285). Twenty-four of the parasite-infected patients were sensitized to CDE, and 21 of them had IgE antibodies to Fel d 5 and a-Gal. There was no correlation between IgE levels to CDE and rFel d 1 among the parasite-infected patients but a strong correlation between CDE and Fel d 5 and alpha-Gal (P <. 001). Among the group with cat allergy, only 5 patients had IgE to alpha-Gal, and nearly 75% (n 5 23) had IgE to rFel d 1 (median, 7.07 kU(A)/L; range, 0.51-148.5 kUA/ L). In contrast, among the patients with cat allergy, there was a correlation between IgE levels to CDE and rFel d 1 (P <.05) but no correlation between CDE and Fel d 5 and alpha-Gal. Conclusion: IgE to alpha-Gal causes impaired allergy diagnostics in parasite-infected patients. Screening for IgE to rFel d 1 and other allergens without carbohydrates might identify patients with true cat sensitization/ allergy in parasite-infested areas.

  • 53. Arko-Mensah, J
    et al.
    Julián, E
    Singh, M
    Fernández, C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    TLR2 but not TLR4 signalling is critically involved in the inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced killing of mycobacteria by murine macrophages.2007In: Scand J Immunol, ISSN 0300-9475, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 148-57Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Arko-Mensah, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Immune evasion and identification of biomarkers associated with mycobacterial infection2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 55.
    Arko-Mensah, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Mycobacterial infection: Immune evasion, host susceptibility and immunological markers of diagnostic importance2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IIn the first study, we investigated the functional implications of prolonged TLR signalling on IFN-γ mediated killing of mycobacteria by murine macrophages in vitro. TLR2, but not TLR4 ligation interfered with IFN-γ mediated killing of mycobacteria in macrophages. In terms of mechanisms, neither TNF nor nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly affected, and the refractoriness induced could be reversed with increasing amounts of IFN-γ In the second study, we aimed to identify immunological markers of diagnostic importance in both the respiratory tract and serum during pulmonary mycobacterial infection in mice. We found that increased levels of immunological markers in the respiratory tract, but not serum, correlated better with active mycobacterial infection in the lungs, suggesting that the immune response in the respiratory tract is more reflective of the infection status and pathology than the systemic response. Finally, we investigated the level and nature of immune responses to pulmonary mycobacterial infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, two mouse strains known to exhibit different susceptibilities to infection with several intracellular pathogens, including mycobacteria. We showed that increased susceptibility of BALB/c mice to early mycobacterial infection was associated with reduced Th1 immune responses, and increased sTNFR secretion in the lung. Moreover, BALB/c mice recruited fewer monocytes/macrophages to the lung, and although IFN-γ stimulation of infected bone marrow derived macrophages in both mouse strains resulted in induction of antimycobacterial activity, BALB/c mice had a reduced capacity to kill ingested bacteria. The work presented in this thesis provide further insight into the mechanisms involved in the host-pathogen interaction; from persistence, to the immunological processes induced by the pathogen, to susceptibility of the host to infection.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 56.
    Arko-Mensah, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Julián, E.
    Singh, M.
    Fernández, C.
    TLR2 but not TLR4 signalling is critically involved in the inhibition of IFN-γ induced killing of mycobacteria by murine macrophages.2007In: Scandinavian journal of immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 148-157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Arko-Mensah, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Rahman, J. M.
    Fernández, C.
    Early immune responses are responsible for the better control of pulmonary mycobacterial infection in C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c mice.Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Arko-Mensah, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Rahman, Muhammad J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Dégano, Irene R
    Chuquimia, Olga D
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Fotio, Agathe L
    Garcia, Irene
    Fernández, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Resistance to mycobacterial infection: a pattern of early immune responses leads to a better control of pulmonary infection in C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c mice.2009In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 27, no 52, p. 7418-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have compared the immunological responses associated with early pulmonary mycobacterial infection in two mouse strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6 known to exhibit distinct differences in susceptibility to infection with several pathogens. We infected mice via the intranasal route. We have demonstrated that BALB/c was less able to control mycobacterial growth in the lungs during the early phase of pulmonary infection. Our results showed that during the early phase (day 3 to week 1), BALB/c mice exhibited a delay in the production of TNF and IFN-gamma in the lungs compared to C57BL/6 mice. Levels of IL-12 and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR) were comparable between the mouse strains. The cellular subset distribution in these mice before and after infection showed a higher increase in CD11b+ cells in the lungs of C57BL/6, compared to BALB/c as early as day 3 postinfection. At early time points, higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP)-alpha were detected in C57BL/6 than BALB/c mice. In vitro, BCG-infected bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM) from both mouse strains displayed similar capacities to either phagocytose bacteria or produce soluble mediators such as TNF, IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO). Although IFN-gamma stimulation of infected BMM in both mouse strains resulted in the induction of antimycobacterial activity, BALB/c mice had a reduced capacity to kill ingested bacteria. The above observations indicate that the chain of early, possibly innate immunological events occurring during pulmonary mycobacterial infection may directly impact on increased susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  • 59. Arko-Mensah, John
    et al.
    Rahman, Muhammad Jubayer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Immunology.
    Julián, Eshter
    Horner, Gudron
    Singh, Mahavir
    Fernández, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Immunology.
    Increased levels of immunological markers in the respiratory tract but not in serum correlate with active pulmonary mycobacterial infection in mice2009In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 777-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunological tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) have relied mostly on detection of immune markers in serum or release of cytokines by mononuclear cells in vitro. These tests, although useful, sometimes fail to discriminate between active infection and contact with mycobacteria or vaccination. TB is primarily a disease of the lung, and therefore identification of immunological markers in the respiratory tract will be more likely to reflect the infection status or disease activity. In this study, it is demonstrated that active infection of mice with Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), but not exposure to heat-killed BCG, induced production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors (sTNFRs) locally in the lungs, as detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. There was a strong correlation between bacterial growth in the lung and levels of sTNFRs, and to some extent IL-12 and IFN-gamma, in BAL fluid. Furthermore, sTNFR levels increased significantly in BAL fluid after reactivation of controlled infection with dexamethasone, and this correlated with increased bacterial growth in the lungs. Finally, infection, but not exposure to non-replicating mycobacteria, induced specific IgG and IgA in BAL fluid. Elevated levels of all biomarkers measured were also detected in the serum, but correlation with infection was not as clear as in the case of BAL fluid. Taken together, the detection of sTNFRs and mycobacterium-specific antibodies, especially IgA, locally in the lungs could be used as immunological markers for the diagnosis of TB.

  • 60.
    Asp, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Chromatin Remodeling by BRG1 and SNF2H: Biochemistry and Function2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromatin is a highly dynamic, regulatory component in the process of transcription, repair, recombination and replication. The BRG1 and SNF2H proteins are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins that modulate chromatin structure to regulate DNA accessibility for DNA-binding proteins involved in these processes. The BRG1 protein is a central ATPase of the SWI/SNF complexes involved in chromatin remodeling associated with regulation of transcription. SWI/SNF complexes are biochemically hetero-geneous but little is known about the unique functional characteristics of the various forms. We have shown that SWI/SNF activity in SW13 cells affects actin filament organization dependent on the RhoA signaling pathway. We have further shown that the biochemical composition of SWI/SNF complexes qualitatively affects the remodeling activity and that the composition of biochemically purified SWI/SNF complexes does not reflect the patterns of chromatin binding of individual subunits. Chromatin binding assays (ChIP) reveal variations among subunits believed to be constitutive, suggesting that the plasticity in SWI/SNF complex composition is greater than suspected. We have also discovered an interaction between BRG1 and the splicing factor Prp8, linking SWI/SNF activity to mRNA processing. We propose a model whereby parts of the biochemical heterogeneity is a result of function and that the local chromatin environment to which the complex is recruited affect SWI/SNF composition.

    We have also isolated the novel B-WICH complex that contains WSTF, SNF2H, the splicing factor SAP155, the RNA helicase II/Guα, the transcription factor Myb-binding protein 1a, the transcription factor/DNA repair protein CSB and the RNA processing factor DEK. The formation of this complex is dependent on active transcription and links chromatin remodeling by SNF2H to RNA processing.

    By linking chromatin remodeling complexes with RNA processing proteins our work has begun to build a bridge between chromatin and RNA, suggesting that factors in chromatin associated assemblies translocate onto the growing nascent RNA.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 61.
    Asp, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Cavellán, Erica
    Tångefjord, Jessica
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Variations in subunit composition and chromatin association of mammalian SWI/SNF complexesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Asp, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Wihlborg, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Karlén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Expression of BRG1, a human SWI/SNF component, affects the organisation of actin filaments through the RhoA signalling pathway2002In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 2735-2745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human BRG1 (brahma-related gene 1) protein is a component of the SWI/SNF family of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes. We show here that expression of the BRG1 protein, but not of an ATPase-deficient BRG1 protein, in BRG1-deficient SW13 cells alters the organisation of actin filaments. BRG1 expression induces the formation of thick actin filament bundles resembling stress-fibres, structures that are rarely seen in native SW13 cells. BRG1 expression does not influence the activity state of the RhoA-GTPase, which is involved in stress-fibre formation. We find that RhoA is equally activated by stimuli, such as serum, in BRG1-expressing cells, ATPase-deficient BRG1-expressing cells and native SW13 cells. However, the activation of RhoA by lysophosphatidic acid and serum does not trigger the formation of stress-fibre-like structures in SW13 cells. Activation of the RhoA-GTPase in BRG1-expressing cells induces stress-fibre-like structures, indicating that the BRG1 can couple RhoA activation to stress-fibre formation. At least two downstream effectors are involved in stress-fibre formation, Rho-kinase/ROCK and Dia. BRG1 expression, but not the expression of the ATP-deficient BRG1, increases the protein level of ROCK1, one form of the Rho-kinase/ROCK. That this is of importance is supported by the findings that an increased Rho-kinase/ROCK activity in SW13 cells, obtained by overexpressing wild-type ROCK1 and ROCK2, induces stress-fibre formation. No specificity between the two Rho-kinase/ROCK forms exists. Our results suggest that the BRG1 protein affects the RhoA pathway by increasing the protein level of ROCK1, which allows stress-fibre-like structures to form.

  • 63.
    Awah, Nancy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Malarial anaemia: the potential involvement of Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry proteins2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria remains a challenging health problem in malaria endemic regions. Infection with malaria invariably leads to anaemia. The groups at risk of developing malarial anaemia include children below the age of five years and pregnant women, especially primigravidae. Several factors have been suggested to be responsible for its aetiology, including increased destruction of infected and normal red blood cells together with bone marrow suppression. However, until recently, the molecular mechanisms involved have remained elusive. The aim of the work presented herein was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the destruction of normal red blood cells in anaemia, and more specifically to define the role of the ring surface protein (RSP/RAP) -2 and other members of the low molecular weight rhoptry associated protein (RAP) complex, RAP-1 and -3.

    In the first study we showed that antibodies to the RAP complex could mediate the destruction of RSP-2 tagged erythroid cells by phagocytosis or by complement activation and then lysis. In addition, antibodies to RAP-1 and RAP-2 could induce the death of RSP-2/RAP-2 tagged erythroblasts. We further investigated the frequency and functionality of naturally occurring RSP-2/RAP-2 antibodies in the sera of anaemic and non-anaemic Cameroonian children. We found that all sera investigated contained RSP-2/RAP-2 reactive antibodies by both immunoflorescence and flow cytometry. The anaemic group of children had significantly higher levels of antibodies of the IgG isotype than the non-anaemic individuals, while the levels of IgM were similar in both groups. With respect to IgG subclasses, low levels of IgG1 and -3 antibodies were detected. Higher levels of IgG3 were seen in the non-anaemic individuals as compared to anaemic subjects. With regards to antibody functionality, the non-anaemic individuals recognised a greater proportion of RSP-2/RAP-2 tagged erythrocytes and activated complement to a greater extent than the anaemic individuals.

    From our findings, we can conclude that antibodies to the RAP complex are potentially involved in erythroid cell destruction during malaria which may result in anaemia, and that high levels of such antibodies may be detrimental to the host.

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  • 64.
    Awah, Nancy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Studies on Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens: RAP-2/RSP-2 and Pf332 in focus2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The life cycle of the malaria parasite is very complex and provides a number of potential targets for vaccination. In this thesis, data on two plasmodial asexual blood stage antigens (RAP-2 and Pf332) are presented.

    A partial aim of the work presented herein was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the destruction of erythroid cells in anaemia, and more specifically to define the role of the rhoptry associated protein (RAP)-2 and other members of the RAP complex, RAP-1 and -3 in processes resulting in anaemia. Antibodies to the RAP complex were shown to have the potential to mediate the destruction of RAP-2-tagged erythroid cells by phagocytosis or by complement activation and lysis. In addition, antibodies to RAP-1 and RAP-2 could induce the apoptotic death of RAP-2- tagged erythroblasts. The frequency and functionality of naturally occurring RAP-2 antibodies in the sera of anaemic and non-anaemic Cameroonian children were also investigated. All sera tested contained RAP-2-reactive antibodies by both immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. The anaemic group of children had higher levels of IgG than the non-anaemic ones, while the levels of IgM were similar. With respect to IgG subclasses, higher levels of IgG3 were seen in the non-anaemic individuals as compared to anaemic subjects. The non-anaemic individuals recognised a greater proportion of RAP-2-tagged RBCs and activated complement to a greater extent than the anaemic ones.

    Earlier studies observed that humans continuously exposed to malaria, recognised Pf332 extensively. Further studies revealed that Pf332 antibodies were able to inhibit parasite growth and cytoadherence in vitro. Making use of Pf332-C231, a sub-fragment of Pf332, we studied the effects/mode of action of C231-specific antibodies on P. falciparum parasite growth and development in vitro. The antibodies appeared to act mainly on late stage parasites by two main mechanisms: 1) through the induction of abnormal/pyknotic parasites, and, 2) RBC lysis (disintegration of RBCs), thus limiting parasite growth and development. The antibody isotype in this context was IgG. Following the removal of immune pressure, parasites resumed growth, albeit at a much slower rate. The results suggest that during natural infections, antibodies to C231 could play a role in parasite control.

    In summary, these data suggest that antibodies to both antigens could be instrumental in immune responses leading to disease control, but could also mediate pathology.

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  • 65.
    Awah, Nancy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Balogun, Halima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Achidi, E.
    Mariuba, L. A.
    Nogueira, P. A.
    Orlandi, P.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Gysin, J.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Antibodies to the Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry protein RAP-2/RSP-2 in relation to anaemia in Cameroonian children2011In: Parasite immunology (Print), ISSN 0141-9838, E-ISSN 1365-3024, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 104-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have implicated reactive antibodies to the low molecular weight rhoptry-associated proteins (RAP-1, RAP-2/RSP-2 and RAP-3) in erythroid cell destruction during Plasmodium falciparum infection. In this pilot study, the frequency, specificity and functional capacity of naturally acquired anti-RAP-2/RSP-2 antibodies were investigated in the sera of anaemic and nonanaemic malaria-infected Cameroonian children. All sera recognized RAP-2/RSP-2 by FACS, irrespective of the clinical status of the subjects. However, the anaemic children showed higher levels of IgG antibodies than the nonanaemic group, while both groups showed similar levels of IgM antibodies. Only few individuals had detectable levels of RAP-2/RSP-2-specific IgG1 and IgG3 subclass antibodies, while no IgG2 and IgG4 subclass antibodies were detected in these subjects. By ELISA, the anaemic group tended to show higher levels of antibodies to RAP-2/RSP-2 regarding all antibody classes tested, except for IgG4 and IgE. Unexpectedly, sera from the nonanaemic group activated complement to a greater extent than those from the anaemic group. These results need to be confirmed in extended studies but indicate that the effector functions of the RAP-2/RSP-2-reactive antibodies may be more important than their amounts. Such antibodies could play a role in both immunity and pathogenesis during P. falciparum infection.

  • 66.
    Awah, Nancy W.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Gysin, Jürg
    Unité de Parasitologie Expérimentale, URA Institut Pasteur/Univ-Med.
    Mechanisms of malarial anaemia: potential involvement of the Plasmodium falciparum low molecular weight rhoptry-associated proteins.2009In: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 295-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the tropics. Anaemia is a constant feature of the disease. Pregnant women mostly primigravidae and children below the age of 5 years are the most afflicted. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Among several factors, the destruction of erythrocytes (RBCs) is the most frequently observed cause of severe malarial anaemia and the removal of non-parasitized RBCs (nEs) is thought to be the most important, accounting for approximately 90% of the reduction in haematocrit in acute malaria. Previous studies demonstrated that the tagging of nEs with the parasite antigen RAP-2 (rhoptry-associated protein-2; also designated RSP-2) due to either failed or aborted invasion by merozoites resulted in the destruction of these cells. In this study we further investigated the mechanisms mediating the destruction of nEs in the development of severe malarial anaemia and the possible involvement of RAP-2/RSP-2 and other members of the low molecular weight rhoptry complex (RAP-1: rhoptry-associated protein-1 and RAP-3: rhoptry-associated protein-3). Antibodies to the rhoptry-associated proteins were found to recognise the surface of nEs in a parasitaemia-dependent manner after merozoite release in P. falciparumin vitro cultures. These cells, as well as erythroblasts co-cultured with infected RBCs (IEs), could then be destroyed by either phagocytosis or lysis after complement activation. The ability of anti-rhoptry antibodies to mediate the destruction of RAP-2/RSP-2-tagged erythroblasts in the presence of effector cells was also investigated. Data obtained suggest that mouse monoclonal antibodies to the low molecular weight RAP proteins mediate the death of RAP-2/RSP-2-tagged erythroblasts on interaction with adherent monocytes. The mechanism of cell death is not yet fully known, but seems to involve primarily apoptosis. The above observations suggest that the antibody response against RAP-2/RSP-2 and other members of the complex could trigger the destruction of RAP-2/RSP-2-tagged host cells. Taken together it appears that during severe anaemia a defective bone marrow or dyserythropoiesis possibly due to erythroblast cell death, may overlap with the accelerated destruction of normal erythroid cells, either by opsonisation or complement activation further aggravating the anaemia which may become fatal. These observations could therefore have implications in the design, development and deployment of future therapeutic interventions against malaria.

  • 67. Aydin, Jan
    et al.
    Shabalina, Irina G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Place, Nicolas
    Reiken, Steven
    Zhang, Shi-Jin
    Bellinger, Andrew M
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Marks, Andrew R
    Bruton, Joseph D
    Westerblad, Håkan
    Nonshivering thermogenesis protects against defective calcium handling in muscle.2008In: FASEB J, ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 3919-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Bachmayer, Nora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    The role of natural killer cells and inflammatory mediators in preeclamptic pregnancies2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The maternal immune system must be able to adjust during pregnancy and accept the foetus that expresses paternal antigens. These changes are found both in placenta and circulation, including a mild inflammatory response. NK cells are abundant during the early part of pregnancy in placenta and are thought to be important for placental development. During preeclampsia the placenta is poorly developed, together with an escalated pro-inflammatory profile noticed in both placenta and circulation. We wanted to study NK cells in placenta and circulation from preeclamptic cases as well as levels of cytokines. HMGB1, an alarmin involved in inflammation, was also measured in preeclamptic placentae.

    When studying preeclamptic placentae in third trimester we found higher numbers of NK cells as well as a higher expression of CD94+ NK cells. We also found slightly elevated levels of HMGB1 together with significantly lower expression of IL-12 in preeclamptic placentae. Further, the NK cell activating cytokines IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-15 in sera from preeclamptic women were increased compared to healthy pregnancies. The elevated levels of NK cell activating IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-15 found in preeclamptic sera, made us investigate the circulating NK cells in preeclampsia. However, no differences were seen between healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    The main immunological alterations in third trimester preeclamptic pregnancies with regard to NK cells were found in placenta. Altered maternal cytokine levels in placenta could influence decidual NK cells in preeclampsia, noticed by their higher numbers and altered receptor expression. If these alterations also exist during early pregnancy it could result in a poorly developed and dysfunctional placenta.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 69. Bachmayer, Nora
    et al.
    Sohlberg, Ebba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Sundström, Yvonne
    Hamad, Rangeen Rafik
    Berg, Louise
    Bremme, Katarina
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Women with pre-eclampsia have an altered NKG2A and NKG2C receptor expression on peripheral blood natural killer cells.2009In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology and Microbiology, ISSN 8755-8920, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 147-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PROBLEM: Preeclampsia, a pregnancy disorder, is associated with exaggerated inflammation and increased serum monokines. Uterine natural killer (NK) cells are implicated in preeclampsia pathology, but little is known regarding peripheral NK cells in the disease. METHOD OF STUDY: We examined blood NK cells at delivery in women with preeclampsia, in healthy pregnant women and in healthy non-pregnant blood donors as a reference. RESULTS: Although the percentages of both NKG2A- and NKG2C-positive NK cells were normal in preeclamptic women, the levels of NKG2A and NKG2C on NK cells were significantly up-regulated in these women. In vitro stimulation of PBMCs from healthy pregnant women and blood donors with monokines resulted in increased percentage of NKG2A(+) NK cells and increased NKG2A levels, while levels of NKG2C were decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the peripheral NK-cell pool is skewed in preeclampsia and possibly under the influence of monokines like interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-12.

  • 70.
    Balogun, Halima A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Immunological characteristics of recombinant fragments of the Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigen Pf3322011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective malaria vaccine might help improve control strategies against malaria, but the complexity of interactions between the parasite and its hosts poses challenges. The asexual blood stage P. falciparum antigen Pf332 has potentials as one of the proteins in understanding the complex host-parasite interactions. The interest in Pf332 as a target for parasite neutralizing antibodies, evolved from previous studies demonstrating that Pf332-reactive antibodies inhibits parasite growth in vitro. The presence of natural P. falciparum infection also indicated that Pf332 has the ability to induce protective antibodies.

    In paper I, we identified and characterized the immunogenicity of a C-terminal region of Pf332. Immunological analyses carried out with this fragment revealed that rabbit anti-C231 antibodies possess parasite in vitro inhibitory capabilities. In paper II, the functional activity of C231 specific antibodies was confirmed with human-affinity purified antibodies, where the antibodies inhibited late stage parasite development, by the presence of abnormal parasites and disintegrated red cell membranes.

    Epidemiological data from malaria endemic area of Senegal (Paper III & IV), showed that antibodies were reactive with two different fragments of Pf332 (C231 and DBL). Distribution of anti-C231 antibodies in the IgG subclasses, gave similar levels of IgG2 and IgG3. The levels of anti-C231 antibodies were associated with protection from clinical malaria, but with DBL reactive antibodies IgG3 was associated with protection from clinical malaria.

    We hereby conclude that antigen Pf332 contains immunogenic epitopes, and is a potential target for parasite neutralizing antibodies. The Pf332 protein should thus be considered as a candidate antigen for inclusion in a subunit P. falciparum malaria vaccine.

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    THESIS-Pf332
  • 71.
    Balogun, Halima A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Awah, Nancy W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Farouk, Salah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Pf332-C231-reactive antibodies affect growth and development of intra-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum parasites2011In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Plasmodium falciparum antigen 332 (Pf332), is a megadalton parasite protein expressed at the surface of infected red cells during later stages of the parasite's developmental cycle. Antibodies to different parts of this antigen have been shown to inhibit parasite growth and adherence to host cells with or without ancillary cells. However, the mechanisms involved in these inhibitions remain largely unknown. We further analysed the activities of specific antibodies with regard to their specific mechanisms of action. For these analyses, affinity purified human antibodies against epitopes in the C-terminal fragment of Pf332 (Pf332-C231) were employed. All purified antibodies recognized Pf332-C231 both by immunofluorescence and ELISA. IgG was the main antibody isotype detected, although all sera investigated had varying proportions of IgG and IgM content. All the antibodies showed a capacity to inhibit parasite growth in P. falciparum cultures to different extents, mainly by acting on the more mature parasite stages. Morphological analysis revealed the antibody effects to be characterized by the presence of a high proportion of abnormal schizonts (15-30%) and pyknotic parasites. There was also an apparent antibody effect on the red cell integrity, as many developing parasites (up to 10% of trophozoites and schizonts) were extracellular. In some cases, the infected red cells appeared to be disintegrating/fading, staining paler than surrounding infected and uninfected cells. Antigen reversal of inhibition confirmed that these inhibitions were antigen specific. Furthermore, the growth of parasites after 22-42 h exposure to antibodies was investigated. Following the removal of antibody pressure, a decreased growth rate of these parasites was seen compared to that of control parasites. The present study confirms the potential of Pf332 as a target antigen for parasite neutralizing antibodies, and further indicates that epitopes within the C231 region of Pf332 should constitute important tools in the dissection of the role of Pf332 in the biology of the malaria parasite, as well as in the design of a malaria vaccine.

  • 72.
    Balogun, Halima A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Vasconcelos, N.-M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Lindberg, R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Haeggström, M.
    Moll, K.
    Chen, Q.
    Wahlgren, M.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Immunogenicity and antigenic properties of Pf332-C231, a fragment of a non-repeat region of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332 2009In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antigen Pf332, a megadalton protein has been shown to be associated with the membrane of infected erythrocytes. Detailed functional studies on the antigen have remained hampered by the cross-reactive nature of antibodies generated to Pf332. Pf332-C231, identified in the C-terminal region of Pf332 was cloned and antibodies against the C231 fragment were shown to react with intact Pf332 antigen by both immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Antibodies to C231 inhibited in vitro Plasmodium falciparum growth efficiently. In addition, human sera from malaria-exposed individuals reacted with recombinant C231. We show that Pf332-C231 represents a functional domain and is expected to facilitate further studies on Pf332 as a potential target for protective immune responses and the function of the antigen.

  • 73.
    Balogun, Halima Aramide
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Immunological characteristics of a C-terminal fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigen Pf3322006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Till date, there are no effective control strategies against the deadly disease of malaria, and millions of children across Africa, Oceania, Asia, and Latin America are at the mercy of this long term enemy of man every second that passes by. Other control measures combined with vaccination might help improve control strategy against malaria, but the development of vaccines face various challenges as well, due to the complexity of the parasites’ life cycle and other host factors. The asexual blood stage antigen Pf332 of Plasmodium falciparum, is expressed during the trophozoite stage, and transported from the parasitophorous membrane to the outer erythrocyte membrane during schizogony.

    Previous studies have suggested this antigen as a potential vaccine candidate, because Pf332-reactive human monoclonal antibody (mAb 33G2) inhibits parasite growth and cytoadherence in vitro. Elucidating and understanding the immunological capabilities of antigen Pf332, as a vaccine candidate was the aim of the studies presented in this thesis.

    In our first study we identified and characterized the immunogenicity of a non-repeat fragment of antigen Pf332, termed Pf332-C231, a 231 amino acids long fragment corresponding to 13 percent of the total protein. Various analyses carried out with this fragment reveal that recombinant C231 was immunogenic in rabbits. In addition, anti- C231 antibodies have in vitro inhibitory capabilities. In immunoflourescence and immunoblot assays, rabbit anti-C231 antibodies were able to recognize the native protein.

    In the other study, we examined the distribution of antibodies regarding recombinant C231 and crude P. falciparum extract in a malaria endemic area of Senegal. IgG antibody reactivity with crude P. falciparum antigen was detected in the sera of all the  donors while many of the children lacked or had low levels of such antibodies against C231. The distribution of the anti-C231 antibodies in the different IgG subclasses differed from that shown by crude P. falciparum antigen. The crude P. falciparum antigen gives a higher IgG3 response than IgG2 for all age-groups, while C231 gave similar levels of IgG2 and IgG3. Correlation studies showed that the levels of anti-C231antibodies were associated with protection from clinical malaria, but this only reached significance with IgE. These findings further emphasize the inclusion of antigen Pf332 as a subunit vaccine candidate against P. falciparum malaria.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 74.
    Balogun, Halima
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Awah, Nancy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Farouk, S.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Pf332-C231- reactive antibodies affect growth and development of intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum parasitesArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Balogun, Halima
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Awah, Nancy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Nilsson, S.
    Rousillhon, C.
    Rogier, C.
    Trape, J. F.
    Chen, Q.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Pattern of antibodies to the Duffy binding-like domain of Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332 in Senegalese individualsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Barsoum, E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Developmental Biology.
    Rajaei, Naghmeh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Developmental Biology.
    Åström, Stefan U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Developmental Biology.
    RAS/Cyclic AMP and Transcription Factor Msn2 Regulate Mating and Mating-Type Switching in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis2011In: Eukaryotic Cell, ISSN 1535-9778, E-ISSN 1535-9786, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 1545-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to harsh environmental conditions, ascomycetes produce stress-resistant spores to promote survival. As sporulation requires a diploid DNA content, species with a haploid lifestyle, such as Kluyveromyces lactis, first induce mating in response to stress. In K. lactis, mating and mating-type switching are induced by the DNA-binding protein Mts1. Mts1 expression is known to be upregulated by nutrient limitation, but the mechanism is unknown. We show that a ras2 mutation results in a hyperswitching phenotype. In contrast, strains lacking the phosphodiesterase Pde2 had lower switching rates compared to that of the wild type (WT). As Ras2 promotes cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and Pde2 degrades cAMP, these data suggest that low cAMP levels induce switching. Because the MTS1 regulatory region contains several Msn2 binding sites and Msn2 is a transcription factor that is activated by low cAMP levels, we investigated if Msn2 regulates MTS1 transcription. Consistently with this idea, an msn2 mutant strain displayed lower switching rates than the WT strain. The transcription of MTS1 is highly induced in the ras2 mutant strain. In contrast, an msn2 ras2 double mutant strain displays WT levels of the MTS1 transcript, showing that Msn2 is a critical inducer of MTS1 transcription. Strains lacking Msn2 and Pde2 also exhibit mating defects that can be complemented by the ectopic expression of Mts1. Finally, we show that MTS1 is subjected to negative autoregulation, presumably adding robustness to the mating and switching responses. We suggest a model in which Ras2/cAMP/Msn2 mediates the stress-induced mating and mating-type switching responses in K. lactis.

  • 77.
    Barsoum, Emad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Mating type switching and transcriptional silencing in Kluyveromyces lactis2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the similarities and differences of regulatory circuits among budding yeasts, we characterized the role of unscheduled meiotic gene expression 6 (UME6) and a novel mating type switching pathway in Kluyveromyces lactis. We found that Ume6 was required for transcriptional silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci HMLα and HMRa. Ume6 acted directly at these loci by binding to the cis-regulatory silencers. Ume6 also served as a block to polyploidy and was required for repression of three meiotic genes, independently of the Rpd3 and Sin3 corepressors.

    Mating type switching from MATα to MATa required the α3 protein. The α3 protein was similar to transposases of the mutator like elements (MULEs). Mutational analysis showed that the DDE-motif in α3, which is conserved in MULEs was necessary for switching. During switching α3 mobilizes from the genome in the form of a DNA circle. The sequences encompassing the α3 gene circle junctions in the MATα locus were essential for switching from MATα to MATa. Switching also required a DNA binding protein, Mating type switch 1 (Mts1), whose binding sites in MATα were important. Expression of Mts1 was repressed in MATa/MATα diploids and by nutrients, limiting switching to haploids in low nutrient conditions.

    In a genetic selection for strains with increased switching rates we found a mutation in the RAS1 gene. By measuring the levels of the MTS1 mRNA and switching rates in ras1, pde2 and msn2 mutant strains we show that mating type switching in K. lactis was regulated by the RAS/cAMP pathway and the transcription factor Msn2. ras1 mutants contained 20-fold higher levels of MTS1 mRNA compared to wild type whereas pde2 and msn2 expressed less MTS1 mRNA and had decreased switching rates. Furthermore we found that MTS1 contained several potential Msn2 binding sites upstream of its ORF. We suggest that these observations explain the nutrient regulation of switching.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 78.
    Barsoum, Emad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Martinez, Paula
    Åström, Stefan U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    {alpha}3, a transposable element that promotes host sexual reproduction2010In: Genes & Development, ISSN 0890-9369, E-ISSN 1549-5477, Vol. 24, no 15, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical models predict that selfish DNA elements require host sex to persist in a population. Therefore, a transposon that induces sex would strongly favor its own spread. We demonstrate that a protein homologous to transposases, called alpha3, was essential for mating type switch in Kluyveromyces lactis. Mutational analysis showed that amino acids conserved among transposases were essential for its function. During switching, sequences in the 5' and 3' flanking regions of the alpha3 gene were joined, forming a DNA circle, showing that alpha3 mobilized from the genome. The sequences encompassing the alpha3 gene circle junctions in the mating type alpha (MATalpha) locus were essential for switching from MATalpha to MATa, suggesting that alpha3 mobilization was a coupled event. Switching also required a DNA-binding protein, Mating type switch 1 (Mts1), whose binding sites in MATalpha were important. Expression of Mts1 was repressed in MATa/MATalpha diploids and by nutrients, limiting switching to haploids in low-nutrient conditions. A hairpin-capped DNA double-strand break (DSB) was observed in the MATa locus in mre11 mutant strains, indicating that mating type switch was induced by MAT-specific DSBs. This study provides empirical evidence for selfish DNA promoting host sexual reproduction by mediating mating type switch.

  • 79.
    Barsoum, Emad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Sjöstrand, Jimmy O. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Åström, Stefan U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Ume6 is required for the MATa/MATα cellular identity and transcriptional silencing in Kluyveromyces lactis2010In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 184, no 4, p. 999-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the similarities and differences of regulatory circuits among budding yeasts, we characterized the role of the unscheduled meiotic gene expression 6 (UME6) gene in Kluyveromyces lactis. We found that Ume6 was required for transcriptional silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci HMLα and HMRa. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) suggested that Ume6 acted directly by binding the cis-regulatory silencers of these loci. Unexpectedly, a MATa ume6 strain was mating proficient, whereas a MATα ume6 strain was sterile. This observation was explained by the fact that ume6 derepressed HMLα2 only weakly, but derepressed HMRa1 strongly. Consistently, two a/α-repressed genes (MTS1 and STE4) were repressed in the MATα ume6 strain, but were expressed in the MATa ume6 strain. Surprisingly, ume6 partially suppressed the mating defect of a MATa sir2 strain. MTS1 and STE4 were repressed in the MATa sir2 ume6 double-mutant strain, indicating that the suppression acted downstream of the a1/α2-repressor. We show that both STE12 and the MATa2/HMRa2 genes were overexpressed in the MATa sir2 ume6 strain. Consistent with the idea that this deregulation suppressed the mating defect, ectopic overexpression of Ste12 and a2 in a MATa sir2 strain resulted in efficient mating. In addition, Ume6 served as a block to polyploidy, since ume6/ume6 diploids mated as pseudo a-strains. Finally, Ume6 was required for repression of three meiotic genes, independently of the Rpd3 and Sin3 corepressors.

  • 80.
    Barsoum, Emad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Åström, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Developmental Biology.
    Regulation of mating type switching in Kluyveromyces lactis by the RAS/cAMP pathway and the transcription factor Msn2Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the regulation of mating type switching in Kluyveromyces lactis. Using an assay dependent on loss of a URA3 gene inserted into the MATa locus, we determined that the switching rate of a wild type strain grown in rich media was ~6X10-4 events/generation. In a genetic selection for identifying strains with increased switching rates, we found a strain with an insertion in the K. lactis RAS1 gene, encoding a small GTPase with a central role in growth regulation. Compromised Ras1 function leads to a lower cAMP level suggesting a role for cAMP in promoting switching. Consistent with this idea, a strain lacking the PDE2 gene, which encodes an enzyme that degrades cAMP, resulted in decreased switching rates. To explore how cAMP regulated switching, we investigated the transcription of the MTS1 gene, encoding an inducer of switching. The ras1 mutant strain contained 20-fold higher levels of the MTS1 mRNA compared to wild type, but in the pde2 mutant strain MTS1 transcription was repressed 5-fold. In addition, strains lacking the MSN2 gene, which encodes a transcription factor that binds the stress response element (STRE), expressed less MTS1 mRNA and had decreased switching rates. We suggest a model in which nutrient limitation induces switching through cAMP and Msn2-dependent transcriptional induction of the MTS1 gene.

  • 81.
    Bartish, Galyna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Elongation factor 2: A key component of the translation machinery in eukaryotes: Properties of yeast elongation factor 2 studied in vivo2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of proteins is performed by the ribosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex. Apart from the ribosome, numerous protein factors participate in this process. Elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is one of these factors. eEF2 is an essential protein with a mol. mass of about 100 kDa. The amino acid sequence of eEF2 is highly conserved in different organisms. eEF2 from S. cerevisiae contains 842 amino acids. The role of eEF2 in protein synthesis is to participate in the translocation of tRNAs from the A- and P-sites on the ribosome to the P- and E-sites. This movement of tRNAs is accompanied by a simultaneous movement of mRNA by one codon. eEF2 consists of six domains referred to as domains G, G′ and II-V, belongs to the G-protein super-family and possesses all structural motifs characterizing proteins in this family. eEF2 binds to the ribosome in complex with GTP. After GTP hydrolysis and translocation, it leaves the ribosome bound to GDP. The rate of protein synthesis in the cell can be regulated by phosphorylation of eEF2. Phosphorylation occurs on two threonine residues, situated in the G domain of the factor. Phosphorylation of eEF2 is catalysed by Rck2-kinase in yeast which is activated in response to osmotic stress. Despite the high degree of conservation of the threonine residues, they are not essential for yeast cell under normal growth conditions. However, under mild osmotic stress the growth rate of the cells lacking threonine residues was decreased. Region where threonine residues are located, called Switch I. Cryo-EM reconstruction shows that this region adopts ordered conformation when the eEF2•GTP complex is bound to the ribosome but became structurally disordered upon GTP hydrolysis. Mutagenesis of individual amino acids in Switch I resulted in both functional and non-functional eEF2 depending on the site of mutation and the substituting amino acid. Both functional and non-functional Switch I mutants were able to bind to the ribosome, indicating that mutations did not abolish the capacity of the factor to bind GTP. Yeast eEF2 with Switch I region from E. coli was able to substitute the wild type protein in vivo, though the growth rate of these cells was severely impaired. The eEF2-dependent GTP hydrolysis can be activated by ribosome from heterologous sources as seen in vitro. However, eEF2 from A. thaliana, D. melanogaster and S. solfataricus could not substi-tute yeast eEF2 in vivo. This may indicate additional roles of eEF2 in the yeast cell, apart from translocation itself.

  • 82.
    Bartish, Galyna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Moradi, Hossein
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Nygård, Odd
    Amino acids Thr56 and Thr58 are not essential for elongation factor 2 function in yeast2007In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 274, no 20, p. 5285-5297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yeast elongation factor 2 is an essential protein that contains two highly conserved threonine residues, T56 and T58, that could potentially be phosphorylated by the Rck2 kinase in response to environmental stress. The importance of residues T56 and T58 for elongation factor 2 function in yeast was studied using site directed mutagenesis and functional complementation. Mutations T56D, T56G, T56K, T56N and T56V resulted in nonfunctional elongation factor 2 whereas mutated factor carrying point mutations T56M, T56C, T56S, T58S and T58V was functional. Expression of mutants T56C, T56S and T58S was associated with reduced growth rate. The double mutants T56M/T58W and T56M/T58V were also functional but the latter mutant caused increased cell death and considerably reduced growth rate. The results suggest that the physiological role of T56 and T58 as phosphorylation targets is of little importance in yeast under standard growth conditions. Yeast cells expressing mutants T56C and T56S were less able to cope with environmental stress induced by increased growth temperatures. Similarly, cells expressing mutants T56M and T56M/T58W were less capable of adapting to increased osmolarity whereas cells expressing mutant T58V behaved normally. All mutants tested were retained their ability to bind to ribosomes in vivo. However, mutants T56D, T56G and T56K were under-represented on the ribosome, suggesting that these nonfunctional forms of elongation factor 2 were less capable of competing with wild-type elongation factor 2 in ribosome binding. The presence of nonfunctional but ribosome binding forms of elongation factor 2 did not affect the growth rate of yeast cells also expressing wild-type elongation factor 2.

  • 83.
    Bartish, Galyna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Nygård, Odd
    Importance of individual amino acids in the Switch I region in eEF2 studied by functional complementation in S. cerevisiae2008In: Biochimie, ISSN 0300-9084, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 736-748Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Bartish, Galyna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Nygård, Odd
    The functional importance of the N- and C-terminal regions in elongation factor 2 from S. cerevisiaeManuscript (Other academic)
  • 85. Bemark, Mats
    et al.
    Friskopp, Linda
    Saghafian-Hedengren, Shanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Immunology.
    Koethe, Susanne
    Fasth, Anders
    Abrahamsson, Jonas
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Immunology.
    Andersson, Bengt A.
    Mellgren, Karin
    A glycosylation-dependent CD45RB epitope defines previously unacknowledged CD27(-)IgM(high) B cell subpopulations enriched in young children and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation2013In: Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1521-6616, E-ISSN 1521-7035, Vol. 149, no 3, p. 421-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immune system is dysfunctional for years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A potential cause is an intrinsic B cell deficiency. In a cohort of pediatric HSCT patients few CD27(+) B cells formed after transplantation with the number of CD27(+)IgM(high) cells more affected than class-switched ones. A previously unacknowledged population of CD27(-)IgM(high) cells made up the majority of B cells and this population was also enlarged in healthy children compared to adults. Only a minority of these CD27(-)IgM(high) B cells expressed markers typical for transitional B cells, and the non-transitional CD27(-)IgM(high) cells could be further divided into subpopulations based on their ability to extrude the dye Rhodamine 123 and their expression of CD45RB(MEM55), a glycosylation-dependent epitope. Thus, we define several novel human CD27(-)IgM(high) B cell subpopulations in blood, all of which are present in higher frequencies and numbers in young children and after HSCT than in adults.

  • 86.
    Bengtsson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Physiology.
    β-adrenergic receptors: Genes and Expression1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 87. Berger, Juerg
    et al.
    Senti, Kirsten-Andre
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Senti, Gabriele
    Newsome, Timothy P.
    Asling, Bengt
    Dickson, Barry J.
    Suzuki, Takashi
    Systematic identification of genes that regulate neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system2008In: PLOS GENET, ISSN 1553-7390, Vol. 4, no 5, p. e1000085-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forward genetic screens in model organisms are an attractive means to identify those genes involved in any complex biological process, including neural circuit assembly. Although mutagenesis screens are readily performed to saturation, gene identification rarely is, being limited by the considerable effort generally required for positional cloning. Here, we apply a systematic positional cloning strategy to identify many of the genes required for neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system. From a large-scale forward genetic screen selecting for visual system wiring defects with a normal retinal pattern, we recovered 122 mutations in 42 genetic loci. For 6 of these loci, the underlying genetic lesions were previously identified using traditional methods. Using SNP-based mapping approaches, we have now identified 30 additional genes. Neuronal phenotypes have not previously been reported for 20 of these genes, and no mutant phenotype has been previously described for 5 genes. The genes encode a variety of proteins implicated in cellular processes such as gene regulation, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, and cell signalling. We conducted a comprehensive phenotypic analysis of 35 genes, scoring wiring defects according to 33 criteria. This work demonstrates the feasibility of combining large-scale gene identification with large-scale mutagenesis in Drosophila, and provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular mechanisms that regulate visual system wiring.

  • 88. Bergholm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Adler, Jeremy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Parmryd, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Analysis of Bias in the Apparent Correlation Coefficient Between Image Pairs Corrupted by Severe Noise2010In: Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, ISSN 0924-9907, E-ISSN 1573-7683, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 204-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation coefficient r is a measure of similarity used to compare regions of interest in image pairs. In fluorescence microscopy there is a basic tradeoff between the degree of image noise and the frequency with which images can be acquired and therefore the ability to follow dynamic events. The correlation coefficient r is commonly used in fluorescence microscopy for colocalization measurements, when the relative distributions of two fluorophores are of interest. Unfortunately, r is known to be biased understating the true correlation when noise is present. A better measure of correlation is needed. This article analyses the expected value of r and comes up with a procedure for evaluating the bias of r, expected value formulas. A Taylor series of so-called invariant factors is analyzed in detail. These formulas indicate ways to correct r and thereby obtain a corrected value free from the influence of noise that is on average accurate (unbiased). One possible correction is the attenuated corrected correlation coefficient R, introduced heuristically by Spearman (in Am. J. Psychol. 15:72-101, 1904). An ideal correction formula in terms of expected values is derived. For large samples R tends towards the ideal correction formula and the true noise-free correlation. Correlation measurements using simulation based on the types of noise found in fluorescence microscopy images illustrate both the power of the method and the variance of R. We conclude that the correction formula is valid and is particularly useful for making correct analyses from very noisy datasets.

  • 89.
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Immunology.
    Membrane antigens from rat liver: immunological resolution and functional characterization1976Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Björkander, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Bremme, K.
    Persson, Jan-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    van Vollenhoven, R. F.
    Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Holmlund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Immunology.
    Pregnancy-associated inflammatory markers are elevated in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus2012In: Cytokine, ISSN 1043-4666, E-ISSN 1096-0023, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 392-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During normal pregnancy a dampening in T cell-mediated immunity is compensated by an increased pro-inflammatory activity. Likewise, the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with inflammatory activity and pregnancy complications occur frequently in women with SLE. The aim of this study was to elucidate how SLE influences the chemokine and cytokine balance during and after pregnancy. Blood samples were taken from pregnant women with or without SLE at second and third trimester and 8-12 weeks after pregnancy. Cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, TNF, IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha), chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL5/RANTES and CCL17/TARC), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and soluble glycoprotein 130 (gp130) were measured in serum using cytometric bead array (CBA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Women with SLE had increased serum concentrations of CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-10 compared to controls both during and after pregnancy. Further, when dividing the patients based on disease activity, the women with active disease had the highest levels. Importantly, women with SLE seemed to respond to pregnancy in a similar way as controls, since the changes of cytokines and chemokines over the course of pregnancy were similar but with overall higher levels in the patient group. In conclusion, changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory serum components during pregnancy in women with SLE, occurring on top of already more pro-inflammatory levels, might increase their risk for pregnancy complications and flares. How their children are affected by this heightened inflammatory milieu during pregnancy needs further investigation.

  • 91.
    Björkegren Sjögren, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Profilin in cell motility and signal transduction studies using site-specific mutagenesis1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a cell is stimulated by signalling molecules such as growth factors, one immediate response is an increased motile activity of the cell. Membrane lamella and spikes appear at the cell surface and perform undulating movements. This is caused by the activation and reorganisation of the highly dynamic microfilament system, present beneath the cell membrane. The major component of the microfilament system is actin, a protein that can polymerise into filaments -microfilaments-, and several actin-binding proteins which act in concert to organise actin into different supramolecular arrangements. To understand how a signal is transmitted form the exterior of the cell to the microfilament system, it is important to reveal how the activities of different actin-binding proteins are regulated.

    This thesis focus on the actin-binding protein profilin, which binds actin monomers and regulates actin polymerisation. Profilin also interacts with polyphosphoinositides, which are important signalling molecules, and this association appears to regulate both the function of profilin and the turnover of polyphosphoinositides. Furthermore, profilin binds poly(L-proline) and proline-rich proteins. The latter interaction seems to be involved in the positioning of profilin within a cell, and may also be important for signal transduction-related processes. In the current investigation site-directed mutagenesis was combined with biochemical methods to further investigate the function of profilin.

    The replacement of two amino acid residues located in a hydrophobic patch on the surface of the profilin molecule was shown to abolish the interaction with poly(L-proline), and enabled the localisation of the poly(L-proline) binding-site to this part of profilin. A new purification method was developed for these profilin mutants and further biochemical characterisation showed that the two mutations also decreased the affinity of profilin for actin. As the poly(L-proline)-binding site is separated from the actin-binding surface of profilin this showed that these amino acid replacements in the poly(L-proline)-binding site also introduced long-range alterations in the profilin molecule.

    Profilin was shown to be phosphorylated on a serine and a tyrosine residue by an epidermal growth factor receptor complex isolated from stimulated cells. The phosphorylated residues were located to the poly(L-proline) binding site of profilin, and the phosphorylation interfered with the binding of profilin to poly(L-proline). This suggests that this phosphorylation regulate interactions between profilin and proline-rich proteins.

    The simultaneous deletion of two amino acid residues adjacent to the actin-binding site of profilin was shown to reduce the affinity of profilin for actin, without affecting the interaction of profilin with other ligands. The effect of this mutant profilin on the organisation of the microfilament system in living cells was compared to that of wild type profilin in microinjection experiments. While wild type profilin caused disruption of actin bundles within the cell, the profilin mutant had no apparent effect, showing that the derangement of the actin bundles by profilin is dependent on the stability of the profilin:actin complex.

  • 92. Boban, Mirta
    et al.
    Ljungdahl, Per O
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Dal81 enhances Stp1- and Stp2-dependent transcription necessitating negative modulation by inner nuclear membrane protein Asi1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.2007In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, Vol. 176, no 4, p. 2087-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Bolad, A K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Farouk, S
    Dolo, A
    Ogobara, d
    Nebie, I
    Luoni, G
    Sirima, B S
    Modiano, D
    Berzins, K
    Troye-Blomberg, M
    Analyses of antibody responses to asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum in ethnic tribes living in sympatryManuscript (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Bolad, A K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Nebie, I
    Cuzin Ouattara, N
    Traore, A
    Esposito, F
    Berzins, K
    Antibody-mediated in vitro growth inhibition of field isolates of plasmodium falciparum from asymptomatic children in Burkina Faso2003In: American Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, ISSN 0569-6062, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 728-733Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Bolad, A K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Nebie, I
    Esposito, F
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    The use of impregnated curtains does not affect antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum and complexity of infecting parasite populations in children from Burkina Faso2004In: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Burkina Faso, where malaria is hyper-endemic and transmission intensity is very high, the majority of malaria-related morbidity and mortality occurs in children less than 5 years of age. A control measure such as the use of insecticide-treated curtains (ITC) significantly reduces transmission of malaria infection. Concerns remain whether reduced transmission intensity may lead to a delay in the development of immunity in younger children and even to a partial loss of already acquired immunity. In this study, the levels of P. falciparum-specific IgG subclasses, the number of infecting parasite clones determined by PCR-based genotyping of the msp2 gene and the parasite density were analysed in 154 asymptomatic children (3–6 years) living in 16 villages (8 with and 8 without ITC) in the vicinity of Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. In addition, the parasite inhibitory effects of Ig fractions, prepared from selected children, in co-operation with normal human monocytes were studied. Blood samples from asymptomatic ITC-users showed a significant decrease in P. falciparum prevalence as well as in parasite density. However, no significant difference was observed in P. falciparum-specific antibodies or in parasite multiplicity of infection between the two groups. Furthermore, Ig fractions from children of both groups showed similar levels of inhibitory activity against autologous parasite growth both on their own and in co-operation with monocytes.

  • 96.
    Bolad, A K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Xu, L
    Berzins, K
    Antibodies to the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332 inhibit parasite growth in vitro on their own and in cooperation with monocytesArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 97. Bolad, Ahmed
    et al.
    Farouk, Salah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Israelsson, Elisabeth
    Dolo, Amagana
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Nebié, Issa
    Maiga, Boubacar
    Kouriba, Bourema
    Luoni, Gaia
    Sirima, Bienveu S.
    Distinct interethnic differences in IgG class/subclass and IgM antibody responses to malaria antigens but not in IgG responses to non-malarial antigens in sympatric tribes living in West Africa2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 380-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-established relative resistance to malaria observed in the Fulani as compared with other sympatric tribes in West Africa has been attributed to their higher levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to malarial antigens. In this study, we confirm and extend the previous findings by analyses of the levels of IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses of anti-malarial antibodies in asymptomatic individuals of different sympatric tribes in Burkina Faso (Fulani/Mossi) and Mali (Fulani/Dogon). The Fulani showed significantly higher median concentrations of anti-malarial IgG and IgM antibodies than the sympatric tribes at both locations. Although the overall subclass pattern of antibodies did not differ between the tribes, with IgG1 and IgG3 as dominant, the Fulani showed consistently significantly higher levels of these subclasses as compared with those of the non-Fulani individuals. No significant differences were seen in the levels of total IgG between the tribes, but the Fulani showed significantly higher levels of total IgM than their neighbours in both countries. While the antibody levels to some nonmalarial antigens showed the same pattern of differences seen for antibody levels to malaria antigens, no significant such differences were seen with antibodies to other nonmalarial antigens. In conclusion, our results show that the Fulani in two different countries show higher levels of anti-malarial antibodies than sympatric tribes, and this appears not to be a reflection of a general hyper-reactivity in the Fulani.

  • 98. Bolad, Ahmed
    et al.
    Farouk, Salah E.
    Modiano, David
    Berzins, Klavs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Israelsson, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Dolo, Amagana
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Nebié, Issa
    Maiga, Boubacar
    Kouriba, Bourema
    Luoni, Gaia
    Sirima, Bienveu Sodiomon
    Distinct interethnic differences in IgG class/subclass and IgM antibody responses to malaria antigens but not in IgG responses to non-malarial antigens in sympatric tribes living in West Africa2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 380-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-established relative resistance to malaria observed in the Fulani ascompared with other sympatric tribes in West Africa has been attributed totheir higher levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to malarialantigens. In this study, we confirm and extend the previous findings by analysesof the levels of IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses of anti-malarial antibodies inasymptomatic individuals of different sympatric tribes in Burkina Faso(Fulani/Mossi) and Mali (Fulani/Dogon). The Fulani showed significantlyhigher median concentrations of anti-malarial IgG and IgM antibodies thanthe sympatric tribes at both locations. Although the overall subclass pattern ofantibodies did not differ between the tribes, with IgG1 and IgG3 as dominant,the Fulani showed consistently significantly higher levels of these subclasses ascompared with those of the non-Fulani individuals. No significant differenceswere seen in the levels of total IgG between the tribes, but the Fulani showedsignificantly higher levels of total IgM than their neighbours in both countries.While the antibody levels to some nonmalarial antigens showed the same patternof differences seen for antibody levels to malaria antigens, no significant suchdifferences were seen with antibodies to other nonmalarial antigens. In conclusion,our results show that the Fulani in two different countries show higherlevels of anti-malarial antibodies than sympatric tribes, and this appears not tobe a reflection of a general hyper-reactivity in the Fulani.

  • 99.
    Bolad, Ahmed Kamal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Wenner-Gren Institute for Experimental Biology.
    Antibody responses in Plasmodium falciparum malaria and their relation to protection against the disease2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum may be obtained after repeated exposure to infection. Several studies indicate that immunity against the blood stages of the P. Falciparum infection is mainly antibody mediated. Protective antibodies may act either on their own, mediate antibody-dependent phagocytosis and/or cell-mediated neutralization of parasites. This thesis describes several aspects of humoral immune responses to P. falciparum infection in individuals of different age groups, different genetic background and with different degrees of malaria exposure.

    Several target antigens for antibody-mediated inhibition of parasite growth or invasion have been identified. One such antigen is Pf332, which appears on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes at late trophozoite and schizont stage. This surface exposure makes the antigen a possible target for opsonizing antibodies. We optimized an in vitro assay for studying cellmediated parasite neutralization in the presence of Pf332-reactive antibodies. Our data demonstrate that, Pf332 specific antibodies are able to inhibit parasite growth on their own and in cooperation with human monocytes.

    The P. falciparum parasites have evolved several mechanisms to evade the host neutralizing immune responses. In this thesis, we show that freshly isolated P. falciparum parasites from children living in a malaria endemic area of Burkina Faso were less sensitive for growth inhibition in vitro by autologous immunoglobulins (Ig) compared with heterologous ones. Analyses of two consecutive isolates taken 14 days apart, with regard to genotypes and sensitivity to growth inhibition in vitro, did not give any clear-cut indications on possible mechanisms leading to a reduced inhibitory activity in autologous parasite/antibody combinations. The frequent presence of persisting parasite clones in asymptomatic children indicates that the parasite possesses as yet undefined mechanisms to evade neutralizing immune responses.

    Transmission reducing measures such insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have been shown to be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from malaria. However, concerns have been raised that ITNs usage could affect the acquisition of malaria immunity. We studied the effect of the use of insecticide treated curtains (ITC) on anti-malarial immune responses of children living in villages with ITC since birth. The use of ITC did neither affect the levels of parasite neutralizing immune responses nor the multiplicity of infection. These results indicate that the use of ITC does not interfere with the acquisition of anti-malarial immunity in children living in a malaria hyperendemic area.

    There is substantial evidence that the African Fulani tribe is markedly less susceptible to malaria infection compared to other sympatrically living ethnic tribes. We investigated the isotypic humoral responses against P. falciparum asexual blood stages in different ethnic groups living in sympatry in two countries exhibiting different malaria transmission intensities, Burkina Faso and Mali. We observed higher levels of the total malaria-specific-IgG and its cytophilic subclasses in individuals of the Fulani tribe as compared to non-Fulani individuals. Fulani individuals also showed higher levels of antibodies to measles antigen, indicating that the intertribal differences are not specific for malaria and might reflect a generally activated immune system in the Fulani.

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  • 100.
    Bolcsfoldi, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Regulation of the synthesis of ribosomal and transfer RNA in Chang's liver cells1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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