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  • 51.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Germany.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    What moderates the accuracy of ease of learning judgments?2017In: Metacognition and Learning, ISSN 1556-1623, E-ISSN 1556-1631, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 337-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people begin to study new material, they may first judge how difficult it will be to learn. Surprisingly, these ease of learning (EOL) judgments have received little attention by metacognitive researchers so far. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate how well EOL judgments can predict actual learning, and what factors may moderate their relative accuracy. In three experiments, undergraduate psychology students made EOL judgments on, then studied, and were tested on, lists of word-pairs (e.g., sun – warm). In Experiment 1, the Goodman-Kruskal gamma (G) correlations showed that EOL judgments were accurate (G = .74) when items varied enough in difficulty to allow for proper discrimination between them, but were less accurate (G = .21) when variation was smaller. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 and 3, we showed that the relative accuracy was reliably higher when the EOL judgments were correlated with a binary criterion (i.e., if an item was recalled or not on a test), compared with a trials-to-learn criterion (i.e., how many study and test trials were needed to recall an item). In addition, Experiments 2 and 3 indicate other factors to be non-influential for EOL accuracy, such as the task used to measure the EOL judgments, and whether items were judged sequentially (i.e., one item at a time in isolation from the other items) or simultaneously (i.e., each item was judged while having access to all other items). To conclude, EOL judgments can be highly accurate (G = .74) and may thus be of strategic importance for learning. Further avenues for research are discussed.

  • 52.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Ease-of-learning judgments are based on both processing fluency and beliefs2018In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 807-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing fluency influences many types of judgments. Some metacognitive research suggests that the influence of processing fluency may be mediated by participants’ beliefs. The current study explores the influence of processing fluency and beliefs on ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments. In two experiments (Exp 1: n = 94; Exp 2: n = 146), participants made EOL judgments on 24 six-letter concrete nouns, presented in either a constant condition (high fluency) with upper-case letters (e.g., BUCKET) or an alternating condition (low fluency) with mixed upper- and lower-case letters (e.g., bUcKeT). After judging words individually, participants studied the words and completed a free recall test. Finally, participants indicated what condition they believed made the words more likely to be learned. Results show constant-condition words were judged as more likely to be learned than alternating condition words, but the difference varied with beliefs. Specifically, the difference was biggest when participants believed the constant condition made words more likely to be learned, followed by believing there was no difference, and then believing the alternating condition made words more likely to be learned. Thus, we showed that processing fluency has a direct effect on EOL judgments, but the effect is moderated by beliefs.

  • 53.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Multimedia learning trumps retrieval practice in psychology teaching2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning, but on which strategy should one put the efforts, or should they be combined for best learning? Eighty-eight upper secondary school students were given a brief lecture presented verbally (6 classes) or with the aid of a visual illustration (visuoverbal, 6 classes). The information was processed again by taking a memory test or by restudying. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes and again after one week. The visuoverbal lecture resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. A significant study strategy by retention interval interaction was found. However, this interaction was not qualified by a testing effect. Hence, taking tests (retrieval practice) did not lead to better learning than restudying. It was concluded that it is worthwhile to use visual illustrations in teaching. However, the present study did not reveal any synergistic effects from the combination of visuoverbal presentation and retrieval practice.

  • 54.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Germany.
    Cue Competition Explains when Ease-of-Learning Judgments and Judgments of Learning Differ in AccuracyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 55. Kantzer, Anne-Katrin
    et al.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Bibbi
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Young children who screen positive for autism: Stability, change and comorbidity over two years2018In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 72, p. 297-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder with a wide variety of clinical phenotypes and co-occurrences with other neurodevelopmental conditions. Symptoms may change over time.

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to prospectively follow 96 children, initially assessed for suspected ASD at an average age of 2.9 years.

    Methods and procedures: All children had been identified with autistic symptoms in a general population child health screening program, and had been referred to the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Gothenburg, Sweden for further assessment by a multi-professional team at Time 1 (T1). This assessment included a broad neurodevelopmental examination, structured interviews, a cognitive test and evaluations of the childis adaptive and global functioning. Two years later, at Time 2 (T2), the children and their parents were invited for a follow-up assessment by the same team using the same methods.

    Outcomes and results: Of the 96 children, 76 had met and 20 had not met full criteria for ASD at T1. Of the same 96 children, 79 met full ASD criteria at T2. The vast majority of children with ASD also had other neurodevelopmental symptoms or diagnoses. Hyperactivity was observed in 42% of children with ASD at T2, and Intellectual Developmental Disorder in 30%. Borderline Intellectual Functioning was found in 25%, and severe speech and language disorder in 20%. The children who did not meet criteria for ASD at T2 had symptoms of or met criteria for other neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders in combination with marked autistic traits. Changes in developmental profiles between T1 and T2 were common in this group of young children with ASD. The main effect of Cognitive level at T1 explained more than twice as much of the variance in Vineland scores as did the ASD subtype; children with IDD had significantly lower scores than children in the BIF and AIF group. Co-existence with other conditions was the rule.

    Conclusions and implications: Reassessments covering the whole range of these conditions are necessary for an optimized intervention adapted to the individual child's needs.

  • 56. Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Henningsson, Susanne
    Hovey, Daniel
    Zettergren, Anna
    Jonsson, Lina
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Melke, Jonas
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Westberg, Lars
    Social memory associated with estrogen receptor polymorphisms in women2016In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 877-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to recognize the identity of faces and voices is essential for social relationships. Although the heritability of social memory is high, knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. Since sex differences and rodent studies support an influence of estrogens and androgens on social memory, polymorphisms in the estrogen and androgen receptor genes (ESR1, ESR2, AR) are candidates for this trait. Recognition of faces and vocal sounds, separately and combined, was investigated in 490 subjects, genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1, four in ESR2 and one in the AR. Four of the associations survived correction for multiple testing: women carrying rare alleles of the three ESR2 SNPs, rs928554, rs1271572 and rs1256030, in linkage disequilibrium with each other, displayed superior face recognition compared with non-carriers. Furthermore, the uncommon genotype of the ESR1 SNP rs2504063 was associated with better recognition of identity through vocal sounds, also specifically in women. This study demonstrates evidence for associations in women between face recognition and variation in ESR2, and recognition of identity through vocal sounds and variation in ESR1. These results suggest that estrogen receptors may regulate social memory function in humans, in line with what has previously been established in mice.

  • 57.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Knopf, Monika
    Mack, Wolfgang
    The Direct Testing Effect Is Pervasive in Action Memory: Analyses of Recall Accuracy and Recall Speed2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful retrieval from memory is a desirably difficult learning event that reduces the recall decrement of studied materials over longer delays more than restudying does. The present study was the first to test this direct testing effect for performed and read action events (e.g., light a candle) in terms of both recall accuracy and recall speed. To this end, subjects initially encoded action phrases by either enacting them or reading them aloud (i.e., encoding type). After this initial study phase, they received two practice phases, in which the same number of action phrases were restudied or retrieval-practiced (Exp. 1-3), or not further processed (Exp. 3; i.e., practice type). This learning session was ensued by a final cued-recall test both after a short delay (2 min) and after a long delay (1 week: Exp. 1 and 2; 2 weeks: Exp. 3). To test the generality of the results, subjects retrieval practiced with either noun-cued recall of verbs (Exp. 1 and 3) or verb-cued recall of nouns (Exp. 2) during the intermediate and final tests (i.e., test type). We demonstrated direct benefits of testing on both recall accuracy and recall speed. Repeated retrieval practice, relative to repeated restudy and study-only practice, reduced the recall decrement over the long delay, and enhanced phrases' recall speed already after 2 min, and this independently of type of encoding and recall test. However, a benefit of testing on long-term retention only emerged (Exp. 3), when prolonging the recall delay from 1 to 2 weeks, and using different sets of phrases for the immediate and delayed final tests. Thus, the direct testing benefit appears to be highly generalizable even with more complex, action-oriented stimulus materials, and encoding manipulations. We discuss these results in terms of the distribution-based bifurcation model.

  • 58.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Putting action memory to the test: Testing affects subsequent restudy but not long-term forgetting of action events2016In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing memory typically enhances subsequent re-encoding of information (“indirect” testing effect) and, as compared to restudy, it also benefits later long-term retention (“direct” testing effect). We investigated the effect of testing on subsequent restudy and 1-week retention of action events (e.g. “water the plant”). In addition, we investigated if the type of recall practice (noun-cued vs. verb-cued) moderates these testing benefits. The results showed an indirect testing effect that increased following noun-cued recall of verbs as compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. In contrast, a direct testing effect on the forgetting rate of performed actions was not reliably observed, neither for noun- nor verb-cued recall. Thus, to the extent that this study successfully dissociated direct and indirect testing-based enhancements, they seem to be differentially effective for performed actions, and may rely on partially different mechanisms.

  • 59.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Multiple deadlines in metric space: Multitasking reflects selectively coordinate, but not categorical, spatial processing2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We often need to monitor and coordinate multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. More specifically, we tested the hypothesis that multitasking reflects selective effects of coordinate (i.e., metric) relational processing. Participants completed two multitasking sessions under concurrent processing demands of coordinate versus categorical spatial information. We expected and observed that multitasking impairs concurrent coordinate, rather than categorical, spatial processing. In Experiment 1, coordinate-task performance was selectively decreased, while multitasking performance was equal under both load conditions. When emphasizing equal (primary/secondary) task-importance in Experiment 2, it was only multitasking performance that was selectively reduced under the coordinate-load condition. Thus, effective multitasking may partly reflect coordinate-relational processing.

  • 60.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Sjölund, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nordin, Steven
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Loss of Olfactory Function Predicts Mortality Irrespective of Dementia Conversion: 10-year follow-up of an age-varied sample2016In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 41, no 9, p. e111-e288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between performance in odor identification and future mortality in a community cohort of adults aged between 40 and 90 years. We assessed olfactory performance with a 13-item-version of the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test (SOIT). The results showed that during follow-up (mean=9.4 years, standard deviation=2.23), 411 of 1774 (23.2%) participants died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and mortality was highly significant (hazard ratio [HR]=0.74, per point interval, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.71–0.77, p<0.001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for age, sex, education, and health and cognitive variables that were also associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Controlling for dementia conversion prior to death did not attenuate the association between SOIT score and mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Similar results were obtained for olfactory sensitivity as assessed by self-report. Overall, the present findings show that poor odor identification performance is associated with an increased likelihood of future mortality in middle-aged and older adults, after controlling for social, cognitive, and medical risk factors. Most importantly, controlling for the development of dementia did not attenuate the association between odor identification and mortality, suggesting that olfactory decline might mark deteriorating health also irrespective of dementia.

  • 61.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare.

  • 62.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Bad odors stick better than good ones: Olfactory qualities and odor recognition2009In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of perceived odor qualities on the retention of olfactory information across the adult lifespan were examined. Young (19–36 years), young-old (60–74 years), and old (75–91 years) adults (n = 202) rated a set of unfamiliar odors across a series of perceptual dimensions (i.e., pleasantness, intensity, and irritability) at encoding. The overall results indicated that memory for unpleasant olfactory information was better than that for pleasant odors across the lifespan. Also, participants showed better retention for odors perceived with high intensity and irritability than for odors rated with low or medium scores. Interestingly, the old adults showed selective beneficial memory effects for odors rated as highly irritable. To the extent that perceptions of high irritability reflect an activation of the trigeminal sensory system, this finding suggests that older adults may use trigeminal components in odor information to compensate for age-related impairments in olfactory memory.

  • 63.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated) or overt (retrieved and articulated) response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min) and delayed (1 week) cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing). A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked versus random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  • 64.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Vocal Communication of Emotion2017In: Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences / [ed] Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford, Springer, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal communication of emotion refers to the process wherein speakers express emotions by modulating nonverbal aspects of their speech, and listeners utilize the nonverbal aspects of speech in order to make inferences about the emotional experience of the speaker.

  • 65.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Thingujam, Nutankumar S.
    Rockstuhl, Thomas
    Iraki, Frederick K.
    Chui, Wanda
    Althoff, Jean
    The expression and recognition of emotions in the voice across five nations: A lens model analysis based on acoustic features2016In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 686-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study extends previous work on emotion communication across cultures with a large-scale investigation of the physical expression cues in vocal tone. In doing so, it provides the first direct test of a key proposition of dialect theory, namely that greater accuracy of detecting emotions from one’s own cultural group—known as in-group advantage—results from a match between culturally specific schemas in emotional expression style and culturally specific schemas in emotion recognition. Study 1 used stimuli from 100 professional actors from five English-speaking nations vocally conveying 11 emotional states (anger, contempt, fear, happiness, interest, lust, neutral, pride, relief, sadness, and shame) using standard-content sentences. Detailed acoustic analyses showed many similarities across groups, and yet also systematic group differences. This provides evidence for cultural accents in expressive style at the level of acoustic cues. In Study 2, listeners evaluated these expressions in a 5 × 5 design balanced across groups. Cross-cultural accuracy was greater than expected by chance. However, there was also in-group advantage, which varied across emotions. A lens model analysis of fundamental acoustic properties examined patterns in emotional expression and perception within and across groups. Acoustic cues were used relatively similarly across groups both to produce and judge emotions, and yet there were also subtle cultural differences. Speakers appear to have a culturally nuanced schema for enacting vocal tones via acoustic cues, and perceivers have a culturally nuanced schema in judging them. Consistent with dialect theory’s prediction, in-group judgments showed a greater match between these schemas used for emotional expression and perception.

  • 66. Lind, Martina
    et al.
    Visentini, Mimi
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Choice-Supportive Misremembering: A New Taxonomy and Review2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 2062Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the literature on the influence of memory on decisions is well developed, research on the effects of decision making on memory is rather sparse and scattered. Choice-supportive misremembering (i.e., misremembering choice-related information that boosts the chosen option and/or demotes the foregone options) has been observed in several studies and has the potential to affect future choices. Nonetheless, no attempt has been made to review the relevant literature, categorize the different types of choice-supportive misremembering observed, and critically appraise the existing evidence and proposed explanations. Thus, starting from a new theoretically motivated and empirically grounded taxonomy, we review the current research. Our taxonomy classifies choice-supportive misremembering into four conceptually distinct types: misattribution is when information is attributed to the wrong source, fact distortion when the facts are remembered in a distorted manner, false memory when items that were not part of the original decision scenarios are remembered as presented and, finally, selective forgetting is when information is selectively forgotten. After assessing the impact of various potentially moderating factors, we evaluate the evidence for each type of misremembering and conclude that the support for the phenomenon is solid in relation to misattribution when recognition memory is assessed, but significantly weaker for the other three types, and when other memory tests are used to assess memory. Finally, we review the cognitive and emotional explanations proposed for choice-supportive misremembering in the light of the available evidence and identify the main gaps in the current knowledge and the more promising avenues for future research.

  • 67.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Mohammed, A.
    Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory2016In: Stress: concepts, cognition, emotion, and behavior / [ed] George Fink, Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2016, 1, p. 153-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Najström, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cross-cultural applicability and reduction of the American seven-subtest short form of the WAIS on a Swedish non-clinical sample2019In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed at investigating whether the seven-subtest short form based on WAIS-R (Ward 1990) was statistically valid to use on the Swedish version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV), if this abbreviation was fit to catch the heterogeneity in test performance across age and if this brief measure was possible to abbreviate even more. WAIS-IV data from a non-clinical sample consisting of 261 participants ranging between 18 and 74 in age was analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression analyses, a prorating method for calculation of Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and its indices as well as paired-samples t-test. The results were contradictory. When the original WAIS-IV was compared to the seven-subtest short form the results showed a good congruence on FSIQ-level between the two sets, but on index level there were several cases of mismatches. In the younger and middle aged sample (<55 years) results on FSIQ as well as index level were in accordance, whereas in the elderly group (∼55 years) they were incongruent. The best reduction of the seven-subtest short form was a four-subtest model, encompassing Block Design, Similarities, Arithmetic and Coding, one subtest from each index, but the t-tests indicated several cases of mismatches between the full WAIS-IV measures and the prorated scores. Applied on the Swedish version of the WAIS-IV the seven-subtest formula appears to be applicable on an FSIQ level, to be suitable for a younger sample, but not for an elderly. Otherwise, this model and the four-subtest model are recommended to be used with caution.

  • 69.
    Lindau, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Najström, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Predictive accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, forth ed., (WAIS-IV) seven- and four- subtest short form models in estimating full scale IQ (FSIQ) and its indices in a Swedish non-clinical sample2016In: Proceedings of 4th Global Experts Meeting on Neuropharmacology, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodegenerative disorders usually show characteristic cognitive profiles, determined by the anatomical dispersion of neuronal loss. Short-term/memory decline is a presenting symptom on Alzheimer’s disease, but atypical early signs also occur. The Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) may be used to differentiate between normal and sub-normal cognitive performance levels, such as pre-dementia stages, AD and related disorders. According to Meyers et al., (2013), a brief measure consisting of a seven-subtest short form (SF) of the WAIS-IV including Block Design (BD), Similarities (SI), Digit Span (DS), Arithmetic (AR), Information (IN) Coding (CD) and Picture Completion (PC) provides a valid means of measuring cognitive level. In order to validate a short form of WAIS-IV on a Swedish non-clinical sample the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of the seven-subtest SF as well as a reduction of the number of subtests in the SF based on standardized β-values, to predict the full scale IQ (FSIQ) and its indices. WAIS-IV scaled score data from 98 healthy individuals (19-90 years M=46 years, SD=23 years, females=48, males=50) were analyzed with linear regression, which showed that the seven predictors explained 92.5% of the variance in FSIQ. When reducing the SF-set the four highest β-values were obtained from the following subtests: CD, β=0.34 (Processing Speed), SI, β=0.31 (Verbal Comprehension), BD, β=0.25 (Perceptual Reasoning), and AR, β=0.23 (Working memory), which showed to be one subtest from each of the four indices. FSIQ prediction rate of these four subtests was 88.1%. Each of the four subtests correlated significantly on p=<0.01 level with its index. To conclude, FSIQ prediction accuracy for the seven-subtest SF is very high, as well as for the four-subtest model. Since the four-subtest model strongly predicts FSIQ, as well as all its indices, it may be a valid, and timesaving, instrument to assess short-term memory (AR, partly CD) deficits typical for different stages of AD, signs on non-amnestic decline in AD, as well as typical clinical manifestations of frontotemporal degeneration, Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, ischemic brain disorders and cognitive dysfunctions associated with depression. In unclear cases additional testing is necessary. Further analyses will reveal possible influences on the norms of age, genus and education.

  • 70.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Effort Cues Predict Eyewitness Accuracy2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether retrieval effort cues are related to eyewitness accuracy, and the relative role of effort cues and witnesses’ confidence in predicting memory. The results demonstrate that verbal and paraverbal retrieval effort cues are strongly related to witnesses’ accuracy. Moreover, subjective confidence in memory rests on these cues.

  • 71.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Italy.
    Retrieval effort cues predict eyewitness accuracy2018In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 534-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented that correct eyewitness memories are more rapidly recalled and recognized than are incorrect ones, suggesting that retrieval ease is diagnostic of memory accuracy. Building on these findings, the current research explores whether verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort could be used to determine the accuracy of honestly reported eyewitness statements about a crime event. Moreover, we examine the relative role of such effort cues and witnesses’ subjective confidence in predicting memory accuracy. The results of 2 studies demonstrate that objectively verifiable verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort are strongly related to honest witnesses’ memory accuracy and that several of these cues contribute uniquely to predict accuracy. Moreover, we show that subjective confidence in a memory rests on these effort cues and that the cues mediate the confidence−accuracy relation. Given research showing that most people have vast difficulties in judging the quality of others’ memories, combined with the scarcity of research on predictors of genuinely reported memories, these initial findings suggest unexplored alternatives that may prove highly useful for improving accuracy judgments, with potentially far-reaching significance not the least in the legal context.

  • 72.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Memon, Amina
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Social influences on dissonance reduction in medical decision making2016In: Book of abstracts, 2016, p. 28-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies investigated social influences on dissonance reduction in medical decision making. Study 1 compared decision-consistent biases when individuals freely made-, or when another person made the decision. Participants read a scenario in which one of two patients should be prioritized for surgery. Facts about the patients were given on counter-balanced scales. Participants decided themselves whom to prioritize, or were told that a physician made the decision, and then reproduced the facts from memory. When choosing freely, participants distorted memories of facts to become more supportive of the choice. This effect was evident, albeit reduced, when the decision was made by a physician.

    Study 2 investigated majority/minority feedback effects on dissonance reduction for decisions concerning ingroup or outgroup members. Swedish participants decided whether a physician should comply or not to the request of a terminally ill patient, with a Swedish or a Turkish name, who asked for help to commit suicide. After making their decision, participants were informed that a majority or a minority had chosen the same alternative. Decisions about an in-group member were consolidated more if participants received minority, than majority feedback. This reversed for decisions on out-group member. Results suggest important social moderators of dissonance reduction strategies.

  • 73.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Memon, Amina
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    We Distort Memories of Other’s Decisions, and Other’s Decisions Distort Memories of What We Decided2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that after making a decision, people often distort the memory of the decision alternatives towards greater coherence with the chosen alternative. Given the pivotal role of sharing cognitive representations of reality with others, it seems reasonable that such decision consolidation may extend beyond decisions made by the individual him-/herself. The current research explores how people consolidate their own and another person’s decisions. Moreover, we examine how information about another person’s decisions affects an individual’s memory of his/her own decision. In Study 1 we presented participants with a medical case scenario in which one of two patients should be prioritized for surgery. They were given facts about the patients (e.g., probability of surviving surgery), and either decided themselves whom to prioritize, or were told that a physician made the decision. When later reproducing the facts from memory, participants distorted memories of facts to become more supportive both of their own and of the doctor’s choice. Study 2 investigated how feedback of other’s decisions affect people’s memory for their own decisions. Participants decided whether a physician should comply or not to the request of a terminally ill patient who asked for help to committ suicide. After making their decision, participants were informed that a majority or a minority had chosen the same alternative. When the patient was an in-group member participants consolidated their own decision more when receiving minority, rather than majority feedback. This reversed for decisions on out-group member. Results suggest important social psychological motivations and moderators of decision consolidation strategies.

  • 74.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    How is Commercial Gender Categorization of Perfumes Related to Consumers Preference of Fragrances?2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 65, p. 370-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the commercial market, most perfumes are categorized as either feminine or masculine, although the odour quality of feminine and masculine odours are overlapping and constitute a dimension rather than two separate clusters of odours. Earlier research has shown that typical perfume consumers tend to prefer perfumes positioned in the middle of this gender-dimension. The current study investigates the preference of perfumes from the middle of the gender-dimension while these are applied on human skin. The blindfolded participants indicated if they wanted to use the fragrance and if they wanted their partner to use the perfume, and tried to guess the gender of the person each perfume was applied. Results show that the gender of the human did not affect the preference. Moreover, the preference did not differ between female and male participants, indicating that the commercial gender categorization is less important to the perfume consumers. Consequently, the commercial gender categories do not seem to be sufficient for all perfumes. Instead, the categorization of perfumes could be according to other aspects, e.g. according to odour quality.

  • 75. Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    The effect of language skills on dementia in a Swedish longitudinal cohort2016In: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, ISSN 1879-9264, E-ISSN 1879-9272, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 190-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings indicate that bilingualism delay the onset of dementia. Using data from the Betula longitudinal cohort study on memory, health and aging (www.betula.su.se) the issue of a possible protective effect of bilingualism was addressed. Monolingual (n = 736) and bilingual (n = 82) participants (= 60 years) without dementia at inclusion were followed for incident dementia over a time-period up to 10 years. In total, 112 participants developed dementia. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age, sex, and presence/absence of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele, with dementia outcome as the dependent variable. Results showed no delayed onset of dementia in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. However, because of the findings from a study using participants from the same population showing beneficial longitudinal effects of bilingualism on episodic memory; we argue that our results may depend on the frequency of use of the second language after retirement.

  • 76. Magnussen, S.
    et al.
    Andersson, J.
    Cornoldi, C.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    What people believe about memory.2006In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 595-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n = 2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings, and people in general had realistic views about their own memory performance. On other questions, such as the reliability of olfactory as compared with visual and auditory memory, the memory of small children in comparison with that of adults, the likelihood of repression of adult traumatic memories, and on more general questions such as the possibility of training memory and the capacity limitations of long-term memory, a large proportion of the participants expressed views that are less supported by scientific evidence. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  • 77.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Coni, Valentina
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Time takes space: selective effects of multitasking on concurrent spatial processing2017In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of complex relations of future goals and deadlines. Cognitive offloading may provide an efficient strategy for reducing control demands by representing future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We tested the hypothesis that multiple-task monitoring involves time-to-space transformational processes, and that these spatial effects are selective with greater demands on coordinate (metric) than categorical (nonmetric) spatial relation processing. Participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four series of deadlines, running on different time scales, while making concurrent coordinate or categorical spatial judgments. We expected and found that multitasking taxes concurrent coordinate, but not categorical, spatial processing. Furthermore, males showed a better multitasking performance than females. These findings provide novel experimental evidence for the hypothesis that efficient multitasking involves metric relational processing.

  • 78.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Deadlines in Space: Selective Effects of Coordinate Spatial Processing in Multitasking2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. Participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. We predicted and found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. Individual differences in spatial ability were also selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. Furthermore, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and these sex differences generalized to a complex simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated these effects in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical vs. coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  • 79. Nilsson, Gill
    et al.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Billstedt, Eva
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Arvidsson, Thomas
    Olsson, Ingrid
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Neurodevelopmental problems should be considered in children with febrile seizures2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 8, p. 1507-1514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Clinical developmental phenotyping of four- to five-year-old children with febrile seizures (FSs).

    Methods: Children with FS (n = 157, corresponding to 3.7% of the targeted general population of four-five-year-olds) had been identified at child healthcare centres in Gothenburg. Parents of 73 children (41 boys, 32 girls) accepted participation in the present study. The assessments included a neuropaediatric assessment, Movement ABC, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III and parent questionnaires (Five-to-Fifteen (FTF) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)). Hospital records were reviewed, when applicable.

    Results: One-third of the children had at least one DSM-5 neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosis or marked developmental problems within areas of attention, activity regulation, behaviour, speech and language, general cognition or motor functioning. No differences were found between children with single vs recurrent or simple vs complex FS.

    Conclusion: Febrile seizure are relatively often associated with Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations (ESSENCEs). We found no indications that ESSENCE might be caused by FS per se. However, the results suggest that child healthcare professionals should consider the possibility of ESSENCE in children with a history of FS.

  • 80.
    Nordström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    What acoustic features predict listener behavior in a forced-choice vocal emotion recognition task?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to test how well acoustic features suggested by the literature could predict listener behavior in a forced-choice vocal emotion recognition task. Fourteen actors, ranging from amateurs to professionals, were instructed to vocally portray 13 emotion expressions (Anger, Contempt, Disgust, Fear, Happiness, Interest, Lust, Pride, Relief, Sadness, Serenity, Shame, and Tenderness). An “optimal pattern”-index was calculated for each recorded portrayal reflecting how well it mirrored an emotionspecific “optimal pattern” of acoustic features inferred from the literature. Listeners (N = 102) judged the portrayals in a forced-choice vocal emotion recognition task. Each listener judged a subset of the 756 portrayals resulting in an average of 16.8 (SD = 2.1) judgments per portrayal. The “optimal pattern”-index was then used to predict the proportion of listeners who selected each emotion label for each portrayal. Results showed that the “optimal pattern”-index predicted perceived emotion for anger, happiness, and sadness, but not for any of the other emotions. This suggests that the acoustic features conveying most of the emotions included in the current study need to be further explored. To this aim, we present descriptive acoustic data for all portrayals for which a majority (> 50%) of the listeners selected the same emotion label. These descriptive results suggest new acoustic patterns that, if replicated, might lead to more stable predictions about the acoustic features underlying listener judgments of specific emotions in the voice.

  • 81.
    Nordström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Thingujam, Nutankumar S.
    Schubert, Emery
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Emotion appraisal dimensions inferred from vocal expressions are consistent across cultures: a comparison between Australia and India2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 11, article id 170912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the perception of emotion appraisal dimensions on the basis of speech prosody in a cross-cultural setting. Professional actors from Australia and India vocally portrayed different emotions (anger, fear, happiness, pride, relief, sadness, serenity and shame) by enacting emotion-eliciting situations. In a balanced design, participants from Australia and India then inferred aspects of the emotion-eliciting situation from the vocal expressions, described in terms of appraisal dimensions (novelty, intrinsic pleasantness, goal conduciveness, urgency, power and norm compatibility). Bayesian analyses showed that the perceived appraisal profiles for the vocally expressed emotions were generally consistent with predictions based on appraisal theories. Few group differences emerged, which suggests that the perceived appraisal profiles are largely universal. However, some differences between Australian and Indian participants were also evident, mainly for ratings of norm compatibility. The appraisal ratings were further correlated with a variety of acoustic measures in exploratory analyses, and inspection of the acoustic profiles suggested similarity across groups. In summary, results showed that listeners may infer several aspects of emotion-eliciting situations from the non-verbal aspects of a speaker's voice. These appraisal inferences also seem to be relatively independent of the cultural background of the listener and the speaker.

  • 82. Obermeyer, Sven
    et al.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schaich, Andreas
    Kolling, Thorsten
    Knopf, Monika
    Learning to recognize younger faces at an older age2017In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Processing of horizontal face cues has been shown to be an important element in face recognition of adults aged up to 30 years. In contrast, horizontally aligned facial features do not appear to contribute to older adults’ (60–75 years) recognition in a similar way. To this end, we investigated potential learning effects on the ability to recognize faces based on horizontal features. Previous research suggests face recognition based on all face information experiences an accelerated decline after the age of 70. However, recognition based only on horizontal face information has not yet been studied in old age (75+ years of age). Thus, we investigated whether older adults (aged up to as well as starting at 75 years) can learn to recognize faces based on horizontal face cues alone.

    Method: One younger and two older adult groups (20–30, 60–75, and 75+ years) were familiarized with a high and a low amount of previously unfamiliar faces—some containing all face cues and others containing only horizontal face cues (reduced information). Subsequently, all groups received a recognition test.

    Results: Repeated learning increased natural face recognition for all three age groups when all face cues were available. However, increases in face recognition were only observed for younger adults when horizontal face cued were only available.

    Discussion: The importance of horizontally aligned spatial frequencies for recognizing human faces is lessened before the age of 60 (and plateaus thereon), whereas recognition of stimuli containing all face cues is still capable of improvement.

  • 83.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wilson, Donald
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nordin, Steven
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є42016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 85, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memoryand olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45–90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10–20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by >1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.

  • 84.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Hedner, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Odor identification impairment in carriers of ApoE-epsilon 4 is independent of clinical dementia2010In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 567-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ApoE acme is expressed in olfactory brain structures and is believed to play a role in neuronal regenerative processes as well as in development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia The epsilon 4 allele lots been reported to be associated with compromised odor identification ability in the elderly, and this deficit has been interpreted as a sign of pre-diagnostic AD However, because it has not been demonstrated that the relationship between the epsilon 4 allele and odor identification is mediated by dementia, it is possible that the epsilon 4 allele may have an effect on odor identification over and above any effects of dementia. The present study investigated effects of ApoE-status on odor identification in a lame, population-based sample (n =1236) of adults (45-80 years), who were assessed for dementia at time of testing and 5 years later The results showed that the epsilon 4 allele was associated with an odor identification deficit among, elderly participants (75-80) Critically. this effect remained after current and pre-diagnostic dementia, vocabulary, global cognitive status and health variables were partialled out The present results suggest that the ApoE gene plays a role in olfactory functioning that is independent of dementia conversion within 5 years

  • 85.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odor Identification Deficit as a Predictor of Five-Year Global Cognitive Change: Interactive Effects with Age and ApoE-ε42009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 496-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments are present in common neurodegenerative disorders and predict conversion to dementia in non-demented individuals with cognitive impairment. In cognitively intact elderly, evidence is sparse regarding the role of olfactory deficits in predicting cognitive impairment. The present study investigated predictors of 5-year prospective decline in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a large (n = 501), population-based sample of elderly (65–90 years) individuals. All participants were genotyped for the ApoE gene, assessed for health factors, and were non-demented at the baseline assessment. After partialling out the influences of demographic and health-factors at baseline and dementia at follow-up, poor odor identification ability in combination with older age and the ApoE-ε4 allele predicted larger prospective global cognitive decline. This effect could not be produced by a vocabulary test. In sum, the findings suggest that an olfactory deficit can dissociate between benign and malign global cognitive development in non-demented, very old ε4-carriers, who are at high risk of developing dementia.

  • 86. Olsson, M. Barnevik
    et al.
    Lundström, S.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Giacobini, M. B.
    Gillberg, C.
    Fernell, E.
    Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years After Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age2016In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 2749-2755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated-34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with intellectual disability. They were interviewed using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities interview. Criteria for a clinical/subclinical proxy of ASD were met by 71, 89 and 95 %, respectively. Criteria for at least one of ASD, AD/HD, Learning disorder or Developmental Coordination Disorder were met by 82, 94 and 97 %. More than 90 % of children with a preschool diagnosis of ASD have remaining neuropsychiatric problems at 11, despite early intervention.

  • 87. Oxelgren, Ulrika Wester
    et al.
    Åberg, Marie
    Myrelid, Åsa
    Annerén, Göran
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Autism needs to be considered in children with Down Syndrome2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 2019-2026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To analyse levels and profiles of autism symptoms in children with Down Syndrome (DS) with and without diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to specifically study the groups with severe Intellectual Disability (ID).

    Methods: From a population‐based cohort of 60 children with DS (age 5–17 years) with 41 participating children, scores obtained from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module‐1 algorithm were compared between those with and without diagnosed ASD. Children with DS and ASD were also compared to a cohort of children with idiopathic ASD, presented in the ADOS manual.

    Results: Children with DS and ASD had significantly higher ADOS scores in all domains compared to those without ASD. When the groups with DS, with and without ASD, were restricted to those with severe ID, the difference remained. When the children with DS and ASD and the idiopathic autism group were compared, the ADOS profiles were similar.

    Conclusion: A considerable proportion of children with DS has ASD, but there is also a group of children with DS and severe ID without autism. There is a need to increase awareness of the high prevalence of autism in children with DS to ensure that appropriate measures and care are provided.

  • 88.
    Peira, Nathalie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ziaei, Maryam
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Age differences in brain systems supporting transient and sustained processes involved in prospective memory and working memory2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 125, p. 745-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In prospective memory (PM), an intention to act in response to an external event is formed, retained, and at a later stage, when the event occurs, the relevant action is performed. PM typically shows a decline in late adulthood, which might affect functions of daily living. The neural correlates of this decline are not well understood. Here, 15 young (6 female; age range = 23-30 years) and 16 older adults (5 female; age range = 64-74 years) were scanned with fMRI to examine age-related differences in brain activation associated with event-based PM using a task that facilitated the separation of transient and sustained components of PM. We show that older adults had reduced performance in conditions with high demands on prospective and working memory, while no age-difference was observed in low-demanding tasks. Across age groups, PM task performance activated separate sets of brain regions for transient and sustained responses. Age-differences in transient activation were found in fronto-striatal and MTL regions, with young adults showing more activation than older adults. Increased activation in young, compared to older adults, was also found for sustained PM activation in the IFG. These results provide new evidence that PM relies on dissociable transient and sustained cognitive processes, and that age-related deficits in PM can be explained by an inability to recruit PM-related brain networks in old age.

  • 89. Perego, Elisa
    et al.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Stragà, Marta
    Dubbing vs. subtitling Complexity matters2018In: Target, ISSN 0924-1884, E-ISSN 1569-9986, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 137-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the claims regarding the potential disruptiveness of subtitling for audiovisual processing, existing empirical evidence supports the idea that subtitle processing is semi-automatic and cognitively effective, and that, in moderately complex viewing scenarios, dubbing does not necessarily help viewers. In this paper we appraise whether the complexity of the translated audiovisual material matters for the cognitive and evaluative reception of subtitled vs. dubbed audiovisual material. To this aim, we present the results of two studies on the viewers' reception of film translation (dubbing vs. subtitling), in which we investigate the cognitive and evaluative consequences of audiovisual complexity. In Study 1, the results show that a moderately complex film is processed effectively and is enjoyed irrespective of the translation method. In Study 2, the subtitling (vs. dubbing) of a more complex film leads to more effortful processing and lower cognitive performance, but not to a lessened appreciation. These results expose the boundaries of subtitle processing, which are reached only when the audiovisual material to be processed is complex, and they encourage scholars and practitioners to reconsider old standards as well as to invest more effort in crafting diverse types of audiovisual translations tailored both to the degree of complexity of the source product and to the individual differences of the target viewers.

  • 90.
    Petersén Karlsson, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Autobiographical Memory: Depending on sensory retrieval cue and gender2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In my thesis I raised two questions: Does autobiographical memory differ i) depending on the sensory retrieval cue (Study I and II)? and ii) depending on gender (Study III)?

    Concerning retrieval cues, three unimodal cues (i.e., photographs, naturalistic sounds and odors) and one multimodal cue (i.e., the three unimodal cues presented simultaneously) were used to evoke autobiographical memories. The results demonstrated that the memories differed depending on retrieval cue. In particular, the olfactory-cued memories differed in semantic content and were from an earlier age in contrast to the other modalities. The visually and auditory-evoked memories differed less than expected in their semantic content and age distribution in relation to the multimodal condition. The multimodally cued memories could be described as being a combination of the three unimodalities, as illustrated by the semantic content and age distribution, though they were more similar to the visually and auditory-cued memories than to the olfactory-cued memories. One possible explanation for these results could be that we attend more to visual and auditory perceptions than to olfactory.

    With regard to gender, previous research has found gender differences in the manifest content (i.e., the actual words used) of autobiographical memories. However, to my knowledge none has investigated gender differences in the latent content (i.e., the underlying meaning in the expressed words). The results indicated that there was no difference between the genders in the manifest content. However, the females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did, which supports the assumption that females are more communally oriented than are males.

  • 91.
    Petersén Karlsson, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Avhandlings/thesis ERRATA2019Other (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Petersén Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Gender differences in autobiographical memory: females latently express communality more than do males2019In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 651-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been found in several aspects of autobiographical memory (i.e. personally experienced events). For example, previous studies have shown that females’ autobiographical memories contain more communal and emotional expressions than do males. However, an important question concerns whether these differences can be observed both in the manifest content (i.e. what is actually said) and in the latent content (i.e. the underlying meaning of what is said). In the present exploratory study, we extended the current knowledge concerning gender differences in autobiographical memory by investigating the manifestly expressed words, as well as the latently expressed words in autobiographical memory descriptions. We observed an overall gender difference in the latent content of the autobiographical memories. Furthermore, females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did. No other gender differences were found. Our results indicate that females’ autobiographical memories are more communally oriented than male's.

  • 93. Ranyard, Rob
    et al.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Bonini, Nicolao
    Pietroni, Davide
    The Citizen’s Judgements of Prices and Inflation2017In: Economic Psychology / [ed] Rob Ranyard, Wiley-Blackwell, 2017, p. 155-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an introduction to the economic psychology of price and inflation judgments, focusing on the main findings and the more relevant psychological theories. The first part of the chapter is devoted to the process of price evaluation. This is a fundamental process underlying individual economic and consumer behaviour, because purchase decisions usually imply a judgment of the price of a target product or service, and price is a fundamental evaluation dimension. Thus, it is important to understand the processes that lead individuals to deem a given price as cheap or expensive. We will initially focus on theories centred on the construct of a reference price, defined as a benchmark price used in relative evaluation processes. These theories share the assumption that one or more reference prices, stored in memory or available in the external environment, are used to make sense of the target price via comparative evaluation processes. We then briefly consider how prices are evaluated according to three psychological theories (prospect theory, decision by sampling, and norm theory), which provide further insight into evaluation processes and their effects. Finally, we will take into account the factors affecting retrieval of reference prices and briefly mention other aspects relevant to price evaluation. The second part of the chapter is devoted to perceived inflation and inflation expectations. Inflation refers to changes in the value of money over time. From an individual's point of view inflation is revealed as changes in the cost of living (price inflation) and changes in income, for example wage inflation. Past price inflation is officially measured by the annual percentage change in the total cost of a basket of goods and services purchased by the typical consumer. In contrast, official measures of price inflation expectations are forecasts of price changes in the basket of goods - the most widely used being based on complex models of the economy. People's perceptions of past and expectations of future inflation have been found to differ from official statistics, often substantially. It is important to understand how this occurs, since, as we show, perceived inflation influences expected inflation, which in turn affects economic behaviour such as wage negotiations, borrowing, saving and spending. Furthermore, because of such effects on individual and household behaviour, and because public expectations are used to inform monetary policy, perceived and expected inflation indirectly affect the performance of the macro-economy. After reviewing evidence of how people’s perceptions and expectations are formed we turn to research demonstrating some of their consequences. The chapter concludes by outlining some of the policy implications of the research reviewed.

  • 94. Ranyard, Rob
    et al.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Verbal reports and decision process analysis2019In: A handbook of process tracing methods / [ed] Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Anton Kuehberger, Joseph G. Johnson, Routledge, 2019, 2, p. 270-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter takes a broader look at the use of verbal data in contemporary decision process research. We examine a range of approaches to the elicitation and analysis of verbal reports with the purposes of both describing decision processes and testing theories about them. We recommend and illustrate good practice, thereby providing researchers with the means to make good research design decisions. We define a decision process as a transformation of a structure over time. A decision maker’s mental representation of a decision problem is such a structure, one that includes both cognitive and affective components. Decision problems can be represented in many different ways. For example, decision alternatives can be represented either holistically, or by the attractiveness of different cues, or by arguments for or against the alternatives. Fundamental to process theories is the notion that mental representations can change from the beginning of a decision process until the decision is made, and can continue to change after the decision. These transformations of decision representations are brought about by processes, or operations, defined by a process model or theory, such as the elementary information processes (EIPs).

  • 95. Riemer, Martin
    et al.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; Martin-Luther Universität, Germany.
    Wolbers, Thomas
    The effect of feedback on temporal error monitoring and timing behavior2019In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 369, article id 111929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metacognitive processes in human timing behavior are rarely investigated, which stands in sharp contrast to the wide research field of metacognition itself. To date, little is known about the sources and the reliability of information that humans possess to judge their own timing abilities and to monitor errors in time-keeping. Here, we intended to fill this gap by determining the degree to which humans depend on external feedback to adjust their timing behavior and make metacognitive accuracy judgments. Two groups of participants performed a time reproduction task under different feedback conditions. After each trial, participants were informed either about the magnitude and the direction of their timing error (signed feedback group) or about its magnitude alone (absolute feedback group). Reproduction errors were related to retrospective, metacognitive judgments on the overall timing performance. The results indicate that the under reproduction effect occurred, rather independently of the type of feedback; however, signed feedback was essential to reduce the bias in metacognitive judgments on timing accuracy. Without being explicitly informed about the direction of timing errors (whether the reproduction interval was stopped too early or too late), participants significantly overestimated their reproduced durations. These results extend previous reports of metacognitive processes in timing behavior measured on a single-trial basis, and provide new insights into the ability of temporal error monitoring in humans.

  • 96. Rosi, Alessia
    et al.
    de Bruin, Wändi Bruine
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. University of Trieste, Italy.
    Cavallini, Elena
    Russo, Riccardo
    Decision-making competence in younger and older adults: which cognitive abilities contribute to the application of decision rules?2019In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 174-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults perform worse than younger adults when applying decision rules to choose between options that vary along multiple attributes. Although previous studies have shown that general fluid cognitive abilities contribute to the accurate application of decision rules, relatively little is known about which specific cognitive abilities play the most important role. We examined the independent roles of working memory, verbal fluency, semantic knowledge, and components of executive functioning. We found that age-related decline in applying decision rules was statistically mediated by age-related decline in working memory and verbal fluency. Our results have implications for theories of aging and decision-making.

  • 97. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    The Fatalistic Decision Maker: Time Perspective, Working Memory, and Older Adults' Decision-Making Competence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research indicates that time perspective (TP; views of past, present, and future) is related to decision-making style. By contrast, no prior study considered relations between TP and decision-making competence. We therefore investigated associations between dimensions of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) and performance on the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery in a sample of older adults (60-90 years, N = 346). A structural equation model involving four A-DMC components as indicators of a general DMC factor and the six TP dimensions as the predictors revealed a significant negative association between the Present Fatalistic dimension and DMC. Given that age-related differences were apparent in DMC and that Present Fatalistic orientation increased with age, we tested a model by which the age-related differences in DMC were mediated by age-related differences in Present Fatalistic attitudes and in working memory. The results were consistent with full mediation of the age effects, with Present Fatalistic and working memory jointly accounting for a substantial amount of the variance in DMC (51%). The finding that DMC among older adults, in particular more cognitively demanding aspects such as applying decision rules, can be undermined by increased present fatalistic attitudes and declines in working memory is discussed in terms of theoretical frameworks highlighting the contribution of both motivational and cognitive factors to effective decision making.

  • 98.
    Samrani, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Marklund, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Engström, Lisa
    Broman, Daniel
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Behavioral facilitation and increased brain responses from a high interference working memory context2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 15308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-life situations require flexible behavior in changing environments. Evidence suggests that anticipation of conflict or task difficulty results in behavioral and neural allocation of task-relevant resources. Here we used a high-and low-interference version of an item-recognition task to examine the neurobehavioral underpinnings of context-sensitive adjustment in working memory (WM). We hypothesized that task environments that included high-interference trials would require participants to allocate neurocognitive resources to adjust to the more demanding task context. The results of two independent behavioral experiments showed enhanced WM performance in the high-interference context, which indicated that a high-interference context improves performance on non-interference trials. A third behavioral experiment showed that when WM load was increased, this effect was no longer significant. Neuroimaging results further showed greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus, striatum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and midbrain in participants performing the task in the high-than in the low-interference context. This effect could arise from an active or dormant mode of anticipation that seems to engage fronto-striatal and midbrain regions to flexibly adjust resources to task demands. Our results extend the model of conflict adaptation beyond trial-to-trial adjustments by showing that a high interference context affects both behavioral and biological aspects of cognition.

  • 99.
    Stanciu, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nordin, Steven
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS), Sweden.
    Olfactory Impairment and Subjective Olfactory Complaints Independently Predict Conversion to Dementia: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study2014In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether conversion to dementia can be predicted by self-reported olfactory impairment and/or by an inability to identify odors. Common forms of dementia involve an impaired sense of smell, and poor olfactory performance predicts cognitive decline among the elderly. We followed a sample of 1529 participants, who were within a normal range of overall cognitive function at baseline, over a 10-year period during which 159 were classified as having a dementia disorder. Dementia conversion was predicted from demographic variables, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and olfactory assessments. Self-reported olfactory impairment emerged as an independent predictor of dementia. After adjusting for effects of other predictors, individuals who rated their olfactory sensitivity as worse than normal were more likely to convert to dementia than those who reported normal olfactory sensitivity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.40, 3.37]). Additionally, low scores on an odor identification test also predicted conversion to dementia (OR per 1 point increase = 0.89; 95% CI [0.81, 0.98]), but these two effects were additive. We suggest that assessing subjective olfactory complaints might supplement other assessments when evaluating the risk of conversion to dementia. Future studies should investigate which combination of olfactory assessments is most useful in predicting dementia conversion. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-9)

  • 100. Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics2017In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants’ need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

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