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  • 51.
    Ingre, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Klemets, T
    Ullvetter, C
    Hough, S
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Karlsson, D
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Validating and extending the three process model (TPM) of alertness in airline operations.2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no S1, p. 264-264, article id P836Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Ingre, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Klemets, Tomas
    Ullvetter, Christer
    Hough, Stephen
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Karlsson, David
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Validating and Extending the Three Process Model of Alertness in Airline Operations.2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e108679-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS). The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM), on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad) and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C), with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications.

  • 53.
    Ingre, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Periodic self-rostering in shift work: correspondence between objective work hours, work hour preferences (personal fit), and work schedule satisfaction2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The main objective of the present study was to investigate relative personal fit as the association between rated needs and preferences for work hours, on the one hand, and actual work hours, on the other hand, in three groups (hospital, call-center, and police) working with periodic self-rostering. We also examined the association between personal fit and satisfaction with the work schedule and preference for a fixed and regular shift schedule, respectively. Methods We collected questionnaire data and objective work hour data over 6-12 months from the computerized self-rostering system. The response rate of the questionnaire was 69% at the hospital and call-center and 98% among the police. In total, 29 433 shifts for 285 shift workers were included in the study. Data was analyzed by means of mixed ANOVA, Kendal tau correlations and ordinal (proportional odds) logistic regression. Results The results show that evening types worked relatively more hours during the evening and night hours compared to morning types as an indication of relative personal fit. Relative personal fit was also found for long shift, short rest, and morning-, evening- and night-shift frequency, but only personal fit related to morning, evening and night-shift was associated with satisfaction with work hours. Reported conflicts at the workplace about work hours and problems with lack of predictability of time for family/leisure activities, was associated with poor satisfaction and a preference for a fixed shift schedule. Conclusions The present study shows that periodic self-rostering is associated with relative personal fit, in particular with respect to night, evening, and morning work. Personal fit seems to be associated with satisfaction with work hours and may be a moderator of tolerance to shift work exposure.

  • 54. Jansson, Catarina
    et al.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Clinically diagnosed insomnia and risk of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study.2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 712-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Insomnia is a large health problem. In some prior studies, positive associations between insomnia symptoms and sickness absence have been observed. There is, however, no previous nationwide cohort study of clinically diagnosed insomnia and risk of incident sickness absence. Methods: Prospective nationwide cohort study based on Swedish population-based registers including all 4,956,358 individuals registered as living in Sweden on 31 December 2004/2005, aged 17-64 years, not on disability pension, old-age pension or on-going sickness absence. Those having insomnia inpatient or outpatient care, defined as having at least one admission/specialist visit with a main or secondary diagnosis of disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep [insomnias] (ICD-10: G47.0) during 2000/2001-2005, were compared to those with no such care. All-cause and diagnosis-specific incident sickness absence were followed during 2006-2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: In models adjusted for prior sickness absence, socio-demographic factors and inpatient and specialized outpatient care, associations between insomnia and increased risks of all-cause sickness absence (IRR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.35) and sickness absence due to mental diagnoses (IRR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36-2.25) were observed. After further adjustment for insomnia medications these associations disappeared. No associations between insomnia and risk of sickness absence due to cancer, circulatory or musculoskeletal diagnoses, or injuries, were observed. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, we observed increased risks of all-cause sickness absence and sickness absence due to mental diagnoses after adjustment for several potential confounders that disappeared after further adjustment for insomnia medications.

  • 55. Johansson, Peter J.
    et al.
    Crowley, Patrick
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franklin, Karl
    Garde, Anne Helene
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Holtermann, Andreas
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Ljunggren, Mirjam
    Stamatakis, Emmanuel
    Theorell Haglöw, Jenny
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Development and performance of a sleep estimation algorithm using a single accelerometer placed on the thigh: an evaluation against polysomnography2023In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 32, no 2, article id e13725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerometers placed on the thigh provide accurate measures of daily physical activity types, postures and sedentary behaviours, over 24 h and across consecutive days. However, the ability to estimate sleep duration or quality from thigh-worn accelerometers is uncertain and has not been evaluated in comparison with the 'gold-standard' measurement of sleep polysomnography. This study aimed to develop an algorithm for sleep estimation using the raw data from a thigh-worn accelerometer and to evaluate it in comparison with polysomnography. The algorithm was developed and optimised on a dataset consisting of 23 single-night polysomnography recordings, collected in a laboratory, from 15 asymptomatic adults. This optimised algorithm was then applied to a separate evaluation dataset, in which, 71 adult males (mean [SD] age 57 [11] years, height 181 [6] cm, weight 82 [13] kg) wore ambulatory polysomnography equipment and a thigh-worn accelerometer, simultaneously, whilst sleeping at home. Compared with polysomnography, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.84 and a specificity of 0.55 when estimating sleep periods. Sleep intervals were underestimated by 21 min (130 min, Limits of Agreement Range [LoAR]). Total sleep time was underestimated by 32 min (233 min LoAR). Our results evaluate the performance of a new algorithm for estimating sleep and outline the limitations. Based on these results, we conclude that a single device can provide estimates of the sleep interval and total sleep time with sufficient accuracy for the measurement of daily physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep, on a group level in free-living settings.

  • 56. Kaida, Kosuke
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Takahashi, Masaya
    Vestergren, Peter
    Gillberg, Mats
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Portin, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Performance prediction by sleepiness-related subjective symptoms during 26-hour sleep deprivation2008In: Sleep and Biological Rhythms, ISSN 1446-9235, E-ISSN 1479-8425, Vol. 6, p. 234-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleepiness is a major cause of lower productivity and higher risk of accidents in various work situation. Developing sleepiness monitoring techniques is important to important to improve work efficiency and to reduce accident risk, so that people can take a rest/break in appropriate timing before an accident or a mistake occurs. The aim of the present study are (1) to explain subjective sleepiness using sleep-related symptoms, and (2) to examine which symptoms are useful to predict performance errors. Participants were healthy paid volunteers (six males, six females; mean ± SD, 31.5 ± 10.74 years). Participants took part in 26-h sleep deprivation. During sleep deprivation, they carried out several performance tasks every 3 h and an hourly rating of questionnaires to evaluate subjective symptoms including two types of Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The present study confirmed that performance errors can be predicted by subjective symptoms. While mental fatigue was correlated to KSS scores linearly, eye-related subjective symptoms showed quadratic correlation to KSS. By taking into consideration this noteworthy relationskap between subjective symptoms and sleepiness, more accurate introspection of sleepiness and performance errors prediction (detection) may be possible.

  • 57.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Är det farligt att jobba natt?2016In: När ni andra sover / [ed] Ingrid Sjökvist, Södertälje: Liv i Sverige , 2016, p. 134-151Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 58.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid insomni2021In: FYSS 2021: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling: Yrkesföreningar för fysisk aktivitet (YFA) / [ed] Ing-Mari Dohrn; Eva Jansson; Mats Börjesson; Maria Hagströmer, Stockholm: Läkartidningens Förlag AB , 2021, 4, p. 363-368Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Axelsson, John
    Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep2016In: The BMJ, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 355, article id i5210Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work.

  • 60.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    What characterizes good and bad shift schedules?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Milia, Lee Di
    Axelsson, John
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    20th International Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time: Biological Mechanisms, Recovery, and Risk Management in the 24-h Society2012In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 531-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This dedicated issue of Chronobiology International is devoted to the selected proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Shift Work and Working Time held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28 June to 1 July 2011. It constitutes the fifth such issue of the journal since 2004 dedicated to the selected proceedings to the meetings of the Working Time Society. The key theme of the 20th Symposium was "Biological Mechanisms, Recovery, and Risk Management in the 24-h Society." The collection of papers of this dedicated issue represents the best of contemporary research on the effects of night and rotating shift schedules on worker health and safety. The contents cover such topics as sleep restriction, injuries, health, and performance of night work and rotating shiftwork, plus light treatment as a countermeasure against the circadian disruption of shiftwork. The majority of the papers are observational field studies, including some of large sample size, and three studies are well-designed laboratory experiments. (Author correspondence: goran.kecklund@stress.su.se ).

  • 62.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fors, C.
    Ihlström, J.
    Anund, A.
    Bus drivers’ working hours and their effects on sleep and fatigue2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no S1, p. 286-287, article id P905Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sallinen, Mikael
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Optimizing Shift Scheduling2016In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine / [ed] Meir H. Kryger, Thomas Roth, William C. Dement, Elsevier, 2016, 6 uppl., p. 742-749Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Söderström, Marie
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Att motverka sömnstörning: orsaker och behandling2008In: Preventiv medicin: Teori och praktik, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 2008, p. 115-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Institutionen för Klinisk Neurovetenskap, Karolinska institutet.
    Olofsson, Ulla
    Karlsson, Bernt
    Må bra i skiftarbete: Hur ser de goda lösningarna ut?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Må bra i skiftarbete” handlar om sambandet mellan skiftschemats utformning och förekomst av sömn och hälsobesvär. Projektet består av fyra delstudier:

    1) en enkätstudie med syfte att undersöka samband mellan objektiva arbetstider och sömn, trötthet, hälsa och välbefinnande bland sjukvårdspersonal, exklusive läkare

    2) i samma population undersöka skillnader i hälsa och välbefinnande mellan tre olika arbetstidsmodeller – fast schema, reducerad arbetstid (med bibehållen lön) samt individuell schemaplanering (ISP)

    3) en klusterrandomiserad interventionsstudie där personalen vid tre avdelningar erbjöds utbildning om skiftarbete, sömn och hälsa. Dessa avdelningar jämfördes med tre avdelningar där personalen förutom utbildning även fick individuell schemaåterkoppling. Samtliga avdelningar hade ISP.

    4) en pilotstudie på läkare som använder ISP. Pilotstudien omfattade en enkät samt objektiva arbetstidsdata bland ett litet urval läkare.

    Undersökningen är baserad på enkäter och objektiva arbetstider. De viktigaste resultaten var:

    (1) De besvärligaste arbetstidskomponenterna var kort dygnsvila, roterande treskift, och helgarbete. Kort dygnsvila innebar otillräcklig sömn och ungefär 2,5 timmes sömnbrist.

    (2) Det fanns inga samband mellan förekomst av kort dygnsvila respektive nattarbete (baserade på objektiva arbetstidsdata) och psykisk ohälsa, otillräcklig återhämtning, att arbetet stör privatlivet och uppfattning om att inte orka arbeta fram till pension.

    (3) Däremot fanns det tydliga samband mellan att uppleva stora besvär med kort dygnsvila och nattarbete, och psykisk ohälsa, otillräcklig återhämtning, att arbetet stör privatlivet och att inte orka arbeta fram till pension (under rådande arbetsförhållanden).

    (4) Även hög arbetsbelastning, att uppleva att arbetet är emotionellt krävande, samt att inte få tillräckliga raster, visade samband med psykisk ohälsa och att inte orka arbeta fram till pension.

    (5) Jämförelsen av arbetstidsmodellerna – fast schema, reducerad arbetstid och ISP – visade marginella skillnader när det gäller hälsa, återhämtning och arbetsrelaterade störningar av privatlivet.

    (6) Interventionen, särskilt utbildning, var uppskattad av deltagarna men hade ingen effekt på hälsa, återhämtning och störningar i privatlivet. Interventionen innebar en ökning av mindre personalkonflikter relaterade till de valda arbetstiderna.

    (7) Pilotstudien om ISP för läkare visade att många uppskattade att kunna påverka sitt arbetstidsschema och rekommenderade andra avdelningar att pröva ISP. Däremot påverkade inte ISP förekomsten av hälso- och sömnbesvär.

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  • 66.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Change in Work-Time Control and Work-Home Interference Among Swedish Working Men and Women: Findings from the SLOSH Cohort Study2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 670-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim is to study the influence of change in work-time control (WTC) on work-home interference (WHI) while adjusting for other work-related factors, demographics, changes at work and WHI at baseline among women and men. An additional aim was to explore sex differences in the relation between change in WTC and WHI.

    METHODS: The study included working participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study of the third (2010) and fourth (2012) waves (n = 5440). Based on a seven-item index, four groups of WTC were formed: stable high (40 %), stable low (42 %), increasing (9 %), or decreasing (9 %) WTC over the 2 years. WHI was measured by four items and individuals were categorised in whether suffering or not suffering of WHI. Sex-stratified logistic regression analyses with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the odds of experiencing WHI by change in WTC.

    RESULTS: Controlling for demographics and work-related factors, women with stable low (OR = 1.46; 95 % CI 1.14-1.88) and women and men with decreasing WTC (women OR = 1.99; 95 % CI 1.38-2.85; men OR = 1.80; 95 % CI 1.18-2.73) had higher odds of WHI than those with a stable high WTC. Additionally, adjusting for changes at work and WHI at baseline did not alter the results substantially. Interaction analysis did not reveal any significant sex difference in the relation between WTC and WHI.

    CONCLUSIONS: For both women and men decreased and for women only, low control over working hours resulted in WHI also after adjusting for work-related factors and demographics.

  • 67.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Inflytande över arbetstiden och sjuknärvaro/sjukfrånvaro2013In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 87-99Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flexibla arbetstider blir allt vanligare. De förväntas underlätta verksamhetens förmåga att hantera arbetstoppar, tillgodose anställdas behov av livsbalans samt möjliggöra bättre hälsa och arbetsprestation. Flexibilitet skapas ofta genom att de anställda ges inflytande över arbetstiderna. Vetenskaplig kunskap om sambandet mellan arbetstidskontroll och sjukfrånvaro/sjuknärvaro saknas nästan helt. I föreliggande studie undersöks sambandet mellan arbetstidskontroll samt dess underdimensioner och självrapporterad sjukfrånvaro/sjuknärvaro i ett representativt urval av den arbetande befolkningen i Sverige.

  • 68.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Low control over worktime increases the risk for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Change in work-time control and work-home interference among Swedish working men and women2014In: Looking at the past – planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity: Book of proceedings / [ed] Nicholas John Artin Andreou, Aditya Jain, David Hollis, Juliet Hassard, Kevin Teoh, European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2014, p. 105-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Lekander, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Anna Nixon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ekman, Rolf
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Subjective health perception in healthy young men changes in response to experimentally restricted sleep and subsequent recovery sleep2013In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 34, p. 43-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep and subjective health are both prospectively related to objective indices of health and health care use. Here, we tested whether five days with restricted sleep and subsequent recovery days affect subjective health and is related to increased levels of circulating IL-6 and TNF-α and fatigue. Nine healthy men (23-28years) went through a 6-week sleep protocol with subjects as their own controls in a repeated measures design with a total of 11 nights in a sleep laboratory. The experimental part of the protocol included three baseline days (sleep 23-07h), five days with sleep restriction (03-07h) and three recovery days (23-07h) in the sleep laboratory. Subjective health and fatigue was recorded daily. Eight blood samples were drawn each day (every third hour) on 8days of the protocol and analyzed with respect to IL-6 and TNF-α. Subjective health deteriorated gradually during restricted sleep (p=.002) and returned to baseline levels after three days of recovery. IL-6 and TNF-α did not change significantly. Fatigue increased gradually during sleep restriction (p=.001), which significantly contributed to the association between restricted sleep and subjective health. The study is the first to show that subjective health is directly responsive to changes in sleep length and related to increased fatigue. Thus, subjective health is differently appraised after manipulation of one of its presumed determinants. Larger experimental studies would be beneficial to further distinguish causation from association regarding the underpinnings of subjective health.

  • 71.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    A meta-review of job demands and job resources as related to various health-related outcomes among women and men with different occupations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This systematic meta-review uses the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to investigate the associations between various psychosocial factors at work and a range of health-related outcomes. Specifically, this study investigated how job demands and resources are linked to health-related outcomes such as depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal complaints and whether the linkages varied between genders and occupations.

    Design/Methodology: This meta-review focuses on meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews published during the past 10 years. These secondary studies were identified through combined searches in different international databases. Search terms were selected to identify a range of psychosocial factors and to retrieve published journal articles, and systematic reports linking such factors to health-related outcomes.

    Results: In total, 14 job demands and 7 job resources were identified. Lining these to outcomes resulted in the identification of 273 potential associations. Taken together, the findings show what is known from previous research, namely that job demands are related to poorer health. As expected resources typically relate to better health outcomes that are beneficial for organizations and individual employees. Separating findings for women and men suggest that the overall linkages between psychosocial factors and health-related outcomes hold for both women and men. However, less is know regarding occupational variations.

    Limitations: A meta-review restricts specificity and detail.

    Research/Practical Implications: Adds to the systematic knowledge of health-related consequences of psychosocial factors at work, for research as well as practice.

    Originality/Value: The use of a meta-approach that discusses issues relating to gender and occupation.

  • 72.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Considerations on how to light the night-shift2021In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 437-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric lighting has decreased dependence on natural light to illuminate the workplace. Humans are genetically predisposed to be day-oriented (diurnal) and depend on daylight to regulate circadian rhythms. Shift work will force workers to sleep and work at non-biological times, inducing circadian disruption with implications for workers' safety and health. The scientific literature may be used in practice in shift work settings to improve safety, performance and health in the workplace by reducing circadian misalignment. Alertness profiles at work and degree of melatonin suppression may indicate degree of circadian disruption among workers. However, when considering lighting solutions at night, there are several factors that need consideration. Light measures based on biological effectiveness should be used rather than room illuminance giving better predictions of performance and long-term health among workers. Also, large individual differences in light sensitivity and preferences suggest not only to rely on common lighting alone but also to implement complementary individual lighting solutions at work. Lighting advice should consider shift scheduling characteristics such as speed of turnover and shift timing to guide decisions of preferred circadian phase influence. Lighting should also include the flexibility to be fit for morning, afternoon and evening work.

  • 73.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Daylight exposure in the in-door working population in Sweden, relation to sleep, wakefulness and health2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74. Malmberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Karlson, Björn
    Persson, Roger
    Flisberg, Per
    Orbaek, Palle
    Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study2010In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 10, p. 239-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call.

    Methods: Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons.

    Results: Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p < 0.001). Scores for mental fatigue and feeling well rested were poorer post-call, but returned to Sunday morning levels after two nights' sleep.

    Conclusions: Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and other health-care workers.

  • 75.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary Management Preferences, Boundary Control, and Work-Life Balance among Full-Time Employed Professionals in Knowledge-Intensive, Flexible Work2014In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profound changes are taking place within working life, where established boundaries between work and personal life are challenged by increased global competition, ever-faster changing markets, and rapid development of boundary transcending information and communication technologies (ICT). The aim of this study was to investigate boundary management preferences in terms of keeping work and personal life domains separated or integrated, that is, segmenting or blending of domains, the perception of being in control of one´s preferred boundaries, and work-life balance among employees at a Swedish telecom company (N = 1,238, response rate 65%, men 73%, mean age 42 years). Psychosocial work factors, individual characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and work-life balance were investigated in relation to boundary management preferences and perceived boundary control. For high boundary control among segmenters, nearly all the studied psychosocial work factors were significant. Among integrators, this was the case only for clear expectations in work. For both groups, the individual capacity for self-regulation was associated with high boundary control. Regarding sociodemographic factors, cohabiting women with children who preferred segmentation had low boundary control. Finally, there was a main effect of boundary control on work-life balance. In particular, male segmenters perceiving high boundary control had better work-life balance than all others. Conclusions of the study are that segmenters need external boundaries in work for succesful boundary management. Moreover, self-regulation seems a crucial boundary competence in knowledge- intensive, flexible work. Results are of value for health promotion in modern work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary control and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 76.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, boundaryless work2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: abstract proceedings of the 16th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), 22-25 maj, Münster, Tyskland / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, p. 239-240Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary strategies, segmentation and integration, were explored in knowledge intense, boundaryless work. Socio-demographic, work-related and individual factors were investigated in relation to strategy choice, and further, which of these factors that discriminated between succeeding or not with the chosen strategy. Moreover, work-life balance was studied in relation to strategy choice. A questionnaire was sent to employees (n=1238, response rate 65%) at an international telecom company in Sweden. A majority, 82 percent, chose segmentation. Integrators had higher working time per week, more often worked evenings and weekends and at different places than the workplace, especially from home, than segmenters. More integrators perceived their strategy as nonsuccessful. However, these time- and place related aspects were only related to not succeeding with one´s strategy among segmenters. Especially, co-habiting women with children choosing segmentation perceived their strategy as non-successful. In contrast, male segmenters succeeded more often. Discriminating factors in both strategy groups reflected the capacity for self-regulation, i.e., being able to say no and set limits, organizing work efficiently, and work independently. Those who succeeded with the integration strategy, in particular integrating women, reported a higher degree of work-life balance as compared to others. Results needs to be confirmed in other work settings and associations between boundary management and stress and health established. Self-regulation seems a crucial competence in a working life characterized by boundarylessness. Results are of value for health promotion in flexible work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary management and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 77.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, flexible work2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Segmentering och integrering: om mäns och kvinnors gränssättningsstrategier i högkvalificerat arbete2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gränssättningsstrategier undersöktes bland män och kvinnor (n=673) i högkvalificeradearbeten där gränserna mellan arbete och livet utanför arbetet kanbeskrivas som svaga. Sociodemografiska och arbetsrelaterade faktorer för detvå strategierna, segmentering respektive integrering, undersöktes samt vilkaav dessa faktorer som åtskiljer de som anser sig lyckas respektive inte lyckasmed sin valda strategi. Resultaten visade att valet av segmenteringsstrateginklart dominerade, endast 18 procent klassificerades som integrerare. Integrerarnaangav högre arbetstid per vecka, de jobbade mera på vardagkvällar och helgersamt i högre grad på olika platser än segmenterarna. Det var dock i segmenteringsgruppensom dessa tids- och rumsaspekter hade en särskiljande betydelseför om man lyckades eller inte med sitt strategival. Särskilt sammanboendekvinnor med barn som använde sig av segmentering upplevde i högre grad änövriga att de misslyckades med sin strategi. De faktorer som i båda gruppernaframkom som urskiljande för huruvida man lyckas med sitt strategival rördeindividfaktorer relaterade till gränssättning i arbetet vilka kan betraktas somförmågan till självreglering. Dessa var att kunna arbeta självständigt, organiserasitt arbete effektivt, att veta vad som förväntas i arbetet, att själv kunna avgöranär en uppgift är slutförd samt att kunna säga nej och sätta gränser. Självregleringkan därmed betraktas som en central yrkeskompetens i ett arbetsliv alltmerkännetecknat av gränslöshet. Detta bekräftades av att bland de som lyckadesmed en integrerande strategi så var andelen som även upplevde balans i livetsom högst. Detta var särskilt uttalat bland kvinnor. Fortsatta studier kan inriktaspå prövning av resultaten i andra arbetsrelaterade kontext och ytterligareidentifiering av determinanter för lyckad segmentering eller integrering samt hurdetta sammanhänger med stress och (o)hälsa.

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  • 79.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kompier, Michiel
    Sariaslan, Amir
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Boundaryless Work, Psychological Detachment and Sleep: Does Working 'Anytime – Anywhere' Equal Employees Are 'Always on'?2016In: New ways of working practices / [ed] Jan De Leede, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, p. 29-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life would seem to be crucial if one is to psychologically detach from work during leisure in order to unwind and get sufficient sleep. Drawing from a sample of Swedish professional workers (N = 3,846), a theoretical model was proposed testing the inter-relationships between boundaryless work in time and space, weekly work hours, psychological detachment, sleeping problems and sleep duration using a structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. Findings showed that working boundlessly in time, that is spread out during the working day and week, was directly associated with both long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. In contrast, working boundlessly in space, that is at several different places, was inversely associated with weekly work hours and had no association with psychological detachment. Psychological detachment, in turn, was directly associated with sleeping problems and inversely associated with sleep duration. Sleeping problems were inversely associated with sleep duration. Employees with long weekly work hours had a low degree of sleeping problems. There was also no association between long weekly work hours and sleep duration. These findings contradict earlier research, however, we interpret these findings as that if one works a great deal but is able to mentally detach from work-related feelings and thoughts during free time, then sleep will not be hampered because perseverative cognitions associated with prolonged biological activation will have been interrupted. As such, psychological detachment can be regarded as the mechanism that mediates the relationships between working 'anytime' and long weekly work hours, and sleep. It was concluded working boundlessly in time increases the likelihood for long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. Hence, employees working 'anytime – all the time' run the risk of 'always being on' resulting in disturbed sleep.

  • 80. Møller, S. V.
    et al.
    Axelsson, J.
    Bjorvatn, B.
    Hansen, J.
    Hansen, Å. M.
    Harris, A.
    Hjarsbech, P. U.
    Härmä, M.
    Ingre, M.
    Jensen, M. A.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kolstad, H. A.
    Lie, J. A. S.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Matre, D.
    Nabe-Nielsen, K.
    Pallesen, S.
    Puttonen, S.
    Rugulies, R.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vistisen, H. T.
    Garde, A. H.
    Co-ordination of research on working hours and health in the Nordic countries: Working hours and Health2015Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Nilsonne, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Almeida, R.
    Fischer, H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, P.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Increased global FMRI signal variability after partial sleep deprivation: Findings from the Stockholm sleepy brain study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Neural correlates of sleep deprivation are not fully understood and the difference between young and older adults in this regard has received little attention. We aimed to investigate the effect of partial sleep deprivation on resting state connectivity.

    Methods: 30 younger (20–30 years) and 23 older (65–75 years) healthy participants underwent MR imaging after normal sleep and partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep). We acquired two runs of eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure their eyes remained open during scanning.

    Results: Global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal, was increased following partial sleep deprivation (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, we did not find that partial sleep deprivation inhibited connectivity in the default mode network, nor in other major networks investigated.

    Conclusion: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This novel finding should be confirmed using independent data. Our finding of no difference in default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, could possibly be due to stricter monitoring of participants’ wakefulness compared to some earlier studies.

  • 82.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Frida M.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on self-rated health and sickness2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Detection of facial mimicry by electromyography during fMRI scanning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether electromyography (EMG) could be used to detect facial mimicry during fMRI scanning.

    EMG activity in the superciliary corrugator muscle increased when participants viewed angry faces.

  • 84.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, Håkan
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably in the default mode network, but studies to date have shown inconsistent effects and have largely included young participants. We therefore aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Methods: Participants aged 20-30 (n = 30) and 65-75 (n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure they did not fall asleep during scanning. Results: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, sleep deprivation did not cause major changes in investigated resting state networks, nor did it cause changes in regional homogeneity. Younger participants had higher functional connectivity in most examined resting state networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in brain areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions: We show for the first time that partial sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This outcome should be examined as a potential biomarker for sleepiness using independent data. Unlike a few earlier studies, we did not find less default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, possibly because of stricter monitoring of participants' wakefulness.

  • 87.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults: results from the Stockholm Sleepy Brain study2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably reducing connectivity in the default mode network. Studies to date have however shown inconsistent effects, in many cases lacked monitoring of wakefulness, and largely included young participants. We investigated effects of sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Participants aged 20–30 (final n = 30) and 65–75 (final n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two 8-minutes eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session, monitored by eye-tracking. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. Changes in investigated resting state networks and in regional homogeneity were not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher connectivity in most examined networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, we found that sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, and we speculate that this may be caused by wake-state instability.

  • 88.
    Nyberg, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Workplace violence and health in human service industries: a systematic review of prospective and longitudinal studies2021In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 69-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To provide systematically evaluated evidence of prospective associations between exposure to physical, psychological and gender-based violence and health among healthcare, social care and education workers.

    Methods The guidelines on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were followed. Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsycInfo were searched for population: human service workers; exposure: workplace violence; and study type:prospective or longitudinal in articles published 1990–August 2019. Quality assessment was performed based on a modified version of the Cochrane’s ‘Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies’.

    Results After deduplication, 3566 studies remained, of which 132 articles were selected for full-text screening and 28 were included in the systematic review. A majority of the studies focused on healthcare personnel, were from the Nordic countries and were assessed to have medium quality. Nine of 11 associations between physical violence and poor mental health were statistically significant, and 3 of 4 associations between physical violence and sickness absence. Ten of 13 associations between psychological violence and poor mental health were statistically significant and 6 of 6 associations between psychological violence and sickness absence. The only study on gender-based violence and health reported a statistically non-significant association.

    Conclusion There is consistent evidence mainly in medium quality studies of prospective associations between psychological violence and poor mental health and sickness absence, and between physical violence and poor mental health in human service workers. More research using objective outcomes, improved exposure assessment and that focus on gender-based violence is needed.

  • 89.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Exercise is associated with changes in sleep architecture during stress2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, no Suppl. 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thank god it's Friday - sleep improved2017In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 567-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weekend is usually seen as a window of recovery. Thus, sleep before a day off may be less impaired than that before a workday. However, very few polysomnographical studies have investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare sleep before a workday with that before a weekend. Seventeen teachers participated. Sleep was recorded with polysomnography on one weekday night during the workweek, and on a workday (Friday) followed by a day off. Sleep diaries and actigraphs were also used. Weekend sleep showed delayed bedtime and time of rising, a longer total sleep time (45 min), increased N3 and N1, and decreased N2 and REM. Sleep spindles were reduced. The results remained after truncation to the shortest common sleep duration (5 h). The increase in N3 from weekday sleep to Friday night sleep was positively correlated with N1 change (r = 0.853, P <= 0.001), and negatively correlated with N2 change (r = -0.614, P <= 0.001). Subjective ratings showed that weekend sleep was associated with less awakening problems and lower subjective arousal during the day. The authors concluded that weekend sleep was longer, and showed increased N3 and N1. The authors suggest that the N3 increase before the day off is a result of lower stress, while the N1 increase may be an effect of sleep spindle suppression via the increase of N3 (which would suppress sleep spindles), thus reducing N2 and enhancing N1.

  • 91.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Stress vulnerability and the effects of moderate daily stress on sleep polysomnography and subjective sleepiness2013In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how sleep physiology is affected by naturally occurring high work stress and identify individual differences in the response of sleep to stress. Probable upcoming stress levels were estimated through weekly web questionnaire ratings. Based on the modified FIRST-scale (Ford insomnia response to stress) participants were grouped into high (n = 9) or low (n = 19) sensitivity to stress related sleep disturbances (Drake et al., 2004). Sleep was recorded in 28 teachers with polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphs during one high stress and one low stress condition in the participants home. EEG showed a decrease in sleep efficiency during the high stress condition. Significant interactions between group and condition were seen for REM sleep, arousals and stage transitions. The sensitive group had an increase in arousals and stage transitions during the high stress condition and a decrease in REM, whereas the opposite was seen in the resilient group. Diary ratings during the high stress condition showed higher bedtime stress and lower ratings on the awakening index (insufficient sleep and difficulties awakening). Ratings also showed lower cognitive function and preoccupation with work thoughts in the evening. KSS ratings of sleepiness increased during stress for the sensitive group. Saliva samples of cortisol showed no effect of stress. It was concluded that moderate daily stress is associated with a moderate negative effect on sleep sleep efficiency and fragmentation. A slightly stronger effect was seen in the sensitive group.

  • 92.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Exercise is associated with changes in sleep architecture during stress2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disturbed sleep and its attribution to stress and other causes: A population-based survey2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the prevalence of attributed causes of disturbed sleep and the association between stress-disturbed sleep and age, sex, and sleep duration on weekdays as well as weekends in a representative sample. A nationally representative sample (n = 1,128, response rate 72.8%), stratified for sex and age, completed a computer-assisted phone survey that included questions about sleep disturbances and attributed causes. Stress was the main attributed cause of sleep disturbance (35.1%), most frequently attributed by younger women (χ2 = 26.5, p < 0.001). Prevalence of stress-disturbed sleep was higher with lower age (B = −0.05, odds ratio (OR) = 0.94, CI = 0.91, 0.98). There was a trend, however, toward a significant interaction between age and sex, with women in the older age-groups more frequently reporting stress-disturbed sleep than older men (B = −0.02, OR = 1.022, CI = 1.003, 1.042). Weekday sleep duration decreased with increased stress-disturbed sleep, with an inverse relationship on weekends except for those reporting stress-disturbed sleep more than 5 days per week (F = 10.5, p < 0.001), who also had the shortest weekend sleep duration. Sleep disturbances were commonly attributed to stress, and more strongly so in women younger than 46 years. Stress-disturbed sleep during weekdays seems to be potentially compensated for with extended sleep on weekends, except for those with continuous stress-disturbed sleep. 

  • 94. Phillips, Ross Owen
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Anund, Anne
    Sallinen, Mikael
    Fatigue in transport: a review of exposure, risks, checks and controls2017In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 742-766Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human fatigue continues to threaten safe transport. There are claims that employers of operators should do more to mitigate the risks, and several regulators are promoting fatigue-risk management in the context of safety management systems (SMS). The current paper reviews fatigue-related risk and exposure factors and control measures for operators of land- and sea-based transport forms. Our review identifies 13 types of measures for the monitoring or control of fatigue risks: optimal staffing; optimal schedule design; optimisation of breaks/naps; monitoring of actual hours worked; optimisation of work content; monitoring and feedback of actual sleep; health screening and treatment; promotion of recovery from work; fitness-for-duty testing; monitoring of fatigue symptoms while operating; control of fatigue while operating; performance monitoring and assistance; and fatigue-proofing. We also identify two systemic measures needed to anchor risk mitigation in SMS: organisational learning and training/other. By structuring monitoring and control measures along Dawson and McCulloch's fatigue-risk trajectory, a framework is obtained that acts as a guide for fatigue-risk management by transport employers. To inform transport managers further, evaluations are needed of the effectiveness of individual control measures as well as whole fatigue-risk management interventions.

  • 95.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Levitski, Andres
    Wahde, Mattias
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Institute for Globally Distributed Open Research and Education (IGDORE), Sweden.
    Benderius, Ola
    Radun, Jenni
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sleepy drivers on a slippery road: A pilot study using a driving simulator2022In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 31, no 2, article id e13488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleepy drivers have problems with keeping the vehicle within the lines, and might often need to apply a sudden or hard corrective steering wheel movement. Such movements, if they occur while driving on a slippery road, might increase the risk of ending off road due to the unforgiving nature of slippery roads. We tested this hypothesis. Twelve young men participated in a driving simulator experiment with two counterbalanced conditions; dry versus slippery road x day (alert) versus night (sleepy) driving. The participants drove 52.5 km on a monotonous two-lane highway and rated their sleepiness seven times using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Blink durations were extracted from an electrooculogram. The standard deviation of lateral position and the smoothness of steering events were measures of driving performance. Each outcome variable was analysed with mixed-effect models with road condition, time-of-day and time-on-task as predictors. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale increased with time-on-task (p < 0.001) and was higher during night drives (p < 0.001), with a three-way interaction suggesting a small increased sleepiness with driving time at night with slippery road conditions (p = 0.012). Blink durations increased with time-on-task (p < 0.01) with an interaction between time-of-day and road condition (p = 0.040) such that physiological sleepiness was lower for sleep-deprived participants in demanding road conditions. The standard deviation of lateral position increased with time-on-task (p = 0.026); however, during night driving it was lower on a slippery road (p = 0.025). The results indicate that driving in demanding road condition (i.e. slippery road) might further exhaust already sleepy drivers, although this is not clearly reflected in driving performance.

  • 96.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Radun, Jenni
    Helgesson, Gert
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Company employees as experimental participants in traffic safety research: Prevalence and implications2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 60, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of company employees as experimental participants when testing products, technology or paradigms developed by the same company raises questions about bias in results and research ethics. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of studies authored by car company researchers with car company employees as participants, to assess the risk of bias in such studies, to investigate journal editors’ opinions in the field of traffic safety regarding these procedures, and to offer a general discussion about ethical and methodological implications. Three types of data were collected. We (i) examined guidelines and recommendations for authors in eleven selected peer-reviewed journals in the area of traffic safety; (ii) surveyed editors of these journals; and (iii) reviewed articles authored by researchers from a selected group of car manufacturers and published in these journals during 2011–2015. Guidelines and recommendations for authors in the included journals did not mention whether and under what circumstances company employees can be research participants, nor did publishers’ general guidelines. However, three out of the four editors who responded to our survey believed that this issue of private company researchers using participants from the same company deserves to be explicitly addressed in their journal’s guide for authors. The total number of regular articles and conference papers during 2011–2015 in the eleven journals reviewed was 6763; 95 (1.4%) listed at least one car manufacturer in the authors’ affiliations; and out of these, nine included company employees as participants. In summary, company employees are seldom (0.13%) used as research participants in traffic safety research. Nevertheless, the use of company employees as research participants raises questions about bias in results as well as about incursions into the participants’ autonomy.

  • 97. Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Radun, Jenni
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Night work, fatigued driving and traffic law: the case of police officers2011In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 389-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the well-known difficulties in defining and detecting fatigue, it is a real challenge to incorporate it into either traffic or criminal law. Finnish traffic law forbids fatigued driving "only" on a general level concerning the driver's fitness to drive. We present several comments from Finnish traffic and local police officers regarding their own experiences of driving while fatigued. The comments were extracted from a larger survey of traffic (N=129) and local (N=100) police officers, and prosecutors (N=96). Although the main topic of the survey was the application of the law that forbids fatigued driving, some police officers raised the issue of their own behavior in this respect. We argue that many shift workers, including police officers, break the law, especially when driving home after a night shift.

  • 98. Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Radun, Jenni
    Wahde, Mattias
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Driver fatigue and the law from the perspective of police officers and prosecutors2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 18, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though police officers and prosecutors play a key role in traffic law application, little is known about their experiences, attitudes, and opinions regarding the complex issue of driver fatigue and the law. This paper is based on an extensive online survey collected from traffic (N = 129) and local (N = 100) police officers and prosecutors (N = 96) in the context of Finnish traffic law, which forbids driving while fatigued in an article relating to a driver’s fitness to drive. While encountering fatigued drivers is very common for police officers, only a small proportion has received training about how to recognize and deal with fatigued drivers. Driving while extremely fatigued is considered rather or extremely negligent behavior by almost all respondents. Although agreement between these three groups exists regarding several issues, they disagree about whether the current law is specific enough, and whether experts might be valuable in court when discussing the possible contribution of fatigue to the cause of a crash. We discuss the application of the law and opinions about the current law formulation, experience and education, as well as general awareness and attitudes, taking into consideration the different nature of police and prosecutor work.

  • 99.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Parkkari, Inkeri
    Radun, Jenni
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Olivier, Jake
    Tervo, Timo
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Focus on professional drivers using in-depth crash data2019In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 575-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Road traffic suicides typically involve a passenger car driver crashing his or her vehicle into a heavy vehicle, because death is almost certain due to the large mass difference between these vehicles. For the same reason, heavy-vehicle drivers typically suffer minor injuries, if any, and have thus received little attention in the research literature. In this study, we focused on heavy-vehicle drivers who were involved as the second party in road suicides in Finland.

    Methods: We analyzed 138 road suicides (2011-2016) involving a passenger car crashing into a heavy vehicle. We used in-depth road crash investigation data from the Finnish Crash Data Institute.

    Results: The results showed that all but 2 crashes were head-on collisions. Almost 30% of truck drivers were injured, but only a few suffered serious injuries. More than a quarter reported sick leave following their crash. Injury insurance compensation to heavy-vehicle drivers was just above euro9,000 on average. Material damage to heavy vehicles was significant, with average insurance compensation paid being euro70,500. Three out of 4 truck drivers reported that drivers committing suicide acted abruptly and left them little opportunity for preventive action.

    Conclusions: Suicides by crashing into heavy vehicles can have an impact on drivers' well-being; however, it is difficult to see how heavy-vehicle drivers could avoid a suicide attempt involving their vehicle.

  • 100.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, J.
    Kaistinen, J.
    Olivier, J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Endangering yourself to save another: A real life ethical dilemma2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 64, p. 318-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike hypothetical trolley problem studies and an ongoing ethical dilemma with autonomous vehicles, road users can face similar ethical dilemmas in real life. Swerving a heavy vehicle towards the road-side in order to avoid a head-on crash with a much lighter passenger car is often the only option available which could save lives. However, running off-road increases the probability of a roll-over and endangers the life of the heavy vehicle driver. We have created an experimental survey study in which heavy vehicle drivers randomly received one of two possible scenarios. We found that respondents were more likely to report they would ditch their vehicle in order to save the hypothetical driver who fell asleep than to save the driver who deliberately diverted their car towards the participant's heavy vehicle. Additionally, the higher the empathy score, the higher the probability of ditching a vehicle. Implications for autonomous vehicle programming are discussed. 

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