Change search
Refine search result
12 51 - 95 of 95
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Nitharwal, Ram Gopal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Schäfer, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Wiseman, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sjöstrand, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kuang, Qie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Biochemical and structural characterization of a superoxide dismutase-containing respiratory supercomplex from Mycobacterium smegmatisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Nordlund, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    SNARE-fusion mediated insertion of membrane proteins into native and artificial membranesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Nordlund, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. University of Bern, Switzerland.
    SNARE-fusion mediated insertion of membrane proteins into native and artificial membranes2014In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 5, p. 4303-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane proteins carry out functions such as nutrient uptake, ATP synthesis or transmembrane signal transduction. An increasing number of reports indicate that cellular processes are underpinned by regulated interactions between these proteins. Consequently, functional studies of these networks at a molecular level require co-reconstitution of the interacting components. Here, we report a SNARE protein-based method for incorporation of multiple membrane proteins into artificial membrane vesicles of well-defined composition, and for delivery of large water-soluble substrates into these vesicles. The approach is used for in vitro reconstruction of a fully functional bacterial respiratory chain from purified components. Furthermore, the method is used for functional incorporation of the entire F1F0 ATP synthase complex into native bacterial membranes from which this component had been genetically removed. The novel methodology offers a tool to investigate complex interaction networks between membrane-bound proteins at a molecular level, which is expected to generate functional insights into key cellular functions.

  • 54.
    Nordlund, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lönneborg, Rosa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Formation of supported lipid bilayers on silica particles studied using flow cytometry2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 4601-4606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silica colloidal particles with functionalized surfaces are used, for example, in studies of membrane proteins or for drug delivery, where novel applications are based on the use of particles covered by lipid membrane bilayers. The mechanism by which such supported lipid bilayers are formed on spherical support is not fully understood. Here, we present results from studies of this process using a new method based on flow cytometry. The approach enabled us to detect particle populations coated and uncoated with lipids in the same sample according to the vesicle:particle surface area ratio. The data suggest that DOPC lipid vesicles efficiently break upon interaction with the silica colloidal particle surface; only a small fraction of the adsorbed vesicles remain unbroken. Furthermore, the data support earlier observations showing that formation of the lipid bilayer at the surface is a cooperative process, where bilayer formation is catalyzed by previously bound membrane fragments.

  • 55.
    Nordlund, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ng, Jovice Boon Sing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    A Membrane-reconstituted Multisubunit Functional Proton Pump on Mesoporous Silica Particles2009In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 2639-2646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated formation of a proteolipid membrane surrounding mesoporous silica particles with a diameter of 550 nm and pore sizes of 3.0 nm. A multisubunit redox-driven proton pump, cytochrome c oxidase, was incorporated into the membrane and we show that the enzyme is fully functional, both with respect to catalysis of O2 reduction to water, and charge separation across the membrane. The orientation of cytochrome c oxidase in the membrane was found to be the same (~70/30 %) in the lipid vesicles and in the silica-particle supported lipid membrane, which provides information on the mechanism by which the vesicles adsorb to the surface. Furthermore, cytochrome c oxidase could maintain a proton electrochemical gradient across the supported proteomembrane, i.e. the membrane system was proton tight, defining an interior particle compartment that is separated from the surrounding aqueous media. Such a biofunctional cellular interface, supported onto a colloid that has a connected interior cytoskeleton-like pore structure, provides a basis for functional studies of membrane-bound transport proteins, and also for applications within pharmaceutical drug delivery.

  • 56.
    Nordlund, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Rydström Lundin, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Effect of lipid composition on respiration-driven ATP synthesisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy conversion in biological systems is underpinned by membrane-bound proton transporters that generate and maintain a proton electrochemical gradient across the membrane. The free energy stored in this gradient is used, for example, for transport of molecules or ions by other transporters as well as for generation of ATP by the ATP synthase. Understanding the overall process requires functional studies of the coupled reactions, which involve co-reconstitution of e.g. a proton pump and a transporter that utilizes the proton gradient. This process is likely to be further influenced by the composition of the membrane, which, for example, may facilitate lateral proton transfer. In the present study, we have co-reconstituted the proton pump bo3 ubiquinol oxidase with ATP synthase, both from E. coli, in liposomes with different membrane compositions. The coupled proton pumping and ATP-synthesis activities were investigated. We found that the ATP synthesis was significantly higher in a membrane composed of pure DOPC lipids than in the presence of DOPA, DOPE, DOPG or cardiolipin. The drop in activity was considerably more pronounced upon addition of the negatively charged head groups (PA, PG or cardiolipin) than upon addition of the zwitterionic PE. The origin of these effects is discussed.

  • 57.
    Näsvik Öjemyr, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lee, Hyun Ju
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Functional interactions between membrane-bound transporters and membranes2010In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 107, no 36, p. 15763-15767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key role of many cellular membranes is to hold a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient that stores free energy, which is used, for example, to generate ATP or to drive transmembrane transport processes. In mitochondria and many bacteria, the gradient is maintained by proton-transport proteins that are part of the respiratory (electron-transport) chain. Even though our understanding of the structure and function of these proteins has increased significantly, very little is known about the specific role of functional protein-membrane and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions. Here, we have investigated the effect of membrane incorporation on proton-transfer reactions within the membrane-bound proton pump cytochrome c oxidase. The results show that the membrane acts to accelerate proton transfer into the enzyme's catalytic site and indicate that the intramolecular proton pathway is wired via specific amino acid residues to the two-dimensional space defined by the membrane surface. We conclude that the membrane not only acts as a passive barrier insulating the interior of the cell from the exterior solution, but also as a component of the energy-conversion machinery.

  • 58.
    Näsvik Öjemyr, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Marechal, Amandine
    Vesti, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Meunier, Brigitte
    Rich, Peter R.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reaction of wild-type and Glu243Asp variant yeast cytochrome c oxidase with O-22014In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1837, no 7, p. 1012-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied internal electron transfer during the reaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase with dioxygen. Similar absorbance changes were observed with this yeast oxidase as with the previously studied Rhodobacter sphaeroides and bovine mitochondrial oxidases, which suggests that the reaction proceeds along the same trajectory. However, notable differences were observed in rates and electron-transfer equilibrium constants of specific reaction steps, for example the ferryl (F) to oxidized (O) reaction was faster with the yeast (0.4 ms) than with the bovine oxidase (similar to 1 ms) and a larger fraction Cu-A was oxidized with the yeast than with the bovine oxidase in the peroxy (P-R) to F reaction. Furthermore, upon replacement of Glu243, located at the end of the so-called D proton pathway, by Asp the P-R -> F and F -> O reactions were slowed by factors of similar to 3 and similar to 10, respectively, and electron transfer from Cu-A to heme a during the P-R -> F reaction was not observed. These data indicate that during reduction of dioxygen protons are transferred through the D pathway, via Glu243, to the catalytic site in the yeast mitochondrial oxidase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference.

  • 59.
    Näsvik Öjemyr, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Faxén, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Svahn, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    The membrane modulates internal proton transfer in cytochrome c oxidase2012In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 51, p. 1092-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionality of membrane proteins is often modulated by the surrounding membrane. Here, we investigated the effect of membrane reconstitution of purified cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) on the kinetics and thermodynamics of internal electron and proton-transfer reactions during O2 reduction. Reconstitution of the detergent-solubilized enzyme in small unilamellar soybean phosphatidylcholine vesicles resulted in a lowering of the pKa in the pH dependence profile of the proton-uptake rate. This pKa change resulted in decreased proton-uptake rates in the pH range of 6.5–9.5, which is explained in terms of lowering of the pKa of an internal proton donor within CytcO. At pH 7.5, the rate decreased to the same extent when vesicles were prepared from the pure zwitterionic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) or the anionic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho(1-rac-glycerol) (DOPG). In addition, a small change in the internal CuA–heme a electron equilibrium constant was observed. This effect was lipid-dependent and explained in terms of a lower electrostatic potential within the membrane-spanning part of the protein with the anionic DOPG lipids than with the zwitterionic DOPC lipids. In conclusion, the data show that the membrane significantly modulates internal charge-transfer reactions and thereby the function of the membrane-bound enzyme.

  • 60.
    Näsvik Öjemyr, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    Sligar, Stephen G.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reconstitution of respiratory oxidases in membrane nanodiscs for investigation of proton-coupled electron transfer2012In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 586, p. 640-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The function of membrane-bound transporters is commonly affected by the milieu of the hydrophobic, membrane-spanning part of the transmembrane protein. Consequently, functional studies of these proteins often involve incorporation into a native-like bilayer where the lipid components of the membrane can be controlled. The classical approach is to reconstitute the purified protein into liposomes. Even though the use of such liposomes is essential for studies of transmembrane transport processes in general, functional studies of the transporters themselves in liposomes suffer from several disadvantages. For example, transmembrane proteins can adopt two different orientations when reconstituted into liposomes, and one of these populations may be inaccessible to ligands, to changes in pH or ion concentration in the external solution. Furthermore, optical studies of proteins reconstituted in liposomes suffer from significant light scattering, which diminishes the signal-to-noise value of the measurements. One attractive approach to circumvent these problems is to use nanodiscs, which are phospholipid bilayers encircled by a stabilizing amphipathic helical membrane scaffold protein. These membrane nanodiscs are stable, soluble in aqueous solution without detergent and do not scatter light significantly. In the present study, we have developed a protocol for reconstitution of the aa3- and ba3-type cytochrome c oxidases into nanodiscs. Furthermore, we studied proton-coupled electron-transfer reactions in these enzymes with microsecond time resolution. The data show that the nanodisc membrane environment accelerates proton uptake in both oxidases.

  • 61. Piper-Feldkamp, Aundrea R.
    et al.
    Wegner, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reed, Scott M.
    Mixtures of Supported and Hybrid Lipid Membranes on Heterogeneously Modified Silica Nanoparticles2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 117, no 7, p. 2113-2122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple supported lipid bilayers do not accurately reflect the complex heterogeneity of cellular membranes; however, surface modification makes it possible to tune membrane properties to better mimic biological systems. Here, 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (DETAS), a silica modifier, facilitated formation of supported lipid bilayers on silica nanoparticles. Evidence for a stable supported bilayer came from the successful entrapment of a soluble fluorophore within an interstitial water layer. A fluorescence-quenching assay that utilized a pore-forming peptide was used to demonstrate the existence of two separate lipid leaflets. In this assay, fluorescence was quenched by dithionite in roughly equal proportions prior to and after addition of melittin. When a hydrophobic modifier, octadecyl-triethoxysilane, was codeposited on the nanoparticles with DETAS, there was a decrease in the amount of supported bilayer on the nanoparticles and an increase in the quantity of hybrid membrane. This allowed for a controlled mixture of two distinct types of membranes on a single substrate, one separated by a water cushion and the other anchored directly on the surface, thereby providing a new mimic of cellular membranes.

  • 62.
    Poiana, Federica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Gonska, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Splitting of the O-O bond at the heme-copper catalytic site of respiratory oxidases2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 6, article id e1700279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heme-copper oxidases catalyze the four-electron reduction of O-2 to H2O at a catalytic site that is composed of a heme group, a copper ion (Cu-B), and a tyrosine residue. Results from earlier experimental studies have shown that the O-O bond is cleaved simultaneously with electron transfer from a low-spin heme (heme a/b), forming a ferryl state (P-R; Fe4+= O2-, Cu-B(2+)-OH-). We show that with the Thermus thermophilus ba(3) oxidase, at low temperature (10 degrees C, pH 7), electron transfer from the low-spin heme b to the catalytic site is faster by a factor of similar to 10 (tau congruent to 11 mu s) than the formation of the P-R ferryl (t. 110 ms), which indicates that O-2 is reduced before the splitting of the O-O bond. Application of density functional theory indicates that the electron acceptor at the catalytic site is a high-energy peroxy state [Fe3+-O--O-(H+)], which is formed before the P-R ferryl. The rates of heme b oxidation and P-R ferryl formation were more similar at pH 10, indicating that the formation of the high-energy peroxy state involves proton transfer within the catalytic site, consistent with theory. The combined experimental and theoretical data suggest a general mechanism for O-2 reduction by heme-copper oxidases.

  • 63.
    Rathore, Sorbhi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Berndtsson, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Marin-Buera, Lorena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Conrad, Julian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Carroni, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ott, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Cryo-EM structure of the yeast respiratory supercomplex2019In: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, ISSN 1545-9993, E-ISSN 1545-9985, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Respiratory chain complexes execute energy conversion by connecting electron transport with proton translocation over the inner mitochondrial membrane to fuel ATP synthesis. Notably, these complexes form multi-enzyme assemblies known as respiratory supercomplexes. Here we used single-particle cryo-EM to determine the structures of the yeast mitochondria! respiratory supercomplexes III2IV and III2IV2, at 3.2-angstrom and 3.5-angstrom resolutions, respectively. We revealed the overall architecture of the supercomplex, which deviates from the previously determined assemblies in mammals; obtained a near-atomic structure of the yeast complex IV; and identified the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions implicated in supercomplex formation. Take together, our results demonstrate convergent evolution of supercomplexes in mitochondria that, while building similar assemblies, results in substantially different arrangements and structural solutions to support energy conversion.

  • 64.
    Rydström Lundin, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Ott, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Regulatory role of the respiratory supercomplex factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 31, p. E4476-E4485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The respiratory supercomplex factors (Rcf) 1 and 2 mediate supramolecular interactions between mitochondrial complexes III (ubiquinolcytochrome c reductase; cyt. bc(1)) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase; CytcO). In addition, removal of these polypeptides results in decreased activity of CytcO, but not of cyt. bc(1). In the present study, we have investigated the kinetics of ligand binding, the singleturn-over reaction of CytcO with O-2, and the linked cyt. bc(1)-CytcO quinol oxidation-oxygen-reduction activities in mitochondria in which Rcf1 or Rcf2 were removed genetically (strains rcf1 Delta and rcf2 Delta, respectively). The data show that in the rcf1 Delta and rcf2 Delta strains, in a significant fraction of the population, ligand binding occurs over a time scale that is similar to 100-fold faster (tau congruent to 100 mu s) than observed with the wild-type mitochondria (tau congruent to 10 ms), indicating structural changes. This effect is specific to removal of Rcf and not dissociation of the cyt. bc(1)-CytcO supercomplex. Furthermore, in the rcf1 Delta and rcf2 Delta strains, the single-turnover reaction of CytcO with O-2 was incomplete. This observation indicates that the lower activity of CytcO is caused by a fraction of inactive CytcO rather than decreased CytcO activity of the entire population. Furthermore, the data suggest that the Rcf1 polypeptide mediates formation of an electrontransfer bridge from cyt. bc(1) to CytcO via a tightly bound cyt. c. We discuss the significance of the proposed regulatory mechanism of Rcf1 and Rcf2 in the context of supramolecular interactions between cyt. bc(1) and CytcO.

  • 65.
    Salomonsson, Lina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brändén, Gisela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Deuterium isotope effect of proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase2008In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1777, no 4, p. 343-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mitochondria and many aerobic bacteria cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain where it catalyses the reduction of oxygen to water. The free energy released in this process is used to translocate (pump) protons across the membrane such that each electron transfer to the catalytic site is accompanied by proton pumping. To investigate the mechanism of electron–proton coupling in cytochrome c oxidase we have studied the pH-dependence of the kinetic deuterium isotope effect of specific reaction steps associated with proton transfer in wild-type and structural variants of cytochrome c oxidases in which amino-acid residues in proton-transfer pathways have been modified. In addition, we have solved the structure of one of these mutant enzymes, where a key component of the proton-transfer machinery, Glu286, was modified to an Asp. The results indicate that the P3 → F3 transition rate is determined by a direct proton-transfer event to the catalytic site. In contrast, the rate of the F3 → O4 transition, which involves simultaneous electron transfer to the catalytic site and is characteristic of any transition during CytcO turnover, is determined by two events with similar rates and different kinetic isotope effects. These reaction steps involve transfer of protons, that are pumped, via a segment of the protein including Glu286 and Arg481.

  • 66. Salomonsson, Lina
    et al.
    Faxén, Kristina
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    The timing of proton migration in membrane-reconstituted cytochrome c oxidase.2005In: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 102, no 49, p. 17624-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 67. Sanden, Tor
    et al.
    Salomonsson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    Surface-coupled proton exchange of a membrane-bound proton acceptor2010In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 107, no 9, p. 4129-4134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton-transfer reactions across and at the surface of biological membranes are central for maintaining the transmembrane proton electrochemical gradients involved in cellular energy conversion. In this study, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the local protonation and deprotonation rates of single pH-sensitive fluorophores conjugated to liposome membranes, and the dependence of these rates on lipid composition and ion concentration. Measurements of proton exchange rates over a wide proton concentration range, using two different pH-sensitive fluorophores with different pK(a)s, revealed two distinct proton exchange regimes. At high pH (>8), proton association increases rapidly with increasing proton concentrations, presumably because the whole membrane acts as a proton-collecting antenna for the fluorophore. In contrast, at low pH (<7), the increase in the proton association rate is slower and comparable to that of direct protonation of the fluorophore from the bulk solution. In the latter case, the proton exchange rates of the two fluorophores are indistinguishable, indicating that their protonation rates are determined by the local membrane environment. Measurements on membranes of different surface charge and at different ion concentrations made it possible to determine surface potentials, as well as the distance between the surface and the fluorophore. The results from this study define the conditions under which biological membranes can act as proton-collecting antennae and provide fundamental information on the relation between the membrane surface charge density and the local proton exchange kinetics.

  • 68.
    Schäfer, Jacob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Dawitz, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ott, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Regulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity by modulation of the catalytic site2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 11397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf 1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to intact cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) and has also been suggested to be an assembly factor of the enzyme. Here, we isolated CytcO from rcf1Δ mitochondria using affinity chromatography and investigated reduction, inter-heme electron transfer and ligand binding to heme a3. The data show that removal of Rcf1 yields two CytcO sub-populations. One of these sub-populations exhibits the same functional behavior as CytcO isolated from the wild-type strain, which indicates that intact CytcO is assembled also without Rcf1. In the other sub-population, which was shown previously to display decreased activity and accelerated ligand-binding kinetics, the midpoint potential of the catalytic site was lowered. The lower midpoint potential allowed us to selectively reduce one of the two sub-populations of the rcf1Δ CytcO, which made it possible to investigate the functional behavior of the two CytcO forms separately. We speculate that these functional alterations reflect a mechanism that regulates O2 binding and trapping in CytcO, thereby altering energy conservation by the enzyme.

  • 69.
    Schäfer, Jacob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Dawitz, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ott, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structural and functional heterogeneity of cytochrome c oxidase in S. cerevisiae2018In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1859, no 9, p. 699-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by small proteins such as the respiratory supercomplex factors (Rcf). One of these factors (Rcf1) has been shown to interact with complexes III (cyt. bc1) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase, CytcO) of the respiratory chain and to modulate the activity of the latter. Here, we investigated the effect of deleting Rcf1 on the functionality of CytcO, purified using a protein C-tag on core subunit 1 (Cox1). Specifically, we measured the kinetics of ligand binding to the CytcO catalytic site, the O2-reduction activity and changes in light absorption spectra. We found that upon removal of Rcf1 a fraction of the CytcO is incorrectly assembled with structural changes at the catalytic site. The data indicate that Rcf1 modulates the assembly and activity of CytcO by shifting the equilibrium of structural sub-states toward the fully active, intact form.

  • 70.
    Sjöholm, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Šachl, Radek
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Widengren, Jerker
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    The lateral distance between a proton pump and ATP synthase determines the ATP-synthesis rate2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 2926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effect of lipid composition on interactions between cytochrome bo(3) and ATP-synthase, and the ATP-synthesis activity driven by proton pumping. The two proteins were labeled by fluorescent probes and co-reconstituted in large (d congruent to 100 nm) or giant (d congruent to 10 mu m) unilamellar lipid vesicles. Interactions were investigated using fluorescence correlation/cross-correlation spectroscopy and the activity was determined by measuring ATP production, driven by electron-proton transfer, as a function of time. We found that conditions that promoted direct interactions between the two proteins in the membrane (higher fraction DOPC lipids or labeling by hydrophobic molecules) correlated with an increased activity. These data indicate that the ATP-synthesis rate increases with decreasing distance between cytochrome bo3 and the ATP-synthase, and involves proton transfer along the membrane surface. The maximum distance for lateral proton transfer along the surface was found to be similar to 80 nm.

  • 71.
    Sjöholm, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Schäfer, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Zhou, Shu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Rydström Lundin, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    A membrane-bound anchor for cytochrome c in S. cerevisiaeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Smirnova, Irina A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Moscow State University, Russian Federation.
    Sjöstrand, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Li, Fei
    Björck, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Schäfer, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Östbye, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stanford University, United States.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Lander, Gabriel C.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Isolation of yeast complex IV in native lipid nanodiscs2016In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, ISSN 0005-2736, E-ISSN 1879-2642, Vol. 1858, no 12, p. 2984-2992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the amphipathic styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to extract cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) in its native lipid environment from S. cerevisiae mitochondria. Native nanodiscs containing one CytcO per disc were purified using affinity chromatography. The longest cross-sections of the native nanodiscs were 11 nm x 14 nm. Based on this size we estimated that each CytcO was surrounded by similar to 100 phospholipids. The native nanodiscs contained the same major phospholipids as those found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Even though CytcO forms a supercomplex with cytochrome bc(1) in the mitochondria! membrane, cyt.bc(1) was not found in the native nanodiscs. Yet, the loosely-bound Respiratory SuperComplex factors were found to associate with the isolated CytcO. The native nanodiscs displayed an O-2-reduction activity of similar to 130 electrons CytcO(-1) s(-1) and the kinetics of the reaction of the fully reduced CytcO with 02 was essentially the same as that observed with CytcO in mitochondrial membranes. The kinetics of CO-ligand binding to the CytcO catalytic site was similar in the native nanodiscs and the mitochondrial membranes. We also found that excess SMA reversibly inhibited the catalytic activity of the mitochondrial CytcO, presumably by interfering with cyt. c binding. These data point to the importance of removing excess SMA after extraction of the membrane protein. Taken together, our data shows the high potential of using SMA-extracted CytcO for functional and structural studies.

  • 73.
    Smirnova, Irina A
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Zaslavsky, Dmitry
    Fee, James A
    Gennis, Robert B
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Electron and proton transfer in the ba (3) oxidase from Thermus thermophilus.2008In: J Bioenerg Biomembr, ISSN 0145-479X, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 281-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Smirnova, Irina A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Extraction and liposome reconstitution of membrane proteins with their native lipids without the use of detergents2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 14950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional studies of membrane-bound channels, transporters or signal transducers require that the protein of interest resides in a membrane that separates two compartments. One approach that is commonly used to prepare these systems is to reconstitute the protein in liposomes. An intermediate step of this method is purification of the protein, which typically involves solubilization of the native membrane using detergent. The use of detergents often results in removal of lipids surrounding the protein, which may alter its structure and function. Here, we have employed a method for isolation of membrane proteins with a disc of their native lipids to develop an approach that allows transfer of the purified membrane protein to liposomes without the use of any detergents.

  • 75.
    Smirnova, Irina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chang, Hsin-Yang
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Adelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Single Mutations That Redirect Internal Proton Transfer in the ba(3) Oxidase from Thermus thermophilus2013In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 52, no 40, p. 7022-7030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ba(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus is a membrane-bound proton pump. Results from earlier studies have shown that with the aa(3)-type oxidases proton uptake to the catalytic site and pump site occurs simultaneously. However, with ba(3) oxidase the pump site is loaded before proton transfer to the catalytic site because the proton transfer to the latter is slower than that with the aa(3) oxidases. In addition, the timing of formation and decay of catalytic intermediates is different in the two types of oxidases. In the present study, we have investigated two mutant ba(3) CytcOs in which residues of the proton pathway leading to the catalytic site as well as the pump site were exchanged, Thr312Val and Tyr244Phe. Even though ba(3) CytcO uses only a single proton pathway for transfer of the substrate and pumped protons, the amino-acid residue substitutions had distinctly different effects on the kinetics of proton transfer to the catalytic site and the pump site. The results indicate that the rates of these reactions can be modified independently by replacement of single residues within the proton pathway. Furthermore, the data suggest that the Thr312Val and Tyr244Phe mutations interfere with a structural rearrangement in the proton pathway that is rate limiting for proton transfer to the catalytic site.

  • 76.
    Smirnova, Irina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reimann, Joachim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chang, Hsin-Yang
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Fee, James A.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Functional Role of Thr-312 and Thr-315 in the Proton-Transfer Pathway in ba3 Cytochrome c Oxidase from Thermus thermophilus2010In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 49, no 33, p. 7033-7039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytochrome ba3 from Thermus thermophilus is a member of the family of B-type heme-copper oxidases, which have a low degree of sequence homology to the well-studied mitochondrial-like A-type enzymes. Recently, it was suggested that the ba3 oxidase has only one pathway for the delivery of protons to the active site and that this pathway is spatially analogous to the K-pathway in the A-type oxidases [Chang, H.-Y., et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 16169−16173]. This suggested pathway includes two threonines at positions 312 and 315. In this study, we investigated the time-resolved reaction between fully reduced cytochrome ba3 and O2 in variants where Thr-312 and Thr-315 were modified. While in the A-type oxidases this reaction is essentially unchanged in variants with the K-pathway modified, in the Thr-312 → Ser variant in the ba3 oxidase both reactions associated with proton uptake from solution, the PR → F and F → O transitions, were slowed compared to those of wild-type ba3. The observed time constants were slowed 3-fold (for PR → F, from 60 to 170 μs in the wild type) and 30-fold (for F → O, from 1.1 to 40 ms). In the Thr-315 → Val variant, the F → O transition was 5-fold slower (5 ms) than for the wild-type oxidase, whereas the PR → F transition displayed an essentially unchanged time constant. However, the uptake of protons from solution was a factor of 2 slower and decoupled from the optical PR → F transition. Our results thus show that proton uptake is significantly and specifically inhibited in the two variants, strongly supporting the suggested involvement of T312 and T315 in the transfer of protons to the active site during O2 reduction in the ba3 oxidase.

  • 77.
    Suhm, Tamara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kaimal, Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Dawitz, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Peselj, Carlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Masser, Anna E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hanzén, Sarah
    Ambrožič, Matevž
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Smialowska, Agata
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Björck, Markus L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nyström, Thomas
    Büttner, Sabrina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Graz, Austria.
    Andréasson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Ott, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mitochondrial Translation Efficiency Controls Cytoplasmic Protein Homeostasis2018In: Cell Metabolism, ISSN 1550-4131, E-ISSN 1932-7420, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1309-1322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular proteostasis ismaintained via the coordinated synthesis, maintenance, and breakdown of proteins in the cytosol and organelles. While biogenesis of the mitochondrial membrane complexes that execute oxidative phosphorylation depends on cytoplasmic translation, it is unknown how translation within mitochondria impacts cytoplasmic proteostasis and nuclear gene expression. Here we have analyzed the effects of mutations in the highly conserved accuracy center of the yeast mitoribosome. Decreased accuracy of mitochondrial translation shortened chronological lifespan, impaired management of cytosolic protein aggregates, and elicited a general transcriptional stress response. In striking contrast, increased accuracy extended lifespan, improved cytosolic aggregate clearance, and suppressed a normally stress-induced, Msn2/4-dependent interor-ganellar proteostasis transcription program (IPTP) that regulates genes important for mitochondrial proteostasis. Collectively, the data demonstrate that cytosolic protein homeostasis and nuclear stress signaling are controlled by mitochondrial translation efficiency in an inter-connected organelle quality control network that determines cellular lifespan.

  • 78.
    Svahn, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Faxén, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Proton pumping by an inactive structural variant of cytochrome c oxidase: 2014In: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, ISSN 0162-0134, E-ISSN 1873-3344, Vol. 140, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aa3-type cytochrome c oxidases (CytcOs) from e.g. Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Paracoccus denitrificans harbor two proton-transfer pathways. The K pathway is used for proton uptake upon reduction of the CytcO, while the D pathway is used after binding of O2 to the catalytic site. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not CytcO in which the K pathway is blocked (by e.g. the Lys362Met replacement) is capable of pumping protons. The process can not be studied using conventional assays because the O2-reduction activity is too low when the K pathway is blocked. Consequently, proton pumping with a blocked K pathway has not been demonstrated directly. Here, the Lys362Met and Ser299Glu structural variants were reconstituted in liposomes and allowed to (slowly) become completely reduced. Then, the reaction with O2 was studied with μs time resolution after flash photolysis of a blocking CO ligand bound to heme a3. The data show that with both the inactive Lys362Met and partly active Ser299Glu variants proton release occurred with the same time constants as with the wild-type oxidase, i.e. ~ 200 μs and ~ 3 ms, corresponding in time to formation of the ferryl and oxidized states, respectively. Thus, the data show that the K pathway is not required for proton pumping, suggesting that D and K pathways operate independently of each other after binding of O2 to the catalytic site.

  • 79.
    Vilhjálmsdóttir, Jóhanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Albertsson, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Proton transfer in uncoupled variants of cytochrome c oxidaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Vilhjálmsdóttir, Jóhanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    The electron distribution in the activated state of cytochrome c oxidase2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytochrome c oxidase catalyzes reduction of O-2 to H2O at a catalytic site that is composed of a copper ion and heme group. The reaction is linked to translocation of four protons across the membrane for each O-2 reduced to water. The free energy associated with electron transfer to the catalytic site is unequal for the four electron-transfer events. Most notably, the free energy associated with reduction of the catalytic site in the oxidized cytochrome c oxidase (state O) is not sufficient for proton pumping across the energized membrane. Yet, this electron transfer is mechanistically linked to proton pumping. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, a high-energy oxidized state (denoted O-H) was postulated and suggested to be populated only during catalytic turnover. The difference between states O and O-H was suggested to be manifested in an elevated midpoint potential of Cu-B in the latter. This proposal predicts that one-electron reduction of cytochrome c oxidase after its oxidation would yield re-reduction of essentially only Cu-B. Here, we investigated this process and found similar to 5% and similar to 6% reduction of heme a(3) and Cu-B, respectively, i.e. the apparent redox potentials for heme a(3) and CuB are lower than that of heme a.

  • 81.
    Vilhjálmsdóttir, Jóhanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Johansson, Ann-Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structural Changes and Proton Transfer in Cytochrome c Oxidase2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 12047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cytochrome c oxidase electron transfer from cytochrome c to O-2 is linked to transmembrane proton pumping, which contributes to maintaining a proton electrochemical gradient across the membrane. The mechanism by which cytochrome c oxidase couples the exergonic electron transfer to the endergonic proton translocation is not known, but it presumably involves local structural changes that control the alternating proton access to the two sides of the membrane. Such redox-induced structural changes have been observed in X-ray crystallographic studies at residues 423-425 ( in the R. sphaeroides oxidase), located near heme a. The aim of the present study is to investigate the functional effects of these structural changes on reaction steps associated with proton pumping. Residue Ser425 was modified using site-directed mutagenesis and time-resolved spectroscopy was used to investigate coupled electron-proton transfer upon reaction of the oxidase with O2. The data indicate that the structural change at position 425 propagates to the D proton pathway, which suggests a link between redox changes at heme a and modulation of intramolecular proton-transfer rates.

  • 82.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Adelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Proton transfer in ba(3) cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus2012In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1817, no 4, p. 650-657Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The respiratory heme-copper oxidases catalyze reduction of O-2 to H2O, linking this process to transmembrane proton pumping. These oxidases have been classified according to the architecture, location and number of proton pathways. Most structural and functional studies to date have been performed on the A-class oxidases, which includes those that are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacteria such as Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Paracoccus denitrificans (aa(3)-type oxidases in these bacteria). These oxidases pump protons with a stoichiometry of one proton per electron transferred to the,catalytic site. The bacterial A-class oxidases use two proton pathways (denoted by letters D and K, respectively), for the transfer of protons to the catalytic site, and protons that are pumped across the membrane. The B-type oxidases such as, for example, the ba(3) oxidase from Thermus thermophilus, pump protons with a lower stoichiometry of 0.5 H+/electron and use only one proton pathway for the transfer of all protons. This pathway overlaps in space with the K pathway in the A class oxidases without showing any sequence homology though. Here, we review the functional properties of the A- and the B-class ba3 oxidases with a focus on mechanisms of proton transfer and pumping. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory Oxidases.

  • 83. von Ballmoos, Christoph
    et al.
    Biner, Olivier
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mimicking respiratory phosphorylation using purified enzymes2016In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1857, no 4, p. 321-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation is a striking example of the functional association of multiple enzyme complexes, working together to form ATP from cellular reducing equivalents. These complexes, such as cytochrome c oxidase or the ATP synthase, are typically investigated individually and therefore, their functional interplay is not well understood. Here, we present methodology that allows the co-reconstitution of purified terminal oxidases and ATP synthases in synthetic liposomes. The enzymes are functionally coupled via proton translocation where upon addition of reducing equivalents the oxidase creates and maintains a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient that energizes the synthesis of ATP by the F1F0 ATP synthase. The method has been tested with the ATP synthases from Escherichia coli and spinach chloroplasts, and with the quinol and cytochrome c oxidases from E. coli and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, respectively. Unlike in experiments with the ATP synthase reconstituted alone, the setup allows in vitro ATP synthesis under steady state conditions, with rates up to 90 ATP x s(-1) x enzyme(-1). We have also used the novel system to study the phenomenon of mild uncoupling as observed in mitochondria upon addition of low concentrations of ionophores (e.g. FCCP, SF6847) and the recoupling effect of 6-ketocholestanol. While we could reproduce the described effects, our data with the in vitro system does not support the idea of a direct interaction between a mitochondrial protein and the uncoupling agents as proposed earlier.

  • 84.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Aedelroth, Pia
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kinetic design of the respiratory oxidases2011In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 108, no 27, p. 11057-11062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy conservation in all kingdoms of life involves electron transfer, through a number of membrane-bound proteins, associated with proton transfer across the membrane. In aerobic organisms, the last component of this electron-transfer chain is a respiratory heme-copper oxidase that catalyzes reduction of O(2) to H(2)O, linking this process to transmembrane proton pumping. So far, the molecular mechanism of proton pumping is not known for any system that is driven by electron transfer. Here, we show that this problem can be addressed and elucidated in a unique cytochrome c oxidase (cytochrome ba(3)) from a thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus. The results show that in this oxidase the electron-and proton-transfer reactions are orchestrated in time such that previously unresolved proton-transfer reactions could be directly observed. On the basis of these data we propose that loading of the proton pump occurs upon electron transfer, but before substrate proton transfer, to the catalytic site. Furthermore, the results suggest that the pump site alternates between a protonated and deprotonated state for every second electron transferred to the catalytic site, which would explain the noninteger pumping stoichiometry (0.5 H(+)/e(-)) of the ba(3) oxidase. Our studies of this variant of Nature's palette of mechanistic solutions to a basic problem offer a route toward understanding energy conservation in biological systems.

  • 85.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gonska, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lachmann, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mutation of a single residue in the ba(3) oxidase specifically impairs protonation of the pump site2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 11, p. 3397-3402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ba(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus is a membrane-bound protein complex that couples electron transfer to O-2 to proton translocation across the membrane. To elucidate the mechanism of the redox-driven proton pumping, we investigated the kinetics of electron and proton transfer in a structural variant of the ba(3) oxidase where a putative pump site was modified by replacement of Asp372 by Ile. In this structural variant, proton pumping was uncoupled from internal electron transfer and O-2 reduction. The results from our studies show that proton uptake to the pump site (time constant similar to 65 mu s in the wild-type cytochrome c oxidase) was impaired in the Asp372Ile variant. Furthermore, a reaction step that in the wild-type cytochrome c oxidase is linked to simultaneous proton uptake and release with a time constant of similar to 1.2 ms was slowed to similar to 8.4 ms, and in Asp372Ile was only associated with proton uptake to the catalytic site. These data identify reaction steps that are associated with protonation and deprotonation of the pump site, and point to the area around Asp372 as the location of this site in the ba(3) cytochrome c oxidase.

  • 86.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lachmann, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Adelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Timing of Electron and Proton Transfer in the ba(3) Cytochrome c Oxidase from Thermus thermophilus2012In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 51, no 22, p. 4507-4517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heme-copper oxidases are membrane-bound proteins that catalyze the reduction of O-2 to H2O, a highly exergonic reaction. Part of the free energy of this reaction is used for pumping of protons across the membrane. The ba(3) oxidase from Thermus thermophilus presumably uses a single proton pathway for the transfer of substrate protons used during O-2 reduction as well as for the transfer of the protons that are pumped across the membrane. The pumping stoichiometry (0.5 H+/electron) is lower than that of most other (mitochondrial-like) oxidases characterized to date (1 H+/electron). We studied the pH dependence and deuterium isotope effect of the kinetics of electron and proton transfer reactions in the ba3 oxidase. The results from these studies suggest that the movement of protons to the catalytic site and movement to a site located some distance from the catalytic site [proposed to be a proton-loading site (PLS) for pumped protons] are separated in time, which allows individual investigation of these reactions. A scenario in which the uptake and release of a pumped proton occurs upon every second transfer of an electron to the catalytic site would explain the decreased proton pumping stoichiometry compared to that of mitochondrial-like oxidases.

  • 87.
    von Ballmoos, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Smirnova, Irina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Poiana, Federica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Gonska, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Chang, Hsin-Yang
    Gennis, Robert B.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Dynamics of the K-B Proton Pathway in Cytochrome ba(3) from Thermus thermophilus2017In: Israel Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 0021-2148, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 424-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ba(3) cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus is a B-type oxygen-reducing heme-copper oxidase and a proton pump. It uses only one proton pathway for transfer of protons to the catalytic site, the K-B pathway. It was previously shown that the ba(3) oxidase has an overall similar reaction sequence to that in mitochondrial-like A-type oxidases. However, the timing of loading the pump site, and formation and decay of catalytic intermediates is different in the two types of oxidases. In the present study, we have investigated variants in which two amino acids of the K-B proton pathway leading to the catalytic site were exchanged; Tyr-248 (located approximate to 23 angstrom below the active site towards the cytoplasm) in subunit I (Y248T) and Glu-15 (approximate to 26 angstrom below the active site, approximate to 16 angstrom from Tyr-248) in subunit II (E15(II)Q). Even though the overall catalytic turnover in these two variants is similar and very low (<1% of wildtype), the substitutions had distinctly different effects on the kinetics of proton transfer to the catalytic site. The results indicate that the Glu-15(II) is the only essentially crucial residue of the K-B pathway, but that the Tyr-248 also plays a distinct role in defining an internal proton donor and controlling the dynamics of proton transfer to the pump site and the catalytic site.

  • 88.
    Wiseman, Benjamin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nitharwal, Ram Gopal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Fedotovskaya, Olga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Schäfer, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Guo, Hui
    Kuang, Qie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Benlekbir, Samir
    Sjöstrand, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Rubinstein, John L.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structure of a functional obligate complex III2IV2 respiratory supercomplex from Mycobacterium smegmatis2018In: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, ISSN 1545-9993, E-ISSN 1545-9985, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1128-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mycobacterial electron-transport chain, respiratory complex III passes electrons from menaquinol to complex IV, which in turn reduces oxygen, the terminal acceptor. Electron transfer is coupled to transmembrane proton translocation, thus establishing the electrochemical proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis. We isolated, biochemically characterized, and determined the structure of the obligate III2IV2 supercomplex from Mycobacterium smegmatis, a model for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The supercomplex has quinol:O-2 oxidoreductase activity without exogenous cytochrome c and includes a superoxide dismutase subunit that may detoxify reactive oxygen species produced during respiration. We found menaquinone bound in both the Q(o) and Q(i) sites of complex III. The complex III-intrinsic diheme cytochrome cc subunit, which functionally replaces both cytochrome c(1) and soluble cytochrome c in canonical electron-transport chains, displays two conformations: one in which it provides a direct electronic link to complex IV and another in which it serves as an electrical switch interrupting the connection.

  • 89. Xia, Yu
    et al.
    Lundbäck, Anna-Karin
    Sahaf, Newsha
    Nordlund, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Eshaghi, Said
    Co(2+) Selectivity of Thermotoga maritima CorA and Its Inability to Regulate Mg(2+) Homeostasis Present a New Class of CorA Proteins2011In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CorA is a family of divalent cation transporters ubiquitously present in bacteria and archaea. Although CorA can transport both Mg(2+) and Co(2+) almost equally well, its main role has been suggested to be that of primary Mg(2+) transporter of prokaryotes and hence the regulator of Mg(2+) homeostasis. The reason is that the affinity of CorA for Co(2+) is relatively low and thus considered non-physiological. Here, we show that Thermotoga maritima CorA (TmCorA) is incapable of regulating the Mg(2+) homeostasis and therefore cannot be the primary Mg(2+) transporter of T. maritima. Further, our in vivo experiments confirm that TmCorA is a highly selective Co(2+) transporter, as it selects Co(2+) over Mg(2+) at > 100 times lower concentrations. In addition, we present data that show TmCorA to be extremely thermostable in the presence of Co(2+). Mg(2+) could not stabilize the protein to the same extent, even at high concentrations. We also show that addition of Co(2+), but not Mg(2+), specifically induces structural changes to the protein. Altogether, these data show that TmCorA has the role of being the transporter of Co(2+) but not Mg(2+). The physiological relevance and requirements of Co(2+) in T. maritima is discussed and highlighted. We suggest that CorA may have different roles in different organisms. Such functional diversity is presumably a reflection of minor, but important structural differences within the CorA family that regulate the gating, substrate selection, and transport.

  • 90. Xu, Lei
    et al.
    Näsvik Öjemyr, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    Protonation Dynamics on Lipid Nanodiscs: Influence of the Membrane Surface Area and External Buffers2016In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 110, no 9, p. 1993-2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipid membrane surfaces can act as proton-collecting antennae, accelerating proton uptake by membrane-bound proton transporters. We investigated this phenomenon in lipid nanodiscs (NDs) at equilibrium on a local scale, analyzing fluorescence fluctuations of individual pH-sensitive fluorophores at the membrane surface by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The protonation rate of the fluorophores was similar to 100-fold higher when located at 9- and 12-nm diameter NDs, compared to when in solution, indicating that the proton-collecting antenna effect is maximal already for a membrane area of similar to 60 nm(2). Fluorophore-labeled cytochrome c oxidase displayed a similar increase when reconstituted in 12 nm NDs, but not in 9 nm NDs, i.e., an acceleration of the protonation rate at the surface of cytochrome c oxidase is found when the lipid area surrounding the protein is larger than 80 nm(2), but not when below 30 nm(2). We also investigated the effect of external buffers on the fluorophore proton exchange rates at the ND membrane-water interfaces. With increasing buffer concentrations, the proton exchange rates were found to first decrease and then, at millimolar buffer concentrations, to increase. Monte Carlo simulations, based on a simple kinetic model of the proton exchange at the membrane-water interface, and using rate parameter values determined in our FCS experiments, could reconstruct both the observed membrane-size and the external buffer dependence. The FCS data in combination with the simulations indicate that the local proton diffusion coefficient along a membrane is similar to 100 times slower than that observed over submillimeter distances by proton-pulse experiments (D-s similar to 10(-5)cm(2)/s), and support recent theoretical studies showing that proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is time- and length-scale dependent.

  • 91.
    Zhou, Shu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pettersson, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Björck, Markus L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Dawitz, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mäler, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    NMR structural analysis of yeast Cox13 reveals its C-terminus in interaction with ATPManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes into supercomplexes is vital to cellular activities. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cox13 is a conserved peripheral subunit of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, CytcO) involved in the assembly of monomeric complex IV into supercomplexes. Here we report the solution NMR structure of a Cox13 dimer in detergent micelles. Each Cox13 monomer has three short flexible helices (SH), corresponding to the disordered regions in its homologous X-ray structure, and the dimer formation is mainly induced by the hydrophobic interaction between the sole transmembrane (TM) helix of each monomer. Furthermore, analysis of chemical shift changes upon addition of ATP reveal positions that are able to bind ATP at the conserved sites of the C-terminus with considerable conformational flexibility. From functional analysis of purified CytcO, we conclude that this ATP interaction is inhibitory of catalytic activity. Our results show the structure of an important subunit of yeast CytcO and provide structure-based insight into its ATP interaction.

  • 92.
    Zhou, Shu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pettersson, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mäler, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    NMR structure and dynamics studies of yeast respiratory supercomplex factor 2 in micellesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Zhou, Shu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pettersson, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mäler, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    NMR Study of Rcf2 Reveals an Unusual Dimeric Topology in Detergent Micelles2018In: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 444-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial respiratory supercomplex factor2 (Rcf2) plays a role in assembly of supercomplexes composed of cytochromebc(1) (complexIII) and cytochromec oxidase (complexIV). We expressed the Rcf2 protein in Escherichia coli, refolded it, and reconstituted it into dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. The structural properties of Rcf2 were studied by solution NMR, and near complete backbone assignment of Rcf2 was achieved. The secondary structure of Rcf2 contains seven helices, of which five are putative transmembrane (TM) helices, including, unexpectedly, a region formed by a charged 20-residue helix at the Cterminus. Further studies demonstrated that Rcf2 forms a dimer, and the charged TM helix is involved in this dimer formation. Our results provide a basis for understanding the role of this assembly/regulatory factor in supercomplex formation and function.

  • 94.
    Zhou, Shu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pettersson, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Huang, Jingjing
    Sjöholm, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sjöstrand, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pomes, Regis
    Högbom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mäler, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ädelroth, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Solution NMR structure of yeast Rcf1, a protein involved in respiratory supercomplex formation2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 12, p. 3048-3053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1) protein is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane where it is involved in formation of supercomplexes composed of respiratory complexes III and IV. We report the solution structure of Rcf1, which forms a dimer in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, where each monomer consists of a bundle of five transmembrane (TM) helices and a short flexible soluble helix (SH). Three TM helices are unusually charged and provide the dimerization interface consisting of 10 putative salt bridges, defining a charge zipper motif. The dimer structure is supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in DPC, although the simulations show a more dynamic dimer interface than the NMR data. Furthermore, CD and NMR data indicate that Rcf1 undergoes a structural change when reconstituted in liposomes, which is supported by MD data, suggesting that the dimer structure is unstable in a planar membrane environment. Collectively, these data indicate a dynamic monomer-dimer equilibrium. Furthermore, the Rcf1 dimer interacts with cytochrome c, suggesting a role as an electron-transfer bridge between complexes III and IV. The Rcf1 structure will help in understanding its functional roles at a molecular level.

  • 95.
    Öjemyr, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sandén, Tor
    Widengren, Jerker
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lateral proton transfer between the membrane and a membrane protein.2009In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 2173-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton transport across biological membranes is a key step of the energy conservation machinery in living organisms, and it has been proposed that the membrane itself plays an important role in this process. In the present study we have investigated the effect of incorporation of a proton transporter, cytochrome c oxidase, into a membrane on the protonation kinetics of a fluorescent pH-sensitive probe attached at the surface of the protein. The results show that proton transfer to the probe was slightly accelerated upon attachment at the protein surface (approximately 7 x 1010 s(-1) M(-1), compared to the expected value of (1-2) x 10(10) s(-1) M(-1)), which is presumably due to the presence of acidic/His groups in the vicinity. Upon incorporation of the protein into small unilamellar phospholipid vesicles the rate increased by more than a factor of 400 to approximately 3 x 10(13) s(-1) M(-1), which indicates that the protein-attached probe is in rapid protonic contact with the membrane surface. The results indicate that the membrane acts to accelerate proton uptake by the membrane-bound proton transporter.

12 51 - 95 of 95
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf