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  • 51.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    On the emergence of early linguistic functions: A biologic and interactional perspective2009In: Brain Talk:: Discourse with and in the brain / [ed] Alter,Kai; Horne,Merle; Lindgren,Magnus; Roll,Mikael; von Koss Torkildsen,Janne, Lund: Media-Tryck , 2009, p. 207-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human infants typically utter their first words within the second half of their first year of life and about one year later they tend to take their first steps towards the full exploration of the linguistic combinatorial power of their ambient languages. From the overwhelming exposure to continuous speech utterances produced by other speakers, the infant derives the underlying linguistic structure of the utterances occurring in the ambient language.

    This chapter proposes a model of how general perception, production and interaction mechanisms may account for the typical process of early language development leading the infant to the discovery of words embedded in the continuous speech of the ambient language.

  • 52.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Phonolgoy: An emergent consequence of memory constraints and sensory input2003In: Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, ISSN 0922-4777 (Print) 1573-0905 (Online), Vol. 16, no 1, p. 41-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper presents a theoretical model that attempts to account for the early stages of language acquisition in terms of interaction between biological constraints and input characteristics. The model uses the implications of stochastic representations of the sensory input in a volatile and limited memory. It is argued that phonological structure is a consequence of limited memory resources under the pressure of ecologically relevant multi-sensory information.

  • 53.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Språkets begynnelse: Att härleda lingvistisk struktur ur löpande tal2008In: Dyslexi: Aktuellt om läs- och skrivsvårigheter, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 11-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln presenterar en översiklig modell av tidig talspråksinlärning som bygger på samspelet mellan barnet och sin omgivning. Fonologisk medvetenhet föreslås som vidare konsekvenser av samma hierarkiska process som förklarar hur spädbarn härleder ord som återkommande ljudsekvenser förekommande i initialt oanalyserat löpande tal.

  • 54.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Stämningshotad efter kritik mot lögndetektorer2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Francisco Lacerda, professor i fonetik vid Stockholms universitet, skrev tillsammans med en forskarkollega en vetenskapsartikel som kritiserade röstbaserade lögndetektorer som bluff. När företaget bakom lögndetektorn fick reda på det förmådde de tidskriftsförlaget att ta bort artikeln från internet, och hotade de svenska forskarna med stämning om de publicerade artikeln någon annanstans.

  • 55.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Voice stress analyses: Science and pseudoscience2013In: Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, ISSN 1939-800X, Vol. 19, article id 060003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice stress analyses could be relevant tools to detect deception in many forensic and security contexts. However, today's commercial voice-based lie-detectors are not supported by convincing scientific evidence. In addition to the scientific implausibility of their working principles, the experimental evidence invoked by the sellers is either anecdotal or drawn from methodologically flawed experiments. Nevertheless, criminal investigators, authorities and even some academics appear to be persuaded by the ungrounded claims of the aggressive propaganda from sellers of voice stress analysis gadgets, perhaps further enhanced by the portrays of "cutting-edge voice-analysis technology" in the entertainment industry. Clearly, because there is a serious threat to public justice and security if authorities adopt a naïve "open-minded" attitude towards sham lie-detection devices, this presentation will attempt to draw attention to plausibility and validity issues in connection with the claimed working principles of two commercial voice stress analyzers. The working principles will be discussed from a phonetics and speech analysis perspective and the processes that may lead naïve observers into interpreting as meaningful the spurious results generated by such commercial devices will be examined. Finally, the scope and limitations of using scientific phonetic analyses of voice to detect deception for forensic purposes will be discussed.

  • 56.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, UllaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    PERILUS 2011: Symposium on Language Acquisition and Language Evolution2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains articles based on the authors’ contributions to the Symposium on Language Acquisition and Language Evolution which was held at The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm on the 1st and 2nd of December 2011, by initiative and funding from the Department of Linguistics at Stockholm University.

    The symposium was intended as an opportunity for scientists from different research areas to interact and discuss complex dynamic systems in relation to the general theme of “Language Acquisition and Language Evolution”. Complex dynamic systems are characterised by hierarchical and combinatorial structures that can be found in quite different scientific domains. From a broad perspective, there are general parallels in the way human language, biological organisms and ecological systems are organised and the symposium aimed at discussing those issues from an interdisciplinary point of view.

  • 57.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Götebors universitet.
    Reportage om lögndetektorer (SVT, Vetenskapmagasinet)2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    I Storbritannien har försäkringskassan börjat använda en ny lögndetektor. Vetenskapsmagasinet träffar två svenska forskare som hävdar att tekniken är rent nonsens. Företaget som utvecklat den nya lögndetektorn har svarat med att stämma forskarna för förtal.

  • 58.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Exploring and learning the consequences of vocalizations in early infancy2006In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2006, p. 3136-3136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Phonetic Issues on Voice Analysis as a Tool for Forensic Investigation.2010In: BIT's 1st Annual World Congress of Forensics 2010: From Evidence to Verdict, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Predicting the consequences of vocalizations in early infancy2007In: Interspeech 2007: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, 2007, p. 2337-2340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method to study the infant’s ability to predict the consequences of its vocalizations and presents the first results of the on-going investigation. The research method uses a voice-controlled device, with which the infant may control the position of a figure on a screen, in combination with an eye-tracking system (Tobii) that simultaneously registers the infant’s gaze fixations on the screen where the figure appears. The preliminary results indicate that 12.5 month-old infants seem to be able to predict the consequences of their vocalizations as indicated by the decrease in the mismatch between the infant’s gaze position and the location at which the figure is displayed as a function of the infant’s F0. [Work supported by grants from the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (MILLE, K2003-0867) and EU NEST program (CONTACT, 5010).]

  • 61.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Svärd, Nina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Implicit linguistic structure in connected speech2003In: PHONUM, 2003, p. 69-72Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    House, DavidHeldner, MattiasStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.Gustafson, JoakimStrömbergsson, SofiaWlodarczak, MarcinStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Interspeech 2017: Situated interaction: Book of abstracts2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Multi-sensory information as an improvement for communication systems efficiency2005In: Proceedings FONETIK 2005: The XVIIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference May 25–27 2005 / [ed] Anders Eriksson and Jonas Lindh, Göteborg: Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University , 2005, p. 81-86Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lagerkvist, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Ecological theory of language acquisition2004In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Epigenetic RoboticsLund University Cognitive Studies / [ed] Berthouze, L., Kozima, H., Prince, C. G., Sandini, G., Stojanov, G., Metta, G., and Balkenius, C., 2004, p. 147-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Emerging linguistic functions in early infancy2005In: Epigenetic and Robotics: Nara, Japan, 2005, 2005, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from experimental studies on early language acquisition in infants and attempts to interpret the experimental results within the framework of the Ecological Theory of Language Acquisition (ETLA) recently proposed by (Lacerda et al., 2004a). From this perspective, the infant's first steps in the acquisition of the ambient language are seen as a consequence of the infant's general capacity to represent sensory input and the infant's interaction with other actors in its immediate ecological environment. On the basis of available experimental evidence, it will be argued that ETLA offers a productive alternative to traditional descriptive views of the language acquisition process by presenting an operative model of how early linguistic function may emerge through interaction.

  • 66.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    SUBIC: Stockholm University Brain Imaging Center2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014 Stockholm: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 133-141Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents an outline of SUBIC (Stockholm University Brain Imaging Center, working name). SUBIC is conceived as an interdisciplinary infrastructure that will promote Stockholm University’s participation in international cutting-edge research focusedon the function and the morphologic evolution of the brain.

  • 67.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lagerkvist, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    On the linguistic implications of context-bound adult-infant interactions2004In: Proceedings of the Fourth InternationalWorkshop on Epigenetic Robotics (EPIROB 2004), Lund University Cognitive Studies / [ed] Berthouze, H. Kozima, C. Prince, G. Sandini, G. Stojanov, G. Metta and C. Balkenius, 2004, p. 149-150Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ors, Marianne
    Interdisciplinary and prospective studies necessary to increase insight into developmental language disorders.2005In: Acta Paediatr, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 399-401Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    An Ecological Theory of Language Acquisition2006In: Linguística: Revista de Estudos Linguísticos da Universidade do Porto, ISSN 1646-6195, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 54-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ecological approach to early language acquisition is presented in this article. The general view is that the ability of language communication must have arisen as an evolutionary adaptation to the representational needs of Homo sapiens and that about the same process is observed in language acquisition, although under different ecological settings. It is argued that the basic principles of human language communication are observed even in non-human species and that it is possible to account for the emergence of an initial linguistic referential function on the basis of general-purpose perceptual, production and memory mechanisms, if there language learner interacts with the ecological environment. A simple computational model of how early language learning may be initiated in today's human infants is proposed.

  • 70.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Walberg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Söderlund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Development of lateralised speech perception: Brain activation in 4-month-olds and adults2008In: Papers from the first Birgit Rausing Language Program Conference in Linguistics, Lund, June 2008 / [ed] Kai-Uwe Alter, Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2008, p. 45-46Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous fMRI and PET studies indicated left hemispheric activation for the processing of speech and phonetic features, and right hemispheric activation for the processing of emotions and melody. EEG measures are not commonly employed in lateralisation research, neither has lateralisation been extensively investigated in a developmental perspective. This study aims to fill this gap. Although ERP measures cannot precisely localize task-activated cortical regions, differences in voltage reflect scalp electricity in response to the activation of a distinct neural network (Giard et al., 1995). With EEG, we study the lateralisation of speech processing in 4- and 9-month-olds and adults in two conditions, spoken sentences and their spectrally rotated version. Rotating is a technique to render speech intelligible while preserving language-specific characteristics such as rhythm. A previous EEG study showed no lateralisation in 4-month-olds for the processing of speech versus nonspeech sounds as measured with 65 electrodes (Dehaene-Lambertz, 2000). For refined measurement, we employ 128 electrodes and use infant-directed speech stimuli for both conditions. It has been established that language comprehension tasks elicit bilateral hemispheric activation (Awad, Warren, Scott, Turkheimer, & Wise, 2007; Davis et al., 2007), showing intrahemispheric localisation differences within the left hemisphere for phonetic features and comprehension in speech processing tasks (Obleser, Zimmermann, Van Meter, & Rauschecker, 2007; Scott, Blank, Rosen, & Wise, 2000). As sentence comprehension increases with age, we predict an increase of activation in the left hemisphere when comparing 4- to 9-month-olds and 9-month-olds to adults. The melodic and emotional components of the infant-directed speech stimuli should elicit right-hemispheric activation which is predicted to decrease with age. Therefore, the measured differences between left- and right-hemispheric activation are predicted to increase with age. Left-hemispheric activation is also expected for the rotated speech condition due to the speech-likeness of the stimuli, however to a lesser degree than in the natural sentence condition (Ischebeck, Friederici, & Alter, 2007). This activation difference between the speech and rotated speech conditions should also increase with age as comprehension increases. The results are presented in regard to these hypotheses and discussed in the light of recent research.

  • 71.
    Lim, Sung-joo
    et al.
    Carnetgie Mellon University.
    Holt, Lori
    Carnetgie Mellon University.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Learning acoustically complex word-like units within a video-game training paradigm2011In: 161st Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America / [ed] Allan D, Pierce, 2011, p. 2661-2661Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the course of languagedevelopment, infants learn native speechcategories and word boundaries fromspeech input. Although speech categorylearning and word segmentation learningoccur in parallel, most investigationshave focused on one, assuming somewhatmature develop ofthe other. To investigate the extent to which listeners cansimultaneouslysolve the categorization and segmentation learning challenges, wecreatedan artificial, non-linguistic stimulus space that modeled the acousticcomplexitiesof natural speech by recording a single talker’s multipleutterancesof a set of sentences containing four keywords. There was acousticvariabilityacross utterances, presenting a categorization challenge. Thekeywordswere embedded in continuous speech, presenting a segmentationchallenge.Sentences were spectrally rotated, rendering them whollyunintelligible, andpresented within a video-game training paradigm that doesnot rely uponexplicit feedback and yet is effective in training non-speech andnon-nativespeech categorizationWade & Holt2005; Lim & Holtsubmitted. Withjust 2 h of play, adult listeners could reliably extractword-length sound categoriesfrom continuous sound streams and generalizedlearning to noveltokens. The amount of“sentence”variability within training didnot influencelearning. [Research supported by NIH, NSF, and Riksbanken].

  • 72. Lim, Sung-Joo
    et al.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Holt, Lori L.
    Discovering Functional Units in Continuous Speech2015In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 1139-1152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language learning requires that listeners discover acoustically variable functional units like phonetic categories and words from an unfamiliar, continuous acoustic stream. Although many category learning studies have examined how listeners learn to generalize across the acoustic variability inherent in the signals that convey the functional units of language, these studies have tended to focus upon category learning across isolated sound exemplars. However, continuous input presents many additional learning challenges that may impact category learning. Listeners may not know the timescale of the functional unit, its relative position in the continuous input, or its relationship to other evolving input regularities. Moving laboratory-based studies of isolated category exemplars toward more natural input is important to modeling language learning, but very little is known about how listeners discover categories embedded in continuous sound. In 3 experiments, adult participants heard acoustically variable sound category instances embedded in acoustically variable and unfamiliar sound streams within a video game task. This task was inherently rich in multisensory regularities with the to-be-learned categories and likely to engage procedural learning without requiring explicit categorization, segmentation, or even attention to the sounds. After 100 min of game play, participants categorized familiar sound streams in which target words were embedded and generalized this learning to novel streams as well as isolated instances of the target words. The findings demonstrate that even without a priori knowledge, listeners can discover input regularities that have the best predictive control over the environment for both non-native speech and nonspeech signals, emphasizing the generality of the learning.

  • 73.
    Lund, Kristina
    et al.
    SVT: Hjärnkontoret.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Rösten: (Hjärnkontoret, SVT, den 10 oktober 2007, 18.30)2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Programmet har ett avsnitt om rösten, där Per-Åke Lindblad (Foniatriska avdelningen, Karolinska institutet) och Francisco Lacerda (Fonetik, Institutionen för lingvisitk, Stockholms universitet) deltar och berättar om rösten. Inspelningarna gjordes på Huddinge sjukhuset, KI, och i fonetiklaboratoriet, vid institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet.

    Programmet riktar sig till skolbarn, c:a 12 år. Programledaren är Kristina Lund.

  • 74.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    An exploration of the consequences of vocalizations in early infancy2007In: The Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye-Tracking, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Ericsson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cross-modal magnitude matching as a precursor of multi-modal speech perception2010In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2010, Lund, June 2-4, 2010 / [ed] Susanne Schötz and Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Lund: Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University , 2010, p. 69-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four- to ten-month-old infants (n=58) were examined on their ability to match magnitude across modalities. Their looking behaviour was recorded as they were presented with an intensity modulated auditory stimulus and three possible visual matches. The mean looking times towards a visual target (size envelope matching intensity envelope of the auditory stimulus) and a non-target were calculated. Fivemonth-olds and seven- to ten-month-olds show a significant preference looking towards the target, as do an adult control group. Four- and six-month-olds do not.

  • 76.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Ericsson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Speech Categorization Context Effects in Seven- to Nine-Month-Old Infants2010In: INTERSPEECH-2010, 2010, p. 1233-1236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults have been shown to categorize an ambiguous syllable differently depending on which sound precedes it. The present paper reports preliminary results from an on-going experiment, investigating seven- to nine-month-olds on their sensitivity to non-speech contexts when perceiving an ambiguous syllable. The results suggest that the context effect is present already in infancy. Additional data is currently collected and results will be presented in full at the conference.

  • 77.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Potential relevance of general purpose mechanisms to the onset of language: Audio-visual integration of nouns and verbs.2005In: ESF Research Conference on Brain Development and Cognition in Human Infants: From Action to Cognition, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Using rotated speech to approximate the acoustic mismatch negativity response to speech2018In: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 176, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) response is influenced by the magnitude of the acoustic difference between standard and deviant, and the response is typically larger to linguistically relevant changes than to linguistically irrelevant changes. Linguistically relevant changes between standard and deviant typically co-occur with differences between the two acoustic signals. It is therefore not straightforward to determine the contribution of each of those two factors to the MMN response. This study investigated whether spectrally rotated speech can be used to determine the impact of the acoustic difference on the MMN response to a combined linguistic and acoustic change between standard and deviant. Changes between rotated vowels elicited an MMN of comparable amplitude to the one elicited by a within-category vowel change, whereas the between-category vowel change resulted in an MMN amplitude of greater magnitude. A change between rotated vowels resulted in an MMN ampltude more similar to that of a within-vowel change than a complex tone change did. This suggests that the MMN amplitude reflecting the acoustic difference between two speech sounds can be well approximated by the MMN amplitude elicited in response to their rotated counterparts, in turn making it possible to estimate the part of the response specific to the linguistic difference.

  • 79.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four- to eight-month-olds2019In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 36, article id 100622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has previously been demonstrated between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a native vowel contrast at four to eight months of age. Importantly, the present study uses spectrally rotated speech in an effort to take general neural maturation into account. The amplitude of the part of the MMR that is tied specifically to speech processing correlates with amount of daily speech exposure, as estimated using the LENA system.

  • 80.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four-to-eight-month-oldsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has been demonstrated previously between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a native vowel contrast at four to eight months of age. Importantly, the present study uses spectrally rotated speech in an effort to take general neural maturation into account. The amplitude of the part of the MMR that is tied specifically to speech processing correlates with amount of daily speech exposure, as estimated using the LENA system.

  • 81.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mismatch negativity at Fz in response to within-category changes of the vowel /i/2014In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 756-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amplitude of the mismatch negativity response for acoustic within-category deviations in speech stimuli was investigated by presenting participants with different exemplars of the vowel /i/ in an odd-ball paradigm. The deviants differed from the standard either in terms of fundamental frequency, the first formant, or the second formant. Changes in fundamental frequency are generally more salient than changes in the first formant, which in turn are more salient than changes in the second formant. The mismatch negativity response was expected to reflect this with greater amplitude for more salient deviations. The fundamental frequency deviants did indeed result in greater amplitude than both first formant deviants and second formant deviants, but no difference was found between the first formant deviants and the second formant deviants. It is concluded that greater difference between standard and within-category deviants across different acoustic dimensions results in greater mismatch negativity amplitude, suggesting that the processing of linguistically irrelevant changes in speech sounds may be processed similar to nonspeech sound changes.

  • 82.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vowel categorization correlates with speech exposure in 8-month-olds2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants ability to discriminate non-native speech contrasts attenuates, whereas their ability to discriminate native contrasts improves. This transition reflects the development of speech sound categorization, and is hypothesized to be modulated by exposure to spoken language. The ERP mismatch response has been used to quantify discrimination ability in infants, and its amplitude has been shown to be sensitive to amount of speech exposure on group level (Rivera-Gaxiola et al., 2011). In the present ERP-study, the difference in mismatch response amplitudes for spoken vowels and for spectrally rotated vowels, quantifies categorization in 8-month-old infants (N=15, 7 girls). This categorization measure was tested for correlation with infants? daily exposure to male speech, female speech, and the sum of male and female speech, as measured by all-day home recordings and analyzed using LENA software. A positive correlation was found between the categorization measure and total amount of daily speech exposure (r = .526, p = .044). The present study is the first to report a relation between speech exposure and speech sound categorization in infants on subject level, and the first to compensate for the acoustic part of the mismatch response in this context.

  • 83.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Danderyds Hospital, Sweden.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Persson, Anna
    Lohmander, Anette
    The development of a vocabulary for PEEPS – SEprofiles of early expressive phonological skills for Swedish2018In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 844-859Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a vocabulary for Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills for Swedish (PEEPS-SE), a tool for assessment of expressive phonology in Swedish-learning children in the age range of 18-36months. PEEPS-SE is the Swedish version of the original PEEPS, Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills, which uses two age-adequate word listsa basic word list (BWL) for the assessment of 18-24-month-old children, to which an expanded word list (EWL) is added for assessment of 24-36-month-old children, or children with more than 250 words in their expressive vocabulary.The selection of words in PEEPS-SE is based on two types of criteria: age of acquisition and phonological complexity. The words also need to be easy to elicit in a natural way in test situations. Vocabulary data previously collected with the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory are used for selection of age-adequate words, where the BWL contains words acquired earlier compared to the additional words in the EWL. The latter also contains words that are more phonologically complex compared to those in the BWL. Word complexity was determined by the Swedish version of word complexity measure. PEEPS-SE has made an attempt to match the original version of PEEPS in terms of both assessment method and word selection.

  • 84.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Relationship between parent-rated productive vocabulary size and phonological complexity in Swedish infants2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI) is an important tool to assess infants’ productive vocabulary as reported by parents. The instructions SECDI gives to parents and their intuitive judgements naturally favour a strong semantic perspective. This study investigates the relationship between the reported productive vocabulary size and the phonological complexity of infant utterances. Productive vocabulary size was assessed in 17- to 18-month-olds (N=330) and in 20- to 21-month-olds (N=85). It is hypothesised that words with low phonological complexity are more frequently reported by parents and that phonological complexity will increase with infant age. Productive vocabulary size was measured from parental reports submitted via an online version of SECDI. To evaluate phonological complexity, only the part with single words was used – apart from 16 items consisting of lexicalised phrases, family names or multiple alternative utterances that were excluded. Phonological complexity was computed as the sum of the number of syllables (1 to 4), consonant clusters (0 to 4), and fricatives (0 to 3) occurring in each of the remaining 694 words. It ranged from 1 to 9 (low 1-3; high 7-9). Parents reported significantly more words with low phonological complexity. There is a significant interaction between the complexity level of the reported words and infant age. Words with more syllables, consonant clusters or fricatives were less frequent in the parental reports. This shows that data acquired with SECDI is not necessarily limited to a semantic perspective but can even provide information about phonological complexity.

  • 85.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pause and utterance duration in child-directed speech in relation to child vocabulary size2015In: Journal of Child Language, ISSN 0305-0009, E-ISSN 1469-7602, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1158-1171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary groups; they use longer utterances than when speaking to adults, and respond faster to children than they do to other adults. However, overall pause duration varies with the vocabulary size of the children, and as a result durational aspects of the language environment to which the children are exposed differ between groups. Parents of children in the large vocabulary size group respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the typical vocabulary size group, who in turn respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the small vocabulary size group.

  • 86.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Danderyds Hospital, Sweden.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Introducing WCM-SE: The word complexity measure phonetically justified and adapted to Swedish2018In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1042-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Word Complexity Measure for Swedish (WCM-SE), an adaptation of the original WCM developed for English by Stoel-Gammon. These measures are used to calculate the phonological complexity of words or vocalizations, based on a number of phonological complexity parameters. Each production receives a complexity score based on how many of the parameters are present in the production.Using phonological complexity scores to measure expressive phonology is suitable for assessing very young children, children with early phonology and children with phonological deficits. It is useful forboth relational and independent analyses and enables comparisons between children and across development.The original WCM uses eight phonological complexity parameters in three domains: word patterns, syllable structures and sound classes. The parameters selected are phonological characteristics that are acquired late in development among English-speaking children.In the WCM-SE, complexity parameters in the domain sound classes were modified or added according to Swedish or universal patterns of phonology development. The parameters' complexity is accounted for in terms of language-general phonetic characteristics.

  • 87. Markowski, Anne
    et al.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lära språk kan vara en barnlek2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av spädbarnsjoller och en robot vill svenska forskare visa hur vi lår oss språk.

  • 88.
    Norrelgen, F
    et al.
    Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Forssberg, H
    Speech discrimination and phonological working memory in children with ADHD.1999In: Dev Med Child Neurol, ISSN 0012-1622, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 335-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Norrelgen, F
    et al.
    Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Forssberg, H
    Temporal resolution of auditory perception in relation to perception, memory, and language skills in typical children.2001In: J Learn Disabil, ISSN 0022-2194, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 359-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Norrelgen, Fritjof
    et al.
    Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Forssberg, Hans
    Temporal resolution of auditory perception and verbal working memory in 15 children with language impairment.2002In: J Learn Disabil, ISSN 0022-2194, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 539-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Forsén, Malin
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Johansson, Linnea
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Lång, Catarina
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Narel, Anna
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Valdés, Tanya
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Language-specific speech perception as mismatch negativity in 10-month-olds' ERP data2009In: Proceedings FONETIK 2009 - The XXIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics , 2009, p. 130-135Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination of native and nonnative speech contrasts, the heart of the concept of language-specific speech perception, is sensitive to developmental change in speech perception during infancy. Using the mismatch negativity paradigm, seven Swedish language environment 10-month-olds were tested on their perception of six different consonantal and tonal Thai speech contrasts, native and nonnative tothe infants. Infant brain activation in response to the speech contrasts was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). They show mismatch negativity at 300 ms, significant for contrast change in the native condition, but not for contrast change in the nonnative condition. Differences in native and nonnative speech discrimination are clearly reflected in the ERPs and confirm earlier findings obtained by behavioural techniques. ERP measurement thus suitably complements infant speech discrimination research.

  • 92.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Walberg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cerebral activation patterns of speech perception in 4-month-olds and adults2009In: BrainTalk: Discourse with and in the Brain / [ed] Kai Alter, Merle Horne, Magnus Lindgren, Mikael Roll, Janne von Koss Torkildsen, Lund, Sweden: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2009, p. 231-246Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception in infancy is language-general, but language-specific in adulthood. Is this reflected in event-related brain potentials (ERPs)? ERPs from 128 electrodes were recorded for three speech perception conditions in 4-month-old Swedish infants (N=9) and adults (N=13).The stimuli were simple sentences in infant-directed speech (IDS) in Swedish, familiar in semantic content and prosodic characteristics; in spectrally rotated Swedish with incomprehensible semantic content, but familiar prosodic characteristics; and in Portuguese, unfamiliar in both aspects.As predicted, infants show bilateral activation across conditions, but also present two left-hemispheric advantages as potential first signs of native language specialisation. In adults, left-hemispheric activation shows condition-sensitive ERP patterns: processing rotated Swedish is similar to Swedish, but different to Portuguese. The right-hemispheric dominance in adults is explained by the strong prosodic and weak semantic characteristics of the IDS stimuli. Infants' language-general and adults' language-specific speech perception is reflected in the ERPs, although 4-month-olds show first signs of specialisation.

  • 93.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A longitudinal study on early gestures and lexical development: A longitudinal case study on the relationship between early gestures and lexical development2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 17-21 August, 2011. Hong Kong, China / [ed] Wai-Sum Lee and Eric Zee, 2011, p. 1922-1925Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that children who are early or frequent users of gestures also develop expressive language at an early age. This assumption has been questioned on the grounds that studies performed under controlled laboratory conditions in which gestures are elicited in the absence of contextual support (e.g. in relation to a new object) have shown to correlate positively to vocabulary size, while parent observations of gestural behavior performed with associated objects in naturalistic settings have not. The current longitudinal case study of infants’ early gestural and linguistic development is based on parent reports collected by the standardized Swedish analog of MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). Results showed that a positive correlation between frequency of use of early gestures andocabulary size could be found for a subset of subjects.

  • 94.
    Söderlund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Auditory White Noise Enhances Cognitive Performance Under Certain Conditions: Examples from Visuo-Spatial Working Memory and Dichotic Listening Tasks2009In: Proceedings FONETIK 2009 / [ed] Peter Branderud & Hartmut Traunmüller, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm Universitet , 2009, p. 160-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines when external auditive noise can enhance performance in a dichotic listening and a visuo-spatial working memory task. Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental for cognitive performance; however, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR), a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. In particular we predict that low performers will be aided by noise whereas high performers decline in performance during the same condition. Data from two experiments will be presented; participants were students at Stockholm University.

  • 95.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perceptual relativity in identification of two-formant vowels1987In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is attempted to reduce the phonetic quality of vowels to the positions of the peaks in their tonotopical spectra relative to the other peaks, simultaneous or preceding in context. Synthetic two-formant vowels were identified by speakers of languages that differentiate richly among high vowels (Swedish, Turkish). The parameters F1 (204-801 Hz) and F2' (509-3702 Hz) were systematically varied in steps of 0.75 critical bandwidth. F0 was kept close below F1 in all vowels. These were presented in two orders with subsequently rising or falling F2'. Most subjects heard predominantly close vowels. The "isophones" of most subjects could be described in a uniform manner implying a normalization with respect to two reference points, one at a distance of 3 critical bands above F0 and the other one at an absolute position corresponding to 2.8 kHz. It is speculated that this second reference point might represent a default position of the third formant or the like.

  • 96.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mattson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eye tracking for establishing hearing thresholds in infants - evaluation of a new methodology2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing test in small children is a challenge during the first 1-2 years and in children with other disabilities even longer. With neonatal hearing screening hearing aids can be fitted as early as two months of age. Programming of the hearing aid then has to be based on ABR thresholds until the child is old enough to give a distinct behavioral response, typically at 4-6 months. However, ABR is not frequency specific and it requires a quite or sleeping child. Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA). is based upon the head-turn paradigm and involves that the infant builds up an association between the presence of a sound stimulus and a reward display. This behavioral observation test suffers from poor reliability, lengthy test times across several sessions, heavy experimenter bias, and interpretative ambiguity of the broad variety of possible infant responses.

    This presentation describes a new method to objectively, automatically and adaptively determine reactions to sound stimuli. With an eye tracker and a computer based set-up the infants response, in anticipation towards a reward at the noted presence of an auditory stimulus (similar to VRA), can be registered, using eye movements instead of head turns. High test reliability and experimenter independence are achieved by the program´s automatic detection of infant response and adaptation of the next stimulus level. Result objectivity is improved by increasing the number of test trials for each frequency and hearing level, as well as by providing a significance level for each tested frequency depending on the number of trials.

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