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  • 51. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Validation of self-rated recovery items against morning salivary cortisol2009In: Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizational psychology: the second report from the Nordic project Positive factors at work / [ed] Marit Christensen, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2009, 1, , p. 6p. 54-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe the associations between physiology and recovery, reliable methods to measure rest and recovery are needed. One of the most common methods to gain information on rest and recovery is to ask people to provide self-ratings in questionnaires. To determine whether the answers to such questions are associated with health, self-ratings can be evaluated with respect to established biomarkers of physiological functioning, such as cortisol. The findings show that self-ratings of rest and recovery are related to cortisol, particularly to morning cortisol, and that self-ratings provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 52. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Floderus, Birgitta
    Does Social Isolation and Low Societal Participation Predict Disability Pension?: A Population Based Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. e80655-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine the potential influence of social isolation and low societal participation on the future risk of receiving disability pension among individuals in Sweden. A specific aim was to describe differences depending on disability pension diagnoses, and how the results were modified by sex and age. Method: The study comprised representative samples of Swedish women and men, who had been interviewed in any of the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions between 1990 and 2007. Information on disability pension and diagnoses was added from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency's database (1991-2011). The mean number of years of follow-up for the 53920 women and men was twelve years (SD 5.5), and the study base was restricted to the ages 20 to 64 years of age. The predictors were related to disability pension by Cox's proportional hazards regression. Results: Social isolation and low societal participation were associated with future disability pension also after control for age, year of interview, socio demographic conditions and self reported longstanding illness. Lone individuals were at increased risk of disability pension, and the effect of living without children was modified by sex and age. An increase in risk was particularly noticeable among younger women who reported that they had sparse contacts with others, and no close friend. Both women and men who reported that they did not participate in political discussions and who could not appeal on a decision by a public authority were also at increased risk. The effects of social isolation were mainly attributed to disability pension with mental diagnoses, and to younger individuals. Conclusions: The study suggests that social isolation and low societal participation are predictors of future disability pension. Social isolation and low societal participation increased particularly the risk of future disability pension in mental diagnoses among younger individuals.

  • 53. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Floderus, Birgitta
    Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 8, p. e005230-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate what impact individuals' position in a labour market core-periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Methods: The study comprised 45 567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992-2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993-2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. Results: All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core-periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20-39 years. Conclusions: The core-periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life.

  • 54. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Hagman, Maud
    Floderus, Birgitta
    Social integration, Socioeconomic Conditions and Type of ill Health Preceding Disability Pension in Young Women: a Swedish Population Based Study2014In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disability pension has increased in recent decades and is seen as a public health and socioeconomic problem in Western Europe. In the Nordic countries, the increase has been particularly steep among young women.

    Purpose: The aim was to analyze the influence of low social integration, socioeconomic risk conditions and different measures of self-reported ill health on the risk of receiving disability pension in young women.

    Method: The study comprised all Swedish women born in 1960 to 1979, who had been interviewed in any of the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1990–2002). The assumed predictors were related to disability pension by Cox proportional hazard regression. The mean number of years of follow-up for the 10,936 women was 7 years (SD 3.8), and the study base was restricted to the ages 16 to 43 years of age.

    Results: An increased risk of receiving a disability pension was found among lone women, those who had sparse contacts with others, job-seeking women, homemakers, as well as women with low education, and poor private financial situations. A tenfold increase in the risk of receiving a disability pension was found among women reporting a long-standing illness and poor self-rated health, compared to women without a long-standing illness and good self-rated health. Psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms/unspecified illness were the strongest predictors of disability pension, particularly before 30 years of age.

    Conclusion: The study suggests that weak social relations and weak connections to working life contribute to increase the risk of disability pension in young women, also after control for socioeconomic conditions and self-reported ill health. Self-rated health was the strongest predictor, followed by long-standing illness and not having a job (job seekers and homemakers).

  • 55.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Biologisk psykologi.
    Relationship between Self-Ratings of Recovery and Morning Salivary Cortisol2007In: The XIII th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of how self-ratings of work-related rest and recovery relate to cortisol output is poor. This study aimed to investigate the associations between self-ratings of 15 items of rest and recovery and salivary cortisol measured every second hour during two work days. Data came from 12 female and 13male white-collar workers and were analyzed by linear regression analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. The results showed that poor rest and recovery was associated with high levels of morning cortisol. The strongest relationships between single items and salivary cortisol emerged for ”rested in the morning”,

    ”rested after a weekend”, ”feel energetic during the working day”, ”tired during the working day”, ”sufficient sleep” and ”worry about something”. Furthermore, significant interaction effects were found between sex and “rested after a weekend” and “worry about something”. To conclude, the findings show linkages between self-ratings of rest and recovery and cortisol levels, particularly morning cortisol. This suggests that self-ratings of rest and recovery provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 56.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Relationships between self-rating of recovery from work and morning salivary cortisol2008In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, the understanding of how recovery from work relates to cortisol output is poor. Considering this, the present study set out to investigate the associations between self-ratings of 15 items of rest and recovery and salivary cortisol sampled every second hour across two working days. Data came from 12 female and 13 male white-collar workers and were analyzed by linear regression analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Poor rest and recovery was associated with high levels of morning cortisol, with the strongest relationships emerging for "rested in the morning", "rested after a weekend", "feel energetic during the working day", "tired during the working day", "sufficient sleep" and "worry about something". Moreover, significant interaction effects emerged between sex and "rested after a weekend" and "worry about something". To conclude, the findings show that self-ratings of rest and recovery are related to cortisol, particularly to morning cortisol, and that self-ratings provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 57.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Validation of questions on recovery2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive psychology investigates the positive aspects of human life. Positive psychologists contend that it is difficult to understand the factors that create health, balance and meaningful lives through studying sickness, dissatisfaction and suffering. Accordingly, positive psychology represents a turn for a more positive approach to psychology.

    The ideas of positive psychology are also applicable within the sphere of work and organisational psychology. It is a central contention of this report that positive psychology may provide interesting answers to some of the challenges that are confronting the Nordic welfare states in the years ahead.

    The aim of this report is to give a theoretical and methodological overview of existing Nordic research about positive factors at work. The report contains a series of operationalised concepts that measure positive factors at work. These measures of positive factors at work are brought together in a theoretical model that the authors of this report will use as a starting point for further research into positive psychology at work in a Nordic context.

  • 58.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Validering av frågor avseende nedvarvning och återhämtning: Samband mellan salivkortisol och subjektiva skattningar.2006In: Arbete & Hälsa, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this study was to validate subjective ratings of questions on unwinding and recuperation and to investigate the relationships with cortisol output. Participants were 25 white-collar workers employed at a Swedish government authority. Linear regressions and repeated measures of ANOVA were used to calculate mean levels of salivary cortisol as related to recovery/recuperation. The results show significant main effects of cortisol as related to subjective ratings (p < 0.01) and a significant interaction effect (p < 0.05) between cortisol and sex. The study indicates that high levels of morning cortisol are significantly related to failure to recuperate. Results are discussed in terms of validity, prediction, sex differences, selection and generalization.

  • 59. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wikman, Anders
    Floderus, Birgitta
    Interaction Effects of Social Isolation and Peripheral Work Position on Risk of Disability Pension: A Prospective Study of Swedish Women and Men2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0130361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The study examines various combinations of levels of social isolation in private life and peripheral work position as predictors of disability pension (DP). A second aim was to test the potential interaction effects (above additivity) of social isolation and peripheral work position on the future risk of DP, and to provide results for men and women by age. Method The study was based on a sample of 45567 women and men from the Swedish population who had been interviewed between 1992 and 2007. Further information on DP and diagnoses was obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency's database (1993-2011). The studied predictors were related to DP using Cox's proportional hazard regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age (20-39 years, 40-64 years), with control for selected confounders. Results Increased risks of DP were found for most combinations of social isolation and peripheral work position in all strata. The hazard ratios (HRs) for joint exposure to high degree of social isolation and a peripheral work position were particularly strong among men aged 20-39 (HR 5.70; CI 95% 3.74-8.69) and women aged 20-39 (HR 4.07; CI 2.99-5.56). An interaction effect from combined exposure was found for women in both age groups as well as a tendency in the same direction among young men. However, after confounder control the effects did not reach significance. Conclusions Individuals who were socially isolated and in a peripheral work position had an increased risk of future DP. The fact that an interaction effect was found among women indicates that a combination of social isolation and peripheral work position may reinforce adverse health effects. There was no evidence that a peripheral work position can be compensated by a high degree of social intergration in private life.

  • 60. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Marlkund, Staffan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Physical work environment factors affecting risk for disability pension due to mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses among nursing professionals, care assistants and other occupations: a prospective, population-based cohort study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e026491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the influence of physical work factors on the risks of future disability pension (DP) due to mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses among nursing professionals, care assistants and all other occupations in the general working population in Sweden.

    Methods: The prospective population study was based on representative samples of working individuals (n=79 004) aged 16–64, interviewed in the Swedish Work Environment Survey between 1993 and 2013. Information on diagnosed DP in 1994–2014 was gathered from the Social Insurance Agency’s database. The focus was on nursing professionals (registered nurses and midwives) and care assistants, for example, assistant nurses and hospital ward assistants. The outcome was DP, classified into two diagnostic groups. Associations between physical work factors and risk of DP were calculated using Cox regression with HR and 95% CI.

    Results: Physical work factors were associated with future DP after adjusting for sociodemographic conditions and psychosocial work factors among care assistants (n=10 175) and among all other occupations (n=66 253), but not among nursing professionals (n=2576). The increased risk among care assistants (n=197) exposed to heavy physical work was 66% (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.97), and for those exposed to strenuous work postures (n=420) it was 56% (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.80). Physical work indicators were mainly associated with musculoskeletal DP diagnoses among care assistants, but two indicators were significant also for mental diagnoses. An increased risk of DP was found among nursing professionals (n=102) exposed to detergents or disinfectants (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.05), but not among care assistants.

    Conclusions: Heavy physical work and strenuous postures are predictors of future DP, particularly among care assistants and in the general working population. In order to reduce early exit from the workforce, efforts should be made to improve physical and ergonomic working conditions.

  • 61.
    Göransson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dialog kring arbetsmiljöfaktorer – intervention som balanserar?2013In: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den psykiska ohälsan i arbetslivet har ökat under de senaste decennierna och ligger bakom en hög andel långa sjukskrivningar. Arbetsmiljöforskning har visat att såväl den fysiska som den psykosociala arbetsmiljön är avgörande för en långsiktigt hållbar verksamhet med medarbetare som behåller hälsan. Den befintliga kunskapen inom den psykosociala arbetsmiljöforskningen kan i stort sammanfattas i ett antal balanser (ansträngning-belöning; krav-kontroll; arbete-återhämtning; mål-resurser; kvantitativa-kvalitativa krav). Trots att sambanden mellan arbetsmiljöfaktorer och hälsa är väl belagda saknas fortfarande interventioner som adresserat dessa balanser. Syftet med presentationen är att delge erfarenheterna och innehållet i en nyligen genomförd preventivt inriktad interventionsstudie. En intervention riktade sig dels till chefer och deras medarbetare, dels till enbart chefer, och omfattade fyra träffar om tre timmar. Utgångspunkten för träffarna bestod i en presentation av en genomförd arbetsmiljökartläggning om arbetsmiljöns balanser och hälsa, en dialog kring densamma och därefter ett arbete i mindre grupper för prioritering och sortering av viktiga arbetsområden (arbetsmiljöbalanser) att jobba vidare med. En viktig del i interventionen var dialogen kring uppdraget. Medarbetare och chefer fick också tillsammans arbeta med att fundera över hinder och möjligheter i arbetet med att nå en mer balanserad arbetssituation samt arbeta med en enkel handlingsplan för hur arbetet skulle fortskrida.

  • 62.
    Ishäll, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Unwinding, recovery, and health among social workers and caretakers at psychiatric ward2013In: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern-day working life is generally portrayed by an increasing number of people having occupational task, that by their nature, do not permit time-scheduling in a mental sense (Aronsson, 1999). Typical occupations of this kind is social workers, teachers, and caretakers at psychiatric wards. The shared factor is social interaction and where high commitment, and job involvement may lead to problems of detach after the work. These elements include various kinds of problems to which energy is drawn and on which attention is fixed even after the working day. The purpose of this study is to investigate unwinding and recuperation among social workers, caretakers at a psychiatric ward, and teachers as well as caretakers at a psychiatric school for children with mental deficit. This data represent first wave of data from an on-going intervention study conducted at two regions in Sweden, Södermanland and Östergötland. Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of individuals with similar activation-recuperation profiles. The study, group comprised of 377 employees from three organizations. Six items were used and combined to identify level of activation and recuperation during the 24-hr of each day (Figure 1). Three clusters were identified: “alert”, “in-between”, and “recuperated”. About 28% fell into the non-recuperated group, 44% in-between group, and 29% alert group. In the second analysis we investigated how the activation-recuperation profiles differed on a) symptoms of ill-health, b) illness related absence, c) organizational aspects. Preliminary analysis shows that non-recuperated group have more symptoms of ill-health, higher degree illness related absence, and poorer attendance of when sick than the others groups. Failure to recuperate was related to aspects of work the environment such as imbalance between demands-control, and work-life imbalance and illegitimate tasks and wrong task. From a preventive perspective, it is important to identify situations and processes that may lead to occupational exclusion. In the case of this group of social workers and caretakers, a pattern emerged were strongly associated with fatigue, anxiety, and failure to recuperate.

  • 63. Jacobshagen, Nicola
    et al.
    Tschan, Franziska
    Elfering, Achim
    Meier, Laurenz L.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Semmer, Norbert K.
    Illegitimate tasks: a meaningful stressor across countries2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow? Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] Guido Hertel, Carmen Binnewies, Stefan Krumm, Heinz Holling, Martin Kleinmann, 2013, p. 101-101Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Task characteristics have been a focus of occupational stress research for many years. Workload and conflicting expectations have been especially prominent in this research. Recently, an additional feature of tasks as a source of stress has been suggested: Their perceived lack of legitimacy. We consider tasks to be illegitimate to the extent that it is perceived as improper to expect employees to do them. For example, tasks can fall outside of the range of one’s occupation or role differences within a profession, such as when employees are assigned tasks that do not match their levels of experience.

    Design/Methodology: We discuss our research with the Bern Illegitimate Tasks Scale in different countries - Switzerland (French and German part), Sweden, and Germany - analyzing scale properties (measurement models) and associations of illegitimate tasks with strain (six data sets, N=2498).

    Results: The Bern Illegitimate Tasks Scale was shown to be a sound measure, and it explained variance in several strain parameters, above and beyond the effects of other important predictors (stressors and resources).

    Limitations: All studies were questionnaire studies.

    Research/Practical Implications: Illegitimate tasks need more attention from supervisors; they should be part of management training. Research should be extended to other designs (e.g., diary studies) and to investigating moderators of the effect of illegitimate tasks (e.g., breadth of role definition).

    Originality/Value: Our studies show that not just work demands or resources count with regard to stress, but also the perceived legitimacy of demands.

  • 64. Johansen, Vegard
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Positive and negative reasons for sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden: a cross-sectional survey2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 2, p. e004123-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This article investigates various reasons for sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, going to work despite illness. The research questions asked is: What are the main reported reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden? Design Cross-sectional survey in Norway and Sweden. Use of binomial logistic regression analysis. Participants A random sample of people aged between 20 and 60years was obtained from complete and updated databases of the Norwegian and Swedish populations. A postal questionnaire was sent to the selected individuals, with response rate 33% (n=2843). 2533 workers responded to questions about SP during the last 12months. Primary and secondary outcome measures The article informs about the distribution of reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden, selected by the respondents from a closed list. The article also examines which factors influence the most often reported reasons for SP. Results 56% of the Norwegian and Swedish respondents experienced SP in the previous year. The most frequently reported reasons for SP include not burden colleagues (43%), enjoy work (37%) and feeling indispensable (35%). A lower proportion of Norwegians state that they cannot afford taking sick leave adjusted OR (aOR 0.16 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22)), while a higher proportion of Norwegians refer to that they enjoy their work (aOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.09)). Women and young workers more often report that they do not want to burden their colleagues. Managers (aOR=2.19 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.86)), highly educated persons and the self-employed more often report that they are indispensable. Conclusions Positive and negative reasons for SP are reported, and there are significant differences between respondents from the two countries. The response rate is low and results must be interpreted with caution. Study design Cross-sectional study.

  • 65.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Work-related psychosocial risk factors and risk of disability pension among employees in health and personal care: A prospective cohort study2019In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 93, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Researchers have suggested that psychological factors at work contribute to early retirement due to disability pension in the general working population. Disability pension is a problem that shortens working careers among nursing professionals and personal care or related workers, but few researchers have focused on these occupational groups. Also, a need for studies based on measurements of specific work exposure instead of combined measures has been identified.

    Objectives: The aim was to study the potential influence of work-related psychosocial risk factors on the future risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden. Those occupational groups are compared to all other occupations in Sweden. A specific aim was to describe differences in associations to cause-specific disability, and how the results were modified by occupation categories.

    Participants: A representative sample of 79,004 women and men in Sweden comprising 2,576 nursing professionals, 10,175 care assistants and 66,253 workers in other occupations.

    Methods: Factors of the psychosocial work environment were obtained from questionnaire data of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys (SWES) 1993–2013. Information on cause-specific disability pension during follow-up was added from the Social Insurance Agency’s database (1994–2014). We calculated Cox’s proportional hazards with 95% confidence intervals.

    Results: During a mean follow-up time of 11.1 years, 6.6% of nursing professionals and 9.4% of care assistants, as compared to 6.1% among all other occupations, received disability pension. Among nursing professionals and care assistants, high quantitative job demands and low social support, but not job control, were associated with future disability pension also after controlling for age, year of interview, socio demographic conditions, and physical work factors. An increase in risk was also noticeable among nursing professionals and care assistants who reported an active job in combination with low social support. An increased risk for disability pension due to mental diagnosis was found among care assistants who reported high job demands. In all other occupations, low social support was associated with an increased risk for disability pension under any condition of job strain (high strain, low strain, active, and passive jobs).

    Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude that high quantitative job demands and poor social support are predictors of future disability pension.

  • 66.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Promoting balance at work and employee health and well-being through a worksite based participatory intervention2014In: From crisis to sustainable well-being: Abstracts (online), 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown that employee health and well-being benefit from a balance between demands and resources at work and from a balance between work-related efforts and rewards. Such balances are in turn linked to the balance between activation and opportunities for recovery, which are central for long-term health outcomes. This presentation summarizes findings from a worksite based participatory intervention. The intervention uses a survey-feedback design as a basis for dialogue based reflexive workshops. In total, four half-day workshops were carried out over a 2-month period. In the workshops, employees identified the most immediate work environment problems and were asked to develop strategies to improve the balance at work. In doing this, the intervention aimed to integrate more strongly organizational work environment policies with the planning of regular activities within each organization. Self-report questionnaire data on work-related factors (e.g., demands and resources), health and well-being (e.g., recovery, self-rated health, subjective health complaints) were collected before the intervention and at a short-time follow-up about six weeks after the intervention. While health-effects seem unreasonable considering the short follow-up period, preliminary findings suggest that this worksite based participatory organizational intervention may have positive effects on factors relating to the work climate.

  • 67.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Promoting balance at work and employee health through a worksite based participatory intervention2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: looking at the past - planning for the future: capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] Nicholas John Artin Andreou, Aditya Jain, David Hollis, Juliet Hassard & Kevin Teoh, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2014, p. 246-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown that employee health and well-being benefit from a balance between demands and resources at work but also from a balance between work-related efforts and rewards. Such balances are in turn associated with the balance between activation and opportunities for recovery, which are central for long-term health outcomes among employees and their managers. This presentation summarizes findings from a worksite based participatory intervention. The intervention uses a survey-feedback design as a basis for dialogue based reflexive workshops. In total, four half-day workshops were carried out over a 2-month period. In the workshops, employees identified the most immediate work environment problems and were asked to develop strategies to improve the balance between various factors at work. In doing this, the intervention aimed to integrate more strongly organizational work environment policies with the planning of regular activities within different work units in the organization. Self-report questionnaire data on work-related factors (e.g., demands and resources), health and well-being (e.g., recovery, self-rated health, subjective health complaints) were collected before the intervention and at a short-time follow-up about eight weeks after the intervention. While health-effects seem unreasonable considering the short follow-up period, preliminary findings suggest that this worksite based participatory organizational intervention may have positive effects on factors relating to the work climate.

  • 68.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Insatser på arbetsplatsen avgörande för sjukskrivna2016In: På jakt efter framtidens arbete – utmaningar i arbetets organisering och forskning / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Stockholm: Tankesmedjan Tiden , 2016, p. 91-93Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69. Marklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansen, Vegard
    Solheim, Liv Johanne
    Previous sickness presence among long-term sick-listed in Norway and Sweden: A retrospective study of prevalence and self-reported reasons2015In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 376-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to analyse previous sickness presence among long-term sick-listed individuals in Norway and Sweden and the reasons given for sickness presence. The study was based on survey data for 3,312 persons in Norway and Sweden who had been sick-listed for at least 30 days. Two questions were used. One measured prevalence: During the last 12 months prior to your current sick leave, did you go to work even when feeling so ill that you should have taken sick leave? The second question concerned reasons for sickness presence. Large differences were found between Norway and Sweden in the prevalence of sickness presence. More long-term sick-listed Norwegians than Swedes reported sickness presence [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for Sweden 0.65 (0.53-0.80)]. The Swedes more often reported financial reasons for sickness presence [adjusted OR 2.77 (2.1 to -3.54)], while the Norwegians more often gave positive reasons related to work. The national differences may be related to differences in sickness insurance strategies.

  • 70. Marklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Working conditions and compensated sickness absence among nurses and care assistants in Sweden during two decades: a cross-sectional biennial survey study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e030096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims of the study were to trace the patterns of work environment factors and compensated sickness absence (SA) among nurses and care assistants compared with other occupations and to compare SA among exposed and non-exposed nurses and care assistants.

    Design: A cross-sectional survey on work environment factors based on the biennial Swedish Work Environment Surveys 1991–2013, linked to longitudinal register data on SA 1993–2014.

    Participants: The study included 98 249 individuals, stratified into nurses and care assistants (n=16 179) and a reference population including all other occupations (n=82 070).

    Outcome measure: Annual days of compensated SA (>14 days) 3 years after exposure years.

    Results: Nurses and care assistants had higher SA in 1993–2014 compared with all other occupations, and differences in background factors only partly explained this relationship. For both groups, exposure to physical work factors remained steady, but the number of exposed were 10%–30% higher among nurses and care assistants. Those exposed to heavy physical work and strenuous working postures had in most years significantly higher SA when compared with non-exposed (rate ratio range: 1.4–1.9). Exposure to high job demands increased 10%–25% in 1991–1999 among nurses and care assistants but became more stable in 2001–2013 and high proportions of high job demands coincided with the increase in SA in 1995–1999. Nurses and care assistants exposed to high job demands had for most years significantly higher SA than non-exposed (rate ratio range: 1.5–2.1). Low job control and low support from supervisors elevated SA significantly only for a few years.

    Conclusions: Exposure to negative work factors among nurses and care assistants was weakly associated with variations in SA, but may be related to their higher level of SA when compared with other occupations. Improved physical and psychosocial working conditions may reduce the elevated SA level in these occupations.

  • 71.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary Management Preferences, Boundary Control, and Work-Life Balance among Full-Time Employed Professionals in Knowledge-Intensive, Flexible Work2014In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profound changes are taking place within working life, where established boundaries between work and personal life are challenged by increased global competition, ever-faster changing markets, and rapid development of boundary transcending information and communication technologies (ICT). The aim of this study was to investigate boundary management preferences in terms of keeping work and personal life domains separated or integrated, that is, segmenting or blending of domains, the perception of being in control of one´s preferred boundaries, and work-life balance among employees at a Swedish telecom company (N = 1,238, response rate 65%, men 73%, mean age 42 years). Psychosocial work factors, individual characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and work-life balance were investigated in relation to boundary management preferences and perceived boundary control. For high boundary control among segmenters, nearly all the studied psychosocial work factors were significant. Among integrators, this was the case only for clear expectations in work. For both groups, the individual capacity for self-regulation was associated with high boundary control. Regarding sociodemographic factors, cohabiting women with children who preferred segmentation had low boundary control. Finally, there was a main effect of boundary control on work-life balance. In particular, male segmenters perceiving high boundary control had better work-life balance than all others. Conclusions of the study are that segmenters need external boundaries in work for succesful boundary management. Moreover, self-regulation seems a crucial boundary competence in knowledge- intensive, flexible work. Results are of value for health promotion in modern work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary control and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 72.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, boundaryless work2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: abstract proceedings of the 16th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), 22-25 maj, Münster, Tyskland / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, p. 239-240Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary strategies, segmentation and integration, were explored in knowledge intense, boundaryless work. Socio-demographic, work-related and individual factors were investigated in relation to strategy choice, and further, which of these factors that discriminated between succeeding or not with the chosen strategy. Moreover, work-life balance was studied in relation to strategy choice. A questionnaire was sent to employees (n=1238, response rate 65%) at an international telecom company in Sweden. A majority, 82 percent, chose segmentation. Integrators had higher working time per week, more often worked evenings and weekends and at different places than the workplace, especially from home, than segmenters. More integrators perceived their strategy as nonsuccessful. However, these time- and place related aspects were only related to not succeeding with one´s strategy among segmenters. Especially, co-habiting women with children choosing segmentation perceived their strategy as non-successful. In contrast, male segmenters succeeded more often. Discriminating factors in both strategy groups reflected the capacity for self-regulation, i.e., being able to say no and set limits, organizing work efficiently, and work independently. Those who succeeded with the integration strategy, in particular integrating women, reported a higher degree of work-life balance as compared to others. Results needs to be confirmed in other work settings and associations between boundary management and stress and health established. Self-regulation seems a crucial competence in a working life characterized by boundarylessness. Results are of value for health promotion in flexible work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary management and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 73.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, flexible work2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Segmentering och integrering: om mäns och kvinnors gränssättningsstrategier i högkvalificerat arbete2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gränssättningsstrategier undersöktes bland män och kvinnor (n=673) i högkvalificeradearbeten där gränserna mellan arbete och livet utanför arbetet kanbeskrivas som svaga. Sociodemografiska och arbetsrelaterade faktorer för detvå strategierna, segmentering respektive integrering, undersöktes samt vilkaav dessa faktorer som åtskiljer de som anser sig lyckas respektive inte lyckasmed sin valda strategi. Resultaten visade att valet av segmenteringsstrateginklart dominerade, endast 18 procent klassificerades som integrerare. Integrerarnaangav högre arbetstid per vecka, de jobbade mera på vardagkvällar och helgersamt i högre grad på olika platser än segmenterarna. Det var dock i segmenteringsgruppensom dessa tids- och rumsaspekter hade en särskiljande betydelseför om man lyckades eller inte med sitt strategival. Särskilt sammanboendekvinnor med barn som använde sig av segmentering upplevde i högre grad änövriga att de misslyckades med sin strategi. De faktorer som i båda gruppernaframkom som urskiljande för huruvida man lyckas med sitt strategival rördeindividfaktorer relaterade till gränssättning i arbetet vilka kan betraktas somförmågan till självreglering. Dessa var att kunna arbeta självständigt, organiserasitt arbete effektivt, att veta vad som förväntas i arbetet, att själv kunna avgöranär en uppgift är slutförd samt att kunna säga nej och sätta gränser. Självregleringkan därmed betraktas som en central yrkeskompetens i ett arbetsliv alltmerkännetecknat av gränslöshet. Detta bekräftades av att bland de som lyckadesmed en integrerande strategi så var andelen som även upplevde balans i livetsom högst. Detta var särskilt uttalat bland kvinnor. Fortsatta studier kan inriktaspå prövning av resultaten i andra arbetsrelaterade kontext och ytterligareidentifiering av determinanter för lyckad segmentering eller integrering samt hurdetta sammanhänger med stress och (o)hälsa.

  • 75.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kompier, Michiel
    Sariaslan, Amir
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Boundaryless Work, Psychological Detachment and Sleep: Does Working 'Anytime – Anywhere' Equal Employees Are 'Always on'?2016In: New ways of working practices / [ed] Jan De Leede, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, p. 29-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life would seem to be crucial if one is to psychologically detach from work during leisure in order to unwind and get sufficient sleep. Drawing from a sample of Swedish professional workers (N = 3,846), a theoretical model was proposed testing the inter-relationships between boundaryless work in time and space, weekly work hours, psychological detachment, sleeping problems and sleep duration using a structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. Findings showed that working boundlessly in time, that is spread out during the working day and week, was directly associated with both long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. In contrast, working boundlessly in space, that is at several different places, was inversely associated with weekly work hours and had no association with psychological detachment. Psychological detachment, in turn, was directly associated with sleeping problems and inversely associated with sleep duration. Sleeping problems were inversely associated with sleep duration. Employees with long weekly work hours had a low degree of sleeping problems. There was also no association between long weekly work hours and sleep duration. These findings contradict earlier research, however, we interpret these findings as that if one works a great deal but is able to mentally detach from work-related feelings and thoughts during free time, then sleep will not be hampered because perseverative cognitions associated with prolonged biological activation will have been interrupted. As such, psychological detachment can be regarded as the mechanism that mediates the relationships between working 'anytime' and long weekly work hours, and sleep. It was concluded working boundlessly in time increases the likelihood for long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. Hence, employees working 'anytime – all the time' run the risk of 'always being on' resulting in disturbed sleep.

  • 76.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Häsänen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Can increased knowledge about work and health increase well-being?: An intervention study among social service employees2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, p. 227-227Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Research has consistently documented a connection between working conditions and employee well-being. The literature emphasizes the importance of a balance at work – for instance, between demands and control, work and recovery, and effort and reward – for work attitudes and health. The purpose of this study is to investigate if increased knowledge through an intervention focusing on the connection between work environment and health has an effect on employees’ work climate and well-being. The intervention focuses on a variety of demands and resources at work, in addition to well-being.

    Design/Methodology: The data is retrieved from an on-going intervention study conducted in the public sector. A total of 178 social service employees participated in a two wave electronic survey conducted before and after the intervention. The intervention was directed to management and employees and had a survey feedback design (4x3 hours during a nine week period). The questionnaire included measures of demands (e.g., workload), resources (e.g., autonomy), and well-being (e.g., quality in sleep.

    Results: Preliminary analyses show that the mean levels of demands, resources and well-being generally remained stable over time. However, there was a decline in job satisfaction and social support over time.

    Limitations: The preliminary results reported at the conference need to be supplemented by follow - up data from a comparison organization. The aim is to collect such data.

    Research/Practical Implications: These results may be useful to organizations that need guidance in how to better integrate a positive work environment mindset into their organizations.

    Originality/Value: There is room for more intervention - and longitudinal studies within occupational psychology.

  • 77.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Häsänen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Unwinding, recuperation, and health among social workers and caretakers at psychiatric ward2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow? Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] Guido Hertel, Carmen Binnewies, Stefan Krumm, Heinz Holling, Martin Kleinmann, 2013, p. 230-231Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate unwinding and recuperation among social workers, caretakers at a psychiatric ward, and teachers as well as caretakers at a psychiatric school for children.

    Design/Methodology: Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of individuals (n=377) with similar activation-recuperation profiles. Six items were used and combined to identify level of activation and recuperation during 24-hr day. Three clusters were identified: “alert”, “in-between”, and “recuperated”. 28% fell into the nonrecuperated group, 44% in-between group, and 29% alert group. In the second analysis we investigated how the activationrecuperation profiles differed on a) symptoms of ill-health, b) illness related absence, c) organizational aspects.

    Results: Preliminary analysis shows that nonrecuperated group have more symptoms of illhealth, higher degree illness related absence, and poorer attendance of when sick than the others groups. Failure to recuperate was related to aspects of work the environment such as imbalance between demands-control, and work-life imbalance and illegitimate tasks and wrong task.

    Limitations: Cross-sectional studies of this kind do not able to test long-term effects. Therefore, we may not answer the question whether these effects are stable over time.

    Research/Practical Implications: From a preventive perspective, it is important to identify situations and processes that may lead to occupational exclusion. In the case of this group of social workers and caretakers, a pattern emerged were strongly associated with fatigue, anxiety, and failure to recuperate.

    Originality/Value: The value this study brings is the understanding how organizational characteristics may wear people down over a period of time by affecting negatively on individuals ability to unwind and recuperate.

  • 78.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kan insatser som syftar till att öka kunskapen om arbetsrelaterade faktorer förändra hälsa och arbetsrelaterade attityder bland medarbetare?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen har konsekvent dokumenterat ett samband mellan psykosociala arbetsvillkor och anställdas hälsa. Litteraturen understryker vikten av balans på jobbet - t.ex. mellan krav och kontroll eller ansträngning och belöning, eller mellan arbete och återhämtning - för arbetsrelaterade attityder och hälsa. Vidare finns det utrymme för fler interventioner och longitudinella studier inom arbetspsykologin. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om ökad kunskap genom en intervention som fokuserar på sambanden mellan psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer och hälsa har effekt på medarbetarnas upplevelse av arbetsklimat och hälsa över tid. Interventionen fokuserar på en mängd olika krav och resurser i arbetet, utöver hälsa och arbetsrelaterade attityder. Data härrör från en interventionsstudie som genomförts i den offentliga sektorn. Interventionen riktades till ledning och medarbetare och var utformad som en undersökning-återkoppling (4 x 3 timmar) under en nio veckorsperiod. Självskattningar avseende krav (t.ex. arbetsbelastning), resurser (t.ex. socialt stöd), hälsa (t.ex. GHQ), samt arbetsrelaterade attityder (t.ex. planer på att säga upp sig) samlades in via en internetbaserad enkätundersökning före och efter interventionen. Totalt deltog 178 anställda vid en socialtjänst. Det slutliga longitudinella urvalet inkluderar 40 medarbetare i en interventionsgrupp och 11 medarbetare i en referensgrupp vilka besvarade enkäten vid båda tillfällena. Analyser visar att de genomsnittliga nivåerna av krav, resurser, hälsa och arbetsrelaterade attityder i allmänhet varit stabila över tiden. Den kvantitativa belastningen (t=3.61; df=39; p<.01) och det sociala stödet (t=3.79; df=39, p<.01) minskade medan medarbetarnas planer på att säga upp sig ökade (t=-2,76; df=39, p<.01). Resultat av MANOVA visade på en multivariat interaktionseffekt mellan tid och grupp för variabeln krav (F[1,49]=3.28, p<.05), vilket indikerar att medelvärdenivåer för interventions- och referensgrupp utvecklats olika över tid. Interventionsgruppens krav minskar över tid vilket var ett förväntat resultat. För övriga studier framkom inga signifikanta skillnader.  Sammanfattningsvis hade interventionen inga effekter på hälsa och arbetsrelaterade attityder över tid, däremot framkom vissa effekter på några aspekter av krav och kontroll som ju speglar den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Dessa effekter kan tyda på att interventionen satt igång en tankeprocess hos medarbetarna vilket tyder på att den här formen av intervention, över tid, kan ha positiva effekter på medarbetarnivå.

  • 79.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    A pilot-study of a worksite based participatory intervention program: Its acceptability and short-term effects on work climate and attitudes in human service employees2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 625-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors, including job demands and poor resources, have been linked to stress, health problems, and negative job attitudes. However, worksite based interventions and programs targeting psychosocial factors may change employees’ perceptions of their work climate and work attitudes.

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study describes a newly developed worksite based participatory organizational intervention program that was tested in the social service sector. It is evaluated using participants’ perceptions of the intervention to investigate its acceptability as a feature of feasibility and its short-term effects on work climate factors (job demands and resources) and work-related attitudes.

    METHODS: Forty employees of a Swedish social service unit provided self-reports before, during, and after the intervention.

    RESULTS: As for effects, quantitative role overload and social support decreased while turnover intention increased. Responses to an open-ended question showed that participants considered the intervention program valuable for addressing issues relating to the psychosocial work climate.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the findings are preliminary, it was possible to carry out this worksite based participatory organizational program in this particular setting. Also, the preliminary findings underscore the challenges associated with designing and implementing this type of intervention program, thus adding to the methodological discussion on implementation and evaluation.

  • 80.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Le Blanc, Pascale
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Can a managerial intervention focusing on job demands, job resources, and personal resources improve the work situation of employees?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge regarding the effects on employees of occupational intervention programs targeting psychosocial factors at work, including job demands, job resources, and personal resources, is limited and existing studies show mixed findings. This study aimed to investigate potential effects on employees’ job demands (i.e., workload, unnecessary tasks, and unreasonable tasks), job resources (i.e., feedback, control, and goal clarity), and personal resources (i.e., signaling and limit-setting strategies) of an intervention targeting managers’ ways of improving the psychosocial work environment among their staff (SWEActManager). Questionnaire data from employees (n=40) of a Swedish municipality, whose managers (n=4) participated in the program, and referents (n=58 employees), were collected before and after the program. The program included four three-hour workshops delivered during a six-week period. Results from 2(group) x 2(time) ANOVAs showed that all three demands increased over time while job control decreased. There were no significant group effects. One interaction effect only was significant: Unnecessary tasks increased more among referents than in the intervention group. The few significant short-term effects probably relate to challenges in designing and implementing organizational interventions targeting managers, and evaluating their effects among subordinates. This study adds to the limited research regarding the effects of organizational psychosocial interventions including managers for their subordinates’ demands and resources in a changing working life.

  • 81.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Le Blanc, Pascale
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Can a managerial intervention focusing on job demands, job resources, and personal resources improve the work situation of employees?2018In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 179-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge regarding the effects on employees of occupational intervention programs targeting psychosocial factors at work, including job demands, job resources, and personal resources, is limited and existing studies show mixed findings. This study aimed to investigate potential effects on employees’ job demands (i.e., workload, unnecessary tasks, unreasonable tasks), job resources (i.e., feedback, control, goal clarity), and personal resources (i.e., signaling and limit-setting strategies) of an intervention targeting managers’ ways of improving the psychosocial work environment among their staff (SWEActManager). Questionnaire data from employees (n = 40) of a Swedish municipality, whose managers (n = 4) participated in the program, and referents (n = 58 employees), were collected before and after the program. The program included four three-hour workshops delivered during a six-week period. Results from 2(group) × 2(time) ANOVAs showed that all three demands increased over time, while job control decreased. There were no significant group effects. One interaction effect only was significant: Unnecessary tasks increased more among referents than in the intervention group. The few significant short-term effects probably relate to challenges in designing and implementing organizational interventions targeting managers, and evaluating their effects among subordinates. This study adds to the limited research regarding the effects of organizational psychosocial interventions, including managers for their subordinates’ demands and resources in a changing working life.

  • 82.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Le Blanc, Pascale
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Can a managerial intervention improve employees' work situation?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Research on psychosocial factors at work has investigated demands, fewer studies have focused on resources. Empirical findings regarding the effects of intervention programs targeting psychosocial factors (job demands, job resources, and personal resources) among employees remain mixed. Little is known about the effects of managerial interventions on employee outcomes. This study aimed to investigate changes in employees’ perceptions of these factors as an effect of an intervention program targeting their managers within a Swedish municipality. Design/Methodology. Questionnaire data on employees’ perceptions of psychosocial job demands (workload, unnecessary tasks, unreasonable tasks), job resources (feedback, control, goal clarity), and personal resources (signaling, limit-setting strategies) were collected before and after the program (4x3 hours during a six-week period). Data from 40 employees, whose managers (N=4) participated in the program, were compared with referents (N=58). Results. Results from 2(group)x2(time) ANOVAs showed that all demands increased over time while job control decreased. There were no significant group effects and only one interaction effect was significant. Unnecessary tasks increased more among referents than in the intervention group between the two time points. Limitations. The few results may relate to the short follow-up time, the implementation plan needing further refinement, and issues inherent of the organization and the intervention program. Research/Practical Implications. The program may contribute to organizations’ work environment strategies, dialogues in the workshops contributed to turning abstract knowledge into concrete action plans. Originality/Value. This study adds to the limited empirical literature regarding effects of worksite psychosocial interventions among managers for employees’ demands and resources.

  • 83.
    Stengård, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stuck in a job: Being “locked-in” or at risk of becoming locked-in at the workplace and well-being over time2016In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 152-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, being “locked-in” at the workplace is conceptualized as being in a non-preferred workplace while at the same time perceiving low employability. The aim of the study was to investigate how being locked-in or at risk of becoming locked-in (being in a non-preferred workplace yet currently satisfied, combined with perceiving low employability) relates to well-being (subjective health and depressive symptoms). The hypotheses were tested in a Swedish longitudinal sample (T1 in 2010 and T2 in 2012) of permanent employees (N = 3491). The results showed that stability with regard to locked-in-related status (being non-locked-in, at risk of becoming locked-in, or locked-in at both T1 and T2) was related to significant and stable differences in well-being. The non-locked-in status was associated with better well-being than being at risk of becoming locked-in. Moreover, those at risk of becoming locked-in showed better well-being than those with stable locked-in status. Changes towards non-locked-in were accompanied by significant improvements in well-being, and changes towards locked-in were associated with impairments in well-being. The relationships that were found could not be attributed to differences in demographic variables and occupational preference. The findings indicate that being locked-in is detrimental to well-being. This has implications for preventative interventions.

  • 84. Svensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Randle, Hanne
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interaktiv forskning: tillämpningar vid utvärdering och arbetsmiljöutveckling2009In: Perspektiv på arbetsmiljöarbete / [ed] Sven Åke Hörte och Marita Christmansson, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2009, 1, p. 149-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel beskriver och diskuterar en interaktiv forskningsansats, och illustrerar denna ansats genom två exempel. Det första, längre exemplet, gällde ett uppdrag att utvärdera en stor nationell satsning på 18 projekt för bättre hälsa och minskad sjukfrånvaro. Det andra exemplet beskriver ett enskilt projekt med syftet att undersöka och förbättra arbetsmiljön för brevbärare. Vår ambition är inte att göra utförliga fallbeskrivningar, utan att använda dessa exempel för att presentera hur man kan arbeta utifrån en interaktiv forskningsansats. Vi vill med dessa två exempel visa hur forskning kan bedrivas i en nära samverkan med de berörda inom ramen för en kritisk och reflekterande gemenskap. Det primära målet med en interaktiv forskningsansats är teoriutveckling och generaliserbar kunskap. Metodansats och förhållningssätt relateras till liknande traditioner, bl.a. aktionsforskning och deltagarstyrd forskning. Det kan vara svårt att särskilja dessa forskningsansatser som har mycket gemensamt, men här fokuserar vi på skillnader för att tydliggöra och illustrera perspektivet. Syftet är inte att värdera eller rangordna dessa traditioner sinsemellan, utan att visa på situationer, frågeställningar och sammanhang där en interaktiv ansats kan vara fruktbar.

  • 85.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Häsänen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva-Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Promoting Balance at Work and Employee Well-being? Comparing Two Intervention Types in Swedish Caring Organizations2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Häsänen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    I don’t have the time to do my job: Job demands and resources among Swedish public sector employees2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: Abstract proceedings of the 16th EAWOP Congress 2013 / [ed] Guido Hertel, Carmen Binnewies, Stefan Krumm, Heinz Holling, Martin Kleinmann, European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology , 2013, p. 99-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working life is characterized by work intensification. This trend is evident also in the public sector where budget cuts result in an increased work load, reduced predictability about the future, work–life interference, and lack of opportunities for recovery. Many employees have to perform their work in conflict to their professional values, have insufficient resources to fulfill their tasks, and perceive a lack of managerial support. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relative importance of such job demands and resources for employee work attitudes, behavior, and well-being. 

    Design/Methodology

    The data are being collected within an intervention project aimed at reducing job demands and increasing job resources. An on-line baseline questionnaire is currently being administered to all employees of a public sector welfare unit in Sweden. 

    Results

    Time 1 results investigating the relative importance of various job demands and resources will be presented. 

    Limitations

    The cross-sectional nature of the baseline data provides preliminary understanding of the importance of demands and resources for employee work attitudes and well-being. These data will subsequently be supplemented by follow-up data, also from a comparison organization, to investigate relations over time. 

    Research/Practical Implications

    The paper has great opportunities of identifying important job demands and resources relevant for employee work attitudes, behavior and well-being, and reveal important avenues for management strategies aimed at balancing job demands with adequate resources. 

    Originality/Value

    The study adds to the literature by taking a broad perspective on job demands and resources in contemporary working life and by identifying important demands in service production. 

  • 87.
    Taloyan, Marina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 9, article id e44721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP) may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers.

    METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12), also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06). Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health.

    CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  • 88. Taloyan, Marina
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Does Labor Market Position Explain the Differences in Self-Rated Health between Employed Immigrants and Native Swedes: a Population-Based Study from Southern Sweden2019In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 703-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many groups of immigrants have worse health than the native population in the host countries. One possible explanation for this is that immigrants are disadvantaged in the labor market, since it has been shown that both precarious and locked-in labor market position can be associated with health problems. However, no published study to date has analyzed the prevalence or consequences of locked-in labor market position among immigrants. The aim of the current study is to analyze the labor market using a population-based survey. More concretely to investigate to what extent immigrants are over-represented in locked-in labor market positions and to what extent this can explain the health disadvantage among immigrants. The study is based on a dataset of the 20,449 individuals, who in the year 2000 were aged 18-64, from a survey of a representative sample of the population in the Scania region with citizen or resident status of southern Sweden, the Public Health in Scania Study conducted by the Unit of Social Medicine at Lund University, Malmo University Hospital (MAS). Respondents born abroad with Swedish parents had the highest employment rate (81.5%), with 73.7% of the employed on permanent contracts followed by participants born in Western Europe excluding the Nordic countries (81.4%), with 66.4% permanently employed, followed by native Swedes (79.1%), with 76.9% permanently employed. The lowest employment rate was observed among those born in the Middle East and North Africa, 49.4%, with 36.8% permanently employed and 19.1% self-employed. Employed participants born in the Middle East or North Africa had an excess risk of poor self-rated health if they were in a double locked-in as well as not locked-in situation, compared with native Swedes in the same labor market situations (OR = 2.18 and 2.04, respectively). In conclusion, it appears that selection into less preferred occupations or workplaces cannot explain the excess risk of poor health among immigrants from outside of Western world. Further studies, including qualitative ones, should provide detailed information from immigrants about their labor market position and the reason behind it.

  • 89.
    Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bendz, Lil Träskman
    Grape, Tom
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 738-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depressive symptoms are potential outcomes of poorly functioning work environments. Such symptoms are frequent and cause considerable suffering for the employees as well as financial loss for the employers. Accordingly good prospective studies of psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms are valuable. Scientific reviews of such studies have pointed at methodological difficulties but still established a few job risk factors. Those reviews were published some years ago. There is need for an updated systematic review using the GRADE system. In addition, gender related questions have been insufficiently reviewed. Method: Inclusion criteria for the studies published 1990 to June 2013: 1. European and English speaking countries. 2. Quantified results describing the relationship between exposure (psychosocial or physical/chemical) and outcome (standardized questionnaire assessment of depressive symptoms or interview-based clinical depression). 3. Prospective or comparable case-control design with at least 100 participants. 4. Assessments of exposure (working conditions) and outcome at baseline and outcome (depressive symptoms) once again after follow-up 1-5 years later. 5. Adjustment for age and adjustment or stratification for gender. Studies filling inclusion criteria were subjected to assessment of 1.) relevance and 2.) quality using predefined criteria. Systematic review of the evidence was made using the GRADE system. When applicable, meta-analysis of the magnitude of associations was made. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of possible confounders and publication bias was discussed. Results: Fifty-nine articles of high or medium high scientific quality were included. Moderately strong evidence (grade three out of four) was found for job strain (high psychological demands and low decision latitude), low decision latitude and bullying having significant impact on development of depressive symptoms. Limited evidence (grade two) was shown for psychological demands, effort reward imbalance, low support, unfavorable social climate, lack of work justice, conflicts, limited skill discretion, job insecurity and long working hours. There was no differential gender effect of adverse job conditions on depressive symptoms Conclusion: There is substantial empirical evidence that employees, both men and women, who report lack of decision latitude, job strain and bullying, will experience increasing depressive symptoms over time. These conditions are amenable to organizational interventions.

  • 90.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bejerot, Eva E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Doctors' work schedules and work time control2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The impact of work time control on physicians’ sleep and well-being2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physicians' work schedules are an important determinant of their own wellbeing and that of their patients. This study considers whether allowing physicians control over their work hours ameliorates the effects of demanding work schedules. A questionnaire was completed by hospital physicians regarding their work hours (exposure to long shifts, short inter-shift intervals, weekend duties, night duties, unpaid overtime; and work time control), sleep (quantity and disturbance) and wellbeing (burnout, stress and fatigue). Work time control moderated the negative impact that frequent night working had upon sleep quantity and sleep disturbance. For participants who never worked long shifts, work time control was associated with fewer short sleeps, but this was not the case for those who did work long shifts. Optimizing the balance between schedule flexibility and patient needs could enhance physicians' sleep when working the night shift, thereby reducing their levels of fatigue and enhancing patient care.

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