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  • 51.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Universalism versus targeting: The vulnerability of social insurance and means-tested minimum income protection in 18 countries, 1990-20022007In: International Social Security Review, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 33-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stagnation and retrenchment of social policies in recent decades raise considerable interest and concern in writings on the welfare state. This study examines differences in the development of means-tested benefits and social insurance provisions. Questions relating to the measurement of policy retrenchment and the vulnerability of social benefits are addressed. Two conflicting hypotheses are discerned: one stating that the development of means-tested benefits resembles that of social insurance; and another more recent one claiming that the evolution of means-tested benefits follows a unique pattern. The empirical analyses are based on institutional data on the level of social benefits. It is shown that social insurance stands a better chance of surviving periods of retrenchment and that the greater vulnerability of means-tested benefits is related to the organization of social insurance provisions.

  • 52.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fritzell, Johan
    ESPN Thematic Report on In-work poverty: Sweden 20192019Report (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fritzell, Johan
    ESPN Thematic Report on minimum income schemes: Sweden 20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most benefits and transfers in Sweden are based on individual entitlements and are administered at the national level. In such cases, the eligibility criteria and entitlement levels are uniform throughout the country. The only scheme in Sweden that qualifies as a minimum income benefit is the social assistance programme (Ekonomiskt Bistånd/Försörjningsstöd), which targets people in households that lack sufficient means to support themselves – not just work income, but also access to contributory social insurance benefits. Unlike most other benefits and transfers, eligibility for social assistance is thus determined at the level of the household. One way or another, social assistance defines the ‘floor’ of the Swedish welfare state: its explicit purpose is to provide an economic standard below which no one, in principle, should be able to fall. In Sweden, social assistance is a true system of last resort. As such, it is not used as a passport to other benefits. Rather the opposite applies.

    The basic scale rates of social assistance are set nationally, but financing and administration is at the local municipality level. Sweden has 290 municipalities, and in terms of implementation, these have substantial leeway. They are allowed to pay more, but not less.

    People receiving social assistance are obliged to seek work (if possible) and to participate in active labour market programmes. The duration of social assistance is unlimited, and payments are made as long as eligibility conditions are met.

    When it comes to the adequacy of social assistance, we can note two important aspects: a) the level of adequacy compared to the at-risk-of-poverty (AROP) threshold is poor; b) viewed over the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a gradual decline in adequacy levels. The first point is evident from the fact that social assistance levels are quite far from the 60% poverty threshold for all family types analysed. The declining trend is somewhat less evident after the 2008 crisis, at least for families with children.

    Take-up rates have been roughly stable over the past few years, as has the number of long-term recipients – though that figure is much larger today than before the severe recession in Sweden in the early 1990s.

    Sweden has not implemented any so-called one-stop shops, which provide a common entry to all social benefits and services. Instead, emphasis is placed on cooperation between public authorities at different levels of government, in order to foster greater coordination. Such coordinated actions may be hindered by the fact that different benefit and service systems operate at different governance levels. We would note that back in 2012, only a small fraction of municipalities in Sweden had written guidelines for cooperation between the local Social Welfare Agency and state-organised offices and agencies. If Sweden decides to continue with its attempts to foster coordination and cooperation, rather than one-stop shops, it would seem to us to be a minimum requirement that such guidelines should be developed right across the country.

  • 54.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Welfare states and population health: the role of minimum income benefits for mortality2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 112, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of cross-national differences in population health are subject for intense discussion, often focusing on the role of structural economic factors. Although population health is widely believed to reflect the living conditions in society, surprisingly few comparative studies systematically assess policy impacts of anti-poverty programs. In this paper we estimate the influence of minimum income benefits on mortality using international data on benefit levels in 18 countries 1990-2009. Included are all major non-contributory benefits that low-income households may receive. Our analyses, based on fixed effects pooled time-series regression, show that minimum income benefits improve mortality, measured in terms of age-standardized death rates and life expectancy. The results on country-level links between minimum income benefits and mortality are remarkably robust in terms of measured confounding effects.

  • 55.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kuivalainen, Susan
    Eroding minimum income protection in the Nordic countries? Reassessing the Nordic model of social assistance2011In: Changing social equality. The Nordic welfare model in the 21st century. / [ed] Kvist, J., Fritzell, J., Hvinden B., Kangas, O., Bristol: Policy Press , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindh, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sociologförbundet har ordet: Sociologisk forsknings nya hemsida och Sociologidagarna 20202019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 79-80Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sweden: Adjoining the Guarantee Pension with NDC2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes old-age incomes in Sweden from a pension policy perspective, focusing on both the economic position of elderly citizens and the redistributive effects of the pension system’s different parts. The empirical analyses show that each subsequent cohort that reaches retirement age faces higher relative poverty risks than previous cohorts. The relative decline in the value of the guaranteed minimum pension vis-à-vis the real income growth of wage earners brings to the forefront the issues of indexation of the guarantee and the ceiling on the means-tested housing benefits like the basic safety net for pensioners.

  • 58.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sweden: Adjoining the Guarantee Pension with NDC2020In: Progress and Challenges of Nonfinancial Defined Contribution Pension Schemes: Volume 1. Addressing Marginalization, Polarization, and the Labor Market / [ed] Robert Holzmann, Edward Palmer, Robert Palacios, Stefano Sacchi, World Bank, 2020, p. 215-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Tøge, Anne Grete
    Health trends in the wake of the financial crisis—increasing inequalities?2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 18, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The financial crisis that hit Europe in 2007–2008 and the corresponding austerity policies have generated concern about increasing health inequalities, although impacts have been less salient than initially expected. One explanation could be that health inequalities emerged first a few years into the crisis. This study investigates health trends in the wake of the financial crisis and analyses health inequalities across a number of relevant population subgroups, including those defined by employment status, age, family type, gender, and educational attainment. Methods: This study uses individual-level panel data (EU-SILC, 2010–2013) to investigate trends in self-rated health. By applying individual fixed effects regression models, the study estimates the average yearly change in self-rated health for persons aged 15–64 years in 28 European countries. Health inequalities are investigated using stratified analyses. Results: Unemployed respondents, particularly those who were unemployed in all years of observation, had a steeper decline in self-rated health than the employed. Respondents of prime working age (25–54 years) had a steeper decline than their younger (15–24) and older (55–64) counterparts, while single parents had a more favorable trend in self-rated health than dual parents. We did not observe any increasing health inequalities based on gender or educational attainment. Conclusions: Health inequalities increased in the wake of the financial crisis, especially those associated with employment status, age, and family type. We did not observe increasing health inequalities in terms of levels of educational attainment and gender.

  • 60.
    Palme, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    European Social Models, Protection and Inclusion2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61. Van Gyes, Guy
    et al.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Steinmetz, Stephanie
    Hermans, Maarten
    Short-term future agenda of the InGRID research infrastructure: Servicing European research from data to policy on Inclusive Growth2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper sets outs a short-term future agenda for the further integration and advancement of the European social sciences distributed research infrastructure InGRID. Developed through a futuring programme, the strategy identifies priority areas for innovating the infrastructure to meet current and future research needs. It highlights areas where greater organizational and structural improvements are needed.

12 51 - 61 of 61
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