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  • 51.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Triangulation of stress in adolescence2012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no supplement 2, p. 220-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large scale surveys show that perceived stress and stress-related complaints are common among young people. Perceived stress increase with age and are more common in girls than boys, resulting in late adolescent girls reporting the highest frequencies. The knowledge is however more limited regarding other measurements and meanings of stress. The purpose of this study is to use a small-scale multiple methods data collection to perform an empirical triangulation of stress in the age group 14–15 years, i.e. to analyse stress, and gender differences in stress, as it appears in questionnaires, biomarkers and interviews within the same population. The study population includes all pupils in the 8th and 9th grades (ages 14–16 years) in two elementary schools in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 545). The data collection was divided into three parts where information was gathered through class room questionnaires (n = 413), saliva sampling (5 time points during the day, number of students delivering complete samples = 190) and semi-structured qualitative interviews (49 pupils in grade 8, mean length 50 minutes).

    In the questionnaires, girls consistently report higher levels of perceived stress. This is true for the activation scale (mean value boys = 2.51, girls = 3.11, p < 0.00) and the pressure scale (boys = 2.62, girls = 3.33, p < 0.00). According to the saliva sampling, girls have higher cortisol concentration both at awakening and 30 minutes later (p < 0.00). According to the qualitative interviews, no distinct differences in boys’ and girls’ associations with the word “stress” were found. However, both male and female interviewees had a perception of girls being more stressed about schoolwork than boys. Many times they linked this to girls way of thinking or coping with life demands, including worries about the future. In conclusion, the picture of adolescent girls being more stressed than boys is largely confirmed by all methods used here.

  • 52.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Girls with highly educated parents have less somatic complaints2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in Western countries generally, somatic complaints are common in adolescents. These complaints are clearly connected with gender while the evidence of socioeconomic inequalities is less conclusive. The aim of this study is to analyse the combined relevance of gender and parental education for adolescents' somatic complaints, using national data with direct information from adolescents and their parents (n=7,393). Among girls, but not among boys, a graded association was found demonstrating less somatic complaints with higher parental education. Stress and coping are discussed as potentially important mechanisms.

  • 53.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bullying and stress in mid-adolescent girls and boys2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to analyze if exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys was associated with a range of self-reported stress measures in terms of somatic pain, perceived global stress, pressure and activation (measured through the validated PAS scale), as well as output of salivary cortisol, which is a hormone of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system that reflects stress. Theoretical framework: Bullying is a serious problem in schools and a major stressor for those who are exposed. Exposure to bullying has been linked to adverse mental health outcomes in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and it is reasonable to assume that it is associated with outcomes such as perceived stress and biomarkers of stress. Methodology: The data were derived from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), conducted in 2010. The study population comprised all students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two elementary schools in Stockholm, Sweden (n=545). A questionnaire was distributed in classrooms and students were asked to sample saliva five times a day during two school days. The questionnaire was completed by 413 students and complete information for all variables used in the present study was available for 95% of these (n=392). Exposure to bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. Data on cortisol was derived from the saliva samples; in the current study, we used saliva samples from day 1 (n=180). The statistical methods used were binary logistic and linear (OLS) regression. Findings: The results showed that being bullied on a weekly basis was associated with an excess risk of somatic pain and perceived global stress, pressure and activation. Students who were bullied had lower diurnal cortisol output (AUCG) as compared to those who were not bullied. Among boys, exposure to bullying was also associated with a lower cortisol awakening response (CARG). The lower cortisol output among bullied students indicates that this group may exhibit HPA-axis dysregulation following chronic stress exposure. Conclusions: The study supports the assumption that exposure to bullying, as a chronic stressor, is related to self-reported somatic pain and stress, but also to one of the major bodily stress systems. This underlines the importance of continuously working against bullying in schools.

  • 54.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bullying as a Stressor in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys–Associations with Perceived Stress, Recurrent Pain, and Salivary Cortisol2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying involves repeated exposure to negative actions while also invoking a power asymmetry between the involved parties. From a stress perspective, being bullied can be seen as a severe and chronic stressor, and an everyday social-evaluative threat, coupled with a shortage of effective social resources for dealing with this particular stressor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys is associated with subjective and objective stress-related outcomes in terms of perceived stress, recurrent pain, and salivary cortisol. The data came from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS) including students in grades 8–9 in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2010 (study sample n = 392; cortisol subsample n = 198). Bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. The statistical analyses included binary logistic and linear (OLS) regression. Being bullied was associated with greater perceived stress and an increased risk of recurrent pain, among both boys and girls. Also, bullied students had lower cortisol output (AUCG) and lower cortisol awakening response (CARG) as compared to those who were not bullied. Gender-stratified analyses demonstrated that these associations were statistically significant for boys but not for girls. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that being bullied was related to both subjective and objective stress markers among mid-adolescent girls and boys, pointing to the necessity of continuously working against bullying.

  • 55.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Låftman Brolin, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Inequalities in subjective health complaints in Swedish adolescents: An intersectional approach2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health inequality has been defined as the association between individuals’ health and their position in societal hierarchies. Such associations can be used as a starting-point in the search for social determinants of health. With regard to subjective health complaints among adolescents the evidence of socio-economic inequalities has been inconclusive. Inequalities by gender are, in contrast, clear and a female excess emerge or increase during adolescence. The aim of this study is to apply an intersectional approach and analyse differences in health complaints by parental education among girls and boys, taking age into account. Furthermore, data with information from both adolescents and their parents will be used which is ideal since adolescents seldom have correct information on parental education.

    Methods

    The data was obtained from a Swedish nationally representative survey (ULF) and its child supplement (Child-ULF) from the years 2007-2011 (n = 5280). Subjective health complaints were reported by adolescents (aged 10-18) and measures indicating psychological (e.g. feeling sad) and somatic complaints (i.e. head- and stomach ache) calculated. Information on education was obtained for one parent and five educational groups distinguished. Binary logistic regression was used and odds ratios with 95% confidence limits computed.

    Results

    Among girls, a clear gradient was found. From higher to lower level of parental education the odds ratios for psychological complaints were; 1.00 (ref); 1.07 (0.7-1.6); 1.38 (1.0-2.0); 1.73 (1.3-2.4); 2.05 (1.3-3.3); and for somatic complaints; 1.00 (ref); 1.27 (0.8-1.9); 1.55 (1.1-2.3); 1.69 (1.2-2.4); 2.82 (1.8-4.5). No association was found among boys. Gender differences per se were pervasive and, in ages where female excess is present, substantial within all educational groups.

    Conclusions

    The higher burden of subjective health complain

  • 56.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Status relations in school and their relevance for health in a life course perspective: Findings from the Aberdeen children of the 1950’s cohort study2008In: Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 66, p. 835-848Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Exposure to School Bullying and Psychological Health in Young Adulthood: A Prospective 10-Year Follow-Up Study2018In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 194-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being bullied at school is strongly related to psychological health complaints at the same time point. Studies have also found long-term associations, but few have combined a prospective design with children’s own reports on bullying, and conducted gender-specific analyses. The present study assesses health consequences in young adulthood of self-reported victimization in adolescence using data from Child-LNU in 2000 and the follow-up in 2010 (including 63% of the original sample, n = 813). At ages 10–18 a clear cross-sectional association was found for both girls and boys. Among girls, exposure to bullying also predicted psychological complaints 10 years later, at ages 20–28 (OR = 2.86). This association was not explained by socioeconomic circumstances, neither in adolescence nor in young adulthood. Instead, it can partly be understood as victimization, among adolescent girls, being associated with negative self-image and psychological health as well as with deficits in social resources more generally.

  • 58.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Social utsatthet i skolan. Erfarenheter av mobbning och psykisk hälsa bland unga vuxna2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 98-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Plenty, Stephanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Låftman, Sara B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    School Demands and Coping Resources - Associations with Multiple Measures of Stress in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 10, article id 2143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress, and stress-related health complaints, are common among young people, especially girls. Since studies have shown that school demands are an important driver of stress in adolescents, identifying if school-based resources can protect against stress is highly relevant. The aim of this study was to analyse task-related demands and task-related coping resources as aspects of the school work environment of potential relevance for stress in mid-adolescent girls and boys. The data came from “The School Stress and Support study” (TriSSS) conducted among students in grades 8 and 9 (aged 14–16 years). Self-reports of demands, coping resources, stress, as well as recurrent pain, were collected through questionnaires (n = 411). A subsample of students (n = 191–198) also provided salivary samples, which were analysed for the stress marker cortisol. Linear (OLS) and binary logistic regression analyses showed that higher demands were associated with more perceived stress, a higher likelihood of recurrent pain, and a lower cortisol awakening response. Greater coping resources were associated with less perceived stress and a lower likelihood of recurrent pain, but there was no association with cortisol. The strength of the associations differed by gender. The findings suggest that schools can promote student wellbeing by providing clear and timely information and teacher support to the students, especially for boys. Identifying specific features of the schoolwork that give rise to stress and to modify these accordingly is also of importance, especially for girls.

  • 60.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Wells, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Inequalities in young adult frequency and quantity of alcohol use in a longitudinal Swedish sample2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Alcohol-related mortality is more prevalent in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Yet the relationship between socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adulthood, when alcohol is often consumed in high quantities, is not well understood and findings are inconclusive. In this study, our aim was to examine whether two often-conflated dimensions of alcohol use (i.e., frequency and quantity) in young adulthood associate with parental educational attainment. We also explored whether parental alcohol use (same two dimensions) or young adult educational attainment may help explain this association.

    Methods

    Data was collected from two waves (2000 & 2010) of the Swedish Level of Living Survey, with parents surveyed ten years before the young adults. Young adults’ (N = 803) risk of daily/weekly and monthly drinking, relative to less frequent drinking, was analysed by multinomial logistic regression and estimated as relative risk ratios (RR); episodic heavy drinking was assessed through binary logistic regression and estimated as odds ratios (OR).

    Results

    Young adults whose parents held a compulsory (versus tertiary) degree were less likely to drink daily/weekly (RR = 0.18, 95% CI [0.07, 0.47]) but more likely to drink heavily (OR = 2.67, 95% CI [1.17, 6.06]). The same dimensions of alcohol use were associated across generations but did not explain inequalities by parental educational attainment. Accounting for young adult educational attainment left an independent effect of parental compulsory education (RR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.10, 0.73]) on young adult daily/weekly drinking.

    Conclusions

    Parental educational attainment can be viewed as an early-life structural factor that confers differential risk for young adult alcohol use, depending on the dimension of use: high educational attainment is a risk factor for frequent drinking while low educational attainment is a risk factor for episodic heavy drinking.

12 51 - 60 of 60
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