Endre søk
Begrens søket
12 51 - 60 of 60
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 51. Sehlstedt, Maria
    et al.
    Dove, Rosamund
    Boman, Christoffer
    Pagels, Joakim
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Londahl, Jakob
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Bosson, Jenny
    Barath, Stefan
    Behndig, Annelie F.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Sandström, Thomas
    Mudway, Ian S.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Antioxidant airway responses following experimental exposure to wood smoke in man2010Inngår i: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 7, s. 21-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Biomass combustion contributes to the production of ambient particulate matter (PM) in rural environments as well as urban settings, but relatively little is known about the health effects of these emissions. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize airway responses in humans exposed to wood smoke PM under controlled conditions. Nineteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both wood smoke, at a particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of 224 +/- 22 mu g/m(3), and filtered air for three hours with intermittent exercise. The wood smoke was generated employing an experimental set-up with an adjustable wood pellet boiler system under incomplete combustion. Symptoms, lung function, and exhaled NO were measured over exposures, with bronchoscopy performed 24 h post-exposure for characterisation of airway inflammatory and antioxidant responses in airway lavages. Results: Glutathione (GSH) concentrations were enhanced in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after wood smoke exposure vs. air (p = 0.025), together with an increase in upper airway symptoms. Neither lung function, exhaled NO nor systemic nor airway inflammatory parameters in BAL and bronchial mucosal biopsies were significantly affected. Conclusions: Exposure of healthy subjects to wood smoke, derived from an experimental wood pellet boiler operating under incomplete combustion conditions with PM emissions dominated by organic matter, caused an increase in mucosal symptoms and GSH in the alveolar respiratory tract lining fluids but no acute airway inflammatory responses. We contend that this response reflects a mobilisation of GSH to the air-lung interface, consistent with a protective adaptation to the investigated wood smoke exposure.

  • 52. Umbuzeiro, Gisela A.
    et al.
    Kummrow, Fábio
    Morales, Daniel Alexandre
    Alves, Debora Kristina M.
    Lim, Hwanmi
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Jarvis, Ian W. H.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Stenius, Ulla
    Dreij, Kristian
    Sensitivity of salmonella YG5161 for detecting PAH-associated mutagenicity in air particulate matter2014Inngår i: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, ISSN 0893-6692, E-ISSN 1098-2280, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 510-517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used assay for the evaluation of air particulate matter (PM) mutagenicity and a positive correlation between strain TA98 responses and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels in PM has been found. However, it seems that the major causes of PM mutagenicity in this assay are the nitro and oxy-PAHs. Salmonella YG5161, a 30-times more responsive strain to B[a]P has been developed. To verify if YG5161 strain was sufficiently sensitive to detect mutagenicity associated with B[a]P mutagenicity, PM samples were collected in Brazil and Sweden, extracted with toluene and tested in the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay. PAHs and B[a]P were determined and the extracts were tested with YG5161 and its parental strain TA1538. The extracts were also tested with YG1041 and its parental strain TA98. For sensitivity comparisons, we tested B[a]P and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) using the same conditions. The minimal effective dose of B[a]P was 155 ng/plate for TA1538 and 7 ng/plate for YG5161. Although the maximum tested dose, 10 m3/plate containing 9 ng of B[a]P in the case of Brazilian sample, was sufficient to elicit a response in YG5161, mutagenicity was detected at a dose as low as 1 m3/plate (0.9 ng). This is probably caused by nitro-compounds that have been shown to be even more potent than B[a]P for YG5161. It seems that the mutagenicity of B[a]P present in PM is not detectable even with the use of YG5161 unless more efficient separation to remove the nitro-compounds from the PAH extract is performed.

  • 53. Unosson, Jon
    et al.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Sandström, Thomas
    Muala, Ala
    Boman, Christoffer
    Nyström, Robin
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Mills, Nicholas L.
    Newby, David E.
    Langrish, Jeremy P.
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Exposure to wood smoke increases arterial stiffness and decreases heart rate variability in humans2013Inngår i: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 10, s. 20-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Emissions from biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and are estimated to cause millions of premature deaths worldwide annually. Whilst adverse respiratory health effects of biomass exposure are well established, less is known about its effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we assessed the effect of exposure to wood smoke on heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability in otherwise healthy persons. Methods: Fourteen healthy non-smoking subjects participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects were exposed to dilute wood smoke (mean particle concentration of 314 +/- 38 mu g/m(3)) or filtered air for three hours during intermittent exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability were measured at baseline and for one hour post-exposure. Results: Central arterial stiffness, measured as augmentation index, augmentation pressure and pulse wave velocity, was higher after wood smoke exposure as compared to filtered air (p < 0.01 for all), and heart rate was increased (p < 0.01) although there was no effect on blood pressure. Heart rate variability (SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50; p = 0.003, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively) was decreased one hour following exposure to wood smoke compared to filtered air. Conclusions: Acute exposure to wood smoke as a model of exposure to biomass combustion is associated with an immediate increase in central arterial stiffness and a simultaneous reduction in heart rate variability. As biomass is used for cooking and heating by a large fraction of the global population and is currently advocated as a sustainable alternative energy source, further studies are required to establish its likely impact on cardiovascular disease.

  • 54. Unosson, Jon
    et al.
    Kabéle, Mikael
    Boman, Christoffer
    Nyström, Robin
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Mudway, Ian S.
    Purdie, Esme
    Raftis, Jennifer
    Miller, Mark R.
    Mills, Nicholas L.
    Newby, David E.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Sandström, Thomas
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Acute cardiovascular effects of controlled exposure to dilute Petrodiesel and biodiesel exhaust in healthy volunteers: a crossover study2021Inngår i: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Air pollution derived from combustion is associated with considerable cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality in addition to environmental effects. Replacing petrodiesel with biodiesel may have ecological benefits, but impacts on human health remain unquantified.

    The objective was to compare acute cardiovascular effects of blended and pure biodiesel exhaust exposure against known adverse effects of petrodiesel exhaust (PDE) exposure in human subjects.

    In two randomized controlled double-blind crossover studies, healthy volunteers were exposed to PDE or biodiesel exhaust for one hour. In study one, 16 subjects were exposed, on separate occasions, to PDE and 30% rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel blend (RME30) exhaust, aiming at PM10 300 μg/m3. In study two, 19 male subjects were separately exposed to PDE and exhaust from a 100% RME fuel (RME100) using similar engine load and exhaust dilution. Generated exhaust was analyzed for physicochemical composition and oxidative potential. Following exposure, vascular endothelial function was assessed using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and ex vivo thrombus formation was assessed using a Badimon chamber model of acute arterial injury. Biomarkers of inflammation, platelet activation and fibrinolysis were measured in the blood.

    Results: In study 1, PDE and RME30 exposures were at comparable PM levels (314 ± 27 μg/m3; (PM10 ± SD) and 309 ± 30 μg/m3 respectively), whereas in study 2, the PDE exposure concentrations remained similar (310 ± 34 μg/m3), but RME100 levels were lower in PM (165 ± 16 μg/m3) and PAHs, but higher in particle number concentration. Compared to PDE, PM from RME had less oxidative potential. Forearm infusion of the vasodilators acetylcholine, bradykinin, sodium nitroprusside and verapamil resulted in dose-dependent increases in blood flow after all exposures. Vasodilatation and ex vivo thrombus formation were similar following exposure to exhaust from petrodiesel and the two biodiesel formulations (RME30 and RME100). There were no significant differences in blood biomarkers or exhaled nitric oxide levels between exposures.

    Conclusions: Despite differences in PM composition and particle reactivity, controlled exposure to biodiesel exhaust was associated with similar cardiovascular effects to PDE. We suggest that the potential adverse health effects of biodiesel fuel emissions should be taken into account when evaluating future fuel policies.

  • 55.
    Westerholm, R
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Testresultat från FFV fordon körda på etanol- inblandad bensin: Svenska Luftvårdsföreningens höstseminarium2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 56.
    Westerholm, Roger
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Ahlvik, P
    An exhaust characterisation study based on regulated and unregulated tailpipe and evaporative emissions from bi-fuel and flexi-fuel light-duty passenger cars fuelled by petrol (E5), bioethanol (E70, E85) and biogas tested at ambient temperatures of +22°C and -7°C: Report to Swedish Road Administration2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 57.
    Westerholm, Roger
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Ahlvik, P
    Lu-Karlsson, H
    An exhaust characterisation study based on regulated and un-regulated tailpipe and evaporative emissions from bi-fuel and flexi-fuel light-duty passenger cars fuelled by petrol (E5), bio-ethanol (E85) and biogas tested at ambient temperatures of +22°C and -7°C.: Report to Swedish Road Administration2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 58.
    Westerholm, Roger
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Karlsson, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Ahlvik, P
    Åsman, P
    Exhaust emissions from flexi-fuel light-duty passenger cars fuelled by petrol (E5) and bioethanol (E70, E85) tested at ambient temperatures of +22°C and -7°C: Part 2:Unregulated emissions and cancer potency.2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17:th International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 59.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Erlandson, Jon M.
    Gjerdrum, Thor
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Ancient bitumen use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure: a potential factor in the health decline of prehistoric California Indians.2011Inngår i: American Journal of Physical Anthropology: Supplement: Program of the 80th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 2011, Vol. 144, s. vol 144-suppl.52Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Erlandson, Jon M.
    Gjerdrum, Thor
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 119, nr 9, s. 1203-1207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure.

12 51 - 60 of 60
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf