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  • 51.
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Oblique anticausative in Lithuanian: A comparative approachInngår i: Baltistica, ISSN 0132-6503, E-ISSN 2345-0045Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Bjarnadóttir, Valgerdur
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    de Smit, Merlijn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Primary Argument Case-marking in Baltic and Finnic2013Inngår i: Baltu filologija, ISSN 1691-0036, Vol. XXII, nr 1, s. 31-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An analysis of polyadic lingua franca speech: A communicative strategies framework2014Inngår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 66, s. 122-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an analysis of the communicative strategies (CSs) used by speakers in spoken lingua franca English (ELF) in an academic setting. The purpose of the work has primarily been to outline the CSs used in polyadic ELF speech which are used to ensure communication effectiveness in consequential situations and to present a framework that shows the different communicative functions of a number of CSs. The data comprise fifteen group sessions of naturally occurring student group-work talk in content courses at a technical university. Detailed qualitative analyses have been carried out, resulting in a framework of the communication strategies used by the speakers. The methodology here provides us with a taxonomy of CSs in natural ELF interactions. The results show that other than explicitness strategies, comprehension checks, confirmation checks and clarification requests were frequently employed CSs in the data. There were very few instances of self and other-initiated word replacement, most likely owing to the nature of the high-stakes interactions where the focus is on the task and not the language. The results overall also show that the speakers in these ELF interactions employed other-initiated strategies as frequently as self-initiated communicative strategies.

  • 54.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English as a lingua franca in higher education: Implications for EAP2011Inngår i: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, E-ISSN 2340-2784, nr 22, s. 79-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has brought a number of changes for higher education in continental Europe and elsewhere, a major one being the increasing use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as the medium of instruction. With this change, RAP is faced with a new group of learners who will need to use it predominantly in ELF settings to communicate with speakers from other first language backgrounds. This overview paper first discusses the changes that have taken place in the field of EAP in terms of student body, followed by an outline of the main findings of research carried out on ELF These changes and the results of recent ELF research have important implications for EAP instruction and testing. It is argued here that EAP needs to be modified accordingly to cater for the needs of this group. These revolve around the two major issues: norms and standards for spoken English and target use. If the aim of EAP instruction and testing is to prepare speakers for academic settings where English is the lingua franca, the findings of ELF research need to be taken into consideration and then integrated into EAP curriculum design and testing, rethinking norms and target use. The norms and standards used by EAP instruction must be based on this realistic English, and educational resources should be deployed more realistically, including the usage of ELF, thereby validating the pluralism of English. This paper argues that any practice that excludes this perspective would be reducing EAP qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • 55.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language ideology or language practice?: An analysis of language policy documents at Swedish universities2014Inngår i: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 33, nr 3-4, s. 335-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language practices, language beliefs, values (and ideology), and language planning or management (Spolsky 2004). The results show that the language policy documents refer heavily to official documents that have as their primary aim to protect and promote the Swedish language (e. g., the Language Act 2009), which appears to have been the point of departure for the language policy work in these settings, reflecting their protectionist stance towards the local language, Swedish. Little focus is put on actual language practices in these policy documents. The description of language practices is often limited to the description of the existing situation, based on concerns about Swedish losing ground as a result of the widespread use of English. Similarly, the notion of ELF is used primarily for description of the existing situation without sufficient guidance as to how students and staff in these university settings are to use English in their everyday practices. These results bring to the fore the question of what the purpose of university language policy documents should be with reference to a speech community's everyday practices. It is suggested here that university language policy documents would benefit from taking research on actual language practices as their starting point and base their work on research on language practices, striving to provide guidance on local choices made for communicative effectiveness.

  • 56.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    PhD supervision meetings in an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) setting: linguistic competence and content knowledge as neutralizers of institutional and academic power2017Inngår i: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 111-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates PhD supervision meetings, using material from naturally occurring speech of ten hours by PhD supervisors and students who all use English as a lingua franca (ELF) for research purposes. The recordings have been transcribed in their entirety, with conversation analytical procedures and additional ethnographic interviews with the PhD supervisors. The present paper is a follow-up to the two previous studies by the author (in European Journal for Applied Linguistics 3[2], 2015, and The Routledge Handbook of English for Academic Purposes, 2016) and focuses on linguistic competence and content knowledge as factors possibly mitigating the power asymmetry present in the interactions. The findings show no observable power asymmetries manifested in the interactions or in the interview responses by the supervisors. The analyses showed that the supervisors’ and the students’ level of linguistic competence seemed very similar, which was further supported by the supervisors’ self-reports of their own English and their informal evaluations of their students’ levels of proficiency. When it comes to content knowledge, the students overall showed very good command of their subjects, disciplinary conventions and their projects in general, further supported by their supervisors’ evaluations in the interview data. Based on these findings, it is suggested here that in ELF interactions of this particular type where the speakers have similar levels of linguistic competence and content knowledge, power asymmetries become less visible.

  • 57.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    PhD supervisor-PhD student interactions in an English-medium Higher Education (HE) setting: Expressing disagreement2015Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2192-953X, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 205-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest figures, the increase in English-taught programs in European Higher Education (HE) has been tremendous at a growth rate of 500% since 2002 (Wächter and Maiworm 2014). In all these HE institutes, English serves as the main lingua franca for students and staff. The present paper reports from such a HE setting in Sweden and focuses on how disagreement is expressed in PhD supervisor-PhD student supervision meetings, a spoken genre largely neglected in the study of spoken academic discourse. The material comprises digitally-recorded, naturally-occurring speech adding up to approximately seven hours, all by PhD supervisors and students from different L1 backgrounds, who all use English as a lingua franca. All recordings have been transcribed, and the instances of disagreement have been analysed by a mixed-methods approach, drawing on Conversation Analysis (CA). The results show, first of all, that the PhD students directly construct disagreement with their supervisors on content-related advice despite the academic and institutional power asymmetry present in these interactions. The supervisors, on the other hand, seem to indirectly construct disagreement with their students. It is suggested here that linguistic competence and content knowledge may be two factors mitigating the power asymmetry. Also, the expression of disagreement does not seem to be perceived as confrontational by either the supervisors or students. On the contrary, disagreement seems to be typical of this spoken genre in this setting, implying that it may even be a “preferred second” turn in this spoken genre with reference to the enculturation of the PhD student into the academic community.

  • 58.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Pragmatic strategies in English as an academic lingua franca:  Ways of achieving communicative effectiveness2011Inngår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 950-964Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will report the findings of a study that has investigated spoken English as a lingua franca (ELF) usage in Swedish higher education. The material comprises digital recordings of lectures and student group-work sessions, all being naturally occurring, authentic high-stakes spoken exchange, i.e. from non-language-teaching contexts. The aim of the present paper, which constitutes a part of a larger study, has been to investigate the role pragmatic strategies play in the communicative effectiveness of English as a lingua franca. The paper will document types of pragmatic strategies as well as point to important differences between the two speech event types and the implications of these differences for English-medium education. The findings show that lecturers in ELF settings make less frequent use of pragmatic strategies than students who deploy these strategies frequently in group-work sessions. Earlier stages of the present study (Björkman, 2008a, Björkman, 2008b and Björkman, 2009) showed that despite frequent non-standardness in the morphosyntax level, there is little overt disturbance in student group-work, and it is highly likely that a variety of pragmatic strategies that students deploy prevents some disturbance. It is reasonable to assume that, in the absence of appropriate pragmatic strategies used often in lectures, there is an increased risk for covert disturbance

  • 59.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Questions in academic ELF interaction2012Inngår i: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 93-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 60.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    So You Think You Can ELF: English as a Lingua Franca as the Medium ofInstruction2010Inngår i: Hermes - Journal of Language and Communication Studies, ISSN 0904-1699, E-ISSN 1903-1785, Vol. 45, s. 77-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 61.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The pragmatics of English as a lingua franca in the international university: Introduction2011Inngår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 923-925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62.
    Blomqvist, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Vad uppmärksammar lärare i samtal om skrivbedömning? Svensklärares normer för beslut om summativ bedömning2018Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift för allmän didaktik, ISSN 2002-1534, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 34-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a qualitative study of Swedish teachers’ summative assessments of students’ writing in upper secondary school. Based on teacher group discussions, the study describes and analyses teachers’ expressions of norms when assessing and grading students’ writing in the subject of Swedish. Data consist of audio- and video recordings from three focus group discussions, comprising a total of 17 teachers. Topic analysis (Linell, 2001) is the method used to identify expressions of assessment norms in these discussions. The analysis reveals that these teachers’ summative assessments of students’ writing express two competing norms: a non-compensatory and a compensatory norm. The non-compensatory norm is expressed through perceptions that all text qualities must correspond to the same criteria. This means that shortcomings in texts are crucial for teachers’ summative assessments. The text qualities that primarily determine these decisions are language style and text structure. Meanwhile, the compensatory norm is expressed through perceptions that in summative aspects such as students’ age and writing instructions as well as students’ writing development and the national test must be considered. These competing assessment norms have a substantial impact on theses teachers’ decisions on summative assessments. The teacher groups show significant variation in the basis for their decisions regarding summative assessment of students' writing.

  • 63.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    From percentage to prediction: University students meeting a parallel language of visuals and numerals2011Inngår i: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, E-ISSN 2340-2784, nr 22, s. 123-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A less-frequently discussed parallel-linguistic issue is the parallel language of visuals and numerals: the diagrams, tables, models, mathematical signs and different symbols that students have to deal with in their reading and writing. Texts are multimodal, that is they are constructed with visual objects and different sign systems as well as writing. For new students, it can be difficult to grasp how visuals and numerals can have different meanings in different contexts, such as academic disciplines. For teachers, the disciplinary use of the visuals and numerals is often so ingrained that they may have difficulty seeing the problems that students face. Drawing on the theoretical framework of social semiotics and the neo-Vygotskian perspective, this article shows how new students of economics in Sweden encounter a multimodal academic literacy. The article also discusses some of the difficulties relating to this situation and arguesfor a raised awareness among teachers in order to scaffold students intoacademic, visual literacies.

  • 64.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Christensson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Questions as literacy practice and boundary object in a teacher education setting2018Inngår i: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 48, s. 85-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    “Put a meeting in my calendar!” The literacy practice of the digital calendar in workplaces2019Inngår i: Sakprosa, ISSN 1502-6000, E-ISSN 1891-5108, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern work life includes many digital tools, of which the shared digital calendar has attracted little attention in applied linguistics. The framework for this study is mediated discourse analysis applied to ethnographic data from one workplace and eight contextual interviews from eight other workplaces. The data were analyzed 1) qualitatively, using Wertsch’s (1998) concepts for agency, and 2) quantitatively, through an SFG (Systemic Functional Grammar) analysis of the interviews. The quantitative analysis reveals a high degree of agency. The qualitative analysis shows that discourses of managerialism, globalization, democratization and “flat organizations” can be mapped to the digital calendar. The calendar is also related to other text media such as whiteboards and time report systems, where squares with colors and writing constitute the discursive shapes that are common to the digital calendar. The ability to search and book meetings in the calendars of others is an affordance, although regulated through digital or verbal access. In this and other ways, the individual is strongly connected to the digital tool. The boundary between private and public has been challenged by digital tools. Social actors can resist, e.g., by non-compliance in using the digital calendar, thus increasing their sense of agency. Additional features include the ability to combine different media and develop practices that are not directly offered by the design of the tool. The digital tool both widens the agency of the actors, e.g., in keeping a great deal of information connected to one meeting, and delimits it, e.g., in sometimes rendering individuals helpless to what they see in their own calendars.

  • 66.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Sannholm, Raphael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Fasta regler för fri kommunikation2017Inngår i: Nio-fem: tidskrift om arbetsliv & profession, ISSN 2001-9688, nr 2, s. 20-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag jobbar många hemma eller på resande fot, och allt färre har ett fast skrivbord. Hur påverkar det förutsättningarna för kommunikationen? Hur ser kommunikationen ut jämfört med arbetsplatser där man fortfarande har eget skrivbord? I den här artikeln tar några språkvetenskapliga forskare från Stockholms universitet upp aktuella fynd från olika forskningsprojekt om kommunikation i arbetslivet.

  • 67.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language and hybridization: Pidgin tales from the China coast2000Inngår i: Interventions, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 35-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 68.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen. City University Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
    Graddol, David
    English in Contemporary China2012Inngår i: English Today, ISSN 0266-0784, E-ISSN 1474-0567, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 3-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a 2010 China Dailyarticle, the number of English learners in China is now around 400 million, approximately one third of China's population (see also Wei and Su, this issue). The importance of English in the state education system has been supplemented by the rapid growth of privately-run language schools and training institutes across the country in recent years. The same article quoted a comment by Ms Xiao Yan, the public relations manager of the Wall Street English language school chain, who gave her explanation for the current popularity of English in the following terms:

    More and more importance has been given to English after China carried out the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world in the late 1970s. And accompanying China's rise on the world stage in recent years are growing connections of commerce and culture with other countries, especially those developed English-speaking countries […] The entire Chinese society attaches high importance to the English study as sometimes it even plays a vital role for a person who plans to pursue further education and seek a better career. There is no doubt that people who have a good command of English are more competitive than their peers. (China Daily, 2010a)

  • 69.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Hutton, Christopher
    Orientalism, linguistics and postcolonial studies2000Inngår i: Interventions, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 70.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Meierkord, Christiane
    English in contemporary Sweden: Perceptions, policies, and narrated practices2013Inngår i: Journal of Sociolinguistics, ISSN 1360-6441, E-ISSN 1467-9841, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 93-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares trends in Sweden's language planning and language policies, and particularly the rationale underlying recent government legislation, to actual language use at the grass roots' of society, in order to investigate the extent to which academic and official rationales are confirmed by observed language practices. The passing of the Swedish Language Act of 2009 followed debates in academia and the media which not infrequently characterised English as a major threat to the survival of Swedish. However, despite the strong belief in the utility of English widely held in Sweden, the Swedish language is the preferred language of Swedes as well as immigrants in most domains. These results reveal a contradiction between the arguments put forward by a number of academics, educators and journalists concerning the threat' of English, and the language practices of ordinary folk in their daily lives.

  • 71. Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Edquist, Gertrud
    Reinholdson, Anna-Clara
    Risberg, Arne
    McAllister, Bob
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Speech and language development in a population of Swedish hearing-impaired pre-school-children, a cross-sectional study2007Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 71, nr 7, s. 1061-1077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is little information on speech and language development in preschool children with mild, moderate or severe hearing impairment. The primary aim of the study is to establish a reference material for clinical use covering various aspects of speech and language functions and to relate test values to pure tone audiograms and parents' judgement of their children's hearing and language abilities. Methods: Nine speech and language tests were applied or modified, both classical tests and newly developed tests. Ninety-seven children with normal hearing and 156 with hearing impairment were tested. Hearing was 80 dB HL PTA or better in the best ear. Swedish was their strongest language. None had any additional diagnosed major handicaps. The children were 4-6 years of age. The material was divided into 10 categories of hearing impairment, 5 conductive and 5 sensorineural: unilateral; bilateral 0-20; 21-40; 41-60; 61-80 dB HL PTA. The tests, selected on the basis of a three component language model, are phoneme discrimination; rhyme matching; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III, word perception); Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG, grammar perception); prosodic phrase focus; rhyme construction; Word Finding Vocabulary Test (word production); Action Picture Test (grammar production); oral motor test. Results: Only categories with sensorineural toss showed significant differences from normal. Word production showed the most marked delay for 21-40 dB HL: 5 and 6 years p < 0.01; for 41-60 dB: 4 years p < 0.01 and 6 years p < 0.01 and 61-80 dB: 5 years p < 0.05. Phoneme discrimination 21-40 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 41-60 dB: 4 years p < 0.01; 61-80 dB: 4 years p < 0.001, 5 years p < 0.001. Rhyme matching: no significant difference as compared to normal data. Word perception: sensorineural 41-60 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 61-80 dB: 4 years p < 0.05; 5 years p < 0.01. Grammar perception: sensorineural 41-60 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 61-80 dB: 5 years p < 0.05. Prosodic phrase focus: 41-60 dB HL: 5 years p < 0.01. Rhyme construction: 41-60 dB HL: 4 years p < 0.05. Grammar production: 61-80 dB HL: 5 years p < 0.01. Oral motor function: no differences. The Word production test showed a 1.5-2 years delay for sensorineural impairment 41-80 dB HL through 4-6 years of age. There were no differences between hearing-impaired boys and girls. Extended data for the screening test [E. Borg, A. Risberg, B. McAllister, B.M. Undemar, G. Edquist, A.C. Reinholdsson, et at., Language development in hearing-impaired children. Establishment of a reference material for a ""Language test for hearing-impaired children"", Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngot. 65 (2002) 15-26] are presented. Conclusions: Reference values for expected speech and language development are presented that cover nearly 60% of the studied population. The effect of the peripheral hearing impairment is compensated for in many children with hearing impairment up to 60 dB HL. Above that degree of impairment, language delay is more pronounced, probably due to a toss of acuity. The importance of central cognitive functions, speech reading and signing for compensation of peripheral limitations is pointed out.

  • 72.
    Botsis, Hannah
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Bradbury, Jill
    Metaphorical sense-making: Visual-narrative language portraits of South African students2018Inngår i: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, E-ISSN 1478-0895, Vol. 15, nr 2-3, s. 412-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects on a creative visual-narrative approach to understanding South African students' lived experiences of languages. Data were collected in two interviews: the first entailing a biographical history and the drawing of a linguistic portrait on a simple body outline and the second a narrative interview utilising the portrait generated in the first as a basis for talking about language and identity. Framing the research process in this creative visual mode shifts the focus of narrative talk, simultaneously grounding it in affective, embodied experience, and enabling a reflexive position from which to analyse the taken-for-granted role of language in the minutiae of everyday life. The theoretical lenses of identity and subjectivity are invigorated through these metaphorical representations, and new creative possibilities are released for analysing the role of language in mediating shifting power dynamics in post-apartheid and postcolonial South African life.

  • 73.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Concordia University, Canada.
    A distinctive use of R as a marker of Santomean identity2018Inngår i: Jounal of Belonging, Identity, Language, and Diversity, ISSN 2561-7982, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the ideologies that surround the use of rhotics (or r-sounds) in the Santomean variety of Portuguese. This emerging variety spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe diverges from the European and Brazilian Portuguese norms and shows great variability in its use of rhotics. More specifically, Santomeans often use a strong-R in positions that require a weak-r in other Portuguese varieties (Bouchard, 2017). I argue that this distinctive use of rhotics is becoming a marker of Santomean national identity. Through the use of sociolinguistic interviews, I examine where this new variety of Portuguese is emerging from, and how Santomeans view their distinctive use of rhotics. Results demonstrated that the use of strong-R is associated with younger Santomeans who grew up after the independence of the country (in 1975), and who are starting to show pride in their national variety of Portuguese.

  • 74.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Becoming Monolingual: The Impact of Language Ideologies on the Loss of Multilingualism on São Tomé Island2019Inngår i: Languages, E-ISSN 2226-471X, Vol. 4, nr 3, artikkel-id 50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the loss of the creole languages on São Tomé Island and the societal move from multilingualism to monolingualism in Portuguese. It argues that recognizing the ideologies attached to these languages is key in understanding the language shift, but also the processes leading toward monolingualism. This qualitative study is based on three main theories: Language as social practice, language ideology, and monoglot standardization. Data comes from ethnographic fieldwork and sociolinguistic interviews with 56 speakers from the capital of São Tomé and Príncipe. I argue that the existence of multilingualism on São Tomé Island is not valued at a societal level because of the pejorative ideologies that have been held about the creole languages since colonial times. Also, the use of the creole languages stood as a problem for the creation of a unified Santomean nation, as the different racial groups on the islands had their own creole. Results show how ideologies about the Portuguese language and its association with national unity, modernity, and European-ness favored its expansion on São Tomé Island and a move toward monolingualism.

  • 75.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Language shift from Forro to Portuguese: Language ideologies and the symbolic power of Portuguese on São Tomé Island2019Inngår i: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 228, artikkel-id 102712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates causes of the language shift from Forro to Portuguese around the capital of São Tomé and Príncipe from a language ideology and political economy perspective. It examines the ideological and indexical processes supporting the differentiating social categories and how they are linked to language choice. It shows that accessing ideologies held by Forros is key to understanding how they have historically set themselves apart from the other racial groups on the island by choosing Portuguese as their first language. This research is based on observations in the public and private spheres in São Tomé City and on interviews conducted with 56 Santomean informants. Results indicate that the use and transmission of characterizations and evaluative comments enable Santomeans to convey ideologies of superiority of the Portuguese language and its speakers, and that these ideologies are important forces driving the ongoing language shift.

  • 76.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    New York University, US.
    Subject Pronoun Expression in Santomean Portuguese2018Inngår i: Journal of Portuguese Linguistics, ISSN 1645-4537, E-ISSN 2397-5563, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikkel-id 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on Subject Pronoun Expression (SPE) in the Portuguese-speaking world have shown a distinction between European Portuguese, which is a Null Subject Language (NSL) with high rates of null subjects, and Brazilian Portuguese, which is controversially treated as a partial-NSL and exhibits a considerably lower rate of null subjects. No specific studies have been conducted on the matter on Santomean Portuguese, but we know that both null and overt subject personal pronouns exist in this variety of Portuguese. The objective of this paper is to investigate variation in SPE in Santomean Portuguese, and to situate this variety of Portuguese in comparison with other varieties. Results of the variationist analyses show that Santomean Portuguese patterns more like European Portuguese in its high rate of use of null subject. Interestingly, and contrary to previous studies, Santomeans with a higher level of education disfavor the use of null subject, which I relate to a sensitivity to grammatical ideology and the favoring of the overt subject in more formal situations. Most of the results regarding the linguistic predictors, which are stronger than the social predictors, relate Santomean Portuguese to other varieties of Portuguese, and to Spanish.

  • 77.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    bilee sul ügiin utga, hereglee [The meaning and function of the particle bilee in Khalkha Mongolian]2012Inngår i: Hèl zohiol sudlal, ISSN 2308-510X, Vol. 5, nr 37, s. 10-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the meaning and use of the evidential particle bilee and its shortened derived form lee in Khalkha Mongolian are investigated. In indicatives, bilee is used to indicate one's own recollection. Simple past is formed together with the past inferential -j. Similarly, with a hortative mood bilee indicates the recollection of one's mental state. Both confirmation and surprise can be found as connotations, but the notion of surprise even appears to have grammaticalized into the more specific construction -na lee which either expresses surprise or is used to beg for attention. In questions, bilee can both express that one has witnessed, but cannot recall a given event, or an event that the addressee is presumed to remember. With the imperfective -dag, bilee can sometimes induce mono-occasional readings, but these are even possible with -dag alone or most commonly with -dag baijee.

  • 78.
    Burnham, Denis
    et al.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Kasisopa, Benjawan
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Reid, Amanda
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
    Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Attina, Virginia
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Rattanasone, Nan Xu
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Webster, Diane
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Universality and language-specific experience in the perception of lexical tone and pitch2015Inngår i: Applied Psycholinguistics, ISSN 0142-7164, E-ISSN 1469-1817, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 1459-1491Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments focus on Thai tone perception by native speakers of tone languages (Thai, Cantonese, and Mandarin), a pitch–accent (Swedish), and a nontonal (English) language. In Experiment 1, there was better auditory-only and auditory–visual discrimination by tone and pitch–accent language speakers than by nontone language speakers. Conversely and counterintuitively, there was better visual-only discrimination by nontone language speakers than tone and pitch–accent language speakers. Nevertheless, visual augmentation of auditory tone perception in noise was evident for all five language groups. In Experiment 2, involving discrimination in three fundamental frequency equivalent auditory contexts, tone and pitch–accent language participants showed equivalent discrimination for normal Thai speech, filtered speech, and violin sounds. In contrast, nontone language listeners had significantly better discrimination for violin sounds than filtered speech and in turn speech. Together the results show that tone perception is determined by both auditory and visual information, by acoustic and linguistic contexts, and by universal and experiential factors.

  • 79. Byding, Katarina
    et al.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Kärlek kräver mer än tusen ord2017Inngår i: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, nr 2, s. 18-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 80.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Effects of age of L2 acquisition on L1 event conceptualization patterns2009Inngår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 305-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation in goal-oriented motion events. In view of previous findings on age effects in attrition, it is hypothesized that deviations from Spanish monolingual patterns of conceptualization would be limited basically to subjects whose AO is below 12 years of age. The analyses show that subjects with AO > 12 converge with Spanish monolingual controls on both endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation strategies, whereas deviations from the controls' performance are found exclusively in subjects with AO < 12. It is suggested, in view of these findings, that subjects with early AO are more dependent on advantageous socio-psychological circumstances such as L1 contact and use in order to fully acquire/maintain Spanish event conceptualization patterns, while L1 maintenance in subjects with late AO is less dependent on these factors. It is concluded that patterns of event conceptualization are affected by age in the same way as formal language skills.

  • 81.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Maturational constraints and first language attrition2009Inngår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 687-715Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the critical period and the interplay between maturation and nonmaturational factors in attrition. In view of findings from first language relearning/reactivation and theoretical-methodological advances in second language research on maturation, the article proposes a reinterpretation of maturational constraints in language attrition that, first, emphasizes the gradual decline of susceptibility to attrition and, second, puts forth the conditioning function that the maturational constraints have on nonmaturational factors.

  • 82.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Unomathotholo or i-radio? Factors predicting the use of English loanwords among L1 isiXhosa - L2 English bilinguals2014Inngår i: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 105-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of English loanwords in L1 isiXhosa-L2 English bilinguals living in Cape Town, South Africa. The specific aim of the study is to investigate which individual background factors may increase or reduce the presence of English loanwords in a L1 isiXhosa speaker's repertoire. Data on English loanword use and individual background were collected through a picture naming task and a background questionnaire, respectively. Results showed that those speakers who frequently used English for interactive purposes were more prone to using English loanwords when naming pictures in isiXhosa. Moreover, it was documented that those who arrived at an early age in Cape Town (from the isiXhosa-dominant Eastern Cape Province) were also less prone to using isiXhosa words in the naming task. Marginal, negative effects were found for non-interactive isiXhosa use (i.e. radio, books, etc.) and attitudes towards English, such that those speakers with high indices on these variables used more often English loanwords. A marginal, positive effect of the presence of isiXhosa in primary and secondary school on the use of isiXhosa words was also found.

  • 83.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Does first language maintenance hamper nativelikeness in a second language? A study of ultimate attainment in early bilinguals2012Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 215-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly theoretical due to the lack of empirical evidence. This study sets out to address the role of L1 proficiency in L2 ultimate attainment by examining L1 and L2 proficiency in 30 early L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals. Language proficiency was assessed through grammaticality judgment tests and cloze tests, and additional data on language aptitude were collected through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (v.2.0; Meara, Milton, & Lorenzo-Dus, 2002). The results showed positive correlations between nativelike L1 and L2 behavior. Additionally, it was found that language aptitude was positively correlated with nativelike L1 and L2 performance. In view of these findings, it is suggested that (a) L1 maintenance does not hamper L2 nativelikeness and (b) language aptitude is an important factor for bilingual ultimate attainment.

  • 84.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The role of language aptitude in first language attrition: The case of prepubescent attriters2010Inngår i: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 443-464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While language aptitude has been investigated actively within second language research, there is a current dearth of research on the effects of aptitude in cases of attrition. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the role of language aptitude for L1 proficiency in speakers who experienced a break with their L1 setting prior to puberty. Twenty-five L1 SpanishL2 Swedish bilinguals residing in Sweden participated in the study, and 15 native speakers of Spanish living in Chile were recruited as controls. The L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (Meara et al. <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B36">2003</xref>). Results showed a positive correlation between GJT performance and language aptitude. More specifically, the bilinguals with above-average aptitude were more likely to score within the native range on the GJT than those with below-average aptitude. It was also seen that among the participants with below-average aptitude, GJT scores were related to daily L1 use. In view of these findings, we suggest that language aptitude has a compensatory function in language attrition, helping the attriter to retain a high level of L1 proficiency despite reduced L1 contact.

  • 85.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Norrman, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Revisiting the bilingual lexical deficit: The impact of age of acquisition2019Inngår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 182, s. 45-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the cognitive advantages brought about by bilingualism have recently been called into question, the so-called ‘lexical deficit’ in bilinguals is still largely taken for granted. Here, we argue that, in analogy with cognitive advantages, the lexical deficit does not apply across the board of bilinguals, but varies as a function of acquisition trajectory. To test this, we implement a novel methodological design, where the variables of bilingualism and first/second language status have been fully crossed in four different groups. While the results confirm effects of bilingualism on lexical proficiency and processing, they show more robust effects of age of acquisition. We conclude that the traditional view of the linguistic costs of bilingualism need to give way to a new understanding of lexical development in which age of acquisition is seen as a major determinant.

  • 86.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Language and thought in a multilingual context: The case of isiXhosa2014Inngår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 431-441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within the grammatical aspect approach to motion event cognition, this study takes a first step in investigating language and thought in functional multilinguals by studying L1 isiXhosa speakers living in South Africa. IsiXhosa being a non-aspect language, the study investigates how the knowledge and use of additional languages with grammatical aspect influence cognition of endpoint-oriented motion events among L1 isiXhosa speakers. Results from a triads-matching task show that participants who often used aspect languages and had greater exposure to English in primary education were less prone to rely on endpoints when categorising motion events.

  • 87.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Linguistic relativity in SLA: Towards a new research programme2014Inngår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 64, nr 4, s. 952-985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current article is to support the investigation of linguistic relativity in second language acquisition and sketch methodological and theoretical prerequisites toward developing the domain into a full research program. We identify and discuss three theoretical-methodological components that we believe are needed to succeed in this enterprise. First, we highlight the importance of using nonverbal methods to study linguistic relativity effects in second language (L2) speakers. The use of nonverbal tasks is necessary in order to avoid the circularity that arises when inferences about nonverbal behavior are made on the basis of verbal evidence alone. Second, we identify and delineate the likely cognitive mechanisms underpinning cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers by introducing the theoretical framework of associative learning. By doing so, we demonstrate that the extent and nature of cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers is essentially a function of variation in individual learners’ trajectories. Third, we offer an in-depth discussion of the factors (e.g., L2 proficiency and L2 use) that characterize those trajectories, anchoring them to the framework of associative learning, and reinterpreting their relative strength in predicting L2 speaker cognition.

  • 88.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Televised Whorf: Cognitive Restructuring in Advanced Foreign Language Learners as a Function of Audiovisual Media Exposure2015Inngår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, s. 123-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The encoding of goal-oriented motion events varies across different languages. Speakers of languages without grammatical aspect (e.g., Swedish) tend to mention motion endpoints when describing events (e.g., two nuns walk <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>to a house</styled-content>) and attach importance to event endpoints when matching scenes from memory. Speakers of aspect languages (e.g., English), on the other hand, are more prone to direct attention to the ongoingness of motion events, which is reflected both in their event descriptions (e.g., two nuns <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>are walking</styled-content>) and in their nonverbal similarity judgements. This study examines to what extent native speakers (L1) of Swedish (n=82) with English as a foreign language (FL) restructure their categorisation of goal-oriented motion as a function of their proficiency and experience with the English language (e.g., exposure, learning history, etc.). Seventeen monolingual native English speakers from the United Kingdom (UK) were recruited for comparison purposes. Data on motion event cognition were collected through a memory-based triads matching task in which a target scene with an intermediate degree of endpoint orientation was matched with two alternative scenes with low and high degrees of endpoint orientation. Results showed that the preference among the Swedish speakers of FL English to base their similarity judgements on ongoingness rather than event endpoints was correlated with exposure to English in everyday life, such that those who often watched television in English approximated the ongoingness preference of the English native speakers. These findings suggest that event cognition patterns may be restructured through exposure to FL audiovisual media. The results add to the emerging picture that learning a new language entails learning new ways of observing and reasoning about reality.

  • 89.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Oostendorp, Marcelyn
    Motion event cognition and grammatical aspect: Evidence from Afrikaans2013Inngår i: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 929-955Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the relationship between grammatical aspect and motion event construal has posited that speakers of non-aspect languages are more prone to encoding event endpoints than are speakers of aspect languages (e. g., von Stutterheim and Carroll 2011). In the present study, we test this hypothesis by extending this line of inquiry to Afrikaans, a non-aspect language which is previously unexplored in this regard. Motion endpoint behavior among Afrikaans speakers was measured by means of a linguistic retelling task and a non-linguistic similarity judgment task, and then compared with the behavior of speakers of a non-aspect language (Swedish) and speakers of an aspect language (English). Results showed the Afrikaans speakers' endpoint patterns aligned with Swedish patterns, but were significantly different from English patterns. It was also found that the variation among the Afrikaans speakers could be partially explained by taking into account their frequency of use of English, such that those who used English more frequently exhibited an endpoint behavior that was more similar to English speakers. The current study thus lends further support to the hypothesis that speakers of different languages attend differently to event endpoints as a function of the grammatical category of aspect.

  • 90.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Díaz, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    The role of heritage language instruction for first language proficiency: a psycholinguistic perspective2012Inngår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 593-609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently attended HL classes once a week, whereas the other group was no longer doing so. The two groups did not differ with regard to the total number of years of HL class attendance, age of arrival in Sweden, length of residence or degree of L1 contact. Results from a grammaticality judgement test and a cloze test showed that the group that currently attended HL classes outperformed the non-attending group. Using a framework that emphasises heightened attrition susceptibility among speakers who lost contact with the L1-dominant setting before puberty, the study suggests that HL classes function as a factor that, all other things being equal, may counterweigh attrition susceptibility. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of HL classes on L1 proficiency are short term rather than long term. That is to say, once attendance ceases the counterweighing effect is less visible.

  • 91.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Jarvis, Scott
    Dept. of Linguistics, Ohio University.
    L2 effects on L1 event conceptualization patterns2011Inngår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 47-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The finding that speakers of aspect languages encode event endpoints to a lesser extent than do speakers of non-aspect languages has led to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization (e.g., von Stutterheim and Nüse, 2003). The present study concerns L1 event conceptualization in 40 L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilinguals (all near-native speakers of Swedish). Spanish and Swedish differ as regards grammatical aspect: Whereas Swedish lacks this grammatical category, Spanish conveys aspect through verbal morphology and periphrasis. The principal aim of the study was to explore the relationship between event conceptualization patterns and proficiency with aspectual contrasts. The participants were asked to provide oral L1 Spanish descriptions of video clips projecting motion events with different degrees of endpoint orientation (see von Stutterheim, 2003). In addition, they took a grammaticality judgment test concerning verb and gender agreement, verbal clitics and aspectual contrasts. Compared with baseline data from monolingual Spanish speakers, the results on endpoint encoding show that the bilinguals mention the endpoints of motion events to a higher degree than the Spanish control group does. Moreover, it was shown that the weaker the bilinguals’ discrimination of aspectual errors on the grammaticality judgement test, the more prone they were to encoding endpoints. This result consequently furthers the hypothesis about the interconnectedness between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization. It was suggested that this finding indicate that the bilinguals are influenced by the Swedish-like tendency to attend to the boundedness rather than the ongoingness of events.

  • 92.
    Bylund, Emanuel Spångberg
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Ultimate attainment of event segmentation and temporal structuring patterns in speakers of L2 Swedish2011Inngår i: Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 1697-0381, Vol. 8, s. 29-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates ultimate attainment of patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in L2 speakers. The participant group consists of 35 L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish adult bilinguals living in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 19 years. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish were engaged as controls. The participants provided online-retellings of a film excerpt. The results showed that the L2 speakers resorted to an event segmentation strategy with an intermediate degree of event resolution, which fell in between the monolingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. Regarding temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the L2 speakers converged with the Swedish-speaking controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., x then y). There was no effect of age of L2 acquisition on the L2 speakers' degree of conformity with Swedish native speaker behaviour.

  • 93.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Här är 4 procent av invånarna döva2013Inngår i: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 4, s. 13-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 94.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Härmed tecknar jag dig ...2017Inngår i: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, nr 7, s. 52-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 95.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Object marking in the signed modality: Verbal and nominal strategies in Swedish Sign Language and other sign languages2017Inngår i: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 279-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Persontecken avslöjar vilka vi är2017Inngår i: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 3, s. 7-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 97.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Types and trends of name signs in the Swedish Sign Language community2017Inngår i: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 30, s. 7-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the domain of name signs (i.e., signs used as personal names) in the Swedish Sign Language (SSL) community. The data are based on responses from an online questionnaire, in which Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing participants answered questions about the nature of their name signs. The collected questionnaire data comprise 737 name signs, distributed across five main types and 24 subtypes of name signs, following the categorization of previous work on SSL. Signs are grouped according to sociolinguistic variables such as age, gender, and identity (e.g., Deaf or hearing), as well as the relationship between name giver and named (e.g., family or friends). The results show that name signs are assigned at different ages between the groups, such that children of Deaf parents are named earlier than other groups, and that Deaf and hard of hearing individuals are normally named during their school years. It is found that the distribution of name sign types is significantly different between females and males, with females more often having signs denoting physical appearance, whereas males have signs related to personality/behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the distribution of sign types has changed over time, with appearance signs losing ground to personality/behavior signs – most clearly for Deaf females. Finally, there is a marginally significant difference in the distribution of sign types based on whether or not the name giver was Deaf. The study is the first to investigate name signs and naming customs in the SSL community statistically – synchronically and diachronically – and one of the few to do so for any sign language.

  • 98.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Distribution and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language2016Inngår i: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 143-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate frequency and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) using the SSL Corpus. The duration of signs is correlated with frequency, with high-frequency items having shorter duration than low-frequency items. Similarly, function words (e.g. pronouns) have shorter duration than content words (e.g. nouns). In compounds, forms annotated as reduced display shorter duration. Fingerspelling duration correlates with word length of corresponding Swedish words, and frequency and word length play a role in the lexicalization of fingerspellings. The sign distribution in the SSL Corpus shows a great deal of cross-linguistic similarity with other sign languages in terms of which signs appear as high-frequency items, and which categories of signs are distributed across text types (e.g. conversation vs. narrative). We find a correlation between an increase in age and longer mean sign duration, but see no significant difference in sign duration between genders.

  • 99.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Commentary on Kita, van Gijn & van der Hulst (1998)2014Inngår i: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 241-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 100.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Articulatory plurality is a property of lexical plurals in sign language2016Inngår i: Lingvisticæ investigationes, ISSN 0378-4169, E-ISSN 1569-9927, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 391-407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign languages make use of paired articulators (the two hands), hence manual signs may be either one- or two-handed. Although two-handedness has previously been regarded a purely formal feature, studies have argued morphologically two-handed forms are associated with some types of inflectional plurality. Moreover, recent studies across sign languages have demonstrated that even lexically two-handed signs share certain semantic properties. In this study, we investigate lexically plural concepts in ten different sign languages, distributed across five sign language families, and demonstrate that such concepts are preferentially represented with two-handed forms, across all the languages in our sample. We argue that this is because the signed modality with its paired articulators enables the languages to iconically represent conceptually plural meanings.

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