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  • 51.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Design Considerations and their Relation with User Engagement in Two Self-Guided e-Mental Health Interventions2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Internet interventions are often reported in terms of effect sizes, proportion clinically significantly improved and recovered or the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to benefit compared with a control condition. These randomized controlled trials are of significant value and tell us if an intervention is efficacious. However, in journal papers there is seldom much attention given to design considerations and their relation to user engagement. This is true even in most published study protocols.

    Methods:  Using two existing, recently tested, applications as examples the design idea and the user-application interaction is reviewed and discussed.

    Results: First a smartphone application is showcased and discussed. The ideas behind the use of real-time location awareness, anonymous social interaction between users, a high degree of personalization and gamification techniques is presented. Secondly, a virtual reality application is demonstrated and discussed. Additionally, this talk will explore the design considerations for the various components of the smartphone app and the virtual reality game.

    Conclusions: There are pros and cons of different solutions. However, more attention and detail is needed for true progress and knowledge sharing to be made in internet interventions.

  • 52.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    eMental health solutions: Evidence and perspectives: State-of-the-art2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered psychotherapy has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 200 randomized controlled trials suggest that it can be effective. So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this talk a pioneer in the field will present recent research finding, including the use of virtual reality to treat phobias as well as fear of public speaking. The talk will use slides and video clips and ends with the possibility of asking questions and try psychotherapeutic virtual reality applications.

  • 53.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    eMental health solutions to the rescue? Evidence and perspectives - state-of-the-art2018Inngår i: Patients with “double trouble” - somatic disease and depression or anxiety: Can e-Health interventions help?, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, a subset of patients with somatic disease – 20% of patients with cardiovascular disease, 10-30% of patients with diabetes mellitus, and 20% of patients with cancer – suffer from co-morbid depression and anxiety. Co-morbid depression and anxiety have consequences not only for patients’ quality of life, compliance, and prognosis, but also for their families and society at large due to increased health care costs. In many countries, including Denmark, we are far from implementing systematic screening and treatment for this subset of at-risk patients with co-morbid somatic and psychological disease, referred to as "double trouble" in the seminar.

  • 54.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Guided Web-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Perfectionism: Results Form Two Different Randomized Controlled Trials: In symposium: Maladaptive Perfectionism: Taking a Closer Look at its Relationship with Psychopathology, Transdiagnostic Mechanisms, and Treatment2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfectionism can become a debilitating condition that may negatively impact functioning in multiple areas, including mental health. Prior research has indicated that Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) can be beneficial, but few studies have included follow-up data. The current study explored the long-term outcomes of ICBT with guided self-help, delivered as two separate randomized controlled trials conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). In total, 120 participants randomized to ICBT were included in both intention-to-treat and completer analyses, n = 78 (Swedish trial) and n = 62 (UK trial). Primary outcome measure was the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscale Concern over Mistakes (FMPS CM). Secondary outcome measures varied between the trials and consisted of the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ; both trials), the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 Items (PHQ-9; Swedish trial), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 7 Items (GAD-7; Swedish trial), and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale – 21 Items (DASS-21; UK trial). Follow-up occurred after six months for the UK trial, and twelve months for the Swedish trial. Due to a number of differences in terms of baseline characteristics and study design, results were analyzed separately and not in combination. Analysis of Covariance revealed a significant difference between pre-treatment and follow-up in both cases. Intention-to-treat within-group effect sizes Cohen’s d were 1.21 (Swedish trial), 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.86, 1.54], and 1.24 (UK trial), 95% CI [0.85, 1.62] for the FMPS CM. Furthermore, 29 (59.2%; Swedish trial) and 15 (42.9%; UK trial) of the participants met criteria for recovery on the FMPS CM. Significant and moderate to large improvements were also found for the CPQ, the PHQ-9, the GAD-7, and the DASS-21. The results are promising for the use of ICBT as a way of targeting perfectionism, but the findings need to be replicated and include a comparison condition.

  • 55.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Implementing a Behavioral Measure to Assess Perfectionism: Exploring the Use of an Essay Writing Test in an Experimental and Treatment Setting: In symposium: Maladaptive Perfectionism: Taking a Closer Look at its Relationship with Psychopathology, Transdiagnostic Mechanisms, and Treatment2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfectionism is conceptualized as having two higher-order dimensions that consists of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Both are associated with different forms of mental distress and are usually assessed using such self-report measures as the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS) and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Whether elevated levels of these dimensions could be determined by a behavioral measure has, however, received less attention, and no study has used it in a clinical trial. Hence, the current study investigated the use of a behavioral measure based on the Pennebaker’s essay writing test. In experiment I, 97 participants were recruited in a university setting and instructed to complete an essay. The participants were randomized into two conditions, primed to remember an occasion where they either failed or succeeded, followed by an opportunity to make corrections. Self-report measures of perfectionism were also completed before and after the experiment. The results indicate that the dimension perfectionistic strivings were correlated to making more changes among those in the fail-condition, rs = .30-.34, while the findings for the positive-condition were mixed. In experiment II, 102 participants receiving Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) for perfectionism or being on a wait-list control completed the same essay writing test at pre- and post-treatment, but without being primed. The results revealed change over time with regard to making more errors for those participants assigned to ICBT, Cohen’s d = 0.27, however, there were no interaction effects between the two conditions. In addition, regression analyses between the essay writing test and self-report measures of perfectionism did not reveal any significant relationships. Overall, the usefulness of a behavioral measure for perfectionism based on an essay writing test is unclear, at least in terms of assessing treatment outcome. Future research should investigate if other types of behavior could be perceived as more personally relevant, thereby inducing more perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns.

  • 56.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-based CBT Interventions2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 150 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects.

    So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this workshop two pioneers in the field will present some recent research findings, but primarily share their experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on their own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared and also practiced during the workshop.

    In the workshop clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

  • 57.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-based CBT interventions2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 150 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects. So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this workshop a pioneer in the field will present some recent research findings, but primarily share his experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on their own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared and also practiced during the workshop. In the workshop clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented. Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome. Educational Learning Objectives:Understanding the varieties of Internet treatments and their differential effects and learn what is required to obtain good outcomes with guided Internet treatment. Knowing what is required in terms of therapist training and skills. Learning about the pros and cons of Internet treatment including tailoring treatment according to patient symptom profile. Workshop Outline:For the first part of the workshop an interactive lecture using PowerPoint will be used. The presentation will be interactive since the audience is encouraged to interrupt and ask questions at any time. Also, questions will be called out for the audience to reflect and comment on. In addition, group discussions will be used so that pairs can come up with examples of what an internet-therapist perhaps could reply to a case example. Finally, the last few minutes will be a question-and-answer session.

  • 58.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-Based CBT Interventions in Practice2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 150 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects.

    So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this workshop a pioneer in the field will present some recent research findings, but primarily share his experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on their own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared and also practiced during the workshop.

    In the workshop clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

  • 59.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-Delivered CBT: State of the Art and Future Directions2016Inngår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, 2016, s. 18-18Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 120 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects. So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this keynote Carlbring will present recent research findings from efficacy and effectiveness studies, but also share experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on the Swedish research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, suggestions will be shared.

    In the keynote short clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

  • 60.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-Delivered CBT: State of the Art and Future Directions2018Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 150 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. While the field still suffers from a scattered terminology a dramatic number of programs and studies now exist. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects.

    So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this talk a pioneer in the field will present some recent research findings, but also share his experience of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on his own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared.

    Screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

  • 61.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Om att använda appar och virtual reality i och utanför terapirummet2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreläsningen kommer innehålla en kort uppdatering kring evidensen för internetbehandlingar, hur det praktiskt går till och vad som är viktigt att få med i stödjande textmeddelanden. Per kommer dessutom att demonstrera två hjälpmedel som du redan nu kan använda både i och utanför terapirummet; dels en smartphone-applikation mot social fobi, dels en virtual reality-behandling mot spindelfobi. Mer information om dessa tekniker finns på www.carlbring.se.

  • 62.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Psychological interventions, App technology, Virtual context2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 63.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Single-session Gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia vs. Traditional Exposure Therapy: A Randomized-controlled Non-inferiority Trial with 12-month Follow-up2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This is the first large randomized-controlled trial to evaluate whether commercially available VR hardware and software can be used for exposure therapy. The aim of this study was to compare gold-standard One Session Therapy (OST) for reduction of spider phobia symptoms and avoidance behavior using in vivo spiders and a human therapist, to a newly developed single-session gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) application with modern, consumer-available VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Method: Subjects (N=100) with spider phobia, diagnosed, and meeting inclusion criteria were recruited from the general population and randomized to 2 treatment arms. In 1-week intervals, pre-measurement, 3-hr treatment and post-measurement were completed with an in-vivo behavioral approach test (BAT) serving as the primary outcome measure for both groups. This study was powered to detect a non-inferiority margin of a 2-point between-group difference on the BAT, with a standard deviation of 4 (at 80% power). Results: 98 patients commenced treatment and 97 patients completed post-measurement. Per protocol analysis indicated VR was not non-inferior to OST. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified a significant main effect of time (p<.001) and time x group effect (p<.05). Both OST and VR participants experienced large BAT within-group effect sizes (d=2.28 and d=1.45, respectively). By the time of the conference there will be 12-month follow-up data including prediction analysis and the effect of treatment credibility, preference and working alliance. Conclusion: OST is the superior treatment option for spider phobia. VRET is an effective alternative if OST cannot be provided, as pure self-help, as the initial intervention in a stepped-care model, or as a possible post-OST booster.

  • 64.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Using the internet and virtual reality to treat psychological problems2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 65.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Internet treatment for anxiety disorders2016Inngår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, 2016, s. 51-51Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has a relatively short history, with the first trials being conducted in the late 1990s. Since then well above 120 randomized controlled trials suggest that ICBT can be effective. Effect sizes for ICBT have been well within the range of face-to-face CBT with the exception of unguided programs (e.g., not even minimal therapist contact), which usually, but not always, result in smaller effects.

    So, the evidence is there but how is it done? In this workshop two pioneers in the field will present some recent research findings, but primarily share their experiences of how to become a true expert internet therapist. It is clear that therapist guidance generally is important for good outcome – but how much, how often and when should you do it? And most importantly, what should you write in your feedback? Based on their own research from analyzing the written content of email messages, sent from both the client and the therapist, clear suggestions will be shared and also practiced during the workshop.

    In the workshop clinical case examples will be provided together with screenshots and demonstration of treatment systems including the Swedish web platform as well as a gamified virtual reality exposure therapy intervention. Furthermore, a recently tested smartphone application will also be briefly presented.

    Finally, you will learn about the risk of negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and how to measure the occurrence of symptom deterioration, adverse and unwanted events, and their relationship with long term treatment outcome.

    Key learning objectives

    • Understanding the varieties of Internet treatments and their differential effects
    • Getting to know what is needed to set up a service using the Internet (the basics)
    • Learning what is required to obtain good outcomes with guided Internet treatment
    • Knowing what is required in terms of therapist training and skills.
    • Learning about the pros and cons of Internet treatment including tailoring treatment according to patient symptom profile.

  • 66.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Riper, Heleen
    Hedman, Erik
    Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlist, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078 articles screened, a total of 20 studies met all inclusion criteria. These included three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, four on depression, two on body dissatisfaction, two on insomnia, two on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, one on spider phobia, one on snake phobia, and one on fibromyalgia. Half of the face-to-face CBT treatments were administered in an individual format, and the other half were administered in a group format. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment of Hedges g = 0.05 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.20), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produced equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there have been few studies of the individual psychiatric and somatic conditions so far, and for the majority, guided ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research, preferably with larger sample sizes, is needed to establish the general equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 67.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Riper, Heleen
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis2018Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078 articles screened, a total of 20 studies met all inclusion criteria. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment of Hedges g = .05 (95% CI, −.09 to .20), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produced equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there have been few studies of the individual psychiatric and somatic conditions so far, and for the majority, guided ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research, preferably with larger sample sizes, is needed to establish the general equivalence of the two treatment formats.

  • 68.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Beard, Courtney
    Forgeard, Marie J. C.
    Connolly, Samantha
    Wilks, Chelsey
    Rutter, Lauren A.
    On the Cusp of a 'New Era': Integrating Technological Advances into Evidence-Based Assessment and Treatment2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 1 in 5 adults in the U.S. experiences mental illness in a given year (NAMI). High-income nations spend on average 5 percent of total health spending on mental health, whereas low to middle-income countries spend less than 2 percent (WHO). Nearly nine in 10 Americans are online today, and more than three quarters of Americans own a smartphone. There are no differences in smartphone ownership among different racial and ethnic groups (Pew). Given this, advances in digital mental health applications provide new opportunities to increase access to traditionally underserved groups, customize interventions, and enhance our understanding of psychopathology on a large scale. This symposium showcases the use of digital health technologies in a variety of clinical samples and in the general population. We argue that the digital research laboratory extends far outside traditional brick-and-mortar labs. We will demonstrate that digital technologies provide benefit to patients/participants and generate scientific/clinical insights that would not have been possible with traditional models.

    Consistent with ABCT’s 2018 emphasis on technology, this set of speakers highlight perceptions, feasibility, acceptability, and importance of technological interventions. Additionally, our symposium is comprised of speakers at a range of career levels (including early and mid-career researchers, as well as a graduate student). First, Courtney Beard will present data on smartphone and social media usage in serious mental illness. Second, Marie Forgeard will present data from a smartphone self-assessment study in a partial hospital program. Third, Samantha Connolly will present data on veterans’ perceptions of smartphone app use in mental health care. Fourth, Chelsey Wilks will present data on “Pocket Skills”, a dialectical behavior therapy app for smartphones. Last, Lauren Rutter will introduce methods for building assessment tools for research that are designed with the goals of patients / participants in mind. Finally, Per Carlbringwill synthesize the talks and discuss the implications for research and clinical practice.

  • 69.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Burman, Maria
    Närmare varandra – starkare parrelation på nio veckor2018Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Relationsproblem påverkar oss på många plan. I boken Närmare varandra ges hjälp att hitta ömma punkter i samspelet och att bygga vidare på de styrkor som paret redan har. Boken bygger på en svensk KBT-manual som är vetenskapligt prövad. Majoriteten av de par som gick igenom bokens övningar blev mer nöjda med sin relation. Psykologerna Per Carlbring och Maria Burman i samtal med Anna Bennich.

  • 70.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Böttcher, Johanna
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Marklund, Arvid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Adding a Smartphone App to Bibliotherapy for Social Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Comparison2017Inngår i: Applying CBT in Diverse Contexts: 51st Annual Convention: Program Book, 2017, s. 394-394Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficacy of Internet-based treatments and bibliotherapy for Social Anxiety Disorder is well established. The next step is to evaluate smartphone supported interventions. ‘Challenger’ is a recently developed facilitating the implementation of exposure exercises in daily life. The present study evaluates the efficacy of the combination of Challenger and bibliotherapy for Social Anxiety Disorder. A total of 209 patients with Social Anxiety Disorder were randomly allocated to three groups. The first group received app and bibliotherapy for six weeks (parallel design) and the second group received first bibliotherapy for six weeks and then the app for another six weeks (sequential design). The third group was a wait-list control group. Participants filled in questionnaires on primary and secondary outcomes post treatment as well as at 4 and 12 months follow-up. Participants using both app and bibliotherapy showed somewhat larger reductions in social fears after six weeks of treatment compared to participants using only bibliotherapy (d=0.25). Decreases in social anxiety were large for both groups after 12 weeks of treatment (d= 1.11-1.20) and were maintained throughout the follow-up period. Results of the current study support the notion of adding a smartphone app to bibliotherapy for Social Anxiety Disorder. Future study should investigate the potential of the app in different treatment settings.

  • 71.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Riper, Heleen
    Hedman, Erik
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Shafran, Roz
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Internet-Based vs. Face-to-Face CBT: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlist, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In addition, the long-term effects of ICBT is largely unknown.

    In this presentation a systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, will be presented. Out of the 2078 articles screened, a total of 20 studies met all inclusion criteria. These included studies on social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, depression, body dissatisfaction etc. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment of Hedges g = 0.05 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.20), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produced equivalent overall effects.

    We also reviewed studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following a new set of literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years. The duration of the actual treatments was usually short (8-15 weeks). The pre-to follow-up (>2 yrs) effect size was Hedge’s g = 1.52, but with a significant heterogeneity. The average symptom improvement across studies was 50%.

    While the overall results indicate equivalence, there have been few studies of the individual psychiatric and somatic conditions so far, and for the majority, guided ICBT has not been compared against face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research, preferably with larger sample sizes, is needed to establish the general equivalence of the two treatment formats. While effects may be overestimated, it is likely that therapist-supported ICBT can have enduring effects.

  • 72.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Enoh, M.
    Ma, Lichen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Unified protocol vs. diagnostic specific treatment of social anxiety – a randomized treatment study with a factorial design2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 73.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Enoh, Matilda
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Unified protocol vs. diagnostic specific treatment of social anxiety: a randomized treatment study with a factorial design2018Inngår i: Scientific Programme: Nurturing processes of change in iCBTs, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, Cognitive Behavior Therapy researchers have developed and tested diagnostic specific treatment manuals. Most of which are efficacious. However, since comorbidity between anxiety and mood disorders is common and as the choice of the best suited treatment manual for each patient can be hard when delivering the treatment via the internet, transdiagnostic interventions have been put forward.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of unified protocol vs. diagnostic specific treatment in a group of 147 individuals with social anxiety. The score on Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale at pre-treatment was M=52.7.

    The interventions were both delivered via the internet during 9 weeks. In addition, the relative effect of no guidance vs. guidance on demand was investigated in a factorial design with 25 % of the patients randomized into each of the four groups. The preliminary results at week 9 show large within group effects (average Cohen’s d = 1,03), but no significant between-group differences as measured with the self-report MINI-SPIN-R and OASIS/ODSIS.

    At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 74.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Nyström, Markus
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The relative effects of behavioral activation vs. physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioral activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study has examined the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet.

    Method: In this randomized controlled trial a total of 312 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for mild to moderate major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomized to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four active treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear psychological treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with a psychological treatment rationale; (3) behavioral activation a la Lewinsohn; or (4) behavioral activation a la Martel.

    Results: A total of 72% were women and the average age of the participants were M=42.3 years (SD=13,5). More than half (53,9%) had a history of previous psychological treatment. Primary outcome measure was the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Assessments were made on a weekly basis for the full duration of the acute treatment which was 12 weeks.

    Conclusion: The preliminary results are in line with previous online studies showing that all active treatment groups were superior to the waitlist (large effect sizes) and that only minor differences could be identified between the four active groups (large within effect sizes). At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post- assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 75.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Huppert, Jonathan
    Koster, Ernst
    Watkins, Ed
    Boettcher, Johanna
    Blackwell, Simon
    What can bias modification training add to CBT?2016Inngår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, 2016, s. 100-100Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Bias modification training is a broad but very different form of CBT that is heavily inspired by experimental psychopathology research. Basically this treatment targets mechanisms maintaining psychopathology such as selective attention and memory biases. Some studies have found large effects of bias modification training but there are also negative findings. The panel will discuss the pros and cons of this treatment format including the prospect of combining traditional CBT delivery with bias modification training.

  • 76.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ivanova, Ekaterina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Magnusson, K.
    Voluntary deposit-limit as a tool for reducing gambling intensity among customers of an online gambling platform: A randomized controlled trial2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To compare gambling intensity between users of an online gambling service prompted to set a deposit limit and non-prompted customers, in the whole sample and among most active users based on total number of gambling days. Design: A randomized controlled trial with three prompted (N=1098/1110/1055) and one unprompted control condition (N=1065) and gambling activity of each participant followed for 90 days starting at account registration. Setting. A publicly governed online gambling operator from Finland. Interventions: The prompted participants received a one-time prompt to set a voluntary deposit limit of optional size either 1) at-registration, 2) before or 3) after they made their first deposit. Participants in the control condition were not prompted. Participants: All Finnish customers of the gambling service having registered an account during the study recruitment period with online slots as preferred gambling category during the 90 days following the registration. Measures: Gambling intensity was measured with aggregated net loss (NL), with proportions of limit-setters, sum of deposits and number of gambling days used as secondary outcomes. Findings: In the whole sample, the three intervention groups did not differ in either proportion of participants with positive NL (BF10prop=0.007) or size of positive net loss (BF10size=0.016), the results being similar for the most involved gamblers (BF10prop=0.030; BF10size=0.082). The pooled intervention group did not differ from the control group regarding proportion of gamblers with positive NL (OR(95%CI)=0.991(0.836–1.176); p=.921) or size of NL (B(95%CI) =-0.080(-0.229-0.069); p=.291), the results applying to the most involved gamblers (proportion positive NL: OR(95%CI)=0.834(0.492-1.412), p =.498; NL size: B(95%CI)=0.042(-0.359-0.442), p =.838). The three intervention groups had higher rates of limit-setters and NL was highest among participants who have increased/removed a deposit-limit. Conclusion: Prompting users of an online gambling service to set a voluntary deposit limit of optional size did not affect subsequent NL compared to unprompted participants.

  • 77.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ivanova, Ekaterina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Deposit-limits and online gambling intensity: A randomised controlled trial2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Pathological gambling is recognized as a public health issue in a many countries. Consequently, helping individuals control their gambling behaviors is critical. One strategy is setting a pre-committed limit for how much money one can lose, deposit or win. The aim of the study was to compare gambling intensity between online gamblers prompted to set a deposit limit and non-prompted customers.

    Methods: All customers of the gambling service having registered an account during the study recruitment period were included. Gambling intensity was measured with aggregated net loss, with proportions of limit-setters, sum of deposits and number of gambling days used as secondary outcomes.

    Intervention: A total of 4328 customers of a gambling operator from Finland were randomized to receive a prompt to set a voluntary deposit limit of optional size either 1) at registration, 2) before or 3) after their first deposit, or 4) to an unprompted control condition.

    Results: The intervention groups did not differ in either proportion of participants with positive net loss or size of positive net loss. The pooled intervention group did not differ from the control group regarding proportion of gamblers with positive net loss or size of net loss. The intervention groups had higher rates of limit-setters and net loss was highest among participants who had increased/removed a deposit-limit. 

    Conclusions: Prompting online gamblers to set a voluntary deposit limit of optional size did not affect subsequent net loss.

  • 78.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, P.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Fagernäs, S.
    Andersen, J.
    Sigeman, M.
    Furmark, T.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    In session virtual reality use for public speaking anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of public speaking is common and for some individuals this interferes significantly with the person's life and causes marked distress. We wanted to test a newly developed virtual reality assisted 1-session in-person treatment (3 hours). The therapist guided session consisted of a series of behavioral experiments based on the expectancy violation principle. This was followed by a 4-week booster intervention delivered via the internet. Following a diagnostic interview a total of 50 individuals with a score of ≥ 60 on the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety questionnaire were randomized to a treatment or a control condition. A total of 78% also met criteria for social anxiety disorder. Considering only having had one treatment session in-person the preliminary results were promising with a between group effect size on the primary outcome (Public Speaking Anxiety Scale) of Cohen’s d=1.32 before commencing the internet-based booster program. Four weeks later the between-group effect size was d=1.90. However, on the secondary outcome measures the effect sizes were more often moderate than large. At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 79.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Fagernäs, S.
    Andersen, J.
    Sigeman, M.
    Furmark, T.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The efficacy of internet-based virtual reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of public speaking is common and for some individuals this interferes significantly with the person's life and causes marked distress. We wanted to test a newly developed virtual reality assisted 1-session in-person treatment (3 hours). The therapist guided session consisted of a series of behavioral experiments based on the expectancy violation principle. This was followed by a 4-week booster intervention delivered via the internet. Following a diagnostic interview a total of 50 individuals with a score of ≥ 60 on the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety questionnaire were randomized to a treatment or a control condition. A total of 78% also met criteria for social anxiety disorder. Considering only having had one treatment session in-person the preliminary results were promising with a between group effect size on the primary outcome (Public Speaking Anxiety Scale) of Cohen’s d=1.32 before commencing the internet-based booster program. Four weeks later the between-group effect size was d=1.90. However, on the secondary outcome measures the effect sizes were more often moderate than large. At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 80.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The consequences of ignoring therapist effects in trials with longitudinal data: A simulation study2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotherapy trials frequently generate multilevel longitudinal data with 3 levels. This type of hierarchy exists in all trials in which therapists deliver the treatment and patients are repeatedly measured. Unfortunately, researchers often ignore the possibility that therapists could differ in their performance and instead assume there is no difference between therapists in their average impact on patients' rate of change. In this poster, we focus on scenarios in which therapists are fully and partially nested within treatments and investigate the consequences of ignoring even small therapist effects in longitudinal data. 

    Method: We first derived the factors leading to increased Type I errors for the Time * Treatment effect in a balanced study. Scenarios with an unbalanced allocation of patients to therapists and studies with missing data were then investigated in a comprehensive simulation study, in which the correct 3-level linear mixed-effects model, which modeled therapist effects using a random slope at the therapist level, was compared with a misspecified 2-level model. 

    Results: Type I errors were strongly influenced by several interacting factors. Estimates of the therapist-level random slope suffer from bias when there are very few therapists per treatment. 

    Conclusion: Researchers should account for therapist effects in the rate of change in longitudinal studies. To facilitate this, we developed an open source R package powerlmm, which makes it easy to investigate model misspecification and conduct power analysis for these designs.

  • 81.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Marklund, A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Sjöblom, K.
    Delin, L.
    Lundén, C.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Blomdahl, R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Braun, U.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cotter, K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Magnusson, K.
    Andersson, G.
    Treat your social anxiety disorder with this gamified smartphone app2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common debilitating mental illness with large negative effects on quality of life and economic productivity. Modern psychotherapy treatments utilizing cognitive–behavioral theory are increasingly delivered over the Internet and more recently using smartphone applications. The Challenger App written natively for the Apple iPhone was developed at the Stockholm University Department of Psychology for the treatment of SAD and uses a number of advanced features not previously seen in past mental health applications; these include real-time location awareness, notifications, anonymous social interaction between users, a high-degree of personalization and use of gamification techniques.

    Method: A total of 209 participants with a primary diagnosis of SAD were randomized to one of three groups: 1) Self-help book, 2) Self-help book + the Challenger app, or 3) waitlist. The treatment period lasted 6 weeks. Primary outcome measure was Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale self- report (LSAS-SR). Also included where the Quality of Life Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7). Outcome was analyzed according to the intention to treat principle.

    Results: Both treatment groups were superior to the waitlist. On the main outcome measure (LSAS-SR) the effect size for the waitlist was Cohens d=0.14. The group that received the self-help book with the addition of the Challenger app was significantly superior (d=1.0) to just reading the self- help book (d=0.61). Participants requited by way of Newspaper advertisement were more likely to reach high end-state functioning (OR=4.1) and the same was true for participants without prior psychological treatment history as compared with having a previous experience (OR=4.4).

    Conclusion: Adding the smartphone app is a cost effective way of improving the outcome when treating SAD with a self-help book.

  • 82.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    What is so frightening about spiders? Self-rated and self-disclosed impact of different characteristics and associations with phobia symptoms2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Spider phobia is a common and impairing mental disorder, yet little is known about what characteristics of spiders that spider phobic individuals find frightening. Using screening data from a clinical trial, we explored which characteristics that spider-fearful individuals (n=194) rated as having the greatest impact on fear, used factor analysis to group specific characteristics, and explored linear associations with self-reported phobia symptoms. Second, a guided text-mining approach was used to extract the most common words in free-text responses to the question: "What is it about spiders that you find frightening?". Both analysis types suggested that movement-related characteristics of spiders were the most important, followed by appearance characteristics. There were, however, no linear associations with degree of phobia symptoms. Our findings reveal the importance of targeting movement-related fears in in-vivo exposure therapy for spider phobia and using realistically animated spider stimuli in computer-based experimental paradigms and clinical interventions such as Virtual Reality exposure therapy.

  • 83.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Fagernäs, S.
    Andersen, J.
    Sigeman, M.
    Andersson, G.
    Furmark, T.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Therapist and Internet Administered One-Session Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of public speaking is common and for some individuals this interferes significantly with the person's life and causes marked distress. We wanted to test a newly developed virtual reality assisted 1-session in-person treatment (3 hours). The therapist guided session consisted of a series of behavioral experiments based on the expectancy violation principle. This was followed by a 4-week booster intervention delivered via the internet. Following a diagnostic interview a total of 50 individuals with a score of ≥ 60 on the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety questionnaire were randomized to a treatment or a control condition. A total of 78% also met criteria for social anxiety disorder. Considering only having had one treatment session in-person the preliminary results were promising with a between group effect size on the primary outcome (Public Speaking Anxiety Scale) of Cohen’s d=1.32 before commencing the internet-based booster program. Four weeks later the between-group effect size was d=1.90. However, on the secondary outcome measures the effect sizes were more often moderate than large. At the time of the conference 6-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 84.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Hamilton, William
    Andersson, Gerhard
    ITSY: A gamified one-session virtual reality app with 12-month follow-up data2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This is the first large randomized-controlled trial to evaluate whether commercially available VR hardware and software can be used for exposure therapy. The aim of this study was to compare gold-standard One Session Therapy (OST) for reduction of spider phobia symptoms and avoidance behavior using in vivo spiders and a human therapist, to a newly developed single-session gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) application with modern, consumer-available VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Method: Subjects (N=100) with spider phobia, diagnosed, and meeting inclusion criteria were recruited from the general population and randomized to 2 treatment arms. In 1-week intervals, pre-measurement, 3-hr treatment and post-measurement were completed with an in-vivo behavioral approach test (BAT) serving as the primary outcome measure for both groups. This study was powered to detect a non-inferiority margin of a 2-point between-group difference on the BAT, with a standard deviation of 4 (at 80% power). Results: 98 patients commenced treatment and 97 patients completed post-measurement. Per protocol analysis indicated VR was not non-inferior to OST. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified a significant main effect of time.

  • 85.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Miloff, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Reuterskiöld, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Hamilton, William
    Andersson, Gerhard
    ITSY: A Gamified One-Session Virtual Reality App With 12-Month Follow-Up Data2017Inngår i: Program Book, 2017, s. 396-396Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This is the first large randomized-controlled trial to evaluate whether commercially available VR hardware and software can be used for exposure therapy. The aim of this study was to compare gold-standard One Session Therapy (OST) for reduction of spider phobia symptoms and avoidance behavior using in vivo spiders and a human therapist, to a newly developed single-session gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) application with modern, consumer-available VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist.

    Method: Subjects (N=100) with spider phobia, diagnosed, and meeting inclusion criteria were recruited from the general population and randomized to 2 treatment arms. In 1-week intervals, pre-measurement, 3-hr treatment and post-measurement were completed with an in-vivo behavioral approach test (BAT) serving as the primary outcome measure for both groups. This study was powered to detect a non-inferiority margin of a 2-point between-group difference on the BAT, with a standard deviation of 4 (at 80% power).

    Results: 98 patients commenced treatment and 97 patients completed post-measurement. Per protocol analysis indicated VR was not non-inferior to OST. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified a significant main effect of time (p < .001) and time x group effect (p < .05). Both OST and VR participants experienced large BAT within-group effect sizes (d=2.28 and d=1.45, respectively). By the time of the conference there will be 12-month follow-up data including prediction analysis and the effect of treatment credibility and working alliance (with the virtual therapist).

    Conclusion: OST is the superior treatment option for spider phobia. VRET is an effective alternative if OST cannot be provided, as pure self-help, as the initial intervention in a stepped-care model, or as a possible post-OST booster.

  • 86.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Nettelblad, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Segell, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nyström, Markus
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The effects of a 12-week relapse prevention program following acute depression treatment: A randomised controlled trial2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Depression can be effectively treated using internet interventions. However, the relapse rate is non-ignorable. Methods: 286 participants were randomized to an additional relapse prevention program or a control group. Monthly telephone calls using the MINI diagnostic interview as well as online assessments were carried out for 24 months. Intervention: Standard cognitive behaviour therapy via the internet without guidance. Results: Relapse rates of 27.1% and 22.0% were reported in the relapse prevention program group and the control group respectively. A log-rank test of the Kaplan-Meier model did not show any significant difference between the prevention program group and the control group (χ2(1) = 0.87; p = .352) in terms of relapse rates. At the one-year follow-up, 79.2% in the prevention program group and 82.9% of the participants in the control group had PHQ-9 scores indicating them to be in remission. By the second-year follow-up the rate of remission was 75.8% in the relapse prevention program group and 81.2% in the control group. No significant differences could be seen neither at the one-year follow-up (χ2(1) = 0.36; p = .552) nor the two-year follow-up (χ2(1) = 0.53; p = .467). Conclusions: Don’t do it!

  • 87.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Nyström, Markus
    Stenling, Andreas
    Neely, Gregory
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Martell, Christopher R.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Behavioral Activation Versus Physical Activity Via the Internet: A Randomized Controlled Trial2017Inngår i: Program Book, 2017, s. 396-396Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem today is that only about fifty percent of those affected by depression seeks help. One way to reach more sufferers would be by offering easily accessible internet based treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare/evaluate four therapist supported internet administered treatments. Two hundred eighty six participants were included. The treatment period lasted twelve weeks, consisting of the following treatments: 1) physical activity without treatment rational, 2) physical activity with treatment rational, 3) behavioral activation without treatment rational and 4) behavioral activation with treatment rational. All groups (including a control-group) showed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. When the treatment groups were pooled and compared to the control group, there were significant differences from pretest to posttest (Hedges g av treatment =1.01, control group =0.47).This held true also when each of the four treatment groups was compared to the control group, with one exception: Physical activity without treatment rationale. The differences between how many modules the participants completed could indicate that there are other factors than the treatments that caused the symptom reduction, however, the dose-response analysis did not detect any significant differences on account of modules completed. The results support the positive effects of internet administered treatments for depression, and highlights the importance of psychoeducation, which tends to affect both the treatment outcome and the probability of remaining in treatment. These aspects need to be considered when developing and conducting new treatments for depression, since they would increase the likelihood of positive treatment outcomes.

  • 88.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rafi, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Effects of a workplace prevention programme for problem gambling: a cluster randomised controlled trial2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being considered a public health problem, no prevention programme for problem gambling in workplace settings has been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a problem gambling (PG) prevention programme in a workplace setting. It was hypothesised that the workplace PG prevention programme will result in (1) managers reporting a higher inclination to engage in a conversation with an employee when suspicion or worry about PG arises, (2) an increase in the employees’ knowledge about where in the workplace one might get support regarding problem gambling, (3) an increased number of early interventions by the managers (eg, engage in a conversation) to help employees with PG or other types of harmful use, (4) managers and employees engaging in more sustainable gambling practices as measured by sum of Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) scores, (5) fewer cases of PG among managers and employees as measured by PGSI categories and (6) managers reporting being more confident in handling gambling and PG in the workplace.Ten organisations, with a total of n=549 managers and n=8572 employees, were randomised to either receiving a prevention programme or to a waitlist control condition. Measurements was collected at the baseline and 3, 12 after intervention. At the time of the EASG-conference 12-month follow-up data will be available in addition to the already collected post-assessment data (analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle).

  • 89.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Kottorp, Anders
    Forsström, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    Furmark, Tomas
    Andersson, Gerhard
    The Negative Effects Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of an Instrument for Assessing Negative Effects in Psychological Treatments2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychological treatments provide many benefits for patients with psychiatric disorders, but research also suggest that negative effects might occur from the interventions involved. The Negative Effects Questionnaire (NEQ) has previously been developed as a way of determining the occurrence and characteristics of such incidents, consisting of 32 items and six factors. However, the NEQ has yet to be examined using modern test theory, which could help to improve the understanding of how well the instrument works psychometrically. 

    Methods: The current study investigated the reliability and validity of the NEQ from both a person and item perspective, establishing goodness-of-fit, item bias, and scale precision.

    Method: The NEQ was distributed to 564 patients in five clinical trials at post-treatment. Data was analyzed using Rasch analysis, i.e., a modern test theory application. Results: 1) the NEQ exhibits fairness in testing across sociodemographics, 2) shows comparable validity for a final and condensed scale of 20 instead of 32 items, 3) uses a rating scale that advances monotonically in steps of 0-4, and 4) is suitable for monitoring negative effects on an item-level. 

    Conclusion: The NEQ is proposed as a useful instrument for investigating negative effects in psychological treatments, and its newer shorter format could facilitate its use in clinical and research settings. However, further research is needed to explore the relationship between negative effects and treatment outcome, as well as to test it in more diverse patient populations.

  • 90.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Shafran, Roz
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Long-term effects of internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet-supported and therapist-guided cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is effective for a range of problems in the short run, but less is known about the long-term effects with follow-ups of two years or longer.

    Methods: We reviewed studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years. Studies were from Sweden (n=11) or the Netherlands (n=3).

    Results: Long-term outcome studies were found for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, stress and chronic fatigue. The duration of the treatments was usually short (8-15 weeks). The pre-to follow-up effect size was Hedge's g = 1.52, but with a significant heterogeneity. The average symptom improvement across studies was 50%. Treatment seeking in the follow-up period was not documented and few studies mentioned negative effects.

    Conclusion: While effects may be overestimated, it is likely that therapist-supported ICBT can have enduring effects. Long-term follow-up data should be collected for more conditions and new technologies like smartphone-delivered treatments.

  • 91.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Shafran, Roz
    Wade, Tracey
    Egan, Sarah
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Landström, Andreas
    Roos, Stina
    Skoglund, Malin
    Thelander, Elisabet
    Trossell, Linnéa
    Örtenholm, Alexander
    Andersson, Gerhard
    A randomized controlled trial of Internet-based CBT for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors2017Inngår i: Program Book, 2017, s. 128-128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen’s d = 0.68-1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36-1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted.

  • 92. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Internet-based guided self-help for parents of children diagnosed with cancer: Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial2016Inngår i: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, 2016, s. 470-470Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A considerable proportion of parents of children on cancer treatment experience distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression and anxiety. The purpose was to investigate the long-term efficacy of Internetbased guided self-help for these parents.

    Methods: 58 parents of children on cancer treatment (median months since diagnosis = 3) were randomized to receive 10 weeks of guided self-help via the Internet or to wait-list (intervention n = 31, wait-list n = 27). The intervention utilized principles from cognitive behavior therapy and included psychoeducation, relaxation training, coping with thoughts and feelings, problem solving, and emotional writing. Weekly support via e-mail was provided. Outcomes included PTSS (PCL-C), depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI) and were assessed at pre and post intervention and at one-year follow-up.

    Results: 18 participants completed the intervention. 16 participants in the intervention condition and 16 participants in the wait-list condition participated in the one-year follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated significant time*group interactions for all three outcomes with reductions favoring the intervention group: PCL-C; F = 10.9, < .001, BDI-II; F = 12.0, < .001, BAI; F = 14.6, < .001. At the one-year follow-up there were large between-group effect sizes for all three outcomes (Cohens d 0.8 to 1.1).

    Conclusions: The high drop-out rate warrants caution in interpretation of the findings. However, Internet-based guided self-help may be an accessible alternative for some parents of children on cancer treatment and findings indicate that short-term efficacy can be maintained in the long term.

  • 93. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Wikman, Anna
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Twelve-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Based Guided Self-Help for Parents of Children on Cancer Treatment2017Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 19, nr 7, artikkel-id e273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A substantial proportion of parents of children on cancer treatment report psychological distress such as symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and anxiety. During their child’s treatment many parents also experience an economic burden.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help for parents of children on cancer treatment.

    Methods: This study was a parallel randomized controlled trial comparing a 10-week Internet-based guided self-help program, including weekly support from a therapist via encrypted email, with a wait-list control condition. The intervention was based on cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and focused on psychoeducation and skills to cope with difficult thoughts and feelings. Primary outcome was self-reported PTSS. Secondary outcomes were self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, health care consumption, and sick leave during the past month. Outcomes were assessed pre- and postintervention and at 12-month follow-up. Parents of children on cancer treatment were invited by health care personnel at pediatric oncology centers, and parents meeting the modified symptom criteria on the PCL-C were included in the study. Self-report assessments were provided on the Web.

    Results: A total of 58 parents of children on cancer treatment (median months since diagnosis=3) were included in the study (intervention n=31 and control n=27). A total of 18 participants completed the intervention, and 16 participants in each group participated in the 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant effects in favor of the intervention on the primary outcome PTSS, with large between-group effect sizes at postassessment (d=0.89; 95% CI 0.35-1.43) and at 12-month follow-up (d=0.78; 95% CI 0.25-1.32). Significant effects in favor of the intervention on the secondary outcomes depression and anxiety were also observed. However, there was no evidence for intervention efficacy on health care consumption or sick leave.

    Conclusions: Using the Internet to provide psychological interventions shows promise as an effective mode of delivery for parents reporting an increased level of PTSS and who consider Internet-based interventions as a viable option. Future research should corroborate these findings and also develop and evaluate interventions and policies that may help ameliorate the economic burden that parents may face during their child’s treatment for cancer.

  • 94. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Hovén, Emma
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    von Essen, Louise
    Posttraumatic Stress and Attentional Bias towards Cancer-Related Stimuli in Parents of Children Recently Diagnosed with Cancer2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikkel-id e0152778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate whether posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are related to attentional bias towards cancer-related stimuli among parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer. Methods Sixty-two parents completed questionnaires measuring PTSS, depression, and anxiety and the emotional Stroop task via the Internet. The emotional Stroop task included cancer-related words, cardiovascular disease-related words, and neutral words. Results Participants were split in two groups based on the median of PTSS: High-PTSS and Low-PTSS. There was a significant interaction between word-type and group and a planned contrast test of this interaction indicated that the High-PTSS group had longer response latencies on cancer-related words compared to the other word-type and group combinations. Conclusions Findings suggest that PTSS are related to attentional bias towards cancer-related stimuli among parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer. Implications of this finding for the understanding of PTSS in this population, future research, and clinical practice are discussed.

  • 95. Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Skogseid, Ellen
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    von Essen, Louise
    Experiential avoidance and rumination in parents of children on cancer treatment: relationships with posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptoms of depression2016Inngår i: Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, ISSN 1068-9583, E-ISSN 1573-3572, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 67-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey study to investigate whether there is a relationship between experiential avoidance (EA), rumination, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and symptoms of depression, in parents of children on cancer treatment. Data from 79 parents (55 mothers) of 79 children with a median of three months since their cancer diagnosis were included in cross-sectional analyses. EA and rumination were positively correlated with PTSS and symptoms of depression. EA and rumination did not provide incremental explained variance in PTSS over and above that explained by symptoms of depression, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. However, EA and rumination provided incremental explained variance in symptoms of depression over and above that explained by PTSS, while controlling for symptoms of anxiety and demographic characteristics. Rumination and EA are important constructs in the understanding of PTSS and symptoms of depression in parents of children on cancer treatment. Future research should delineate the temporal relationships between these constructs.

  • 96.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    A cat-and-mouse game: Media Manipulation2016Inngår i: Shrunk: Crime and disorders of the mind / [ed] J Thomas Dalby, Lisa Ramshaw, Calgary: Durvile Publications , 2016, s. 22-39Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    SHRUNK is a collection of true cases by eminent Canadian and international forensic psychologists and psychiatrists facing the tough topic of mental illness in the criminal justice system.

  • 97.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Förhör och utredande intervjumetodik2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter gives an overview of a number of principles and central aspects in interviewing practices regarding victims and bystander witnesses: for example, planning and preparation, empathy, documentation, ground rules, context reinstatement and various techniques for guided retrieval, conclusion and evaluation.

  • 98.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Äkta och simulerad minnesförlust hos gärningsmän2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    There is a need for a more comprehensive insight into forensic issues pertaining to trauma, memory and amnesia among offenders, both on a theoretical and applied level, in order to further our understanding of how to elicit and evaluate their recall of violent crime events. This chapter discusses different explanations for memory loss for criminal offences and the motivation to simulate amnesia among offenders.

  • 99.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Rättspsykologi - en introduktion2008Inngår i: Handbok i rättspsykologi, Liber, Stockholm , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This chapter presents definitions and a historical overview of forensic psychology and the development and trends in this field during the last decades. The chapter also review the most common research topics in current international and domestic forensic psychology.

  • 100.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rogland, Ulrika
    Vad är grooming?2016Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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