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  • 51.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Rönsen, Marit
    Knudsen, Lisbeth
    Lappegård, Trude
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Skrede, Kari
    Teschner, Kathrin
    Vikat, Andres
    Cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries2009Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 20, nr 14, s. 313-352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women’s educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries. Median childbearing age is about 2−3 years higher in the 1960−64 cohort than in the 1950−54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education, resulting in small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Another interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Despite some differences in the levels of childlessness, country differences in fertility outcome are generally small. The cohort analyses thus support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Schéele, Siv
    Från glesbygd till storstad?: En kunskapsöversikt om flyttströmmar1998Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 53.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Scott, Kirk
    Childbearing dynamics of couples in a universalistic welfare state: The role of labor-market status, country of origin, and gender2007Inngår i: Demographic Research, Vol. 17, nr 30, s. 897-938Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies childbearing dynamics by labor-market status of co-residing parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on the life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women, as well as to a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. The context is a universalistic welfare state geared towards gender and social equality where formal social rights are largely independent of a person’s civil status, citizenship, and country of origin. We investigate the extent to which the associations of parents’ labor-market status with childbearing in Sweden differ between women and men and by country of origin. We find that the patterns of association are fairly similar on both of these individual dimensions. As measured by the way the labor-market activity of parents is related to their subsequent childbearing, we find evidence of equality by gender and at least some evidence of integration of immigrants into the dynamics of Swedish society.

  • 54.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Scott, Kirk
    Labour-market status and first-time parenthood: The experience of immigrant women in Sweden, 1981-972005Inngår i: Population Studies, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 21-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of labour-market attachment on first births of foreign-born women in Sweden. The study uses a longitudinal, register-based dataset consisting of the entire population of immigrants from ten nations and a five-per-cent random sample of natives. The effects of earned income are evident, with increased income levels increasing the probability of becoming a mother for all observed nationalities. The effects of various forms of participation and non-participation in the labour force do not vary greatly between immigrants and the Swedish-born. Among all subgroups, we find a higher propensity to begin childbearing among those who are established in the labour market. Contrary to popular belief, receiving welfare benefits clearly reduces first-birth intensity for immigrants but not for natives. The similarity in patterns across widely different national groups supports the notion that various institutional factors affecting all subgroups are crucial in influencing childbearing behaviour.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Sobolev, Boris
    Small Effects of Selective Migration and Selective Survival in Retrospective Studies of Fertility2013Inngår i: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 345-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assess the accuracy of fertility estimates that stem from the retrospective information that can be derived from an existing cross-sectional population. Swedish population registers contain information on the childbearing of all people ever registered as living in Sweden, and thus allow us to avoid problems of selectivity by the virtue of survival or nonemigration when estimating the fertility measures for previous calendar periods. We calculate two types of fertility rates for each year in 1961-1999: (i) rates that are based on the population that was living in Sweden at the end of 1999, and (ii) rates that also include information on people who had died or emigrated before the turn of the twentieth century. We find that the omission of information on individuals who had emigrated or died, as the situation would be in any demographic survey, most often have negligible effects on fertility measures. However, first-birth rates of immigrants gradually become more biased as we move back in time from 1999 so that they increasingly tend to over-estimate the true fertility of that population.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Duntava, Aija
    Life-table representations of family dynamics in the 21st century2017Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, s. 1081-1229, artikkel-id 35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND A key resource for cross-national comparative research on family dynamics (Andersson and Philipov 2002) is seriously outdated. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS We provide an update of the life-table estimates by Andersson and Philipov (2002) based on data from the Generations and Gender Surveys and other related surveys in 18 countries across Europe and the United States. RESULTS Life-table estimates of family formation of women and men, union dynamics, and children's experience of family disruption and family formation demonstrate the degree of variation in family dynamics across countries. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide the basis for more in-depth research on the causes and consequences of differences in family dynamics across contexts. CONTRIBUTION The Appendix of the current manuscript is a new resource for comparative research on family dynamics in the early 21st century.

  • 57.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Woldemicael, Gebremariam
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Sex composition of children as a determinant of marriage disruption and marriage formation: Evidence from Swedish register data2001Inngår i: Journal of Population Research, Vol. 18, s. 143-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate whether there are any effects of the sex composition of children on the propensity of Swedish mothers to enter into and exit from marriage. We use Swedish population-register data in order to estimate relative risks of marriage formation and marriage dissolution for mothers with different numbers and sexes of their children. The magnitude of our data allows us to get a very accurate picture of possible relationships of that nature even if they are relatively weak. Morgan et al. (1988) used survey data for the US and claimed to have found that one- and two-child parents in that country had lower divorce risks if they had sons than if they had daughters. For Sweden, we only find a minor effect in the same direction for three-child mothers. For two-child mothers, we instead find that the divorce risk is slightly reduced if a woman has one child of each sex. The divorce risk of one-child mothers is not at all affected by the sex of their child. Finally, we examine whether there are any effects of the sex composition of children on the propensity of Swedish mothers to enter the married state. We find that this is not the case.

  • 58. Billari, Francesco
    et al.
    Kohler, Hans-Peter
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Lundström, Hans
    Approaching the limit: Long-term trends in late and very late fertility2007Inngår i: Population and Development Review, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 149-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss trends in the limits to late childbearing, their determinants and potential implications from an empirical long-term perspective. Although the high levels observed in non-contracepting populations have not been reached, fertility in Europe at ages 40+ and 45+ has increased substantially in recent years. This trend received considerable attention, especially in combination with the emergence of new reproductive technologies and often low levels of general fertility. Nevertheless, physiological studies agree on the fact that age limits to childbearing, at least for women, have not shifted to later ages. Our empirical analyses of high-quality long-term data from Sweden document an increase in the absolute and relative number of births at ages 40+ and 45+, together with an increase in first birth occurrence-exposure rates at ages close to 40.

  • 59.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. University of California, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Dalman, Christina
    Cochran, Susan
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?2016Inngår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 31, nr 7, s. 685-690Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  • 60.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. University of California, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Cochran, Susan
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Anxiety and Depression Among Sexual Minority Women and Men in Sweden: Is the Risk Equally Spread Within the Sexual Minority Population?2017Inngår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 396-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Sexual minority individuals have a higher risk of anxiety and depression compared with heterosexuals. However, whether the higher risk is spread equally across the sexual minority population is not clear.

    Aim

    To investigate the association between sexual orientation and self-reported current anxiety and a history of diagnosis of depression, paying particular attention to possible subgroup differences in risks within the sexual minority population, stratified by sex and to examine participants' history of medical care for anxiety disorders and depression.

    Methods

    We conducted a population-based study of 874 lesbians and gays, 841 bisexuals, and 67,980 heterosexuals recruited in 2010 in Stockholm County. Data were obtained from self-administered surveys that were linked to nationwide registers. Main Outcome Measures: By using logistic regression, we compared risks of current anxiety, histories of diagnosed depression, and register-based medical care for anxiety and/or depression in lesbian and gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals.

    Results

    Bisexual women and gay men were more likely to report anxiety compared with their heterosexual peers. Bisexual individuals and gay men also were more likely to report a past diagnosis of depression. All sexual minority groups had an increased risk of having used medical care for anxiety and depression compared with heterosexuals, with bisexual women having the highest risk.

    Conclusion

    Bisexual women appear to be a particularly vulnerable sexual minority group. Advocating for nondiscrimination and protections for lesbian, gay, and bisexual people is a logical extension of the effort to lower the prevalence of mental illness.

  • 61.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of California, USA.
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Dalman, Christina
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Cochran, Susan
    Self-reported suicide ideation and attempts, and medical care for intentional self-harm in lesbians, gays and bisexuals in Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, nr 9, s. 895-901Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Minority sexual orientation is a robust risk indicator for self-reported suicidal ideation and attempts. However, little is known about patterns of medical care for intentional self-harm in this vulnerable population. We investigate sexual orientation-related differences in self-reported lifetime suicide symptoms and medical care for intentional self-harm between 1969 and 2010, including age at initial treatment and recurrence. Methods We used data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, a population-based sample of 874 lesbians/gays, 841 bisexuals and 67980 heterosexuals, whose self-administered surveys have been linked to nationwide registers. Estimates of risk for medical care were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% CIs. Results Both suicidal ideation and attempts were more commonly reported by lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Adjusting for risk-time and confounding, lesbians (IRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.4) and bisexual women (IRR 5.4, 95% CI 4.4 to 6.6) experienced elevated risk for medical care for intentional self-harm, as compared to heterosexual women. Gay men evidenced higher risk (IRR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.4) as compared to heterosexual men. Recurrent medical care was more frequent in LGB individuals, especially in bisexual women and gay men. Lesbian and bisexual women were also younger than heterosexual women when they first received medical care for intentional self-harm. Conclusions Positive histories of suicidal ideation, attempts and medical care for intentional self-harm, including higher levels of recurrence, are more prevalent among LGB individuals in contrast to heterosexuals. Lesbian/bisexual women evidence an earlier age of onset of treatment. Tailored prevention efforts are urgently needed.

  • 62. Comolli, Chiara Ludovica
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark .
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Jónsson, Ari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Beyond the Economic Gaze: Childbearing during and after recessions in the Nordic countries2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates fertility responses to the business cycle in the Nordic countries by comparing period variation in women’s childbearing propensity. We harmonize register data from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden to compare childbearing in the aftermath of the two most recent crises that hit those economies: the 1990s and 2010s. We use event-history techniques to present parity-specific fertility, by calendar year, relative to a defined pre-recession year. We further examine any possible impact of the two recessions by women’s age and education. Results show a large heterogeneity across the five Nordic countries in the childbearing developments after 1990. This variation largely disappears after 2008 when period trends in birth hazards become more similar across countries. Likewise, the educational differences that characterized the variation in childbearing relative risk after 1990 considerably diminish in the years after 2010, especially for first and second births. Economic theories do not suffice to explain this reversal from the heterogeneity of the 1990s to the homogeneity of the 2010s in the childbearing response to recession episodes across countries and socioeconomic groups. Our findings suggest the need to expand the theoretical framework explaining the cyclicality of fertility towards the perception of economic and welfare uncertainty.

  • 63.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Changing seasonal variation in births by sociodemographic factors: a population-based register study2018Inngår i: Human Reproduction Open, ISSN 2399-3529, nr 4, artikkel-id hoy015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY QUESTION: Have seasonal variations in births by factors related to maternal education, age, parity and re-partnering changedover a 72-year period? SUMMARY ANSWER: Seasonal variation in births has been reduced overall but also changed its pattern over the last seven decades. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The number of births varies markedly by season, but the causes of this variation are not fully understood.Seasonality of births is, in some populations, strongly influenced by sociodemographic factors. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION: A longitudinal study design was used by analysing the seasonal variation in live births between 1940and 2012, and relating it to mothers’ sociodemographic characteristics at the time of childbirth (maternal education, age, parity and repartnering). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Register data on 6 768 810 live births in Sweden between 1940 and 2012were used. Information on biological parents are available for more than 95% of all births. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to calculatepredicted probabilities of giving birth for each calendar month. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Between 1940 and 1999, Swedish birth rates showed the typical seasonal variationwith high numbers of births during the spring, and low numbers of births during the last quarter of the year. However, during the 21st century,the seasonal variation in fertility declined so that only minor variation in birth rates between February and September now remains. Still, thepattern of low birth rates at the end of the year remains and has even become more pronounced from the 1980s onwards. The characteristic‘Christmas effect’ that used to be visible in September has vanished over the last 30 years. The roles in seasonal variation of maternal education,the mother’s age, parity and instances where the mother has re-partnered between subsequent births changed during the second half ofthe 20th century. From 1980s onwards, the decline in birth rates during the last quarter of the year became particularly pronounced amonghighly educated mothers. Over the 72 years studied, the seasonal variation among first-time mothers declined steadily and has almost disappearedat the end of the study period. Using data that cover ~180 000 births in each month, all meaningful results are statistically significant. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: The study uses data from one Nordic country only, making it difficult to draw conclusionsthat may hold for other countries. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The typical seasonal variation reported for Sweden between 1940 and 1999, with highnumbers of births during the spring and low numbers of births during the last quarter of the year, is in line with results from most otherEuropean countries during the same time period. However, the significant decline in seasonal variation in the early 21st century is a noveldevelopment. The study underlines that in a society with low fertility and efficient birth control, active choices and behaviours associated withan individual’s sociodemographic characteristics tend to matter more for the seasonal timing of childbearing than environmental factorsrelated to the physiological ability to reproduce and cultural–behavioural factors related to the frequency of intercourse.

  • 64.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Fecundity and human birth seasonality in Sweden: a register-based study2019Inngår i: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well-established that couples' fecundities vary widely. Each couple has a relatively constant monthly probability of conceiving, which can vary from zero to quite high. This underlying probability is usually expressed as the time (number of menstrual cycles) the couple requires to conceive. Couples with high fecundity will, on average, need fewer cycles than couples with low fecundity. It is also well-documented that almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births. Most European countries show seasonal variation that usually peak in the spring and are the lowest during the last quarter of the year. The increasingly strong pattern of depressed birth rates in November and December is likely explained by the December-January cut-off threshold for Swedish pupils' school entry and their parents increasing awareness of the negative effects on school outcomes for children who are juniors in the school-entry cohort they belong to. To actively plan births for a specific time of the year, couples need to have some knowledge of the time required for them to conceive.

    Methods: We use the duration between marriage of childless couples and first birth as a proxy measure of couples' fecundity. Based on this time-to-pregnancy measure we study to what extent couples' capacity to conceive affects the seasonality of their second births. We hypothesize that in a society with highly controlled fertility and a strong norm of having at least two children, sub-fertile couples will on average show less seasonal variation in second births. Sub-fertile couples, requiring more time to conceive the first time, will be less likely to try to target a desired birth month for their second child because doing so could jeopardize fulfilling their desired family size. We apply multinomial logistic regressions on 81,998 Swedish couples who married while being childless and subsequently gave birth to at least two children between 1990 and 2012, to investigate fecundity's role in seasonal variation in second births.

    Results: We found that seasonal variation in second births was strongly associated with couples' observed fecundity, measured as the duration between marriage formation and first birth. Our results support the hypothesis that sub-fertile couples, requiring more time to conceive the first time, show less seasonal variation in second births. The seasonal variations in second order births among couples with normal fecundity shows some similarities to traditional patterns as seen in agricultural and industrial societies of the past, with high numbers of births during the spring, and low numbers during the last quarter of the year. However, two important differences are notable. The characteristic Christmas peak in September has vanished, and the low birth rates in November and December come out much stronger than in the past.

    Conclusions: The birth seasonality among couples with normal fecundity are what we would expect if couples actively plan their births according to the cut-off date for Swedish pupils' school entry. We argue that our findings support the notion that scheduled childbirth is a reality in contemporary sociality.

  • 65.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Gender equality and fertility in Sweden: A study on the impact of the father’s uptake of parental leave on continued childbearing2006Inngår i: Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 39, nr 1-2, s. 121-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the birth or adoption of a child is accompanied by the right to more than one year of paid parental leave that can be shared between parents. This article examines the relationship between the father’s and the mother’s respective use of such leave and the continued childbearing of a couple. Our investigation is based on longitudinal information on registered parental leave use and childbearing of all intact unions in Sweden during 1988-99. We analyze our data by means of event-history analysis. We expected an extended paternal involvement in leave-taking to be positively associated with continued childbearing, since it makes family building more compatible with the mother’s labor force participation. In addition, such commitment to childrearing from the father’s side is likely to signal his greater interest for continued family building. Around 85 percent of fathers take some leave but in most cases for a brief time. We find a positive effect of a father’s taking moderately long leave on a couple’s second- and third-birth propensity, but no such effect of a father's taking very long parental leave.

  • 66.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Leder delad föräldrapenning till fler barn?: En studie om hur pappor och mammors föräldrapenninguttag påverkar benägenheten att skaffa ytterligare barn2004Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    In Sweden, a birth of a child induces the right to more than one year of paid parental leave that can be shared between the parents. This paper examines the relationship between the father’s and the mother’s use of parental leave and the continued childbearing of a couple. Our investigation is based on longitudinal information on registered parental-leave use and childbearing of all intact unions in Sweden during the late 1980s to the late 1990s. We analyze our data by means of event-history analysis. We expect an increased paternal involvement in childrearing to be positively associated with a couple’s propensity to have another child since it makes family building more compatible with the mother’s labor-force participation. About 85 percent of all fathers use some leave but in most cases, episodes are very brief. We find a positive effect of a father’s moderate leave use on both second and third births. We also find a positive effect of a mother’s extended leave on third births, indicating that she in such a situation had remained out of labor-market work in anticipation of a next child.

  • 67.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    När har vi råd att skaffa fler barn?: En studie om hur inkomst påverkar fortsatt barnafödande2003Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    This study investigates whether men’s and women’s income affect Swedish couples’ propensities to have a second and a third child during the 1980s and the 1990s. The study is based on administrative data on the childbearing of all Swedish co-residing couples with at least one common child. The results show that higher income of both the man and the woman increases the propensity to have a second child. The effects of the man’s and the woman’s income are very similar. For third births, we find instead that the effects of the two parental incomes are somewhat different. A high income of the woman increases the couple’s propensity to have another child. In contrast, the effect of the man’s income shows a u-formed pattern where couples with both high-income and low-income men have elevated third-birth rates. An important general result is that the effects of the woman’s and the man’s income hold independently of each other. Thus, both the father’s and the mother’s income matters individually. The combined income matters as well, but only to the extent that it constitutes the sum of the two individual incomes. This study lends no support to the notion that it is couples where the man is the main earner of income that has the highest propensity to have more children. On the contrary, for third births its is rather couples where the woman earns more than the man that have the highest propensity to have another child. Differences in second-birth rates by the level of earned income of the parents seem to have increased during the 1990s. No such change can be detected for third-birth rates.

  • 68.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lappegard, Trude
    Statistics Norway Research Department, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Family Policy and Fertility: Fathers' and Mothers' Use  of Parental Leave and Continued Childbearing in Norway and Sweden2010Inngår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 45-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries gender equality is an explicit policy goal. For example, Norway and Sweden both offer paid parental leave for approximately one year following childbirth with earnings-related benefits and with certain periods reserved exclusively for the father. In this study, we examine the relationship between fathers’ and mothers’ use of parental leave and continued childbearing among couples in Norway and Sweden. The two countries offer largely similar family policies, but differ concerning family policy context. While Sweden has a consistent policy concerning gender relations, Norway has more ambiguous family policies giving incentives both to gender equality and childrearing at home. Our study shows that father’s parental leave use is positively associated with continued childbearing in both Norway and Sweden, for both one- and two-child couples. The association is stronger in Norway. For two-child families a long leave of the mother is positively associated with third birth. It seems as the two-child family is highly compatible with the combination of work and family life, but that in families who choose to have more children the mother often seems to have a weaker work orientation.

  • 69. Elvander, Charlotte
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Mode of delivery and the probability of subsequent childbearing: a population-based register study2015Inngår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, nr 12, s. 1593-1600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between mode of first delivery and probability of subsequent childbearing.

    Design: Population-based study.

    Setting: Nationwide study in Sweden.

    Population: A cohort of 771 690 women who delivered their first singleton infant in Sweden between 1992 and 2010.

    Methods: Using Cox's proportional-hazards regression models, risks of subsequent childbearing were compared across four modes of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

    Main outcome measures: Probability of having a second and third child; interpregnancy interval.

    Results: Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal first delivery, women who delivered by vacuum extraction were less likely to have a second pregnancy (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.97), and the probabilities of a second childbirth were substantially lower among women with a previous emergency caesarean section (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84–0.86) or an elective caesarean section (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.80–0.83). There were no clinically important differences in the median time between first and second pregnancy by mode of first delivery. Compared with women younger than 30 years of age, older women were more negatively affected by a vacuum extraction with respect to the probability of having a second child. A primary vacuum extraction decreased the probability of having a third child by 4%, but having two consecutive vacuum extraction deliveries did not further alter the probability.

    Conclusions: A first delivery by vacuum extraction does not reduce the probability of subsequent childbearing to the same extent as a first delivery by emergency or elective caesarean section.

  • 70. Hank, Karsten
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    Spiess, Katharina
    Öffentliche Kinderbetreuung und individuelle Fertilitätsentscheidungen in Deutschland und Schweden2004Inngår i: Demographischer und sozialer Wandel, Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen , 2004, s. 47-57Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In diesem Beitrag wird der Zusammenhang zwischen öffentlicher Kinderbetreuung und individuellem Geburtenverhalten in zwei sehr unterschiedlichen wohlfahrtsstaatlichen und demographischen Kontexten analysiert: Deutschland und Schweden. Auf der Basis von Mikrodaten und Informationen über die regionale Versorgung mit öffentlicher Kinderbetreuung werden für die zweite Hälfte der 1990er Jahre Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten für die Geburt eines Kindes in beiden Ländern geschätzt. Es zeigt sich, dass weder in Deutschland noch in Schweden regionale Unterschiede in der Verfügbarkeit von Betreuungseinrichtungen einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Erklärung des individuellen Geburtenverhaltens liefern. Dieser Befund sollte jedoch nicht zu dem Schluss führen, dass Kinderbetreuung für die Lösung der Vereinbarkeitsproblematik keine Rolle spielt. Vielmehr verweist er auf die Notwendigkeit, spezifische familienpolitische Maßnahmen und Institutionen im Kontext des gesamten wohlfahrtsstaatlichen Arrangements eines Landes zu analysieren.

  • 71. Hank, Karsten
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Kohler, Hans-Peter
    Sohn oder Tochter, Natur oder Kultur?: Geschlechterpräferenzen für Kinder im europäischen Vergleich2008Inngår i: Die Natur der Gesellschaft: Verhandlungen des 33. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie in Kassel 2006, 2008, s. 1671-1679Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 72.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aassve, A.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Baizán Munoz, P.
    Billari, Francesco
    Bocconi University, Milan, Italy.
    Engelhardt, H.
    Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, A.
    Hank, K.
    Huinink, J.
    Kohler, H.-P.
    Kohlmann, A.
    Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Vikat, Andres
    UN Economic Commission for Europe, Switzerland.
    Concepts for a second round of fertility and family surveys in Europe with particular attention paid to persons of reproductive/ working age2000Inngår i: Generations and gender programme: exploring future research and data collection options, New York; Geneva: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe/United Nations Population Fund , 2000, s. 59-104Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 73.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Education and childlessness: The relationship between educational field, educational level, and childlessness among Swedish women born in 1955-592006Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 14, nr 15, s. 331-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend the concept of educational attainment to cover the field of education taken in addition to the conventional level of education attained. Our empirical investigation uses register records containing childbearing and educational histories of an entire cohort of women born in Sweden (about a quarter-million individuals). This allows us to operate with a high number of educational field-and-level combinations (some sixty in all). It turns out that the field of education serves as an indicator of a woman’s potential reproductive behavior better than the mere level attained. We discover that in each field permanent childlessness increases some with the educational level, but that the field itself is the more important. In general, we find that women educated for jobs in teaching and health care are in a class of their own, with much lower permanent childlessness at each educational level than in any other major grouping. Women educated in arts and humanities or for religious occupations have unusually high fractions permanently childless. Our results cast doubt on the assumption that higher education per se must result in higher childlessness. In our opinion, several factors intrinsic and extrinsic to an educational system (such as its flexibility, its gender structure, and the manner in which education is hooked up to the labor market) may influence the relationship between education and childlessness, and we would not expect a simple, unidirectional relationship.

  • 74.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-592006Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 14, nr 16, s. 381-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher) humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  • 75. Hoem, Jan
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Education and childlessness: The relationship between educational field, educational level, and childlessness among Swedish women born in 1955-592006Inngår i: Demographic Research, Vol. 14, nr 15, s. 331-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend the concept of educational attainment to cover the field of education taken in addition to the conventional level of education attained. Our empirical investigation uses register records containing childbearing and educational histories of an entire cohort of women born in Sweden (about a quarter-million individuals). This allows us to operate with a high number of educational field-and-level combinations (some sixty in all). It turns out that the field of education serves as an indicator of a woman’s potential reproductive behavior better than the mere level attained. We discover that in each field permanent childlessness increases some with the educational level, but that the field itself is the more important. In general, we find that women educated for jobs in teaching and health care are in a class of their own, with much lower permanent childlessness at each educational level than in any other major grouping. Women educated in arts and humanities or for religious occupations have unusually high fractions permanently childless.

    Our results cast doubt on the assumption that higher education per se must result in higher childlessness. In our opinion, several factors intrinsic and extrinsic to an educational system (such as its flexibility, its gender structure, and the manner in which education is hooked up to the labor market) may influence the relationship between education and childlessness, and we would not expect a simple, unidirectional relationship.

  • 76. Hoem, Jan
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-592006Inngår i: Demographic Research, Vol. 14, nr 16, s. 381-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher) humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  • 77. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Disparities in Children's Family Experiences by Mother's Socioeconomic Status: The Case of Finland2018Inngår i: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 751-768Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known argument claims that socioeconomic differentials in children's family structures have become increasingly important in shaping child outcomes and the resources available to children in developed societies. One assumption is that differentials are comparatively small in Nordic welfare states. Our study examines how children's experiences of family structures and family dynamics vary by their mother's educational attainment in Finland. Based on register data on the childbearing and union histories of women in Finland born from 1969 onwards, we provide life-table estimates of children's (N = 64,162) experiences of family dissolution, family formation, and family structure from ages 0-15 years, stratified by mother's education level at the child's birth. We find huge socioeconomic disparities in children's experiences of family structures and transitions. Compared to children of highly educated mothers, children of mothers with low levels of education are almost twice as likely to be born in cohabitation and four times as likely to be born to a lone mother. They are also much more likely to experience further changes in family structure-particularly parental separation. On average, children of low-educated mothers spend just half of their childhood years living with both their parents, whereas those of high-educated mothers spend four-fifths of their childhood with both parents. The sociodemographic inequalities among children in Nordic welfare states clearly deserve more scholarly attention.

  • 78. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2019Inngår i: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 563-586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility and ultimate childlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts born beginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. Cohort fertility (CTF) initially declined in all four countries, although for cohorts born in the 1950s and later, the CTF remained stable or declined only modestly. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Women’s negative educational gradient in relation to total fertility has vanished, except in Finland, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the least educated. In the oldest female cohorts, childlessness was highest among the highly educated, but these patterns have changed over the cohorts as childlessness has increased among the low educated and remained relatively stable among higher educated women. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, childlessness is now highest among the least educated women. We witness both a new gender similarity and persistent (among men) and new (among women) educational disparities in childbearing outcomes in the Nordic region. Overall, the number of low educated has decreased remarkably over time. These population segments face increasing social and economic disadvantages that are reflected as well in their patterns of family formation.

  • 79. Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Socioeconomic differences in the unemployment and fertility nexus: Evidence from Denmark and Germany2014Inngår i: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 21, s. 59-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies that have investigated the role of unemployment in childbearing decisions have often shown no or only barely significant results. We argue that many of these nonfindings may be attributed to a neglect of group-specific differences in behavior. In this study, we examine how the association of unemployment and fertility varies by sociodemographic subgroups using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and from Danish population registers. We find that male unemployment is related to a postponement of first and second childbearing in both countries. The role of female unemployment is less clear at these two parities. Both male and female unemployment is positively correlated with third birth risks. More importantly, our results show that there are strong educational gradients in the unemployment and fertility nexus, and that the relationship between unemployment and fertility varies by socioeconomic group. Fertility tends to be lower during periods of unemployment among highly educated women and men, but not among their less educated counterparts.

  • 80. Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Pailhé, Ariane
    Economic uncertainty and family dynamics in Europe: Introduction2012Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 27, s. 835-852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Economic uncertainty has become an increasingly important factor in explanations of declining fertility and postponed family formation across Europe. Yet the micro-level evidence on this topic is still limited.

    Objective: This special collection of Demographic Research focuses on the issue of how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics in Europe.

    Methods: The collection is comprised of studies that explore how various dimensions of employment uncertainty, such as temporary working contracts and individual and aggregate unemployment, are related to the fertility and family formation of women and men across Europe. The studies cover Germany, the UK, France, Russia, Estonia, Sweden, Italy, Spain, and Israel.

    Results: The various micro-level studies that are assembled in this special collection do not provide a simple answer to the question of whether and how economic uncertainty suppresses (or stimulates) fertility. However, some systematic variation by welfare state regime is discernable.

    Conclusions: Given the recent economic volatility in Europe, we expect that labor market uncertainties will remain an important component of explanations of fertility developments in the 21st century.

  • 81. Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    et al.
    Andersson, GunnarStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.Pailhé, Ariane
    Economic Uncertainty and Family Dynamics in Europe: Special Collection 122012Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This special collection of Demographic Research is devoted to the issue of how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics in Europe. The collection is based on contributions to a workshop held in Berlin in July 2009, which in turn was stimulated by the onset of the economic recession in 2008. The collection comprises studies on how various dimensions of employment uncertainty, such as temporary working contracts and individual and aggregate unemployment, are related to the fertility and family formation of women and men in contexts across Europe. It covers studies on Germany, the U.K., France, Russia, Estonia, Sweden, Italy, Spain, and Israel.

  • 82. Kulu, Hill
    et al.
    Boyle, Paul
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    High Suburban Fertility: Evidence from Four Northern European Countries2009Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 21, nr 31, s. 915-944Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While numerous studies have compared urban and rural fertility rates across Europe, virtually no studies have distinguished suburbs as a distinct residential context. This study examines fertility variation across different residential contexts in four Northern European countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We move beyond the conventional urban-rural focus of most previous studies of within-nation variations in fertility by distinguishing between urban centres and suburbs of cities and towns. We base our study on aggregate and individual-level register data and our analysis shows that fertility levels are significantly higher in suburbs than in urban centres; this pattern has persisted over the past quarter of a century for all four countries. A parity-specific analysis of Swedish register data reveals that total fertility varies between central cities and suburbs due to the relatively high first- and second-birth propensities in the suburbs. Further analysis shows that fertility variation between the central cities and suburbs persists after controlling for women’s socioeconomic characteristics. We discuss the role of various factors in accounting for high suburban fertility including omitted individual characteristics, contextual factors and selective residential moves of couples planning to have a child, suggesting that more study is required of this under-researched topic.

  • 83. Kulu, Hill
    et al.
    Hannemann, Tina
    Pailhe, Ariane
    Neels, Karel
    Krapf, Sandra
    Gonzalez-Ferrer, Amparo
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Fertility by Birth Order among the Descendants of Immigrants in Selected European Countries2017Inngår i: Population and Development Review, ISSN 0098-7921, E-ISSN 1728-4457, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 31-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 84. Kulu, Hill
    et al.
    Vikat, Andres
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Settlement size and fertility in the Nordic countries2007Inngår i: Population Studies, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 265-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While the variation in childbearing patterns across countries and between socio-economic groups within a country has been studied in detail, less is known about the differences in fertility patterns across settlements within a country. Using aggregate and individual-level register data, we examine fertility variation across settlements in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We observe a significant variation in fertility level by settlement size in all four of these Nordic countries—the larger the settlement, the lower the fertility. Second, the variation in fertility levels has decreased over time, but significant differences in fertility between settlements of different size persist. Third, the timing of childbearing also varies across settlements—the larger the settlement, the later the peak of fertility. Fourth, our analysis of parity-specific fertility in Sweden shows that the major socio-economic characteristics of women account for only a small portion of fertility variation across settlements.

  • 85. Lagergren, Jesper
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Talbäck, Mats
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Feychting, Maria
    Ljung, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Marital status, education, and income in relation to the risk of esophaegal and gastric cancer by histological type and site2016Inngår i: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 122, nr 2, s. 207-212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Marital status, income, and education might influence the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer, but the literature is limited. A large study addressing subtypes of these tumors was used to clarify these associations.

    METHODS

    A nationwide, Swedish population–based cohort study from 1991 to 2010 included individuals who were 50 years old or older. Data on exposures, covariates, and outcomes were obtained from well-maintained registers. Four esophagogastric tumor subtypes were analyzed in combination and separately: esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cardia adenocarcinoma, and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounders.

    RESULTS

    Among 4,734,227 participants (60,634,007 person-years), 24,095 developed esophageal or gastric cancer. In comparison with individuals in a long marriage, increased IRRs were found among participants who were in a shorter marriage or were never married, remarried, divorced, or widowed. These associations were indicated for each tumor subtype but were generally stronger for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Higher education and income were associated with decreased IRRs in a seemingly dose-response manner and similarly for each subtype. In comparison with the completion of only primary school, higher tertiary education rendered an IRR of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.60-0.69) for men and an IRR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.61-0.75) for women. Comparing participants in the highest and lowest income brackets (highest 20% vs lowest 20%) revealed an IRR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70-0.79) for men and an IRR of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for women.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Divorce, widowhood, living alone, low educational attainment, and low income increase the risk of each subtype of esophageal and gastric cancer. These associations require attention when high-risk individuals are being identified.

  • 86.
    Lappegård, Trude
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Har foreldrepermisjon betydning for barnefødsler?2013Inngår i: Fedrekvoten og den farsvennlige velferdsstaten / [ed] Berit Brandth, Elin Kvande, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2013, s. 211-221Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 87.
    Ljung, Rickard
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lagergren, Jesper
    Kings College London.
    Socio-Demographic and Geographical Factors in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Mortality in Sweden2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. e62067-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Socio-demographic factors and area of residence might influence the development of esophageal and gastric cancer. Large-scale population-based research can determine the role of such factors.

    Methods

    This population-based cohort study included all Swedish residents aged 30–84 years in 1990–2007. Educational level, marital status, place of birth, and place of residence were evaluated with regard to mortality from esophageal or gastric cancer. Cox regression yielded hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for potential confounding.

    Results

    Among 84 920 565 person-years, 5125 and 12 230 deaths occurred from esophageal cancer and gastric cancer, respectively. Higher educational level decreased the HR of esophageal cancer (HR = 0.61, 95%CI 0.42–0.90 in women, HR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.60–0.84 in men) and gastric cancer (HR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.63–1.03 in women, HR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.64–0.83 in men). Being unmarried increased HR of esophageal cancer (HR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.35–1.99 in women, HR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.50–1.80 in men), but not of gastric cancer. Being born in low density populated areas increased HR of gastric cancer (HR = 1.23, 95%CI 1.10–1.38 in women, HR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.25–1.50 in men), while no strong association was found with esophageal cancer. Living in densely populated areas increased HR of esophageal cancer (HR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.14–1.50 in women, HR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.29–1.51 in men), but not of gastric cancer.

    Conclusion

    These socio-demographic inequalities in cancer mortality warrant efforts to investigate possible preventable mechanisms and to promote and support healthier lifestyles among deprived groups.

  • 88. Lundström, Karin E.
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Labor-market status, migrant status, and first childbearing in Sweden2012Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 27, nr article 25, s. 719-742Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Labor market uncertainties and employment insecurity have emerged as increasingly important factors in research on family formation and fertility.

    Objective In the present study, we provide evidence from Sweden on how non-employment, unemployment, and temporary employment relate to young people's first birth risks.

    Methods We use a combination of Labor Force Survey data on employment characteristics and register data on demographic outcomes to investigate how the labor market status and stability of employment are associated with the first birth behavior of women and men, and of Swedish-and foreign-born people in Sweden.

    Results Consistent with previous research, we find that people who are not in the labor force are less likely than those who are employed to enter parenthood. In most cases, we also find that young people who are in temporary employment are less likely than those who are permanently employed to start a family.

    Conclusions Our study demonstrates that foreign-born people living in Sweden tend to adapt to the behavior of native-born Swedes, and that patterns for women and men are largely similar. We relate these findings to the equalizing impact of the country's universal welfare regime.

  • 89.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Fathers’ Uptake of Parental Leave: Forerunners and Laggards in Sweden, 1993-20102019Inngår i: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered family production patterns. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender-equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. We explore how fathers’ use of parental leave has changed over time before and since the turn of the century. As the parental leave benefit is individual and earnings-based, we examine how fathers’ individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with their parental leave uptake over time, to determine whether there are forerunners and laggards in recent family change. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to data from national registers. Our study demonstrates a bifurcation in trends in recent decades. This is associated with the extension of reforms that reserve part of the leave for fathers, the so-called “daddy months”, but stretches beyond the impact of any such reforms. Taking a long leave of over two months was pioneered by better-educated residents of metropolitan areas and surrounding suburbs, as well as Swedish-born fathers. Young fathers, low-income earners and foreign-born fathers lagged behind in these developments. We regard the unstable labour market situation of the latter as a contributing factor in widening social inequalities in family-related behaviour.

  • 90. Milewski, Nadja
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Nicht nur das siebte Jahr hat´s in sich: Drei von vier Ehepaaren in Deutschland und Österreich können 15. Hochzeitstag feiern2004Inngår i: Demografische Forschung Aus Erster Hand, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 4-Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 91.
    Miranda, Vitor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Statistics Sweden, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Parents' Preferences for Sex of Children in Sweden: Attitudes and Outcomes2018Inngår i: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 443-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that preferences for the sex of children would be small or nonaEuroexisting in relatively gender equal societies. However, previous studies have suggested that a stronger preference for having daughter exists in Scandinavian countries, which are frequently noted for being among the most gender equal societies in the world. Combining new register data on birth rates by sex of the previous children and recent survey data on couples' stated preferences for the sex of children, we show that the preference for daughters has increased in Sweden over the last decade. In addition to the stronger preference for having daughters among twoaEurochild mothers documented in previous research, our findings show that during the previous decade this preference was noticeable also among oneaEurochild parents. Despite Swedish society being known for holding gender equal social norms, interviewed parents openly expressed some degree of preference for having daughters over sons.

  • 92.
    Nedoluzhko, Lesia
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan2007Inngår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 17, nr 25, s. 741-774Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the ‘Marriage, Fertility, and Migration’ survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

  • 93. Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Consequences of family policies on childbearing behavior: Effects or artifacts?2008Inngår i: Population and Development Review, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 699-724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues for a more careful consideration of theoretical and methodological aspects in studies of the effects of family policies on childbearing behavior. In our approach, we employ elements of comparative welfare-state research, of the sociology of “constructed categories”, and of “the new institutionalism” to demonstrate that investigations into policy effects need to contextualize policies and need to reduce their complexity by focusing on “critical junctures”, “space”, and “usage”. As regards methods we argue that the effects of policies can only be assessed properly if we study their impact on individual behavior, event-history models applied to individual-level data being the state-of-the-art of such an approach. We use selected empirical studies from Sweden to demonstrate that the type of approach that we advocate prevents us from drawing misleading conclusions.

  • 94. Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hoem, Jan
    Rønsen, Marit
    Vikat, Andres
    Fertilität, Familiengründung und Familienerweiterung in den nordischen Ländern2006Inngår i: Wem gehört die Familie der Zukunft?: Expertisen zum 7. Familienbericht der Bundesregierung, Verlag Barbara Budrich, Opladen , 2006, s. 207-233Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Geburtenentwicklung in den nordischen Ländern seit den 1970er Jahren und den Wirkungen familienpolitischer Maßnahmen auf die Fertilitätsentwicklung. Basis der Analysen bilden Auswertungen harmonisierter Registerdaten Dänemarks, Finnlands, Norwegens und Schwedens. Der erste Teil des Beitrags bietet einen Überblick über die Entwicklung der Fertilität in den nordischen Ländern nach Alter und Geburtenordnung. Dies erlaubt, gemeinsame von länderspezifischen Entwicklungen zu unterscheiden. Daran schließt sich eine Darstellung des Zusammenhangs zwischen Bildungsrichtungen und Fertilität. Im letzten Teil des Beitrages erörtern wir, welchen Einfluss familienpolitische Maßnahmen, insbesondere ein einkommensbezogenes Elterngeld, ein auf den Geburtenabstand bezogenes Elterngeld, sowie die Inanspruchnahme der Elternzeit durch Väter auf Geburtenverhalten und Geburtenentwicklung in den einzelnen Ländern hatten.

  • 95.
    Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kulu, Hill
    The Demography of Europe: Introduction2013Inngår i: The Demography of Europe / [ed] Gerda Neyer, Gunnar Andersson, Hill Kulu, Laura Bernardi, Christoph Bühler, Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, s. 1-13Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades Europe has witnessed fundamental changes of its population dynamics and population structure. These changes pose major challenges to population studies, as conventional theoretical assumptions regarding demographic behavior and demographic development seem unfit to provide convincing explanations of the recent demographic changes. This book, derived from the symposium on “The Demography of Europe” held at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany, in 2007 in honor of Professor Jan M. Hoem, brings together leading population researchers in the area of fertility, family, migration, life expectancy, and mortality. The contributions present key issues of the new Demography of Europe and discuss research advances to understand the continent’s demographic development at the turn of the 21st century.

  • 96.
    Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, GunnarStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.Kulu, HillBernardi, LauraBühler, Christoph
    The Demography of Europe2013Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades Europe has witnessed fundamental changes of its population dynamics and population structure. Fertility has fallen below replacement level in almost all European countries, while childbearing behavior and family formation have become more diverse. Life expectancy has increased in Western Europe for both females and males, but has been declining for men in some Eastern European countries. Immigration from non-European countries has increased substantially, as has mobility within Europe. These changes pose major challenges to population studies, as conventional theoretical assumptions regarding demographic behavior and demographic development seem unfit to provide convincing explanations of the recent demographic changes.

    This book, derived from the symposium on “The Demography of Europe” held at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany in November 2007 in honor of Professor Jan M. Hoem, brings together leading population researchers in the area of fertility, family, migration, life-expectancy, and mortality. The contributions present key issues of the new demography of Europe and discuss key research advances to understand the continent’s demographic development at the turn of the 21st century.

  • 97. Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Hoem, Jan
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Demografi (SUDA).
    Kinderlosigkeit, Bildungsrichtung und Bildungsniveau.: Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung schwedischer Frauen der Geburtenjahrgänge 1955-592007Inngår i: Ein Leben ohne Kinder: Kinderlosigkeit in Deutschland, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden , 2007, s. 105-134Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Die Beziehung zwischen Bildung und Fertilität gehört zu den am meisten beforschten Bereichen der Demografie. Dennoch fehlen bislang demografische Untersuchungen, die neben dem Bildungsgrad auch die Bildungsrichtung berücksichtigen. Dieser Beitrag zeigt, dass die Bildungsrichtung ein besserer Indikator für das potentielle Geburtenverhalten einer Frau sein kann als der Bildungsgrad. Auf der Basis schwedischer Registerdaten betrachten wir die Kinderlosigkeit aller schwedischen Frauen der Geburtenjahrgänge 1955-59. Mit steigendem Bildungsgrad nimmt zwar der Anteil kinderlos bleibender Frauen zu; doch gilt dies nur jeweils innerhalb einer Bildungsrichtung. Auch bei gleichem Bildungsniveau variiert der Anteil der Kinderlosen je nach Bildungsrichtung beträchtlich. Diese Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass die Zusammenhänge zwischen Bildung und Fertilität nur durch Forschungsansätze, die neben individuellen auch institutionelle und normative Aspekte von Bildung berücksichtigen, hinreichend erklärt werden können.

    There has been a lot of demographic research concerning the relationship between education and fertility. Most studies, however, focus on the level of education and do not include the field of education. Our paper shows that the field of education serves as a better indicator of a woman’s potential reproductive behavior than the level of education does. Our empirical investigation uses register records containing childbearing and educational information for all Swedish women born 1955-59. We find that childlessness increases with the educational level, but this finding applies only for each educational field. At each educational level there exist great differences in childlessness among women of different educational fields. Our results indicate that studies of the relationship between education and fertility need to include individual as well as institutional and normative aspects in order to reach explanations of the varying effects of education on childbearing behavior.

  • 98.
    Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hoem, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kinderlosigkeit, Bildungsrichtung und Bildungsniveau. Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung schwedischer und österreichischer Frauen der Geburtenjahrgänge 1955-592013Inngår i: Ein Leben ohne Kinder: Ausmass, Strukturen und Ursachen von Kinderlosigkeit / [ed] Dirk Konietzka, Michaela Kreyenfeld, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2013, 2, s. 101-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [de]

    Der Zusammenhang zwischen Bildung und Kinderlosigkeit gehört seit langem zu den Kernthemen der demographischen Forschung. Studien zur Kinderlosigkeit in westlichen Ländern kommen im Allgemeinen zum gleichen Ergebnis: Je höher das erreichte Bildungsniveau, desto höher der Anteil kinderlos bleibender Frauen.

    Dieser Beitrag ist eine leicht geänderte Fassung von „Bildung und Kinderlosigkeit in Österreich und Schweden“ (Neyer 2009). Dieser ist wiederum eine Zusammenführung der Artikel „Education and childlessness: The relationship between educational field, educational level, and childlessness among Swedish women born in 1955-59“ (Hoem, Neyer und Andersson 2006a), „Education and permanent childlessness: Austria vs. Sweden. A research note“ (Neyer and Hoem 2008) und „Kinderlosigkeit, Bildungsrichtung und Bildungsniveau. Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung schwedischer Frauen der Geburtenjahrgänge 1955-59“ (Neyer, Hoem und Andersson 2007). Ein zu Hoem, Neyer und Andersson (2006a) komplementärer Artikel, „Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-59“ (Hoem, Neyer und Andersson 2006b), untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen Bildungsrichtung, Bildungsniveau und Kinderzahl. Alle erwähnten Artikel beinhalten zusätzliche Informationen, die wir aus Platzgründen in diesem Beitrag nicht präsentieren können.

  • 99.
    Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Education and Childlessness: The Influence of Educational Field and Educational Level on Childlessness among Swedish and Austrian Women2017Inngår i: Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes, and Consequences / [ed] Michaela Kreyenfeld, Dirk Konietzka, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 183-207Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question of how different institutional structures affect ultimate levels of childlessness. We compare rates of childlessness by educational field and educational level among women born in 1955–1959 in two different welfare states: Austria and Sweden. We find similar patterns of childlessness by educational field in both countries: i.e., women who have been educated to work in the education or health sector have lower rates of childlessness than women who have been educated to work in most other occupational fields. However, rates of childlessness by educational level differ markedly between the two countries: Austrian women with upper-secondary or tertiary education are significantly more likely to be childless than Swedish women with comparable levels of education and Austrian women with lower levels of education. We attribute these differences to the educational systems, the labour market structures, and the family policies of the two countries; which in Sweden promote equality across educational groups, and in Austria create cleavages between educational groups. We conclude with reflections on the implications of our results for demographic research on education and fertility.

  • 100.
    Schéele, Siv
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Municipality attraction and commuter mobility in urban Sweden: An analysis based on longitudinal population data2018Inngår i: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 55, nr 9, s. 1875-1903Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the individual level, commuting can be seen as part of a search process that may lead to adjustments in terms of migration or change of workplace. The behaviour of commuters is affected by individual characteristics and factors related to housing, labour and transport markets. It can provide insight into factors related to different municipalities’ levels of attraction. In our study, we provide a longitudinal analysis of individual commuting behaviour during a one-year study period: we simultaneously address the dynamics of ending commuting by a migration event, a change of workplace, or both. Our study is situated in the urban region that surrounds lake Mälaren of Sweden, including its capital Stockholm. We draw on unique register data on the entire commuter population of that region and linked contextual data on the characteristics of the municipalities where the commuters live and work. Migration rates are strongly related to demographic variables, whereas the propensity to change workplace mainly varies with economic variables. We demonstrate that the attraction of a municipality in terms of residence increases with the general accessibility to workplaces and decreases with its level of housing prices. An increased supply of new dwellings in a municipality has a greater impact on the capacity to increase its population than has an increased supply of workplaces.

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