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  • 51.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Andersson, K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Function of small habitat elements for enhancing plant diversity in different agricultural landscapes2014Inngår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 169, s. 206-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive transformation of agricultural landscapes worldwide has led to a decrease in grassland species related to traditional low-intensive farming. To properly manage and protect species, habitats and ecosystems in any of these landscapes requires a better understanding of direct and indirect effects of the processes driving biodiversity decline. In this study, we investigated how small habitat elements, represented by mid-field islets and road verges, in different types of agricultural landscapes can sustain a regional species pool for plant diversity otherwise associated to semi-natural grasslands. Although semi-natural grasslands had higher total and specialist richness, we found that small habitat elements harboured relatively high plant species richness, especially in a landscape with many semi-natural grasslands left. In the most intensively managed landscape, total richness declined as distance to the nearest semi-natural grassland increased. In contrast, beta-diversity was highest in these landscapes indicating that small habitats are also negatively affected by distance to grassland. We found that species trait composition varied depending on habitat and landscape. The results confirm that fragmentation shape trait composition within plant communities, e.g. plant size, clonality, longevity, and dispersal traits. We conclude that small habitat elements increase the total area available to grassland species present in the landscape, boosting the spatio-temporal dynamics of grassland communities. Small habitat elements may hence function as refugia or stepping stone habitats, especially in intensively utilized agricultural landscapes, and should be regarded as a functional part of a semi-natural grassland network, analogous to a meta-population.

  • 52. Lindborg, T
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Löfgren, A
    Söderbäck, B
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    A strategy for describing the biosphere at candidate sites for repositories of nuclear waste: Linking ecosystem and landscape modeling2006Inngår i: Ambio, Vol. 35, nr 8, s. 418-424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Lindgren, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Local conditions in small habitats and surrounding landscape are important for pollination services, biological pest control and seed predation2018Inngår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 251, s. 107-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small semi-natural and natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are important for biodiversity. With modern and more intensive agricultural practices they have become smaller (less than 1600 m2) and more isolated study which also affects ecosystem functions. Most ecosystem function studies using field experiments focus on a single function. Here, we investigate three functions in the same landscape at the same time. We investigated how local (trees, shrubs and grass-cover in small remnant habitats) and landscape factors (amount of and distance from key habitats i.e. forest and semi-natural grasslands) affect pollination, biological pest control and seed predation. We applied a multifunctional approach using different organisms to analyze pollination success (Primula veris), predation on aphid pests (Rhopalosiphum padi) and seed predation (of Helianthus annuus). A set-up of 3 different experiments were placed in situ on 12 midfield islets. Pollination was more affected by local factors than landscape factors, although pollination success was improved by a smaller proportions of surrounding crop fields. Seed predation was higher on islets with more surrounding forest and also with more trees on the habitat, especially close to shrubs, compared to more open areas of habitat. Predation on aphids decreased on midfield islets with a larger amount of nearby forest but was positively affected by increasing local tree cover on the habitat.

    We show that managing semi-open habitats that are connected to other natural or semi-natural habitats can improve pollination success and biological pest and weed control, thus potentially increasing yield in surrounding crop fields.

  • 54.
    Livsey, John
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Katterer, Thomas
    Vico, Giulia
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. The Nature Conservancy, USA..
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Scaini, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Da, Chau Thi
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Do alternative irrigation strategies for rice cultivation decrease water footprints at the cost of long-term soil health?2019Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id 074011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of water is a growing concern for flooded rice production. As such, several water-saving irrigation practices have been developed to reduce water requirements. Alternate wetting and drying and mid-season drainage have been shown to potentially reduce water requirements while maintaining rice yields when compared to continuous flooding. With the removal of permanently anaerobic conditions during the growing season, water-saving irrigation can also reduce CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) emissions, helping reduce the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the long-term impact of water-saving irrigation on soil organic carbon (SOC)-used here as an indicator of soil health and fertility-has not been explored. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of common water-saving irrigation practices (alternate wetting and drying and mid-season drainage) on (i) SOC, and (ii) GHG emissions. Despite an extensive literature search, only 12 studies were found containing data to constrain the soil C balance in both continuous flooding and water-saving irrigation plots, highlighting the still limited understanding of long-term impacts of water-saving irrigation on soil health and GHG emissions. Water-saving irrigation was found to reduce emissions of CH4 by 52.3% and increased those of CO2 by 44.8%. CO2eq emissions were thereby reduced by 18.6% but the soil-to-atmosphere carbon (C) flux increased by 25% when compared to continuous flooding. Water-saving irrigation was also found to have a negative effect on both SOC-reducing concentrations by 5.2%-and soil organic nitrogen-potentially depleting stocks by more than 100 kgN/ha per year. While negative effects of water-saving irrigation on rice yield may not be visible in short-term experiments, care should be taken when assessing the long-term sustainability of these irrigation practices because they can decrease soil fertility. Strategies need to be developed for assessing the more long-term effects of these irrigation practices by considering trade-offs between water savings and other ecosystem services.

  • 55.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jewitt, Graham
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Mapping ecosystem services across scales and continents - A review2015Inngår i: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 13, s. 57-63Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tremendous progress in ecosystem service mapping across the world has moved the concept of ecosystem services forward towards an increasingly useful tool for policy and decision making. There is a pressing need to analyse the various spatial approaches used for the mapping studies. We reviewed ecosystem services mapping literature in respect to spatial scale, world distribution, and types of ecosystem services considered. We found that most world regions were represented among ecosystem service mapping studies and that they included a diverse set of ecosystem services, relatively well distributed across different ecosystem service categories. A majority of the studies were presented at intermediary scales (municipal and provincial level), and 66% of the studies used a fine resolution of 1 ha or less. The intermediary scale of presentation is important for land use policy and management. The fact that studies are conducted at a fine resolution is important for informing land management practices that mostly takes place at the scale of fields to villages. Ecosystem service mapping could be substantially advanced by more systematic development of cross-case comparisons and methods.

  • 56.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Jewitt, Graham
    Using Participatory Scenario Planning to Identify Ecosystem Services in Changing Landscapes2013Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, nr 4, artikkel-id UNSP 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in assessing ecosystem services to improve ecosystem management in landscapes containing a mix of different ecosystems. While methodologies for assessing ecosystem services are constantly improving, only little attention has been given to the identification of which ecosystem services to assess. Service selection is mostly based on current state of the landscape although many landscapes are both inherently complex and rapidly changing. In this study we examine whether scenario development, a tool for dealing with uncertainties and complexities of the future, gives important insights into the selection of ecosystem services in changing landscapes. Using an agricultural landscape in South Africa we compared different sets of services selected for an assessment by four different groups: stakeholders making the scenarios, experts who have read the scenarios, experts who had not read the scenarios, and services derived from literature. We found significant differences among the services selected by different groups, especially between the literature services and the other groups. Cultural services were least common in literature and that list was also most dissimilar in terms of identity, ranking, and numbers of services compared to the other three groups. The services selected by experts and the scenario stakeholders were relatively similar indicating that knowledge of a study area gained through the scenario exercise is not very different from that of experts actively working in the area. Although our results show limited value in using scenario development for improved ecosystem service selection per se, the scenario development process triggers important discussions with local and regional stakeholders about key issues of today, helping to more correctly assess changes in the future.

  • 57. Marini, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Honnay, Olivier
    Krauss, Jochen
    Kuehn, Ingolf
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Paertel, Meelis
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss2012Inngår i: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 18, nr 9, s. 898-908Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five regions distributed over four countries in Central and Northern Europe. Methods Our dataset was composed of primary data from studies on the distribution of plant communities in 300 grassland fragments in five regions. The regional datasets were consolidated by standardizing nomenclature and species life-history traits and by recalculating standardized landscape measures from the original geographical data. We assessed the responses of plant species richness to habitat area, connectivity, plant life-history traits and their interactions using linear mixed models. Results We found that the negative effect of habitat loss on plant species richness was pervasive across different regions, whereas the effect of habitat isolation on species richness was not evident. This area effect was, however, not equal for all the species, and life-history traits related to both species persistence and dispersal modified plant sensitivity to habitat loss, indicating that both landscape and local processes determined large-scale dynamics of plant communities. High competitive ability for light, annual life cycle and animal dispersal emerged as traits enabling species to cope with habitat loss. Main conclusions In highly fragmented rural landscapes in NW Europe, mitigating the spatial isolation of remaining grasslands should be accompanied by restoration measures aimed at improving habitat quality for low competitors, abiotically dispersed and perennial, clonal species.

  • 58.
    Moor, Helen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Towards a trait-based ecology of wetland vegetation2017Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 105, nr 6, s. 1623-1635Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Functional traits mechanistically capture plant responses to environmental gradients as well as plant effects on ecosystem functioning. Yet most trait-based theory stems from terrestrial systems and extension to other habitats can provide new insights. 2. Wetlands differ from terrestrial systems in conditions (e.g. soil water saturation, anoxia, pH extremes), plant adaptations (e.g. aerenchyma, clonality, ubiquity of bryophytes) and important processes (e.g. denitrification, peat accumulation, methane emission). Wetland plant adaptations and trait (co-)variation can be situated along major plant trait trade-off axes (e.g. the resource economics spectrum), but soil saturation represents a complex stress gradient beyond a simple extension of commonly studied water availability gradients. 3. Traits that affect ecosystem functioning overlap with patterns in terrestrial systems. But wetland-specific traits that mediate plant effects on soil redox conditions, microbial communities and on water flow, as well as trait spectra of mosses, vary among wetland types. 4. Synthesis. With increasing availability of quantitative plant traits a trait-based ecology of wetlands is emerging, with the potential to advance process-based understanding and prediction. We provide an interactive cause-and-effect framework that may guide research efforts to disentangle the multiple interacting processes involved in scaling from environmental conditions to ecosystem functioning via plant communities.

  • 59.
    Moor, Helen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Towards a trait-based ecology of wetland vegetationManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Functional traits mechanistically capture plant responses to environmental gradients as well as plant effects on ecosystem functioning. Yet most trait-based theory stems from terrestrial systems and extension to other habitats can provide new insights.

    2. Wetlands differ from terrestrial systems in conditions (e.g. soil water saturation, anoxia, pH extremes), plant adaptations (e.g. aerenchyma, clonality, ubiquity of bryophytes) and important processes (e.g. denitrification, peat accumulation, methane emission). Wetland plant adaptations and trait (co-)variation can be situated along major plant trait trade-off axes (e.g. the resource economics spectrum), but soil saturation represents a complex stress gradient beyond a simple extension of commonly studied water availability gradients.

    3. Traits that affect ecosystem functioning overlap with patterns in terrestrial systems. But wetland-specific traits that mediate plant effects on soil redox conditions, microbial communities and on water flow, as well as trait spectra of mosses, vary among wetland types.

    4. Synthesis: With increasing availability of quantitative plant traits a trait-based ecology of wetlands is emerging, with the potential to advance process-based understanding and prediction. We provide an interactive cause-and-effect framework that may guide research efforts to disentangle the multiple interacting processes involved in scaling from environmental conditions to ecosystem functioning via plant communities. 

  • 60. Ockinger, Erik
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK). Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sjödin, N. Erik
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Landscape matrix modifies richness of plants and insects in grassland fragments2012Inngår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 259-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing awareness that not only area and isolation, but also the characteristics of the landscape surrounding habitat patches influence population persistence and species diversity in fragmented landscapes. In this study, we examine the effects of grassland fragmentation and land use in the landscape matrix (on a 2 km scale) on species richness of plants, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. These organisms were studied in replicated remnant patches of different sizes and isolation, embedded in landscapes dominated either by forest, arable land or a mix of these. We found positive effects of patch area on species richness of the three insect taxa, but not of plants. Isolation had a negative effect only on hoverflies. Matrix type had contrasting effects on the studied taxa. Species richness of plants and butterflies was lowest in patches in landscapes dominated by arable land and highest in forest-dominated landscapes. For hoverflies, the negative effect of small patch area was strongest in forest-dominated landscapes, and there was a similar non-significant trend for bees. Our study shows the importance of considering matrix characteristics when studying responses to habitat fragmentation. Differences in matrix response among organism groups probably impinge on differing mechanisms. A forest matrix is likely to provide additional resources for butterflies but either constitute a barrier to dispersal or deprive resources as compared to an arable matrix for hoverflies. Enhanced plant diversity in grassland patches embedded in forested landscapes can be explained by habitat generalists more easily invading these patches, or by an unpaid extinction debt in these landscapes.

  • 61.
    Perry, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Staveley, Thomas A. B.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Hammar, Linus
    Meyers, Alyssa
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Temperate fish community variation over seasons in relation to large-scale geographic seascape variables2018Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 75, nr 10, s. 1723-1732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In shallow-water marine environments, ecosystem functioning is a complex interworking of fine-scale characteristics and region-wide factors, and the importance of these variables can vary on multiple temporal and spatial scales. This underwater video study targeted seasonal changes in the fish community of seagrass habitats along the Swedish west coast and the influence of offshore seascape variables (latitudinal position, wave exposure, open ocean, and deep water). Results showed that fish assemblage structure exhibited seasonal changes between summer and autumn and strong spatiotemporal variations in the importance of offshore factors affecting shallow-water fish communities. In summer, abundance from the Gobiidae family responded to wave exposure, whereas the Gadidae family and juvenile migrant habitat preference guild responded to latitudinal position and proximity to deep water. In autumn, deep water was related to abundance of Gadidae and juvenile migrants, whereas latitudinal position influenced Gasterosteidae. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the influence of offshore factors on facets of coastal fish assemblages to address large-scale geographic connectivity along nearshore–offshore gradients.

  • 62.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Beilin, Ruth
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Farmland abandonment: Threat or opportunity for biodiversity conservation? A global review2014Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 288-296Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmland abandonment is changing rural landscapes worldwide, but its impacts on biodiversity are still being debated in the scientific literature. While some researchers see it as a threat to biodiversity, others view it as an opportunity for habitat regeneration. We reviewed 276 published studies describing various effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity and found that a study's geographic region, selected metrics, assessed taxa, and conservation focus significantly affected how those impacts were reported. Countries in Eurasia and the New World reported mainly negative and positive effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity, respectively. Notably, contrasting impacts were recorded in different agricultural regions of the world that were otherwise similar in land-use and biodiversity characteristics. We showed that the conservation focus (pre- or post-abandonment) in different regions is an important factor influencing how scientists address the abandonment issue, and this may affect how land-use policies are defined in agricultural landscapes.

  • 63.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Centre of Environmental Biology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Pereira, Henrique M.
    Centre of Environmental Biology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    From traits to services: Assessing ecosystem services using a plant trait approachManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Centre of Environmental Biology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Proença, Vania
    Centre for Technical Innovation, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Merckx, Thomas
    Behavioural Ecology and Conservation Group, Biodiversity Research Centre, Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium.
    Ceausu, Silvia
    Centre of Environmental Biology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Guilherme, João
    Centre of Environmental Biology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Pereira, Henrique M.
    Centre of Environmental Biology, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Habitat, scale and species richness affect functional diversity of plants, moths and birdsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 65.
    Rader, Romina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK). University of New England, Australia.
    Birkhofer, Klaus
    Schmucki, Reto
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Stjernman, Martin
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Organic farming and heterogeneous landscapes positively affect different measures of plant diversity2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1544-1553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing landscape heterogeneity and organic farming practices are known to enhance species richness in agroecosystems. However, little is known about the consequences of these management options on other biodiversity components such as community composition, phylogenetic structure and functional diversity which may be more closely linked to ecosystem functioning. We surveyed semi-natural plant communities within the uncultivated field margins of 18 arable farms in Skane, south Sweden. We investigated how taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity responds to landscape heterogeneity (presence of semi-natural habitat) and farm management intensity (organic vs. conventional farming). Plant species richness and functional diversity metrics all responded positively to landscape heterogeneity, with the strongest effect occurring on conventional farms. Community composition differed with farm management, and mean phylogenetic relatedness, an indicator of phylogenetic structure, was significantly higher on the field margins of organic compared to conventional farms. Individual plant functional groups themselves responded in unique ways to land management and landscape heterogeneity.Synthesis and applications. Management strategies that promote the conservation of heterogeneous landscapes (i.e. a higher proportion of semi-natural habitats) and organic farm management practices are important for maintaining plant phylogenetic, functional and taxonomic diversity in agroecosystems. Accommodating various forms of diversity is important to ensure that ecosystems have the greatest possible array of species ecologies'. Such measures will help to improve the capacity of these ecosystems to provide multiple ecosystem functions, including the sustaining and regulating services of benefit to people. Management strategies that promote the conservation of heterogeneous landscapes (i.e. a higher proportion of semi-natural habitats) and organic farm management practices are important for maintaining plant phylogenetic, functional and taxonomic diversity in agroecosystems. Accommodating various forms of diversity is important to ensure that ecosystems have the greatest possible array of species ecologies'. Such measures will help to improve the capacity of these ecosystems to provide multiple ecosystem functions, including the sustaining and regulating services of benefit to people.

  • 66. Raguz, Veronika
    et al.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Grolander, Sara
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Avila, Rodolfo
    Plant uptake of elements in soil and pore water: Field observations versus model assumptions2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 126, s. 147-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminant concentrations in various edible plant parts transfer hazardous substances from polluted areas to animals and humans. Thus, the accurate prediction of plant uptake of elements is of significant importance. The processes involved contain many interacting factors and are, as such, complex. In contrast, the most common way to currently quantify element transfer from soils into plants is relatively simple, using an empirical soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). This practice is based on theoretical assumptions that have been previously shown to not generally be valid. Using field data on concentrations of 61 basic elements in spring barley, soil and pore water at four agricultural sites in mid-eastern Sweden, we quantify element-specific TFs. Our aim is to investigate to which extent observed element-specific uptake is consistent with TF model assumptions and to which extent TF's can be used to predict observed differences in concentrations between different plant parts (root, stem and ear). Results show that for most elements, plant-ear concentrations are not linearly related to bulk soil concentrations, which is congruent with previous studies. This behaviour violates a basic TF model assumption of linearity. However, substantially better linear correlations are found when weighted average element concentrations in whole plants are used for IF estimation. The highest number of linearly-behaving elements was found when relating average plant concentrations to soil pore-water concentrations. In contrast to other elements, essential elements (micronutrients and macronutrients) exhibited relatively small differences in concentration between different plant parts. Generally, the TF model was shown to work reasonably well for micronutrients, whereas it did not for macronutrients. The results also suggest that plant uptake of elements from sources other than the soil compartment (e.g. from air) may be non-negligible.

  • 67. Rist, L.
    et al.
    Felton, A.
    Nyström, M.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Sponseller, R. A.
    Bengtsson, J.
    Österblom, H.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Tidåker, P.
    Angeler, D. G.
    Milestad, R.
    Moen, J.
    Applying resilience thinking to production ecosystems2014Inngår i: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 73-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Production ecosystems typically have a high dependence on supporting and regulating ecosystem services and while they have thus far managed to sustain production, this has often been at the cost of externalities imposed on other systems and locations. One of the largest challenges facing humanity is to secure the production of food and fiber while avoiding long-term negative impacts on ecosystems and the range of services that they provide. Resilience has been used as a framework for understanding sustainability challenges in a range of ecosystem types, but has not been systematically applied across the range of systems specifically used for the production of food and fiber in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments. This paper applied a resilience lens to production ecosystems in which anthropogenic inputs play varying roles in determining system dynamics and outputs. We argue that the traditional resilience framework requires important additions when applied to production systems. We show how sustained anthropogenic inputs of external resources can lead to a coercion'' of resilience and describe how the global interconnectedness of many production systems can camouflage signals indicating resilience loss.

  • 68. Roellig, Marlene
    et al.
    Costa, Augusta
    Garbarino, Matteo
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hartel, Tibor
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Mayr, Sabine
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Sammul, Marek
    Varga, Anna
    Fischer, Joern
    Post Hoc Assessment of Stand Structure Across European Wood-Pastures: Implications for Land Use Policy2018Inngår i: Rangeland Ecology & Management, ISSN 1550-7424, E-ISSN 1551-5028, Vol. 71, nr 5, s. 526-535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe's woodland and savanna rangelands, often part of silvopastoral systems known as wood-pastures, are deteriorating because of abandonment that leads to return to a forested state or lack of tree regeneration from overgrazing or tree and shrub removal. Despite numerous local studies, there has been no broader survey of the stand structure of European wood-pastures showing which systems are at risk of losing their semiopen character. This overview aims to 1) show some of the differences and similarities in wood-pastures from landscapes across Europe and 2) identify which of these wood-pastures are at risk of losing their semiopen character. We collated a dataset of 13 693 trees from 390 plots in wood-pastures from eight different European regions (western Estonia, eastern Greece, northern Germany, Hungary, northern Italy, southern Portugal, central Romania, and southern Sweden), including tree diameters at breast height, tree density, management type, and tree species composition. On the basis of their structural characteristics, we classified wood-pastures using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The PCA showed a gradient from dense wood-pastures with high levels of regeneration (e.g., in Estonia) to sparse wood-pastures with large trees but a lack of regeneration (e.g., in Romania). Along this gradient, we identified three main groups of wood-pastures: 1) sparse wood-pastures with mostly big trees; 2) dense wood-pastures composed of small trees, and 3) wood-pastures containing a wide range of tree ages. Our results show a large structural gradient in European wood-pastures, as well as regeneration problems varying in their severity, highlighting the importance of social-ecological context for wood-pasture conditions. To maintain the ecological and cultural integrity of European wood-pastures, we suggest 1) more comprehensively considering them in European policies such as the Common Agricultural Policy and EU Habitats Directive, while 2) taking into account their structural characteristics and social-ecological backgrounds.

  • 69.
    Schmucki, Reto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Reimark, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Landscape context and management regime structure plant diversity in grassland communities2012Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 100, nr 5, s. 1164-1173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Theoretical models show that environmental heterogeneity and dispersal are major determinants of species diversity at multiple scales, yet there are few studies from real landscapes that adequately integrate variation in the surrounding matrix. Understanding how landscape context and management influence species composition and diversity patterns across habitats and scales is an important goal in ecology with relevance for both management and conservation. 2. We used a system of 25 landscapes distributed across islands in the Baltic Sea to investigate the effect of current and historical landscape context and management on plant diversity and composition in grassland communities. Plant diversity was measured at three hierarchical scales (1 m2, habitat, landscape) in grazed fields and adjacent wood pastures to calculate a-, beta- and ?-diversity values across habitats and scales. 3. Structural equation modelling was used to model and quantify the effects of landscape context on species diversity and spatial turnover, and constraint analysis of principal coordinates to relate variation in species composition to landscape variables. 4. Proportion of open land, spacing and grazing intensity positively affected species diversity in both habitats, whereas the effect of historical landscape context was only significant in open fields. Plant diversity in field pastures was mainly determined by the number of species found at a small scale, while both local species density and spatial turnover were key determinants of diversity in wood pastures. 5. Habitat proximity influenced species composition as compositional similarity was higher between adjacent field and wood pastures compared to randomly paired habitats. Although increasing flow of propagules from adjacent patches can promote local coexistence, dispersal can result in spatial homogenization. 6. Synthesis. Plant diversity in grassland communities is substantially influenced by species occurring in adjacent habitats. While the effect of landscape context and management on small-scale diversity was consistent across habitats, the effect on spatial turnover was habitat specific. Our study shows that plant diversity is structured through the interplay between local and landscape processes and highlights that plant communities in specific habitat types cannot be considered in isolation from the surrounding landscape matrix.

  • 70.
    Staveley, Thomas A. B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Perry, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Seascape structure and complexity influence temperate seagrass fish assemblage composition2017Inngår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 40, nr 8, s. 936-946Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how spatial patterning relates to ecological processes is fundamental to define important species-environment associations at broader scales. Analyses targeting habitat structure (i.e. composition and configuration) in terrestrial landscapes are increasing, but similar studies in marine landscapes are still relatively uncommon. In this study, we explored how seascape structure and complexity (determined from significant spatial pattern metrics) influenced summer and autumn fish assemblage composition in 30 seagrass (Zostera marina) meadows along the west coast of Sweden. Species density was not influenced by seascape structure in any season. In contrast, the majority of significant fish assemblage variables were influenced by seascape structure during the summer (i.e. abundance and proportion of juveniles, abundance of Labridae and abundance of occasional shallow-water visitors) whilst fewer in the autumn (i.e. abundance of occasional shallow-water visitors and Synganthidae). For instance, less complex seascapes were more suitable for juvenile assemblages in summer, as these seascapes exhibit larger patch sizes of appropriate habitat (e.g. Z. marina) and less edge boundaries providing refuges from predators and food resources. Abundances of migrating fish, such as the sea trout Salmo trutta, also responded positively to a less complex seascape in the summer though perhaps ecological processes, such as prey availability, were additional contributing factors driving this relationship. High complexity seascapes only had a positive influence on the abundance of taxa using multiple habitats (Labridae during the summer). Our study shows that fish assemblages in temperate marine environments are significantly linked to spatial habitat patterning and seascape complexity. This offers valuable insights into species-habitat-seascape linkages, information important for coastal conservation and marine spatial planning.

  • 71. Stenseke, Marie
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Dahlberg, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Slätmo, Elin
    System or arena?: Conceptual concerns around the analysis of landscape dynamics2012Inngår i: Resilience and the cultural landscape: Understanding and managing change in human-shaped environments / [ed] Tobias Plieninger, Claudia Bieling, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, s. 80-94Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 72. Sutcliffe, Laura M. E.
    et al.
    Batary, Peter
    Kormann, Urs
    Baldi, Andras
    Dicks, Lynn V.
    Herzon, Irina
    Kleijn, David
    Tryjanowski, Piotr
    Apostolova, Iva
    Arlettaz, Raphael
    Aunins, Ainars
    Aviron, Stephanie
    Balezentiene, Ligita
    Fischer, Christina
    Halada, Lubos
    Hartel, Tibor
    Helm, Aveliina
    Hristov, Iordan
    Jelaska, Sven D.
    Kaligaric, Mitja
    Kamp, Johannes
    Klimek, Sebastian
    Koorberg, Pille
    Kostiukova, Jarmila
    Kovacs-Hostyanszki, Aniko
    Kuemmerle, Tobias
    Leuschner, Christoph
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Loos, Jacqueline
    Maccherini, Simona
    Marja, Riho
    Mathe, Orsolya
    Paulini, Inge
    Proenca, Vania
    Rey-Benayas, Jose
    Sans, F. Xavier
    Seifert, Charlotte
    Stalenga, Jaroslaw
    Timaeus, Johannes
    Toeroek, Peter
    van Swaay, Chris
    Viik, Eneli
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Harnessing the biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland2015Inngår i: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 722-730Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large proportion of European biodiversity today depends on habitat provided by low-intensity farming practices, yet this resource is declining as European agriculture intensifies. Within the European Union, particularly the central and eastern new member states have retained relatively large areas of species-rich farmland, but despite increased investment in nature conservation here in recent years, farmland biodiversity trends appear to be worsening. Although the high biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland has long been reported, the amount of research in the international literature focused on farmland biodiversity in this region remains comparatively tiny, and measures within the EU Common Agricultural Policy are relatively poorly adapted to support it. In this opinion study, we argue that, 10years after the accession of the first eastern EU new member states, the continued under-representation of the low-intensity farmland in Central and Eastern Europe in the international literature and EU policy is impeding the development of sound, evidence-based conservation interventions. The biodiversity benefits for Europe of existing low-intensity farmland, particularly in the central and eastern states, should be harnessed before they are lost. Instead of waiting for species-rich farmland to further decline, targeted research and monitoring to create locally appropriate conservation strategies for these habitats is needed now.

  • 73.
    Waldén, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Facing the future for grassland restoration – What about the farmers?2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 227, s. 305-312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the 2010 Aichi Convention for Biological Diversity, the European Union has a goal to restore 15% of degraded ecosystems and their services by the year 2020 (target 2, Europe 2020). This includes restoration of semi-natural grasslands (SNGs). Management of both intact and restored SNGs is dependent on people's willingness to manage them. Due to low profitability, management abandonment still occurs all over Europe, which highlights the need to raise farmers' and landowners' perspectives. In this study, we combined survey data and in-depth interviews with farmers/landowners managing previously restored SNGs, to understand how they perceive the restoration process, the outcome and future management. Survey and interview data were analysed in relation to biodiversity and Agri-environmental payments data from the restored sites. Almost all respondents considered the restoration successful and the re-inventoried restored SNGs also showed an increase in plant diversity. Nevertheless, 10% of the restored SNGs were abandoned again post-restoration and 40% of the respondents were unsure if they would continue the management in the future. Abandoned management may cause a negative trend in terms of decreased biological, cultural and aesthetic values, in the local community, as well as for the society in general. Most respondents explained a strong dependency on Agri-environmental payments, both as a restoration incentive and for post-restoration management. Also non-financial support from authorities in form of feedback and advice was requested, as well as support from the local community and society as a whole. Future management in a longer time perspective was strongly coupled to the farm economy, i.e. received Agri-environmental payments at farm-level and profit from selling agricultural products, and whether the farmers had successors. We conclude that both social and ecological factors, here farm economy, authority support and proper management, must be in place for long-term success of grassland restoration.

  • 74.
    Waldén, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Long Term Positive Effect of Grassland Restoration on Plant Diversity - Success or Not?2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id e0155836Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration is important for biodiversity conservation worldwide, but surprisingly little is known about its efficiency in a long-term perspective. In this study, we re-examined Swedish semi-natural grasslands 12-20 years after the restoration, by comparing field inventories of vascular plant species diversity made in 2001 with follow-up inventories in 2012. We also analysed restoration effect in relation to six environmental factors and used continuously managed semi-natural grasslands as references of desired state after restoration. We found that total species richness increased over time but not to reference levels, while there were no significant changes in species density or number of grassland specialists. However, the overall species composition in the restored sites, as well as grassland specialist composition, now largely resembled reference conditions. Fertilisation and time between abandonment and restoration were the only environmental variables that affected total species composition change, while site area affected change in grassland specialist composition. Our results show that restoration of semi-natural grasslands can contribute to conservation of semi-natural habitats and their associated biodiversity. Yet, due to the vague restoration goals for these sites, it is difficult to evaluate the restoration success, which emphasise the general need for clear and measurable goals.

  • 75.
    Waldén, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Biodiversity mitigates trade-offs among multiple ecosystem servicesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 76.
    Waldén, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Öckinger, Erik
    Winsa, Marie
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Effects of landscape composition, species pool and time on grassland specialists in restored semi-natural grasslands2017Inngår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 214, s. 176-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat restoration is an important complement to protecting habitat for the conservation of biodiversity. Semi-natural grasslands are target habitats for ecological restoration in temperate Europe. Restoration of abandoned semi-natural grasslands often relies on spontaneous colonisation of plant species from the soil seed bank or the surrounding landscape. Although many studies show that the regional species pool is important for upholding local diversity, its effect on restoration outcome in semi-natural grasslands is poorly known. In this multi landscape study, we examined grassland specialist species occurring in restored grasslands and the effect of specialist species pool, landscape composition and local temporal factors. We found that specialist richness and frequency was positively affected by specialist richness and frequency in the surrounding landscape. Specialist richness in the restored grasslands also increased with time since restoration. Moreover, specialist frequency in the restored grassland increased with the proportion of semi-natural and remnant grassland habitats in the landscape. We also found a positive relationship between the proportion of species occurring in both the restored grassland and its surrounding landscape and time since restoration, in landscapes with high proportions of semi natural grasslands. This suggests that both temporal factors, as well as the landscape composition and species pool, affect plant recolonisation in restored semi-natural grasslands.

  • 77. Winsa, Marie
    et al.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Ockinger, Erik
    Recovery of plant diversity in restored semi-natural pastures depends on adjacent land use2015Inngår i: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 413-422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions - Does restoration success of formerly abandoned semi-natural pastures depend on adjacent land use? Is species richness higher in restored pastures adjacent to an intact semi-natural pasture than in restored pastures adjacent to arable land? Does community similarity between a restored and an adjacent intact pasture decrease with distance from the border between the two pastures? Do differences in species richness and community similarity decrease over time?

    Location - Agricultural landscapes in south-central Sweden.

    Methods - The plant community in previously abandoned but now restored semi-natural pastures was surveyed along a distance gradient from the border between the restored pastures and adjacent fields towards the centre of the pastures. The restored pastures were located adjacent to either a crop field (N=8) or a continuously grazed pasture (N=6), and differed in time since restoration (1-13yr).

    Results - The total species richness was higher in pastures adjoining continuously grazed pastures compared to crop fields. Richness of both total and specialist species increased with time since restoration. Irrespective of adjacent land use, richness of specialist species decreased with increasing distance from the edge, an effect that became weaker with increasing time since restoration. The similarity in species composition compared to that in adjacent continuously grazed pasture also decreased towards the centre of the restored pasture.

    Conclusions - Our results suggest that restoration of biodiversity in semi-natural pastures benefits from adjacent pastures that can act as source habitats. The most likely mechanism is step-wise short-distance dispersal, but also other processes, such as more long-distance dispersal, seed bank dynamics and historical legacies are probably involved. To best succeed in habitat restoration in fragmented landscapes, the spatial location of source populations must be considered.

  • 78. Winsa, Marie
    et al.
    Öckinger, Erik
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Roberts, Stuart P. M.
    Wärnsberg, Johanna
    Bartomeus, Ignasi
    Sustained functional composition of pollinators in restored pastures despite slow functional restoration of plants2017Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 11, s. 3836-3846Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat restoration is a key measure to counteract negative impacts on biodiversity from habitat loss and fragmentation. To assess success in restoring not only biodiversity, but also functionality of communities, we should take into account the re-assembly of species trait composition across taxa. Attaining such functional restoration would depend on the landscape context, vegetation structure, and time since restoration. We assessed how trait composition of plant and pollinator (bee and hoverfly) communities differ between abandoned, restored (formerly abandoned) or continuously grazed (intact) semi-natural pastures. In restored pastures, we also explored trait composition in relation to landscape context, vegetation structure, and pasture management history. Abandoned pastures differed from intact and restored pastures in trait composition of plant communities, and as expected, had lower abundances of species with traits associated with grazing adaptations. Further, plant trait composition in restored pastures became increasingly similar to that in intact pastures with increasing time since restoration. On the contrary, the trait composition of pollinator communities in both abandoned and restored pastures remained similar to intact pastures. The trait composition for both bees and hoverflies was influenced by flower abundance and, for bees, by connectivity to other intact grasslands in the landscape. The divergent responses across organism groups appeared to be mainly related to the limited dispersal ability and long individual life span in plants, the high mobility of pollinators, and the dependency of semi-natural habitat for bees. Our results, encompassing restoration effects on trait composition for multiple taxa along a gradient in both time (time since restoration) and space (connectivity), reveal how interacting communities of plants and pollinators are shaped by different trait-environmental relationships. Complete functional restoration of pastures needs for more detailed assessments of both plants dispersal in time and of resources available within pollinator dispersal range.

  • 79.
    Wood, Heather
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    European Union tree density limits do not reflect bat diversity in wood-pastures2017Inngår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 210, s. 60-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) recommends subsidies are only granted for wood-pastures with < 100 trees/ha. This guidance exists despite these habitats being among the most biodiverse in boreal Europe and currently under threat due to land conversion. Bats are important bio-indicators of agricultural landscapes, but bat diversity has not explicitly been studied in relation to this policy. We investigate how bat activity, foraging, species richness and functional groups are affected in twenty-six wood-pastures along a gradient of tree density, from open to dense. In parallel, open fields and deciduous forests were sampled and the effect of the surrounding landscape configuration was explored. Our results show a consistent increase in total bat activity, foraging activity and species richness within wood-pastures along the tree density gradient. We find optimal tree densities within wood-pastures are higher than values reported in previous studies, and suggest thresholds might depend on the landscape context. Shrub density was a strong predictor of total bat activity and foraging; whilst structural variation of tree size in wood-pastures was most strongly correlated with species richness. We show that wood-pastures are an important habitat and in comparison to forests they contribute to higher bat species richness and activity levels. Interestingly, higher activity levels of forest feeding specialists were observed in wood-pastures compared to forests. At the landscape level, amount of water in the landscape was the strongest predictor of bat activity whilst deciduous forest mostly influenced foraging activity. This study demonstrates that tree density within wood-pastures is not a limiting factor of bat activity and foraging and that other habitat and landscape parameters are important. Thereby focusing solely on tree density limits will not help to promote the ecological requirements for bats. Instead we suggest that a results based approach to CAP payments would be preferable.

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