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  • 51.
    Biamba, Cresantus Nombo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    The Role of Principals in Government Secondary Schools in Cameroon: Demands, Constraints and Choices: A Case Study of Eight Secondary Schools2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this research was to explore the present role of the secondary school principals and the challenges they face in carrying out their duties in the Northwest region of Cameroon. The research, which was exploratory and conducted in the interpretive paradigm, is a case study which was carried out at eight secondary schools. Working in an interpretivist research paradigm within a qualitative research design, the study used semi-structured interviews, observation and document analysis methods.The researcher shadowed each principal for a week of intensive observation and interviewing.

    The findings reveal that tradition, culture and political contexts are crucial factors in understanding what the secondary school principals in Cameroon do and how they conceptualize principalship. The findings show that discussions with parents, staff and desk work were found to be the major job functions taking up most of the principals' time. The findings reveal that principals are agents of accountability and management; they are involved with different regional and local services; are concerned with the safety and security of students; and their day is extended through participation in parent teacher associations and with other local community activities.

    However, the findings also indicate the multi-varied nature of the principal's role. The principal's day was generally hectic in pace, varied in its composition, discontinuous and superficial in any pursuit of tasks, with the unexpected always as one of the few certainties of the job. The dominant model was that of the transactional leader in fixing things, managing and coping in order to maintain the smooth operation of the school.

    Results indicated that deputy principals presented similar feedback to that presented by principals. The major difference being in the way deputy principals perceived tomorrow’s principalship ─ one beyond the transactional model of principal as administrator to the transformational model of principal as leading professional.

  • 52.
    Falkenström, Erica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Verksamhetschefens etiska kompetens: Om identifiering och hantering av intressekonflikter i hälso- och sjukvården2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While research concerning ethical competence in medical practice is frequent, ethical competence in health care management is less often studied. This thesis focuses ethical competence and its preconditions, particularly with regard to health care managers’ identification and handling conflicts of interest. Based on the empirical analysis it also discusses what kind of ethical competence health care managers need, and how this competence can be developed in the organization. The study is based in action theory and takes an organizational pedagogical point of departure. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were carried out twice with ten health care managers in the Stockholm region. Data were analysed using a thematic, step-wise method. The analysis revealed several examples of conflicts of interest and different ways in which they were managed. The all-embracing conflict involved weighing and prioritizing patients’ needs, patient safety, and work environment against political and economical goals. In most cases the informants did not manage to strike a balance between professional ethics and business management. The dominance of purposive/instrumental rationality tended to inhibit the managers’ ethical competence. At the same time, as shown by the analysis, some of the managers were able to use ethical competence to pursue value/belief-oriented rationality in achieving such a balance. Of great importance for success are having rational emotions and an adequate ethical language, and organizing for the task of handling conflict of interests in order to support action and provide qualifying experiences to learn from in the work processes. But the political and administrative control system also needs to clearly articulate the ethical dimensions of the managers’ task, allocate resources, and ensure that support systems and evaluation focus not only on finances but also on the value-rational aspects.

  • 53.
    Oxenswärdh, Anette
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Ansvarsförhållanden vid skolutveckling2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Changed governance increased the freedom of schools but also their responsibility, with more scope for interpreting the assignment. Two models of school development were studied to see how they affect school actors’ understanding of assignment and responsibility, the relationship between the commissioner’s exaction of responsibility and the contractor’s assumption of responsibility. Two case studies examine conceptual dimensions of assumption of responsibility. These models and resulting measures shape actors’ understanding of assignment and responsibility, emphasizing different parts of the control system. The Scope for Action Model stresses the role of the local school with a bottom-up strategy for assumption of responsibility. It uses culture analysis to clarify responsibility relations by making actors aware of their accountability and the potential in their assignment. The Effective Schools Model stresses the political level in a top-down strategy. It shows organizational deficiencies in relation to the assignment and the responsibility. The models increased cooperation between professionals, exposing the organization and its boundaries, management, and occupational roles. Activities became more pupil-oriented, highlighting the task of upbringing and teaching. Lack of time, poor organizational structures, and increased administration obstructed the fulfilment of the assignment. The models led to the exposure and creation of responsibility structures for organization, management, communication and cooperation. Responsibility structures were created through firmer cooperation. These measures furthered individual and collective learning processes and (re)shaped the professionals’ understanding of assignment and responsibility. Professional autonomy is essential for commitment, motivation, and understanding. It is concluded that knowledge of the school’s responsibility reduces the discrepancy and helps professionals to improve their competence and develop school.

  • 54.
    Johansson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Arbetsplatsens lärmiljöer: En organisationspedagogisk studie av konstruerande av lärmiljö i vuxenutbildningsverksamhet2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s research on workplace learning stresses the importance of the environment in which learning takes place. On the basis of an empirical study of a Vocational Education and Training (VET) program this thesis aims to create knowledge about how a learning environment is constructed. Theoretically, the study is based within action theory and takes an organizational pedagogical point of departure. It is rooted both in constructivist theory, as well as draws on the theory of learning as culturally and socially situated. The study is designed as a single case study. Data was primarily collected during periods of field studies through the observation of teachers’ work inside and outside classroom settings; recurring in-depth interviews with six teachers and eight participants, and reflection group interviews with the teachers. The study reveals a difference between participants’ and teachers’ educational goals and ambitions. This is important to acknowledge due to the necessity for the teachers to handle the difference. It gives information on daily work in the VET-program and the important work tasks that emerge. The program is influenced by the ideological foundations developed by its principal organizer, which comes to play as a special way of reasoning, the Yes-thought. Much of the daily work consists of an adjustable way of working and an approach that supports it. However, two tension fields can be identified in which discretion in work tasks is created. The first concerns the approach to work tasks, and is a tension between dynamic and instrumental approaches. The second concerns the organizing of work tasks and is a tension between adjustable and regulating ways of working. Micro context is introduced as a concept, referring to the context of meaning which is created around work tasks. Depending on the micro context’s position in the two tension fields, different conditions of learning can be identified. The micro contexts can then be understood as the learning environments in the work place.

  • 55.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Att styra i namn av framtid: Subjektskonstruktioner och tekniker för styrning2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the dissertation is to problemize the stories about a gradual change and development of education governance. The study objects are steering, constructions of the subject, and disciplinary techniques. The focus is future as a disciplinary technology. Based on the story of a gradual development and change in educational governance three strands were chosen: the late 1970s, the mid-1990s and the first decade of the 21st century. Teacher education was chosen because it is to be found in all educational system. The empirical material consists of policy bills and text designed to create knowledge about teacher education, and text created in the educational community that focus on education and future.

    The questions asked relate the study to Foucault´s thinking about governmentality, genealogy, and bio-politics. The essence in governmentality, genealogy and bio-politicis is that that knowledge and knowledge production is a productive activity that generate possibilities that allow us to construct ourselves as subjects.

    A general feature in the empirical material is the structure of an overall and collecting concept. The time characteristic become visible through the way that people live, work, and study. The stories create an image of a national and the individual's history, with a present, and a future with possibilities, and restrictions. Those constructions create the contexts that the subject is in and will be a part of. Regardless of story, the question and the task is to organize and provide for the individual as the creator of community, economy, health and future. In the documents it is mainly in the construction of "the other" that the community appears. A hierarchical surveillance was made visible in the tree strands. It can be described as frames in which time is divided into intervals with requirements and objectives possible to examine and document. Confession as a technique for discipline is reused under different names. Confession activities are organized in the pedagogical practices and are referred to as “dialogue pedagogy”, “didactics” and “performance assessment”. Practices were the individual are invited to speak, in a need to speak whit some “other” who “knows” and can act and tutor. The educational practice creates network, actors and audiences who act and communicate with each other simultaneously. The network spreads and demonstrates society's intentions and purposes whit the educational system. The networks and the talk of the future and education create the subjects ways to think and talk about herself and others.

    The educational and scientific discourse is part of a political rationality, where functions and practices create ways to coordinate and neutralize differences even though with different names. It is therefore not possible to say that one form of subject construction have been exchanged in benefit of another, it is rather a movement back and forth. The problem is about efficiency, control and to influence the individual's choice, and coordinate individuals in the creation of opportunities for the individual and the nation.

  • 56.
    Hultman, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Barn, linjaler och andra aktörer: Posthumanistiska perspektiv på subjektskapande och materialitet i förskola/skola2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the interaction between nonhuman materiality and the construction of subjectivity in pedagogical practices. The starting point is that children are constantly engaged in significant relations, not only to other humans but also to nonhuman matter, and that nonhuman materiality such as pedagogical material, toys and furniture partake and play an important role in the construction of children’s subjectivities. However, most theories that are being used in educational research with a focus on subjectivity take on a notion that renders nonhuman materiality as passive, and as firmly subordinated humans or language. In order to take into account how nonhuman materiality can be understood as a constitutive force I turn to and investigate a posthumanist perspective that conceptualize agency and performative qualities as a property, not only of humans but also of nonhuman materiality (Barad 1997; Bennett 2004, 2005, 2007; Pickering 1995, 2005). Among the different theoretical frameworks and concepts available that shares these understandings I especially focus on concepts developed in actor- network theory (Callon 1986; Latour 1992; 1999a, 1999b, 2005; Law 2002, 2004). In four research articles I put these concepts to work in relation to pieces of empirical data from pedagogical practices in order to investigate how subjectivity is constituted by the interplay between humans and nonhumans. From these four articles I conclude that a posthumanist perspective in which the  world is conceptualized as constitutive and performative can intensify and broaden the insights made from post structural and social constructionist perspectives, which have focused on language as a constitutive force. I further discuss how a posthumanist perspective gives way to an understanding of children’s relations to nonhumans in terms of communication, mutual transformations and translations that changes both humans and nonhumans.

  • 57.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Designs for Learning in an Extended Digital Environment: Case Studies of Social Interaction in the Social Science Classroom2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies designs for learning in the extended digital interface in the Social Science classroom. The aim is to describe and analyse how pupils interact, make meaning and learn while deploying digital learning resources.

    Together with the thesis a multimodal design theoretical perspective on learning has developed: Designs for Learning. Here learning is understood as multimodal transformative processes of sign-making activities where teachers and pupils are viewed as didactic designers. A model called Learning Design Sequence has been developed and serves as a tool for data collection and analysis. Video observation material from five ICT-advanced schools with pupils aged 6-17 was multimodally transcribed and analysed.

    In conclusion the thesis, among other things, indicates that:

    - Social Science acquires informal features and pupils are independently designing their own digital Social Science material.

    - Pupils’ interactions are significantly multimodal and the digital learning resource becomes a third element in interaction. Pupils are constantly active and very responsive to each others’ representations. They cooperate as if learning in the extended interface is a collective responsibility.

    - Pupils’ learning is also significantly multimodal. Being digital natives, they engage in colours, sounds and images to represent some of their learning.

    - Learning represented in modes other than text and speech becomes invisible and disappears in the digital divide.

    - Pupils are simultaneously designing parallel paths of learning. One path represents the formalised education which is the path initiated, promoted and assessed by the teacher. The other path is guided by pupils’ interests and by affordances in the digital interface. This represents the extended learning that goes on below the surface.          

    The thesis ends with a discussion about didactic complexities in The Online Learning Paradigm.

  • 58.
    Sternäng, Li
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Ethical and normative reasoning on climate change: Conceptions and solutions among students in a Chinese context2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in environmental education and learning has mainly concerned students’ understanding of natural scientific knowledge, whereas research on the influence of other knowledge in learning environmental issues is marginal. Also, the interest in most studies investigating students’ natural scientific knowledge has been to capture constraints in students’ understanding, hence investigations of students’ meaning making are rare.

    The main objective of this thesis was to explore individual students’ reasoning regarding climate change, and the influence of knowledge on their reasoning.

    In Study I, students’ conceptions of the enhanced greenhouse effect (EGHE) were investigated. The results showed that students incorporated different pieces of information from different problem areas into the conceptualization of the EGHE. Setting up causal links between diversely different pieces of information seems to be a way to make meaning, and thus a necessary step in the learning process. Study II is an investigation of students’ solutions to climate change. The results indicated that students contextualized problems and solutions by addressing the individual(s), where the individual(s) was either “myself” or “someone else”. The different notions of the individual(s) became crucial as the students’ views of the environment, as well as society, changed according to the different contexts.  To further study students’ conceptions of “me” and “others”, Study III examined students’ conceptualized solutions to the dilemma between economic development and mitigating climate change. The findings suggested that students’ conceptualized nature as a “box” of resources, and that economic development would sustain and improve nature. Therefore, the dilemma between economic development and mitigating climate change or dealing with environmental problems did not exist. Results from all three studies were discussed with respect to theoretical implications.

  • 59.
    Hällström, Catharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Insändare i Kamratposten: Uttryck för villkor i barns kulturella sammanhang2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to elevate children's conditions as they are expressed in the specific genre of letters to the editor column. The empirical material consists of 1054 child writer contributions in the children's magazine 'Kamratposten' 1977-2007.

    In the thesis the letters to the editor column is considered to constitute a social place wherein a meeting occurs between ideas, norms and values from children's culture and culture for children, creating conditions for how the children writers express themselves. It concerns conditions the children experience, interpret and reproduce from their daily lives, as well as conditions formed by different editors in a magazine for children.

    Drawing on a theoretical framework of semiotics and culture pedagogy in combination with a methodological approach of hermeneutics and abduction, the concepts 'develomental task' and 'affordance' were initially used to interpret data. During the interpreting process two main phenomena have been conceptualised as prominent conditions in children's everyday life: Belonging and Place.

    The abductive method used in the study revealed how the dialectics of belonging and place as conditional phenomena create feelings of discomfort, as well as feelings of pleasure. The results show that these feelings are mainly due to a sense of belonging in families, peer groups and romantic relations. The results also illustrate that belonging and place concerns more than being part of different social and cultural settings. It concerns feelings of real participation and involvment, of taking part, in family life and social interaction with peers, girlfriends and boyfriends. The children's written contributions reveal that belonging and place are issues of vital democratic quality in their daily life and world.

  • 60.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    "Nästan som en författare" - multimedialt berättande: Utforskande av lärande om och i berättande med inspiration från Vygotskij2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis builds on an interest in teaching that enables learning for all children, including children with disabilities. The work is founded in a theoretical perspective on teaching and learning and respectively research practices based on Lev S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical ideas of learning and development as emerging in zone(s) of proximal development. The aim of this thesis is to identify and comprehensively analyze learning processes that emerge while four students (boys), diagnosed with autism, create stories based on a cultural model of narration using multimedia software tools. A second aim is to try out a collaborative research model that enables the study of learning processes in a teaching practice. The thesis is based on a case study designed as a collaborative research project in a small, primary class in a Swedish compulsory school. The researcher and the teacher collaboratively designed and carried out assignments on narration concurrently served as experiments with cultural tools. The total material comprise over 30 hours of videotape and more than 30 digital stories/artefacts. Consequently the analysis is mainly based on video recordings and students’ multimedia stories. Four storytelling projects: Digital puppets, The Knight and the Princess, The Magical Necklace, and a Time Travel to the Middle Age, are analyzed sequentially highlighting changes in the learning and development. Key themes in the analysis are: The emergence and expansion of learning in a playful narrative community; The learning and development emerging in the interplay of explicit conscious narrative structure and everyday experience; The possibilities for creative and imaginative storytelling in different modalities. The discussion highlights narrative processes in the interplay of various cultural tools as a possibility in enabling important aspects of learning and cultural development. A key result is the potential for expansive learning in multi-faceted enabling educational activities. The learning and development emerging in storytelling, the becoming, was highlighted when one of the students expressed himself “almost as a writer”.

  • 61.
    Neidenmark, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Pedagogiska imperativ och sociala nätverk i svensk medborgarbildning 1812−18282011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis in the History of Education studies the pedagogization of Swedish society from 1812–1828. These ambitions were promoted by state officials and educational innovators who we­re tightly knit through social networks. The research questions are: Why did these indi­vi­duals orga­nize themselves the way they did in the field of education? Which practices of external com­mun­ica­­tion and interaction within associations existed? Which impact did these practices of external communication and internal interaction have on the educational debate? Civic formation is analyzed through the activity or practices identified in the diffusion of useful knowledge, self-education, scho­ols, and educational policies. Arguments for civic formation, educational imperatives, are reflected in new words and new schools. The imperatives are in part an outcome of social networking studied through affiliations to associations, newspapers and governing boards. Hence, a great number of affiliations have been organized in a new and advanced web-based application.

    Papers and associations were important to in dissolving feudal society, and as key ingred­ients for the emancipation of the middle class, they gradually gained more in­fluence upon society. The educational reformers’ involvement in papers and societies were important for them coining new Swedish words with educational importance: it was an extern­al communicative practice. Involvement in associations is somewhat more internal and has been studied as leading to social interaction. This interaction is studied as social capital through social network analysis. This revealed focal points on the individual level which made a signi­fi­cant contribution to the educational debate. These were social networks sustained by the spi­rit of Enlightenment and emancipation. What has long been un­recog­ni­zed in the History of Edu­cation is presented as important features in this thesis through the analysis of social networks.

  • 62.
    Magnusson, Nicola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Refugeeship - A project of justification: Claiming asylum in England and Sweden2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the asylum process from an experiential perspective, starting in the country of origin, fleeing, claiming asylum and being granted refugee status. The theoretical interest is to contribute with an understanding of how this asylum process impacts on personal meaning-making, focusing on identification and positioning work of the person forced to flee and make an asylum claim. With this purpose in mind, I have remained close to the experiences of the participants talk made visible through interpretative analysis.

     

    Drawing on a discursive-psychological approach, 19 interview-cases (10 in England and 9 in Sweden) have been analysed consisting of stories of the migration process: life in the country of origin, fleeing, claiming asylum and being granted refugee status. This talk includes rich description of what this has involved for these participants, in terms of the more existential aspects of this kind of migration, identification and positioning, as well as their attempts to give this process some sort of meaning. This I name refugeeship.

     

    The results show that refugeeship is characterised by a multitude of implicit and explicit questionings concerning the refugee’s rights and duties. Implicit questions concerning the refugee’s flight, starting in the country of origin are followed by explicit questions when encountering the official legal system of asylum in the new country, which involves an erosion of sense of self. The refugee stories express what I call the moral career of refugeeship, illustrating the events in refugeeship which are ongoing, though changeable over time and space and incorporate a moral dimension. The refugee finds him or herself continuously justifying the migration, struggling for recognition and convincing ‘Others’ that one can in fact become a contributing member of  the new society.

  • 63.
    Forssell, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Skolan som politiskt narrativ: En studie av den skolpolitiska debatten i Sveriges riksdag 1991 - 20022011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How do politician talk about the role of school in society, in an era of changing demands and challenges represented by the knowledge society and globalization? The material underlying the study consists of protocols from the Swedish parliament during a decade characterized by many reforms and with both a conservative government and a social democratic. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the contemporary debate on school policy in the Swedish Parliament between 1991 and 2002.  My research questions are: Which are the dominating narratives about schooling that emerge in the debate? What are the influences from contemporary policies and from educational research? What kind of rhetorical resources underpin the arguments in the plenary debate and are there any shifts, inconsistencies and contradictions that can be heard in the debates?  Inspired by Margaret Somers four dimensions of narratives: ontological narrative, public narrative, metanarrative and conceptual narrative and I am using them to interpret different aspects of school as a political narrative.

    Methodologically, I worked initially with a content analysis gradually moving to narrative analysis. The educational debates held during the three terms in office are characterised by different political initiatives and different kind of issues. I construct a number of dominating narratives with different plots, problems, solutions and promises of a better future for both the school and the nation. Key concepts seems to “float” depending on who uses them and in what context they are used. Important parts in the narratives are the rhetorical resources that politicians are using to get legitimacy and credibility. Perceptions of schools presented in the debate, may be seen as stories about what is desirable and possible, but also what is unwanted, threatening the progress of school and society. I have highlighted four public narratives in these debates and they are: A School for All, School on the Market, School in the Knowledge Society and A School in Crisis.

  • 64.
    Palmer, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att bli matematisk: Matematisk subjektivitet och genus i lärarutbildningen för de yngre åldrarna2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the processes through which mathematical and gendered subjectivity is constituted, reconstituted and maintained in different situations during Early Childhood Teacher Education (ECE). In three research articles it is investigated how student teachers’ subjectivity constitutions are expressed, formulated and reformulated in different discursive and material practices. With the support of feminist poststructural theories, student teachers’ subjectification processes are investigated in relation to the subject of mathematics, gender, different learning and teaching discourses, materials and environments. During the course of the work a theoretical transit is carried out: from Judith Butler’s theories (1990, 1993 and 1997) to Karen Barad’s (2007, 2008) theoretical territory. The empirical data was collected from three cohorts (2005-2007) of a ten-week long mathematics course included in a one-year ECE course called Investigative Pedagogy – Dialogue Reggio Emilia. Examples of the data include memory stories written by student teachers, pedagogical documentation from different mathematics projects, field notes from action research studies in ECE education, survey results and students’ reports. Methodologically, in relation to the first and second articles the thesis works with feminist discourse analysis, deconstructive and performative methodology and in relation to the third article with diffractive and intra-active methodology. The results show examples of how student teachers constitute mathematical subjectivity through complex networks of social relations, learning discourses, gender, material practices, time, space and place. Taking part in alternative, aesthetic interdisciplinary learning practices changes the understanding of student teachers’ mathematical subjectivity, although not always in predictable or uncomplicated ways. In the shift from a discursive and performative way of understanding mathematical subjectivity to an agentic realistic one, the understanding of mathematical subjectivity is widened to include things, materials and environments. This shift implies a decisive meaning for how pedagogical practices can be viewed and, in the long run, how mathematics didactics can be approached for student teachers and young children alike.

  • 65.
    Wibaeus, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att undervisa om det ofattbara: En ämnesdidaktisk studie om kunskapsområdet Förintelsen i skolans historieundervisning2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose is to study the meaning that teachers give the Holocaust as a field of knowledge; the subsequent nature of their teaching; and how it is understood by the students. In connection to this, the purpose is also to discuss the potential of developing a historical consciousness among the students as well as the possibility of bringing insights into the importance of fundamental democratic values. The intentions described by the teachers when teaching the Holocaust as a field of knowledge vary relatively much. Five main themes are found that show these variations. These are: “Never again!”; “Not only the Holocaust!”;“Think critically!”; “Understand the psychology of man!” and “Realize the value of democracy!” Common to the first two themes is the teachers' intention to inform students about crimes against humanity during the Nazi rule and/or under communist regimes. These teachers are mainly using tools that illustrate the horrific aspects of the crimes, focusing on the victims and the perpetrators. The three following themes differ from the first two as they focus the teaching on the steps to Auschwitz, instead of on the Holocaust itself. The intention here is to create an understanding of factors that can contribute to an explanation of what made the Holocaust possible. The concept of a historical consciousness is not expressively used or explained in the teaching, although it is obvious that some of the teachers expect their students to think in the dimensions of the past, the present and the future, as well as understand the relation between these dimensions.

  • 66.
    Bergdahl, Lovisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Seeing Otherwise: Renegotiating Religion and Democracy as Questions for Education2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rooted in philosophy of education, the overall purpose of this dissertation is to renegotiate the relationship between education, religion, and democracy by placing the religious subject at the centre of this renegotiation. While education is the main focus, the study draws its energy from the fact that tensions around religious beliefs and practices seem to touch upon the very heart of liberal democracy. The study reads the tensions religious pluralism seems to be causing in contemporary education through a post-structural approach to difference and subjectivity.

    The purpose is accomplished in three movements. The first aims to show why the renegotiation is needed by examining how the relationship between education, democracy, and religion is currently being addressed in cosmopolitan education and deliberative education. The second movement introduces a model of democracy, radical democracy, that sees the process of defining the subject as a political process. It is argued that this model offers possibilities for seeing religion and the religious subject as part of the struggle for democracy. The third movement aims to develop how the relationship between education, democracy, and religion might change if we bring them together in a conversation whose conditions are not ‘owned’ by any one of them.

    To create this conversation, Hannah Arendt, Jacques Derrida, Søren Kierkegaard, and Emmanuel Levinas are brought together around three themes – love, freedom, and dialogue – referred to as ‘windows.’ The windows offer three examples in which religious subjectivity is made manifest but they also create a shift in perspective that invites other ways of seeing the tensions between religion and democracy. The aim of the study is to discuss how education might change when religion and democracy become questions for it through the perspectives offered in the windows and what this implies for the particular religious subject.

  • 67.
    Claeson, Lisbeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Tid och existentiellt meningsskapande: Kvinnors berättelser om sitt liv med allvarlig sjukdom2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Being affected by a serious or life-threatening illness implies an existentially changed situation that is accompanied by a number of questions about the illness itself, consequences of the illness in an everyday context and implications for the future. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine people’s meaning-making when they are affected by a serious illness and to determine how the illness acquires meaning in the context of their lives. The dissertation thus deals with what can be referred to as existential meaning-making. A hermeneutical approach was adopted, drawing more specifically on Paul Ricoeur’s narrative theory that emphasises the importance of different dimensions of time and memory in the understanding of narratives.

    An empirical study was carried out of illness narratives collected in research interviews with six women who had been diagnosed with serious illnesses, such as cancer, stroke and heart attack. The analysis reveals that the discovery of the illness and the period following was characterized by chaos and a lack of time perspective, feelings of lack of freedom and thoughts about death, but also feelings of responsibility towards the family. Experiences of the health services were also important in accounts of this early period, particularly wishes for more empathic encounters with the professionals. In the women’s accounts of the long term living with the illness, death continues to emerge as a back drop to their everyday experiences of the illness, but gradually more as confronting the problem of death rather than giving up life. Over time, relationships to significant others and the importance of everyday life also constitute increasingly important themes. In their expectations for the future, the women account for some experiences that have been important in creating a sense of hope and heightened vitality, and thus a new ‘wholeness’, such as being close to nature as well as their religious or spiritual experiences. These results are discussed in terms of how memories of significant events or places play an important role in existential meaning-making, and also how reflections on these memories can be seen as a process of existential ‘learning’.

  • 68.
    Christensen Sköld, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    "Vi kan inte alla passa till hantverkare": Blinda kvinnors bildningsprocess 1879-19232010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of my dissertation is to make a contribution to the history of blind women in Sweden from 1879 to 1923 by demonstrating how they were educationally defined and classified during that period. I have chosen this particular period because education for the blind was separated from that of the deaf in 1879, when the first state-funded institute was founded. My study ends in 1923, the year in which state control of the blind ended, to be replaced by a supportive network created by the Organisation for the cooperation with a philanthropic organisation.

    My chief source were the State school for the Blind archives, which contain reports from 1903 to 1923  compiled by inspectors whose task it was to supervise education for the blind.  For my interpretation of these sources I adopted a hermeneutic method. Since blind women have left very few written sources, I concentrated my interpretation on historical events and their external reality, while touching on the current of ideas these events formed part of. However, I have written four mini biographies of blind women who were Professional blind, using the vocabulary of Robert A. Scott. They worked at the organisation for the blind (DBF) most of their life, trying to improve the conditions of their fellow sisters.

    Ideas which were part of a process which was rapidly changing society were adopted by educationalists of the blind, although it often took years before new teaching methods and subjects were assimilated into education for the blind.

    Education for the blind 1879-1923 was a process of normalisation and integration of the disabled, although these concepts have a different meaning today. Normalisation then meant not being a burden to society; self-support was the catchword. There were several dividing mechanisms in education for the blind which contributed to blind women’s dependence on financial support. However, it should be pointed out that this attitude to blind women did not differ much from society’s attitude to women in general. Although there was an effort to make blind women more self-supporting around the time of the Great War, the majority of blind women still desperately needed support in the beginning of the 1920s.

    Private vocational schools for the blind were better informed of the needs of blind women and so provided an education which helped to make them self-supporting. These schools were run by blind persons and employed blind teachers. 

  • 69.
    Zwedberg, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Ville amma!: En hermeneutisk studie av mödrar med amningsbesvär; deras upplevelser, problemhantering samt amningskonsultativa möten2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus is on mothers who asked for help because of initial problems with breastfeeding, i.e., their feelings and experiences, how they cope with their difficulties, and the consultative meetings with a midwife. Taking as a point of departure the ideas that mothers have about breastfeeding, the aim is to describe how mothers experience their situation and themselves as new mothers, when they have problems with breastfeeding, and, to find out how mothers experience the consultative situation as well as their own participation and responsibility.

    Fourteen mothers, who expressed a wish to breastfeed and who asked for help during their stay in the maternity ward, were video-taped during individual consultations with a midwife. Three months later each mother was interviewed about her experiences and feelings as regards the consultations. The outcomes were analysed according to a hermeneutical approach, from an interactionist perspective and, in addition, using crisis theory as a theoretical basis.

    This thesis illuminates the interactionist perspective on three different system levels: the norms in society in relation to the mother’s expectations about breastfeeding, the mother’s intra-psychological process and the consultative meeting.

    The results demonstrate that the women had thought of breastfeeding as a ‘door opener’ into the new role of motherhood. When the mother instead encountered a breastfeeding situation that did not meet with her expectations, there were two things that stood out very clearly; i.e., a feeling of inadequacy, and a constant internal as well as external questioning of herself. The fact that breastfeeding did not turn out as expected could also trigger a crisis reaction.

    It was important that the mother had a feeling that the midwife understood her, so what she was talking about became meaningful. This in turn could lead to a shift in attitude so that the mother changed from a closed position to an open and, thus, could begin to look forward.

    If breastfeeding did not turn out the way the mother had hoped her self-image was influenced and ‘coming into existence” as a mother was more difficult.

    To be involved and responsible had different meanings depending on where the mother was in the process, which meant that the mothers wanted different kinds of support on the way. One condition for making this possible was the consultative meeting in a manner of reciprocity.

  • 70.
    Aspán, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Delade meningar: Om värdepedagogiska invitationer för barns inflytande och inkännande2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies efforts to enhance children’s possibilities to participate and to improve the school as a social meeting place are followed. The first focuses on a three year project, aimed to work out new forms for pupils (grades 6-9) to participate in the school organization. The second study follows younger children (grades 1-5) in specific lessons where social dilemmas are discussed and solved, which can be characterized as social and emotional learning.

    Both studies concern the school’s option to handle the child fostering to individual actors, their independence and  ability to take part through ’self-expression’, and at the same time instill the society’s ‘common value system’. By following pedagogical interventions by participant observations and interviews, it appears that there is little interest to let the children get involved out of their own questions and problem definitions. In the participation project it appears that children often are rather strictly directed by adults, and they are not so often let to use their critical and reflective thinking. In the second study each exercise is scrutinized for what it affords the children. Also these results show that the underlying intentions are not to create pedagogical conditions that support communication that involves the children’s own perspectives and interests, in an ‘exploratory’ speech in learning about one’s self, about the other and the world. The children’s resistance to perform properly can be seen as a way to recapture some of their autonomy to break the ‘ritualized' communication. In both studies children’s use of a field of free action is restricted.

    The interventions are analyzed through the concept of intersubjectivity and of child perspective. I conclude that the basis for why and how these efforts are done can be seen in a cultural childhood narrative: they are in certain aspects seen as ‘not yets’ despite the late modern emphasis on competence and  responsibility.

  • 71.
    Hessle, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Ensamkommande men inte ensamma: Tioårsuppföljning av ensamkommande asylsökande flyktingbarns livsvillkor och erfarenheter som unga vuxna i Sverige 2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of the study was to develop knowledge about how unaccompanied asylum-seeking children manage their life circumstances and challenges after being granted a residence permit and maturing into adulthood in Sweden. A second aim was to develop knowledge about the life circumstances of these children in their respective countries of origin, the motives behind their flight to Sweden, the means by which they came to Sweden.

     The thesis is a ten-year follow-up study. The first set of data is clinical in nature: 100 unaccompanied children were interviewed shortly after their arrival. Ten years later a register study was made of these now young adults. The research group was now reduced to the 68 young adults who remained in Sweden after receiving their permanent resident permits. Twenty of them were chosen for a qualitative interview by means of strategic sampling.

    The unaccompanied asylum-seeking children who, ten years after becoming permanent residents, remained in Sweden have become established in a favourable life situation as young adults. The process of becoming established in Sweden from the stressing conditions in the country of origin is marked by both risks and possibilities that occur in periodical sequences in the life course of the unaccompanied asylum-seeking children.

     The children/youths may have come alone, but they did not remain alone. A majority were taken in hand by relatives in Sweden who were links to the family’s transnational network. The other children who had no family with which to reunite sought to establish transnational links on their own. A transnational perspective can shed light on how these young adults have created cross-national networks and this appears to have been of decisive importance for their socialisation and favourable establishment in Sweden.

  • 72.
    Fjällhed, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Flyktingskapets situation och möjlighet: Colombianska flyktingbarn i Venezuela och Sverige2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the situation and possibilities in a refugee situation. The aim is to deepen the understanding of the situation for Colombian refugee children and how they are able to handle the adjustments related to a refugee situation, both in a neighbouring country like Venezuela and in a foreign country like Sweden.

    First, quantitative data were collected and analyzed in order to obtain a general picture of the situation for the refugee children. Further, grounded theory was used to analyze some of the interviews, which resulted in a generated theory. During the process of developing the theory, a case study was carried out with a Colombian refugee family in Sweden. The interviewed persons are fifty Colombian refugee children (boys, girls, and teenagers) who lived in the border states of Venezuela, and a Colombian refugee family (the parents and their two children) who now live in Sweden.

    The generated theory deals with how the refugee children are able to relate to and manage the new refugee situation. The core concept is possibility-finding: the developed ability to find possibilities in the refugee situation. It is a way of thinking as well as practical action. The latter is evident in the way the refugee children see the possibilities and deal with the challenges and problems they are facing. By the solutions they find and the results that are developing into growth. All of this influences and helps to build up their personal stability. The foundations that emerge, and which support or strain possibility-finding, are peace, culture, language, and networks like familyship and friendship. There is an emphasis on the importance of peace and dreams in order to handle times of huge challenges.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Dan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Folkbibliotek makt och disciplinering: En genealogisk studie av folkbiblioteksområdet under den organiserade moderniteten2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focusing of the Swedish public library as an institution for general education during the period of 1910 to 1990. The aim is to enhance the knowledge of the construction of the Swedish citizen during the organized modernity.  What were the functions of the educational efforts characterizing public library, what procedures, technologies and techniques were in use´, how did they govern and what was the inherent impact of the citizen? With inspiration from the work of Michel Foucault the library discourse have been examined from a genealogical perspective illuminating discursive and non-discursive apparatuses, technologies and relations of power within the public library practices. The public library activities were organized hierarchic, giving the national library the overall responsibility for strategic activities, thus governing regional and local libraries to form localities, book collections, methods for studies considered appropriate for people. The local libraries´ responsibility was to offer the citizens appropriate books and methods for general studies. Bio-power technologies and disciplinary techniques, such as panoptical, expert strategies and central governing are in use. Limited selections, exclusions, rating based on hierarchical principles, governing on distance, self-regulation are the most important and common not only within the field of public library but in society as a whole.  Thus, forming an active and accountable citizen that is capable of making choices, recurrently willing to reconstruct herself by studies and consumption of books. The conclusion is that this citizen, consuming knowledge and high culture, corresponds well to the requirements of the modern society.

  • 74.
    Knutes, Helen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Gestaltandets pedagogik: Om att skapa konsthantverk2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Why, and what does it involve for an individual to perform Arts and Crafts, are the questions studied in this thesis. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the pedagogical conditions of Arts and Crafts objects, through studying the processes that take place where people give form to personal expressions and to understand the meanings these processes have for them. Phenomenological theory, especially the theory of the lived body, which presents the body as a unity not separated into body and thought, with object and subject in an inter-relationship, is used as a theoretical standpoint throughout the thesis.

    A phenomenological and a semiotic approach have been used to analyse and describe the empirical data. This thesis consists of three different studies, the examination of a place where Arts and Crafts are performed, the study of people's experiences of creating Arts and Crafts objects, and finally how people relate to their chosen Art and Craft materials. This contributes to an understanding of the pedagogical conditions and processes present in their relationship to work materials.

    The analysis illustrates that an opportunity for a new level of understanding is reached when particular pedagogical processes are carried out whilst working with various forms of Arts and Crafts materials. These processes understood as pedagogical conditions consist of: time and pace, physical and mental environment, materialization, the object and experience. Another finding is that there are different ways of relating to the Arts and Crafts materials, a bodily relation or a cognitive relation. These ways of relating exist in one person, but one of these relating attitudes is often more salient than the other. Making Arts and Crafts is in this thesis seen as an activity of both bodily and cognitive meaning making.

  • 75.
    Simon, Judit
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Kreativitetens kännetecken : En fenomenologisk studie2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity is highly sought after in our society, but that is far from obvious what is really meant by it. Many researchers in the field of creativity stress the lack of clarity, and it is described as a divided felt. The aim of this thesis is to clarify the meaning structure of the phenomenon of creativity, i.e. those distinguishing features that together form the experience of creativity.

     The individual’s experience of creativity is studied in two different contexts, individually and in-group collaboration. The research object is adult people’s experience of creativity in its natural expression in the everyday world. Data have been collected from open interviews, and is constituted of descriptions of a particular situation when the participants experienced creativity.

    The results consist of the meaning structures for the phenomenon of being creative individually respectively in-group collaboration. In the analysis it has emerged that the creative process is both creating meaning and producing a product at the same time. The three main distinguishing features of the experience of creativity are: 1) an experienced discrepancy between the existing and the possible; 2) a special alertness that surfaces during the creating; 3) a progression which occurs under the process and cannot be completely ruled. The creative process includes thoughts, acts, feelings, body, material and communicative processes; and it results in new knowledge, a new approach, a change in emotion and new constituted gestalts. The experience of creativity individually and in-group collaboration is different, among other things, in that the later is more complex, and that the group makes extra efforts to deal with the higher complexity.

  • 76.
    Bragée, Britt W.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Kroppens mening: Studier i psykosomatiska lösningar2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related diagnoses such as ‘burnout’ are a growing and alarming social trend, which affect more and more young people, especially women. These diagnoses are expressions of ‘psychosomatic conditions’ in our contemporary society. The focus in this thesis has been to study meaning constitution when it does not lead to solutions to pressing problems but rather results in a psychosomatic breakdown. A phenomenological analysis was carried out that among other things shows that the road to the breakdown starts early in life, having to do with industrious but not successful attempts to win recognition for the persons’ individuality.

    In the second study, physiological measures occurring concomitantly with the informants’ narratives showed that autonomous activity could be distinguished in patterns divided in two groups. One group pattern was linked to helplessness, high arousal and marked stress level and the second group pattern was characterized by hopelessness and a very low level of autonomous activity.

    The conclusion of the thesis is that due to an inability to transform structures of thinking, feeling and behaving in a taxing situation, the psychosomatic breakdown can be understood as bodily attempts at meaning constitution, through bodily symptom and other forms of understanding. This, however, cannot help the person constitute meaning needed in order to solve the problematic situation. The reasons for this body/mind split are discussed.

  • 77.
    Eliasson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Metod, personlighet och forskning: Kontinuitet och förändring i vårdlärarutbildarnas kunskapskultur 1958-19992009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses on continuity and change in a local knowledge culture, the nursing teacher education in Stockholm, during the years between 1958 and 1999, with a strong emphasis on conceptions of knowledge and learning. Concepts of analysis come from Basil Bernstein, Ludwik Fleck, Reinhart Koselleck and gender theory. The study is based on archived documents and interviews with nursing teacher educators.

    The results show continuity as well as change of the knowledge culture. The first period, 1958-1974, shows continuity in relation to the space of experience. Methodical knowledge is important. The second time period, 1975-1978, is characterized by great changes, starting with a distinct break when prior conceptions and values are discarded. The focus on important, external knowledge of the earlier period is replaced by the conception that the human being and her inner abilities and characteristics are the most important resources for the profession. Conceptions and values are not completely abandoned during the last time period, 1979-1999. Values connected to personality development remain, but new values appear as a consequence of state governance towards research basis.

    The spirit of time, new co-workers, changed state governance, the ideological characteristics of values as well as a female dominance within the education allow an understanding of the great change in conceptions and values in the middle of the 1970’s.  A stable staff of nursing teacher educators, the specific ideological and gender coded features of the values and a traditional distinctiveness and separation from other teacher education programs allow an understanding of the stability of the personality development element.

    The male gender coding of the content during the first period could be understood by the influence of physicians on the education, state governance towards education technology and harmony with the space of experience. During the whole of the studied time period, there are female coded conceptions regarding the work of the nursing teacher educators; collectivity, emphasis on practical action and control of - closeness to the student group.

  • 78.
    Ljung, Berit
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Museipedagogik och erfarande2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is intended to contribute to development of communicative frames of reference for museum education. Inspired by the philosopher John Dewey it seeks for new perspectives of the research problem – museum education and experience. The understanding of museum education is based on research literature about museum education, two empirical studies and theoretical interpretations. Some of the conclusions points towards museum education being an interdisciplinary knowledge area in progress that is insufficiently scientifically investigated. Experience is here understood as transaction between people and context – processes of trying and undergoing and can include or correspond to education, “Bildung” and learning.

    Museum educators describe museum education in many various ways in my questionnaire. The material ground, surroundings and their own actions are three of the dimensions. Their intentions or purposes are the fourth and with Dewey we can name this dimension “consequences of museum education”. The fifth dimension consists of metaphors about the educators own role in the museum, like “the bridge”. Furthermore, my study about young peoples´ experiences in relation to an exhibition highlights the visitor perspective. For them the exhibition created many important questions and thoughts and they were much affected by the pictures in the exhibit. They appreciated being active together, to have joint engagement and to take standpoints in the workshops. To some degree they reached a conjoint communicated experience.

    Communication is at the core of museum education. From theoretical readings, research literature and empirical results the context of museum education get three crucial and overlapping meanings. One is the meaning or aspect as environment – a prerequisite for the visitors’ transactions and experiences. The second is context as circumstances – the situation. A third aspect of context, that will be more and more important in a globalized world, can be named continuity or connectedness. All three meanings have something to do with space, place and time and can also be discovered in Dewey’s extensive text production.

  • 79.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Representationer av psykisk ohälsa: Egna erfarenheter och dialogiskt meningsskapande i fokusgruppsamtal2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to explore socially shared ideas about mental illness in everyday contexts. Drawing on social representation theory, organizations for users of mental health services and self-help groups are regarded as communities where social knowledge is constructed that makes intersubjective understanding of illness experiences possible. In order to investigate such knowledge as a resource in joint construction of meaning, a theoretical model is introduced where a distinction is made between a discursive level of situated ‘representational work’ and an underlying level of sociocultural resources. A focus group study was carried out with 27 participants who label their health problems as anxiety, depression or bipolar disorder, and were members of service user organizations. The focus group conversations were analysed with regard to thematic, interactional and discursive features to answer the questions: 1) how is mental illness represented, 2) how is the mentally ill person represented, and 3) how are others’ views on mental illness represented. The results show how mental illness is represented as a complex phenomenon that is contextualised to a number of frames of reference. Further, the analysis identified different types of resources that are utilized in representational work: local knowledge of the communities, medical concepts, different explanatory models, narrative structures, metaphors and conceptual dichotomies. It also revealed dialogical properties of the representational work that have rhetorical functions for self-presentation as a team performance. The discussion suggests that widely shared resources are put to use in group- and situation-specific representational projects, and that representations that are produced in group discourse can be characterised as ‘polemical social representations’ that respond to a double stigma of mental illness in everyday life where mental illness is regarded as a sign of ‘weakness’ as well as ‘otherness’.

  • 80.
    Söderberg Forslund, Monica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Slaget om femininiteten: Skolledarskap som könsskapande praktik2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to highlight how different ideas about gender and gender discourses have created varying conditions for the formation of school leadership in different eras. The empirical material consists of historically documented material in a text-based study and interview material comprising interviews with a total of 18 comprehensive school principals from two interview studies. The period covered by the material is 1830–2006. The theoretical point of departure is post-structural theory formation, where Joan W. Scott’s and Judith Butler’s theoretical line of reasoning constitutes the basis of the dissertation’s gender and discourse analyses. The analyses highlight active gender discourses throughout the history of school leadership and which gender discourses regulate principals’ everyday work in the 21st century, how different gender discourses intervene and gain ground among principals and have significance for which gender and professional positions are possible for today’s principals to adopt and allocate to teachers and students. The dissertation highlights four active gender discourses: the essential sexual difference discourse, the sameness discourse, the difference discourse and a transgressive gender discourse. The results indicate the survival force of the essential sexual difference discourse, where femininity is always subordinate to masculinity. The greatest gender battle has been around femininity. Throughout its history school leadership has mainly been focused on and talked about in terms of female/feminine and male/masculine, but where femininity has always been questioned and subjected to constant definition and redefinition. Thus far in the 21st century the difference discourse’s femininity affirming dimension has been normalised and takes shape in a new and transgressive gender discourse where both femininity and masculinity are available for both female and male principals’ identifications and materialisations. However, at the same time as principals have related to new and transgressive gender ideals in certain situations they defer to the essential sexual difference discourse’s gender stereotyped and hierarchical divisions and expectations. The dissertation shows how the transgressive gender discourse contributes to the dissolution of gender polarity, with optional identities. Parallel with this and contrary to what in terms of gender could be described as the basis for a more democratic and equal school, the dissertation also shows how female principals and female teachers, together with certain groups of girls, sometimes find themselves in continued subordinate and vulnerable positions in accordance with a very old essential sexual difference definition.

  • 81.
    Künstlicher, Rolf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The Psychoanalytic Situation as a Play Situation: Exploration of a multi-faceted clinical situation     2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The research question was stirred by observations that the set-up of the clinical situation seems to contain elements that have a deep impact on the patient. I found that the clinical situation shows important similarities to the space for play that children negotiate when they want to immerse themselves in mutual phantasy play. Consequently, one overall purpose of the present study is to explore the psychoanalytic situation as a play situation with the help of two clinical vignettes.In the first part, I give a picture of my understanding of Freud’s reasons for shaping his clinical situation as he did. A critical scrutiny of Freud’s case of the Rat Man gave us keys to an understanding of the clinical method’s contradictoriness.A tentative hypothesis was framed that the set-up of psychoanalysis’s clinical situation induces an ambiguity about different levels of reality, the purpose being to create a space in the course of the analysis in which this confusion can be analyzed and comprehended. This work on the ambiguity of the reality links psychoanalysis with the intimate and spontaneous interaction that characterizes children’s social phantasy play. The investigation came to the conclusion that there exists a conspicuous equivalence between the two situations. The issue of what connects the universal play situation of children on the one hand, with the specific psychoanalytic situation on the other, makes a point of departure from which to approach and investigate the field of inquiry.The theory is that a ‘play’ with factual and illusory asymmetry generates a field of tension that serves as a sounding board from the moment of psychoanalysis's introductory negotiations until its ending. A third area is created that supports a mutual explorative space that in its turn makes a bridge between outer and inner reality and between now and the past. In such a context the phenomenon of play becomes a transformational concept.The conclusion is that psychoanalysis organizes a clinical situation that speaks to a profound and universal human need and that it is understood as an analogy of the play situation of children. 

  • 82.
    Brattlund, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    What Role of God and National Curriculum in School life?: A Comparative Study of Schools with a Muslim Profile in England and Sweden2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of principles and ethics that dominate four schools with a Muslim profile, two in Sweden and two in England.

    The specific objectives of the study are:  to examine educational policies with regard to primary schools with a confessional orientation in Sweden and England; to compare two primary schools with a Muslim profile in Sweden with two such schools in England; and in these four schools to describe and examine the manner in which school heads, teachers and other staff deal with the encounters between the values found in the national curriculum of Sweden and England respectively and the principles and ethics embodied in their private philosophy of life; to describe and examine the views of school heads, teachers and other staff on school leadership and any educational, ideological or personal role model they emulate; to describe and examine the expectations and views of parents with regard to the school with a Muslim profile; and describe the views of the pupils regarding their schools and the norms and values in school and; finally, to examine the attitudes of some local authority politicians in Sweden to MP schools.

    The findings indicate great difference between the two schools with a Muslim profile in Sweden, on the one hand, and the two schools in England, on the other. The fundamental reason for that lies in the parameters which had been established in these countries as the conditions for being permitted to establish and run a school with a confessional orientation. Since the schools in both countries had conformed to the relevant legislation and framework in their respective countries with regard to such schools, they had therefore consequently developed in different directions.      

  • 83.
    Tsagalidis, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Därför fick jag bara Godkänt...: Bedömning i karaktärsämnen på HR-programmet2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims at establishing what teachers of programme specific subjects state is the foundation for their assessment at the Hotel and Restaurant Programme (HR-programme). The theoretical framework of the thesis is based on social constructionism. The respondents were practising teachers of programme specific subjects at HR-programme. The empirical data based on interviews and video interviews was analyzed with: types of knowledge, key qualifications, specific vocational knowledge and skill and levels of expertise. Seven key qualifications have been discerned: independence, planning skills, problem solving skills, co-operation, customer contact, communication and power of initiative. These can be divided in three dimensions: personal, cognitive, and social/interactive. For the student, the most important to focus on for getting a higher grade is independence. Five categories of programme specific subjects have been identified: understanding the vocational area, skills in working techniques and methods, hygiene and handling work tools, as well the ability to see the whole and to act simultaneously. Differences in qualifications between levels of expertise can be identified in skills, speed and comprehensive thinking which appear to be valued more by the respondents.

    Key qualifications include all types of knowledge, theoretical knowledge, practical mastery and appropriate action but also a keen mind for reflection over ones actions. Appropriate action in general is assessed on the level of overall focus, the highest level of expertise, and theoretical knowledge the lowest level of expertise. There’s concordance between respondents on assessment of knowledge and skills. Students have to have a great part of specific vocational knowledge and skills to achieve the degree of Pass. The respondents’ descriptions and appraisements of what is assessed reflect their vocational culture where experience has a master role which could be the main reason why an inexperienced student cannot achieve higher grade levels.

  • 84.
    Englundh, Elizabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Folkrätt för barn som pedagogiskt åtagande: Statligt ansvar - regionalt lärande?2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the problem of learning processes in an organization that has decided to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It is based on an assumption that there is interdependency between learning about the CRC and its implementation. The aim is to understand the conditions for individual learning and group learning in the organization. The empirical material consists of 52 interviews, notes and written material from the UN, the Swedish government, and regional levels. The research design is qualitative and the method used is abduction and retroduction. Sensitizing concepts have also been used. The regional context is a county council which has decided to implement the CRC by educating a "pilot-group", and whose task will be to integrate the CRC in the organization.

    The theoretical frame is mainly constructivistic; learning is an "inside-out" process. It is the individual who does the learning, but these individuals meet in the pilot-group and create knowledge based on their own experiences. The most significant results point out that learning about the CRC is a prerequisite for implementation. Once the individuals have learned about the CRC and how to understand and interpret its implicantions, they also know what has to be done in the administration in order to speed upp and secure implementation. Other important results show how the individuals act depending on to their position in the organization. The administration directors show passive resistence by not including the question on the agenda. The operations managers show active resistence by not taking the CRC into consideration in their contracts "because then you have to show what you have accomplished".

  • 85.
    Rehn, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Framväxten av sjuksköterskan som omvårdnadsexpert: Meningsskapande om vård under 1900-talet2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertion is focused on the concept of caring and its historical development. The aim is to examine the meaning making processes involved in shaping the caring practice in the twentieth century by pointing out and analysing conceptions of caring in texts. The study is based on analyses of union publications, textbooks and texts produced by Swedish governmental committees. Theoretically and methodologically this study is inspired by Norman Fairclough, his critical discourse analysis and his views on meaning, language, change and power relations. The analysis shows that two separate constructions of meaning have dominated the twentieth century. During the first half of the twentieth century, medical science was the chief influence on caring, the idea being that caring should be supplementary to medical practice. Both nurses and nurse's assistants have contributed to this concept of meaning. In the sixties, however, something happened. Old and predominant views on caring are being rejected and questioned by the nurses. The dominant medical discourse is being problemized. Ideas from discourses formally marginalized are being employed by nurses and the governmental committees. The importance of satisfying needs, not just medical ones, and a holistic view on caring are now being stressed. The patient, not the doctor, is thereby focused in the caring practice. The meaning of caring changes from a doing with the body inte a special attitude to the patient. "Omvårdnad" (nursing) is more and more the term around which meaning is evolving.

  • 86.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    ”I don’t believe the meaning of life is all that profound”: A study of Icelandic teenagers’ life interpretation and values2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    What do teenagers recount about themselves and their interpretation of life and values, and what characterises individual teenagers’ perceptions and statements? What is the relation between teenagers’ life interpretation and values and social circumstances? What challenges to school religious education do the teenagers’ perceptions and statements represent? These questions are central to the study Icelandic Teenagers’ Life Interpretation and Values.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate some central elements in teenagers’ life interpretation so as to discuss the results in terms of social circumstances in Iceland and of school religious education. The background is that Icelandic society, having been relatively homogeneous, has changed during the past few years with increased plurality.

    The material the study was based on consists of interviews with Icelandic teenagers. In four articles included in the thesis different parts of the material collected are interpreted using a hermeneutic approach. The main result showed that the teenagers were in a field of tension between homogeneity and plurality on the one hand and security and insecurity on the other. The main trends in the material indicate a common reference framework at the same time as plurality emerges in the teenager’s verbal expressions; and while most spoke of their happiness and security, there was also awareness of the risk and threat that can transform the situation.

    The material exhibited greater variation within each school than between schools. This suggests the effect of plurality on the younger generation in Iceland. Given this variation among individuals it is urgent to find an approach to religious education that takes greater account of the different pupils’ backgrounds, personal experience and existential questions.

  • 87.
    Arjmand, Reza
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Inscription on Stone: Islam, State and Education in Iran and Turkey2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the role of education as means of creation and maintenance of religious hegemony in Iran and Turkey. In the context of this study, state-sponsored systems of mass education aim to socialize generations of children into accepting the ideology and values of the dominant groups as the normal state of affairs. Hegemony, thus, is advanced not solely by excluding oppositional forces but by moral leadership throughout the total ideological and socio-political structure.

    Reviewing the notion of education in Islam and the role of the Quran and Sunna and other sources of knowledge in Islam, the study focuses on the impact of Shari'a in forming the theories of state and education in Islam. Representing two different schools of Muslim thought, Iran and Turkey have different interpretations of the state and its role in education which determines the degree of involvement and extent of authority of the political and religious leaders over education. Unity of Islam and the state in the Iranian theocratic system provides an ideologically-laden education which is rooted in one principle: training a new generation of pious, “ideologically committed Muslims”. However, the endeavors of the Turkish secular state have been focused on establishing a mass popularized secular education in order to produce nationalist citizens.

    The Iranian revolution of 1979 contributed extensively to the awakening of the religious revival, calling for a shift from a Western model of social order to the one deeply rooted in Islamic beliefs and values. The close link between education and ideology in Iran is apparent from the goals set for educating the young, most of them openly political: acceptance of God's absolute authority manifested through the authority of ulama; support for the political, economic, and cultural unity of all Islamic global community (umma) and for oppressed peoples (mustaz’afin); rejection of every form of oppression, suffering, and domination. The four ideological pillars of the Islamic Republic, inseparability of religion and politics, Islamic revival, cultural revolution, and creation of a committed Muslim, have had a direct impact on Iranian education.

    The “Unity of Education Act” in the Republic of Turkey placed all educational activities under strict government control by introducing a state monopoly on education. Kemalism is based on an emphasis on national and republican principles and secularism in which religion has no place and is left out of the scope of formal education. Hence, the transmission of religious knowledge from one generation to another was only possible through informal channels such as family, the small community or underground activities of religious orders. Islam, however, gradually penetrated the public life in Turkey and challenged the secularism. The goal of the Turkish national education as to unite the entire nation through a national consciousness, to think along scientific lines, and intellectually as well as worldly, leaves no place for Islamic religious education. In spite of the government's emphasis on a secular and nationalist system, Islam remains as a force, particularly in its capacity to utilize new elements required for a modern society.

    Although Islam has not yet challenged the supremacy of secular education in Turkey, it expanded its influence both in formal and informal education, content and structure.

  • 88.
    Löfberg, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Möjligheternas arena?: Barns och ungas samtal om tjejer, killar, känslor och sexualitet på en virtuell arena2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer mediated communication (CMC) has created new arenas for social interaction in contemporary society, also for children and young people. This raises questions about how these arenas are used by children and young people. Drawing on the sociology of childhood, this thesis addresses children’s social interaction on a website designed for young people, where issues of masculinity, femininity, emotions and sexuality are discussed. The general aim is to explore the construction of meaning in relation to these issues; more specifically patterns of online interaction and the ways children express and share ideas and values in the “now” of the interpretive communities on the website, and at the same time deal with ideas, norms and values mediated through society at large.

    In three discussion groups on the website, 143 discussions initiated by virtual children aged 12 to 15 followed by discussions with several virtual persons at the same age and older were collected and analysed. Three patterns of interaction were identified according to the degrees of ‘horizontal’ versus ‘vertical’ communication: ‘Playful interaction’ is characterised by a horizontal communication where curiosity and experiences are shared between virtual children in the same age ‘Corrective interaction’ is characterised by vertical interaction and more explicit advise and instructions from participants in different ages, drawing on arguments from the ‘adult world’. In ‘Orienting interaction’ there are aspects of both horizontal and vertical interaction as older or adult virtual participants express their points of view and experiences as it were to strive for a shared understanding. These patterns of interaction, and the ways they are related to the different topics in the discussion groups, are discussed in terms of the on-going positioning of children as a ‘social group’ and the construction of gender, generation and cultural notions of children as innocent or knowing.

  • 89.
    Lindholm, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Mötesplats skolutveckling: Om hur samverkan med forskare kan bidra till att utveckla pedagogers kompetens att bedriva utvecklingsarbete2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is to illuminate how researchers might provide support to the improvement of educators' competence, in a school development context. The thesis also sheds light on conditions and obstacles for such development. The theoretical approach derives inspiration from several lines of thought but above all from action theory and theories on adult learning and development. The approach of the thesis can be characterized as “contextual-constructivist” or “social constructivist”. Four different forms of collaboration between researchers and educators are studied and compared. The methods used were interviews, questionnaires and document study.

    The similarities between the different types of collaboration are striking. The educators’ competence for action and development seems to have increased in all types of collaboration, for example towards increased communicative and meta-cognitive competence. This, however, cannot be attributed solely to the researchers; rather it seems to be a result of the whole interplay with the environment that was initiated by the collaboration. One group of educators also turned out to act as bridge-builders between the researchers and their own colleagues. Further, the educators have had access to various tangible tools, which have appeared to be useful not only in developmental work but also in the everyday work. Finally, the utility aspect of school research is discussed, as well as the double, sometimes triple, helix of learning and developmental processes that educators may share as a result of the collaboration with researchers.

  • 90.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Nature's Canon: The Formation and Change of the Science Curriculum in Swedish Compulsory School 1842–20072008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation analyses the science curriculum in Swedish compulsory school 1842–2007. National curricula, textbooks, textbook adverts, and handbooks are analysed. These all have a strong position in defining the school curricula and their contents, methods and aims, and can therefore be called canonic texts. What contents, methods and aims have dominated the curricula? How have these changed? The aim of the study is to contribute to the understanding of what ideologies have dominated compulsory school science texts and how these ideologies have been shaped by social, pedagogical and cultural currents in society.

    The start of this study is set by the issuing of the first Statute on Common Schools in Sweden, June 18, 1842. In this statute a natural science based subject was present. Even though the subject wasn’t new to the public school system, the year 1842 marked an important step in the formation of a “science for the people” in Sweden.

    Six different canons are discerned in the history of the science subject in compulsory school: God’s canon (1842–1900); The canon of the physical environment (1900–1919); The canon of the national landscape (1919–1936); The canon of the citizen (1936–1962); The canon of science (1962–1980); and The canon of the bricoleur (1980–2007).

    On a broad scale, these canons have been shaped by on the one hand natural science and on the other hand broad social, cultural and pedagogic currents in society. While researchers have mainly focused on the first source of influence, the latter have to a large extent been neglected. In the thesis I show that there have been major changes in the curriculum genre over time and that these changes first and foremost must be understood as shaped by pedagogic, social and cultural forces.

  • 91.
    Jons, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Till-tal och an-svar: En konstruktion av pedagogisk hållning2008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to construct as philosophical conceptualization of pedagogical attitude. Founded on Martin Buber’s philosophy of dialogue, the construction suggested in the study takes on a normative character, thus understanding pedagogical attitude as a matter of pedagogical creed. The author proposes a construction where existence is understood as a matter of Calling and Respons(e)ibility. Pedagogical attitude is thus understood in accordance with the notion of paying heed, responsibly responding and calling. As a consequence this conceptualization calls on the teacher to speak authentically, serve, embrace a loving leadership, provoke and dare to take risks.

    Within the concept of Calling and Respons(e)ibility, “calling” means addressing a particular other, whilst respons(e)ibility is a term chosen to make the concept connote to the response as well as the responsibility taken in relation to a particular calling. The concept of Calling and Respons(e)ibility is understood as closely connected to the religious concept of vocation, although recycled in a secularized meaning, thereby put forth as a matter of realizing the fate of the teacher, the student as well as the field/subject. The concept of Calling and Respons(e)ibility is in the study connected to the notions of “mothering”, obedience and adjustment as well as to the notions of responsibility, fidelity and being enterprising.

    Using a methodological approach of philosophical conceptualization suggested by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, the study sets out to reuse such old theological concepts as vocation, calling, paying heed and responding responsibly in new forms in a pedagogical context, thereby intending to discover, articulate and discern new aspects of that context.

    By conceptualizing pedagogical attitude on the basis of an existential, normative and relational perspective, using the notion of calling and respons(e)ability, the study aspires to contribute to the ongoing conversation concerning teacher-student-relationship.

  • 92.
    Karlsson, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Mansory, Amir
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    An Afghan Dilemma: Education, Gender and Globalisation in an Islamic Context2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Afghanistan has a long history of Islamic education while Western type of education (maktab) is of more recent date. The latter type of education has expanded rapidly recently. However, girls’ enrolment remains low, around 35 per cent.

    The present study examines children’s, particularly girls’, participation in the two educational systems. Throughout history three conflicting issues are apparent in Afghan education: state control over Islamic education, the role of Islam in education, and girls’ participation. A case study approach has been adopted providing an analysis of how history and the present globalisation processes affect current education, and how students, parents and teachers in two villages perceive the changes. The focus has been on capturing the meaning attached to education.

    The findings indicate high expectations on education as a vehicle to peace, enhanced morals and living standards. The traditional madrasas have declined, other forms of Islamic education have emerged. The Mosque schools are neglected by education authorities but highly esteemed by villagers. Concerns are expressed with the amount of time in maktab and with the quality of learning. The Islamic concept of farz (obligation, responsibility) puts both types of education in high demand.

    Dilemmas are associated with choosing between Islamic and Western type of education, applying farz to girls’ education and the encounter between Islam and globalisation. Two folk theories, one on globalisation and another on farz in education, were formulated as a basis for the further analysis. Worries are articulated about preserving Islamic values and ethics. Although ‘globalisation’ is a never heard of concept, villagers know some of its features, e.g. secularisation, individualism and consumerism, and fear these may lead to a weakened Islamic identity.

    Girls’ education is generally accepted. Albeit some consider a few years enough, most consider girls’ right to education to be identical to boys’, on certain conditions. Besides security, a female teacher is the most important. However, findings from the village with a long established girl school with female teachers indicate that this is not the crucial factor. In Islamic education, girls will continuously be excluded from advanced Islamic studies since female mullahs do not exist.

    Apparently, the real obstacles for girls’ education are the strictly segregated gender roles in Afghan society. Therefore, a new interpretation of farz is emerging, a ‘glocalised’ version. This is likely to be a decisive factor for giving girls equal access to education in both educational systems.

  • 93.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Conceptions and artefacts: Children's understanding of the earth in the presence of visual representations2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The studies in this thesis explore children’s understanding of the earth when presented with visual representations. The conceptual understanding is related to cognitive contexts as well as the physical and cultural state. Pictures and models, as communicative tools, are associated with both cognition and culture. The investigation was divided into three different studies, where the main differentiation was the category of visual representation of the earth that was used. In the first study eleven children, aged six to eight, were interviewed with a globe as a model of the earth. In the second study fourteen children, aged six to eight, were interviewed, this time with a poster of a satellite photo of the earth. In the third study, eighteen children, aged six to nine, were interviewed while they were drawing pictures the earth. The results showed that the influence of these representations could be detected in what the children talked about and in their choices of explanations. In the children’s conceptions of the earth, however, no clear influence from the representations was apparent. A possible explanation for this is that pictures and models can be produced according to different conventions for depicting. The alternative modes of depiction in the children’s culture appeared to make it possible for the children to choose a certain mode of depiction, in their interpretation of the representation that made this interpretation in accord with their own conception of the earth. Not only did the children express various conceptions of the earth, e.g. that people and countries were situated inside a globe, in the presence of the representations, but also some children drew pictures of the earth in line with conventional methods for depicting the earth, even though they may have expressed alternative conceptions. The results support the view that children hold conceptions, but they oppose to claims that naïve thinking is without conceptual structure, and that we have no foundation to locate conceptions in people’s minds, as distinguished from concepts that are located in cultural tools.

  • 94.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Conceptions and Artefacts: Children's understanding of the earth in the presence of visual representations2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 95.
    Garrouste, Christelle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Determinants and Consequences of Language-in-Education Policies: Essays in Economics of Education2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three empirical studies. The first study, Rationales to Language-in-Education Policies in Postcolonial Africa: Towards a Holistic Approach, considers two issues. First, it explores the factors affecting the choice of an LiE policy in 35 African countries. The results show that the countries adopting a unilingual education system put different weights on the influential parameters than countries adopting a bilingual education system. Second, the study investigates how decision makers can ensure the optimal choice of language(s) of instruction by developing a non-cooperative game theoretic model with network externalities. The model shows that it is never optimal for two countries to become bilingual, or for the majority linguistic group to learn the language of the minority group, unless there is minimum cooperation to ensure an equitable redistribution of payoffs.

    The second study, The Role of Language in Learning Achievement: A Namibian Case Study, investigates the role played by home language and language proficiency on SACMEQ II mathematics scores of Namibian Grade-6 learners. HLM is used to partition the total variance in mathematics achievement into its within- and between-school components. Results show that although home language plays a limited role in explaining within- and between-school variations in mathematics achievement, language proficiency (proxied by reading scores) plays a significant role in the heterogeneity of results.

    Finally, the third study, Language Skills and Economic Returns, investigates the economic returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents results from eight IALS countries. The study finds that in each country, skills in a second language are a significant factor that constrains wage opportunities positively.

  • 96.
    Stjerna, Marie-Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Föreställningar om mat och ätande: Risk, kropp, identitet och den "ifrågasatta" maten i vår tid2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Western society, food is debated and in various ways contested. Social science research has described various cultural imperatives related to food and choices of diet, that raises questions about how people understand issues of food and eating in their everyday lives. The aim of this study is to explore everyday notions of food and eating in urban Sweden. Drawing on social representations theory, qualitative interviews were carried out with fifteen men and women about their experiences and understandings of food and eating, also using a photo-elicitation method where visual material from cookery books and dietary advice were used as a point of departure for the interview conversation.

    The interviewees categorize food into different sorts, such as ‘ordinary food’, ‘modern food’, ‘dangerous food’, ‘healthy food’, ‘ethic food’ and ‘festive food’, that are ascribed a meaning in relation to different arenas in time and space, for instance childhood, and related to health values as well as ethical and aesthetic values. Food is also discussed as different diets, such as mixed or vegetarian, and patterns of eating, which are in turn related to risk, health and the body. The analysis thus reveal notions about what food is and how we should eat, notions that are characterised by internal tensions and contradictions such as discipline contra pleasure, societal norms contra personal interests, everyday life contra ideals. These ‘fields of tension’ are analysed as a cultural repertoire of identity-positions. Finally, these results are discussed in terms of risk and opportunities, where the reflexive human being is depicted as able to both incorporate food imperatives and to challenge these imperatives in a process of striving for bodily and mental balance.