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  • 51.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Green, Nicholas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Photochemical decomposition of fifteen polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in methanol/water2004Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 3119-3125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among all brominated flame retardants in use, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been identified as being of particular environmental concern due to their global distribution and bioaccumulating properties, as observed in humans and wildlife worldwide. Still there is a need for more data on the basic characteristics of PBDEs to better understand and describe their environmental fate. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the photochemical degradation of PBDEs with different degrees of bromination. The photochemical degradation of 15 individual PBDEs substituted with 4−10 bromine atoms was studied in methanol/water (8:2) by UV light in the sunlight region. Nine of these were also studied in pure methanol, and four of the nine PBDEs were studied in tetrahydrofuran. The photochemical reaction rate decreased with decreasing number of bromine substituents in the molecule but also in some cases influenced by the PBDE substitution pattern. The reaction rate was dependent on the solvent in such a way that the reaction rate in a methanol/water solution was consistently around 1.7 times lower than in pure methanol and 2−3 times lower than in THF. The UV degradation half-life of decaBDE (T1/2 = 0.5 h) was more than 500 times shorter than the environmentally abundant congener 2,2‘,4,4‘-tetraBDE (T1/2 = 12 d) in methanol/water. The quantum yields in the methanol/water solution ranged from 0.1 to 0.3. The photochemical reaction of decaBDE is a consecutive debromination from ten- down to six-bromine-substituted PBDEs. Products with less than six bromines were tentatively identified as brominated dibenzofurans and traces of what was indicated as methoxylated brominated dibenzofurans.

  • 52. Fernandes, Alwyn R.
    et al.
    Krätschmer, Kerstin
    McGrath, Thomas J.
    Yuan, Bo
    Brandsma, Sicco
    Brits, Marthinus
    Cariou, Ronan
    Letcher, Robert J.
    Mueller, Jochen
    Muir, Derek
    Vetter, Walter
    Wang, Thanh
    Yu, Gang
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Recommended terms and abbreviations for polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) as the predominant component of chlorinated paraffins (CPs)2023Ingår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 169, artikel-id 117363Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several decades of study, ambiguities persist in terms used to express environmental and biotic occurrences of polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), the main ingredient of chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This can lead to misinterpretation of data between analytical chemists, toxicologists, risk assessors/managers and regulators. The terms recommended here to harmonise reporting and reduce ambiguity use the conventional definition of PCAs - linear chlorinated alkanes (typically, C≥10) with one chlorine per carbon, although some evidence of multiple chlorination exists. Other recommendations include.

    ● reporting the “Sum of measured PCAs” because “Total PCAs” is currently unquantifiable.

    ●reporting individual chain lengths, e.g., ΣPCAs-C11, ΣPCAs-C13, allows easier comparability and allows toxicology and risk assessment to consider different PCA combinations.

    ● maintain studies on individual PCAs in order to better characterise chemical, environmental and health risk behaviour.

    The terms could be extended in future to assimilate new findings on individual PCAs, multiple chlorination and chirality.

  • 53.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, P
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and traditional organochlorine pollutants in fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Faroe Islands2005Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 836-843Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The observed high-level burdens of organohalogens among the residents of the Faroe Islands, needs to be explained. Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) blubber and meat are known sources of environmental exposure. The present study focus on the organohalogen contamination of the fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The compounds quantified in fulmar muscle, fat, and egg are PCBs, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The dominating pollutants are the 4,4′-DDT metabolite 4,4′-DDE and the two PCB congeners, CB-153 and CB-180, which are present in geometric mean concentrations of 7100, 4700 and 2500 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.), respectively, in adult fulmar muscle. 4,4′-DDT and HCB concentrations are approximately 250 ng/g l.w., each. Concentrations in the eggs are about 50% of the fulmar muscle levels, due to differences in lipid amounts, 4% in muscle and 10% in the eggs, the exposure contribution on a fresh weight basis is almost the same. As a result, both the egg and the adult fulmar muscle may lead to a significant exposure risk, if consumed by humans.

    BDE-153, the most abundant PBDE congener in fulmar muscle, with a geometric mean concentration of 6.5 ng/g l.w., is much lower than the individual PCB congeners and 4,4′-DDE concentrations. In the adult fulmar muscle, the relative PBDE congener pattern is different from that previously observed in biota, with BDE-153 and BDE-154 as the dominating congeners, rather than BDE-47. In contrast, BDE-47 is the most abundant congener in juvenile muscle and subcutaneous fat. The ∑PBDE concentrations are almost the same in egg, muscle (adult and juvenile) and subcutaneous fat (juvenile). For the polybrominated biphenyl (BB-153) the concentrations are considerably higher in the adult bird and egg than in the juvenile bird; this is also seen for the PCB and 4,4′-DDE concentrations.

    PCB concentrations found in fulmar egg and muscle are in the same range as seen in the pilot whale, i.e. 590–5700 ng/g l.w. for CB-153. Hence humans are also exposed to PCBs at a reasonable degree via intake of fulmar and/or fulmar egg and not only via pilot whale blubber.

  • 54.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Hydroxylated PCB Metabolites in Non-hatched Fulmar Eggs from the Faroe Islands2005Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 3, nr 34, s. 184-187Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty-six polychlorinated biphenylols (OH-PCBs) conge-ners were characterized in Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) eggs collected from the Faroe Islands. The seven most abundant congeners were quantified in 19 samples, and the XOH-PCB concentrations ranged between 0.92 and 4.0 ng g 1 fresh weight (f.w.). These eggs constitute a part of the traditional diet for at least a part of the population on the Faroe Islands and may contribute to the high levels of these contaminants found in the blood of pregnant Faroese women. Because the metabolites are present in the nonhatched fulmar egg, it is concluded that the OH-PCBs are transferred to the egg before laying. High levels, 3300- 18 000 ng g-1 l.w., of 2polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were determined in the fulmar eggs, which are a consider-able source for human exposure. The high PCB levels are a source for metabolic formation of hydroxylated PCBs.

  • 55.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Odsjö, Tjelvar
    Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norén, Koidu
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in milk from Stockholm mothers, 1980-2004.2008Ingår i: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 52, s. 187-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and human exposures to brominated flame retardants (BFR) have been of emerging concern since some BFR are persistent and bioaccumulative compounds. Among those, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have frequently been reported in low to high ng/g concentrations in human blood around the world while hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) only occasionally has been reported and then in the low ppb concentrations in human blood. The present study concerns PBDE congener and HBCDD concentrations in human milk from Stockholm from 1980 to 2004. HBCDD concentrations has increased four to five times since 1980 until 2002 but seems to have stabilized at this concentration in the last years (2003/04). Similarly, BDE-153 has continued to increase at least to 2001, after which it has stabilized in the mother's milk. Other PBDE congeners with four to five bromine substituents peaked 5 years earlier (1995) and are all decreasing. DecaBDE (BDE-209) is not a suitable biomarker for time trend studies according to the present results, showing no changes over time. This is likely due to its short apparent half-life in humans and poor transfer from blood to milk.

  • 56.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands2005Ingår i: Environmental Health, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 4, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs), the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment.

    Methods

    We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber). In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Results

    Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners). The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat.

    Conclusion

    Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

  • 57.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Non-destructive method for screening for novel persistent organic contaminants in mothers´ milkManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 58.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Institutionen för organisk kemi.
    Separation and NMR characterisation of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD)2007Ingår i: Svensk-norsk miljökjemisk vintermöte: Dr. Holms Hotell, Geilo, 2007, s. 34-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 59.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-20112013Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, s. 224-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and the Sigma TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40 year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for Sigma TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of Sigma PCDDs, PCDFs, Sigma DLPCBs and Sigma TEQ all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WH02005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and Sigma TEQ are 92-11% and for Sigma PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower Sigma TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in Sigma TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

  • 60.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Winnberg, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk - a global review2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 12, s. 8989-9041Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden.

  • 61. Gassmann, Kathrin
    et al.
    Schreiber, Timm
    Dingemans, Milou M. L.
    Krause, Guido
    Roderigo, Claudia
    Giersiefer, Susanne
    Schuwald, Janette
    Moors, Michaela
    Unfried, Klaus
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Westerink, Remco H. S.
    Rose, Christine R.
    Fritsche, Ellen
    BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor-independent mechanisms2014Ingår i: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 88, nr 8, s. 1537-1548Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are bioaccumulating flame retardants found in rising concentrations in human tissue. Epidemiological and animal studies have raised concern for their potential to induce developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Considering the essential role of calcium homeostasis in neurodevelopment, PBDE-induced disturbance of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) may underlie PBDE-induced DNT. To test this hypothesis, we investigated acute effects of BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 on [Ca2+](i) in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and unraveled involved signaling pathways. Short-time differentiated hNPCs were exposed to BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and multiple inhibitors/stimulators of presumably involved signaling pathways to determine possible effects on [Ca2+](i) by single-cell microscopy with the fluorescent dye Fura-2. Initial characterization of calcium signaling pathways confirmed the early developmental stage of hNPCs. In these cells, BDE-47 (2 mu M) and 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.2 mu M) induce [Ca2+](i) transients. This increase in [Ca2+](i) is due to extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular release of Ca2+, mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While extracellular Ca2+ seems to enter the cytoplasm upon 6-OH-BDE-47 by interfering with the cell membrane and independent of Ca2+ ion channels, ER-derived Ca2+ is released following activation of protein lipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but independently of ryanodine receptors. These findings illustrate that immature developing hNPCs respond to low concentrations of 6-OH-BDE-47 by an increase in [Ca2+](i) and provide new mechanistic explanations for such BDE-induced calcium disruption. Thus, these data support the possibility of a critical window of PBDE exposure, i.e., early human brain development, which has to be acknowledged in risk assessment.

  • 62. Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Larsdotter, Maria
    Aune, Marie
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Changes in serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB metabolites and pentachlorophenol during pregnancy2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 144-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied pregnancy-related changes in serum concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 156, CB 180), three hydroxylated PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4-OH-CB187), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Median serum lipid content increased 2-fold between early (weeks 9-13) and late pregnancy (weeks 35-36) (N = 10). whereas median PCB levels in serum lipids decreased 20-46%, suggesting a dilution of PCB concentrations in serum lipids. Nevertheless, strong positive intra-individual correlations (Spearman's r = 0.61-0.99) were seen for PCBs during the whole study period. Thus, if samples have been collected within the same relative narrow time window during pregnancy, PCB results from one single sampling occasion can be used in assessment of relative differences in body burdens during the whole pregnancy period. Concentrations of OH-PCBs in blood serum tended to decline as pregnancy progressed, although among some women the concentrations increased at the end of pregnancy. Positive intra-individual correlations (r = 0.66-0.99) between OH-PCB concentrations were observed during the first and second trimester, whereas correlations with third trimester concentrations were more diverging (r = -0.70-0.85). No decline in PCP concentrations was observed during pregnancy and no significant correlations were found between concentrations at different sampling periods. Our results suggest that for both OH-PCBs and PCP, sampling has to be more specifically timed depending on the time period during pregnancy that is of interest. The differences in patterns of intra- and inter-individual variability of the studied compounds may be due to a combination of factors, including lipid solubility, persistence of the compounds, distribution in blood, metabolic formation, and pregnancy-related changes in body composition and physiological processes.

  • 63. Grandjean, Philippe
    et al.
    Bellinger, David
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Cordier, Sylvaine
    Davey-Smith, George
    Eskenazi, Brenda
    Gee, David
    Gray, Kimberly
    Hanson, Mark
    van den Hazel, Peter
    Heindel, Jerrold J
    Heinzow, Birger
    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
    Hu, Howard
    Huang, Terry T-K
    Jensen, Tina Kold
    Landrigan, Philip J
    McMillen, I Caroline
    Murata, Katsuyuki
    Ritz, Beate
    Schoeters, Greet
    Skakkebaek, Niels Erik
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Weihe, Pal
    The faroes statement: human health effects of developmental exposure to chemicals in our environment.2008Ingår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, ISSN 1742-7835, E-ISSN 1742-7843, Vol. 102, nr 2, s. 73-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The periods of embryonic, foetal and infant developmentare remarkably susceptible to environmental hazards. Toxicexposures to chemical pollutants during these windows ofincreased susceptibility can cause disease and disability ininfants, children and across the entire span of human life.Among the effects of toxic exposures recognized in the pasthave been spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations,lowered birthweight and other adverse effects. These outcomesmay be readily apparent. However, even subtle changes causedby chemical exposures during early development may leadto important functional deficits and increased risks ofdisease later in life. The timing of exposure during early lifehas therefore become a crucial factor to be considered intoxicological assessments.During 20–24 May 2007, researchers in the fields of environmentalhealth, environmental chemistry, developmentalbiology, toxicology, epidemiology, nutrition and paediatricsgathered at the International Conference on Fetal Programmingand Developmental Toxicity, in Tórshavn, FaroeIslands. The conference goal was to highlight new insightsinto the effects of prenatal and early postnatal exposure tochemical agents, and their sustained effects on the individualthroughout the lifespan. The conference brought togetherresearchers to focus on human data and the translationof laboratory results to elucidate the environmental risks tohuman health.

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  • 64.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Reductive debromination of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers2010Ingår i: BFR 2010 Extended abstract series, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Reductive debromination of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers by sodium borohydride and identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether products2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 82, nr 6, s. 839-846Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed to study reductive transformation of highly brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). The method development is a part of a broader project where it will be used to determine the susceptibility of environmental pollutants to reductive conditions, in an attempt to create a scheme for determination of chemical’s persistence. This paper focuses on identification of octabrominated diphenyl ether transformation products from reductive debromination of the three nonabrominated diphenyl congeners (nonaBDE), BDE-206, -207 and -208. Sodium borohydride was used to explore the reductive debromination of the nonaBDEs. The transformation products were collected at two time-points and identified products were quantified by GC–MS. The reduction of the nonaBDEs lead primarily to debrominated products, mainly octaBDEs. The three nonabrominated DEs gave isomer-related transformation product patterns. BDE-207 and BDE-208 showed a propensity for ortho-debromination in the initial reaction step, while no discrimination between initial debromination positions was seen for BDE-206. All three nonabrominated DEs displayed a preferred initial debromination on the fully brominated DE ring.

  • 66.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Photolysis of four novel brominated flame retardantsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 67.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Sodium borohydride reduction of individual polybrominated diphenyl ethers2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, nr 10, s. 1008-1012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many chemicals in use today lack appropriate documentation on their environmental properties, fate, and effects. To counteract this lack of documentation it is vital to thoroughly investigate a compound's fate in the environment before it comes into use. The present study is describing a novel method for assessing the reduction potential of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as a part of a project aimed to create an experimental model for determination of chemical persistence. The reductive transformation of 15 PBDE congeners using sodium borohydride was determined. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants of the transformations were determined by monitoring the disappearance of the investigated congeners. The reductions lead primarily to formation of lower brominated PBDEs. Each PBDE congener was tested in a total of ten replicates which showed a relative standard deviation of 31% or less. The deca-BDE, BDE-209 was approximately 3 times as prone to reductive transformation as BDE-207. The three nonaBDEs, BDE-206, BDE-207, and BDE-208, showed similar reductive potential. The reactivity of the tested octaBDEs was quite variable, from 5% to 24% of the reactivity of BDE-209 for BDE-196 and BDE-198, respectively. The heptaBDEs studied were in the range of the less reactive octaBDEs, except for BDE-181 which was as high as 13% of the reactivity of BDE-209. The results presented give a method for measuring the propensity of PBDEs, and possibly similar compounds, to undergo reductions. They indicate a potential route to a vital piece of information in the assessment of environmental persistence of chemicals.

  • 68.
    Granelli, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Sodium borohydride reduction of individual polybrominated diphenyl ethersManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 69. Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Estimated daily intake of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances related to different particle size fractions of house dust2022Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 303, part 2, artikel-id 135061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor environmental pollutants are a threat to human health. In the current study, we analysed 25 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in seven different size fraction of house dust including the two relevant for exposure via ingestion and inhalation. The highest PFAS concentration is found in the inhalable particulate fraction which is explained by the increased surface area as the particulate's sizes decrease. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the individual PFAS and exposure pathways were calculated for children and adults. In addition, the total EDI for PFOA and its precursors was estimated. The polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAP), followed by PFOA and PFHxA fluortelomer, showed the highest concentrations of PFAS analysed. The cumulative EDI of PFAS for children was 3.0 ng/kg bw per day, a worst-case scenario, which is 17 times higher than the calculated EDI for adults. For children, ingestion of dust was found to result in 800 times higher PFOA exposure than via inhalation. The contribution from PFOA precursors corresponded to only 1% of the EDI from dust indicating PFOA as the main source of exposure. The EDI's of PFOA and PFOS from dust were lower than the calculated EDI's from food ingestion reported by the Swedish Food Agency. Our data indicate that the EDI for the sum of four PFASs: PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOS from dust intake alone is close to the established tolerable weakly intake of 4.4 ng/kg bw in children, set by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2020. The combined EDI levels PFOA and PFOS from both dust and food exceeded the EFSA TWI for both children and adults. This study demonstrates that dust is a relevant exposure pathway for PFAS intake and that analysis of relevant particle size fractions is important for evaluation of dust as an exposure pathway.

  • 70. Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Wang, Bei
    Gerde, Per
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Bioavailability of inhaled or ingested PFOA adsorbed to house dust2022Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, nr 52, s. 78698-78710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor environments may impact human health due to chemical pollutants in the indoor air and house dust. This study aimed at comparing the bioavailability and distribution of PFOA following both an inhalation and an oral exposure to PFOA coated house dust in rats. In addition, extractable organofluorine (EOF) was measured in different tissue samples to assess any potential influence of other organofluorine compounds in the experimental house dust. Blood samples were collected at sequential time points after exposure and at the time of termination; the lungs, liver, and kidney were collected for quantification of PFOA and EOF. The concentration of PFOA in plasma increased rapidly in both exposure groups attaining a Cmax at 3 h post exposure. The Cmax following inhalation was four times higher compared to oral exposures. At 48 h post exposure, the levels of PFOA in the plasma, liver, and kidney were twice as high from inhalation exposures. This shows that PFOA is readily bioavailable and has a rapid systemic distribution following an inhalation or oral exposure to house dust coated with PFOA. The proportion of PFOA to EOF corresponded to 65–71% and 74–87% in plasma and tissues, respectively. The mass balance between EOF and target PFOA indicates that there might be other unknown PFAS precursor and/or fluorinated compounds that co-existed in the house dust sample that can have accumulated in rats.

  • 71.
    Gómara, Belén
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). CSIC, Spain.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Quintanilla-López, Jesús Eduardo
    José González, María
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in placenta from Madrid mothers2012Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 139-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Concentrations and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in placenta samples from a Madrid population (Spain) are reported. Structure dependent retentions of OH-PCBs are known to occur in both humans and wildlife, making it of interest to assess placental transfer of both parent compounds and their metabolites to the developing foetus.

    Results The Sigma PCB concentrations found in placenta samples were in the range 943-4,331 pg/g fresh weight (f.w.), and their hydroxylated metabolites showed a 20-time lower concentration level (53-261 pg/g f.w.). The PCB profiles were surprisingly dominated by CB-52 and CB-101 accounting for more than 44% of the total PCB concentration. This is indicating a source of exposure that is not yet identified. The OH-PCB profiles were dominated by 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146, representing >50% of the Sigma OH-PCB concentration of the placenta samples. Statistical analysis of the data revealed strong correlations between the PCB congeners, among some OH-PCBs, and between OH-PCB metabolites with a meta- and para- substitution pattern. Both PCB and OH-PCB concentrations presented homogeneous distribution, what allowed the establishment of a partial least squares model that correlated the concentrations of OH-PCB with those of PCBs in placenta samples. In addition, causal correlations were observed between the concentrations of OH-PCBs and those of their corresponding PCB precursors.

  • 72. Halonen, Jaana I.
    et al.
    Erhola, Marina
    Furman, Eeva
    Haahtela, Tari
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Barouki, Robert
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Billo, Nils E.
    Fuller, Richard
    Haines, Andrew
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike
    Krauze, Kinga
    Lanki, Timo
    Vicente, Joana Lobo
    Messerli, Peter
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Paloniemi, Riikka
    Peters, Annette
    Posch, Karl-Heinz
    Timonen, Pekka
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Virtanen, Suvi M.
    Bousquet, Jean
    Antó, Josep M.
    A call for urgent action to safeguard our planet and our health in line with the helsinki declaration2021Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 193, artikel-id 110600Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission launched a report introducing a novel approach called Planetary Health and proposed a concept, a strategy and a course of action. To discuss the concept of Planetary Health in the context of Europe, a conference entitled: “Europe That Protects: Safeguarding Our Planet, Safeguarding Our Health” was held in Helsinki in December 2019. The conference participants concluded with a need for action to support Planetary Health during the 2020s. The Helsinki Declaration emphasizes the urgency to act as scientific evidence shows that human activities are causing climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation, overuse of natural resources and pollution. They threaten the health and safety of human kind.

    Global, regional, national, local and individual initiatives are called for and multidisciplinary and multisectorial actions and measures are needed. A framework for an action plan is suggested that can be modified for local needs. Accordingly, a shift from fragmented approaches to policy and practice towards systematic actions will promote human health and health of the planet. Systems thinking will feed into conserving nature and biodiversity, and into halting climate change.

    The Planetary Health paradigm ‒ the health of human civilization and the state of natural systems on which it depends ‒ must become the driver for all policies.

  • 73. Hamers, Timo
    et al.
    Kamstra, Jorke H
    Sonneveld, Edwin
    Murk, Albertinka J
    Visser, Theo J
    Van Velzen, Martin J M
    Brouwer, Abraham
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Biotransformation of brominated flame retardants into potentially endocrine-disrupting metabolites, with special attention to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47).2008Ingår i: Mol Nutr Food Res, ISSN 1613-4125, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 284-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the endocrine-disrupting (ED) potency of metabolites from brominated flame retardants (BFRs) was determined. Metabolites were obtained by incubating single-parent compound BFRs with phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Incubation extracts were tested in seven in vitro bioassays for their potency to compete with thyroxine for binding to transthyretin (TTR), to inhibit estradiol-sulfotransferase (E2SULT), to interact with thyroid hormone-mediated cell proliferation, and to (in-)activate the androgen, progesterone, estrogen, or aryl hydrocarbon receptor. For most BFRs, TTR-binding potencies, and to a lesser extent E2SULT-inhibiting potencies, significantly increased after biotransformation. Microsomal incubation had less pronounced effects on other ED modes of action, due to low biotransformation efficiency and background activities determined in control incubations without BFRs. Moreover, cell-based bioassays suffered from cytotoxicity from metabolites of lower-brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers. For the environmentally relevant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), six hydroxylated metabolites were identified. Individual metabolites had TTR-binding and E2SULT-inhibiting potencies 160-1600 and 2.2-220 times higher than BDE-47 itself, whereas their combined potencies in a realistic mixture were well predicted via concentration addition. In combination with other environmentally relevant hydroxylated organohalogens acting on TTR-binding and E2SULT inhibition, internal exposure to BFR metabolites may significantly contribute to the overall risk of endocrine disruption.

  • 74. Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie
    et al.
    Moreira Bastos, Patricia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Harju, Mikael
    Quantitative structure-Photodegradation relationships of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phenoxyphenols and selected organochlorines2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 77, nr 7, s. 914-921Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among other developments, the technological revolution has lead to introduction of new chemicals to better serve in instruments and materials. The consequences of the extensive increase in use of new chemicals can be detected in the environment world wide, i.e. in wildlife and humans. To ensure this problem to be minimised in the future, new chemicals need to be subjected to predictive assessments before commercialised. To facilitate screening, qualitative structure-activity relationships, quantitative structure-activity relationships may be applied to describe reactivity of chemicals. Physico-chemical properties of chemicals such as partition coefficients and half-lives for the various environmental compartments are essential input data in multimedia environmental fate models. In this study we examine how structural characteristics can quantitatively describe laboratory determined photolytic half-lives of halogenated compounds of different classes, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), and other organohalogens. A total of 30 chemicals with experimentally measured half-lives are used. Results reveal that the most important descriptors for describing the half-lives of the brominated compounds are the energy gap (GAP-1) between HOMO-1 and LUMO, the lowest partial charge on a halogen atom (Qhal-), topological polar surface area (TPSA), the atom with highest radical superdelocalizability (Rad-super+) and LUMO density (LUMO+).

  • 75. Hendriks, Hester S.
    et al.
    Fernandes, Elsa C. Antunes
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    van den Berg, Martin
    Westerink, Remco H. S.
    PCB-47, PBDE-47, and 6-OH-PBDE-47 Differentially Modulate Human GABA(A) and alpha(4)beta(2) Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors2010Ingår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 118, nr 2, s. 635-642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the structurally related polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant persistent organic pollutants that exert several comparable neurotoxic effects. Importantly, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs have an increased neurotoxic potency. Recently, we demonstrated that PCBs can act as (partial) agonist on GABA(A) neurotransmitter receptors, with PCB-47 being the most potent congener. It is, however, unknown whether PBDE-47 and its metabolite 6-OH-PBDE-47 exert similar effects and if these effects are limited to GABA(A) receptors only. We therefore investigated effects of PCB-47, PBDE-47, and 6-OH-PBDE-47 on the inhibitory GABA(A) and excitatory alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Since human exposure is generally not limited to individual compounds, experiments with binary mixtures were also performed. The results demonstrate that PCB-47 and 6-OH-PBDE-47 act as full and partial agonist on the GABA(A) receptor. However, both congeners act as antagonist on the nACh receptor. PBDE-47 does not affect either type of receptor. Binary mixtures of PCB-47 and 6-OH-PBDE-47 induced an additive activation as well as potentiation of GABA(A) receptors, whereas this mixture resulted in an additive inhibition of nACh receptors. Binary mixtures of PBDE-47 and 6-OH-PBDE-47 yielded similar effects as 6-OH-PBDE-47 alone. These findings demonstrate that GABA(A) and nACh receptors are affected differently by PCB-47 and 6-OH-PBDE-47, with inhibitory GABA(A)-mediated signaling being potentiated and excitatory alpha(4)beta(2) nACh-mediated signaling being inhibited. Considering these opposite actions and the additive interaction of the congeners, these effects are likely to be augmented in vivo.

  • 76. Hermansson, Veronica
    et al.
    Asp, Vendela
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Comparative CYP-dependent binding of the adrenocortical toxicants 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD in Y-1 adrenal cells.2007Ingår i: Arch Toxicol, ISSN 0340-5761, Vol. 81, nr 11, s. 793-801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental pollutant 3-MeSO(2)-DDE [2-(3-methylsulfonyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] is an adrenocortical toxicant in mice, specifically in the glucocorticoid-producing zona fasciculata, due to a cytochrome P450 11B1 (CYP11B1)-catalysed bioactivation and formation of covalently bound protein adducts. o,p'-DDD [2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] is toxic and inhibits steroidogenesis in the human adrenal cortex after bioactivation by unidentified CYPs, but does not exert any toxic effects on the mouse adrenal. As a step towards determining in vitro/in vivo relationships for the CYP-catalysed binding and toxicity of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD, we have investigated the irreversible protein binding of these two toxicants in the murine adrenocortical cell line Y-1. The irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE previously demonstrated in vivo was successfully reproduced and could be inhibited by the CYP-inhibitors etomidate, ketoconazole and metyrapone. Surprisingly, o,p'-DDD reached similar levels of binding as 3-MeSO(2)-DDE. The binding of o,p'-DDD was sensitive to etomidate and ketoconazole, but not to metyrapone. Moreover, GSH depletion increased the binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE, but not of o,p'-DDD, indicating an important role of GSH conjugation in the detoxification of the 3-MeSO(2)-DDE-derived reactive metabolite. In addition, the specificity of CYP11B1 in activating 3-MeSO(2)-DDE was investigated using structurally analogous compounds. None of the analogues produced histopathological lesions in the mouse adrenal in vivo following a single i.p. injection of 100 mg/kg body weight, but two of the compounds were able to decrease the irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE to Y-1 cells. These results indicate that the bioactivation of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE by CYP11B1 is highly structure-dependent. In conclusion, both 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD bind irreversibly to Y-1 cells despite differences in binding and adrenotoxicity in mice in vivo. This reveals a notable in vitro/in vivo discrepancy, the contributing factors of which remain unexplained. We consider the Y-1 cell line as appropriate for studies of the cellular mechanisms behind the adrenocortical toxicity of these substances.

  • 77. Hermansson, Veronica
    et al.
    Cantillana, Tatiana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Ljungvall, Karl
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Törneke, Karolina
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Pharmacokinetics of the adrenocorticolytic compounds 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD (mitotane) in Minipigs.2008Ingår i: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, ISSN 0344-5704, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 267-274Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmacokinetics of the adrenocorticolytic drug candidate 3-Methylsulphonyl-DDE (3-MeSO(2)-DDE) and the anticancer drug o,p'-DDD (mitotane) were studied in Göttingen minipigs. The animals were given 3-MeSO(2)-DDE or o,p'-DDD as single oral doses (30 mg/kg). Concentrations in plasma and subcutaneous fat were measured by gas chromatography at different time points during 180 days. Maximal plasma concentrations appeared within 24 h for both compounds, but were about 2 times higher for 3-MeSO(2)-DDE. o,p'-DDD plasma concentrations declined rapidly to low levels during 4 days. 3-MeSO(2)-DDE also decreased rapidly, but remained at high concentrations throughout the study. In fat, 3-MeSO(2)-DDE reached about 25-fold higher levels than o,p'-DDD at 30 days, and both substances were eliminated slowly from this tissue. 3-MeSO(2)-DDE liver concentrations were about 18-fold higher than those in plasma at 180 days. In contrast, o,p'-DDD liver and plasma levels were about equal at 180 days. o,p'-DDD had roughly 45 times larger CL/F than 3-MeSO(2)-DDE, confirming that the elimination of this compound was more rapid. Both compounds were characterised by their localisation and retention in fat tissue, and the individual size of the fat stores clearly determined the plasma concentrations. It is concluded that although 3-MeSO(2)-DDE is an interesting candidate for therapeutic use due to its potential characteristics to specifically target adrenocortical tumour cells the slow elimination of the compound might make it challenging to design appropriate dosage regimes.

  • 78. Hertz-Picciotto, I.
    et al.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Fängström, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rose, M. B.
    Krakowiak, P.
    Pessah, I. N.
    Hansen, R. L.
    Bennett, D. H.
    Polybrominated dipheny ehters in relation to autism and developmental delay: A case-control study2011Ingår i: Environmental Health, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, s. 1-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods: Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results: Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions: Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

     

     

  • 79. Houde, Magali
    et al.
    Pacepavicius, Grazina
    Darling, Colin
    Fair, Patricia A
    Alaee, Mehran
    Bossart, Gregory D
    Solomon, Keith R
    Letcher, Robert J
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Muir, Derek C G
    POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND THEIR HYDROXYLATED ANALOGS IN PLASMA OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FROM THE UNITED STATES EAST COAST.2009Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, nr 10, s. 2061-2068Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated-PBDEs (OH-PBDE) were determined in plasma of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, US. Significantly lower sum (Sigma) of PBDE concentrations (sum of 12 congeners) were found in animals from the IRL [arithmetic mean: 5.454.63 ng/g wet weight (ww)] compared to CHS (3040 ng/g ww). BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE in dolphins from the IRL (50% of the SigmaPBDEs) and CHS (58%). SigmaPBDE concentrations in plasma of dolphins were negatively correlated with age at both locations. Fifteen and sixteen individual OH-PBDE congeners could be quantified in plasma of dolphins from IRL and CHS, respectively. Similar to SigmaPBDE, mean SigmaOH-PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in plasma of dolphins at CHS (1150708 pg/g ww) compared to IRL (624393 pg/g ww). The predominant congener at both locations was 6-OH-PBDE 47 (IRL: 384319 pg/g ww; CHS: 541344 pg/g ww) representing 61.5% of total SigmaOH-PBDE at IRL and 47.0% at CHS. Concentrations of SigmaOH-PBDEs were weakly negatively correlated with age in dolphins from both locations (P<0.05; IRL, R2=0.048; CHS, R2=0.021). In addition to the OH-PBDE congeners identified with technical standards, eight and four unidentified OH-PBDEs were detected and quantified respectively in animals from CHS (sum of unidentified OH-PBDEs=1.350.90 pg/g ww) and IRL (0.730.40 pg/g ww). Our results suggest that, unlike OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs in bottlenose dolphins are minor products in plasma relative to SigmaPBDEs and a significant proportion may be a consequence of the dietary uptake of naturally produced methoxylated- and OH-PBDEs.

  • 80.
    Hovander, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Linderholm, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Fängström, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Kocan, Anton
    Petrik, Jan
    Trnovec, Tomas
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Levels of PCBs and their metabolites in the serum of residents of a highly contaminated area in eastern Slovakia2006Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 12, s. 3696-3703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The over-riding aim of the present investigation was to obtain information concerning exposure that can be used as a basis for studies on the health of individuals residing in the Michalovce area of eastern Slovakia which is heavily contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Accordingly, this work focused on determination of serum concentrations of hydroxylated (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfonyl-substituted (MeSO2-PCBs) metabolites of PCBs. One hundred and twenty-two men and women, 20-59 years of age, living in the contaminated area and 175 from the control Stropkov/Svidnik district were selected randomly from 2047 sampled individuals. Following a specially designed cleanup, the levels of various congeners of OH-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in their serum were quantitated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, with comparison to authentic reference standards. The median concentrations of PCB congeners and their OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites were 2-3-fold higher in residents of Michalovce than in the control region. The levels of certain OH-PCB metabolites were in the same high range as those of individual PCB congeners, whereas the MeSO2-PCB levels were significantly lower. The PCB and their metabolites were present at slightly higher concentrations in men than in women, and the serum levels of PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs increased with increasing age. Thus, the environmental contamination resulting from previous industrial production of PCBs has led to elevated concentrations of PCBs and their metabolites in the serum of individuals living in the Michalovce area.

  • 81. Huang, Qinghui
    et al.
    Wei, Lai
    Bignert, Anders
    Ye, Hua
    Huang, Fei
    Qiu, Yanling
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, China; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Organophosphate flame retardants in heron eggs from upper Yangtze River basin, southwest China2019Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 236, artikel-id 124327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The egg samples of four heron species, including black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), little egret (Egretta garzetta), Chinese pond heron (Ardeola bacchus) and cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), were collected from the upper Yangtze River (Changjiang) Basin, Southwest China in early summer of 2017. Nine out of ten target organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in these heron egg samples. The sum of concentrations of the PFRs quantified (Sigma PFRs) ranged from 63 to 590 pmol g(-1) ww (18-185 ng g(-1) ww) with a median value of 139 pmol g(-1) ww (48 ng g(-1) ww) among all samples. The median Sigma PFRs in eggs of night herons (160 pmol g(-1) ww) was higher than Chinese pond herons (median 121 pmol g(-1) ww) and little egrets (median 109 pmol g(-1) ww). In heron eggs, Sigma PFRs were mainly contributed by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris (isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri-2-methylphenyl phosphate (TMPP). Alkyl-PFRs accounted for approximately 28%-85% (median 57%) of the nine PFRs quantified while the rest is contributed by aryl-PFRs and chlorinated PFR5. Lower levels of PFRs in little egret eggs were found upstream than downstream of the Yangtze. In addition, the daily intakes of PFRs through ingestion of heron eggs were estimated at lower levels. 

  • 82.
    Jakobsson, K
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Fång, J
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Rignell-Hydbom, A
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal serum, umbilicalcord blood, colostrum and mature breast milk2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 83. Jakobsson, K.
    et al.
    Fång, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Rignell-Hydbom, A.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, colostrum and mature breast milk: Insights from a pilot study and the literature2012Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 47, s. 121-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human serum and mother's milk are frequently used to assess exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including transplacental transfer to the foetus. However, little is known about the kinetics of PBDEs, especially the highly brominated BDE congeners.

    In this pilot study, maternal serum samples were collected from 10 women at delivery and five to six weeks post partum. Umbilical serum was also obtained. Milk was donated two to five days, and five to six weeks after delivery. The amount of PBDEs in these samples was determined using liquid–liquid extraction and GC/MS.

    Low, moderately and highly brominated diphenyl ethers were present in umbilical cord serum, indicating placental transfer. The lipid-adjusted levels of BDE-47, BDE-207 and BDE-209 were similar in maternal and umbilical cord serum, whereas the cord serum levels for the penta- to octa-BDEs quantified were lower than in maternal serum.

    Marked changes were seen in the congener pattern in breast milk during the first month of lactation, whereas maternal serum levels did not change significantly. The general pattern was an enrichment of low to moderately brominated congeners (i.e. from BDE-17 to BDE-154, with the exception of BDE-28) in colostrum compared with maternal serum. In contrast, more highly brominated congeners were found at similar, or lower levels in colostrum than in maternal serum. After the transition from colostrum to mature milk, the levels of BDE-153 and BDE-209 were substantially reduced, and BDE‐209 was below the limit of detection in 6 out of 9 samples.

    A literature review on the design and reporting of studies on the transfer of PBDEs from mother to infant revealed a lack of transparency in many cases. The use of the recently published STROBE-ME guidelines is therefore recommended.

  • 84.
    Jorundsdottir, Hronn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Svavarsson, Jorundur
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in seven different marine bird species from Iceland2013Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 93, nr 8, s. 1526-1532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on distribution, concentration and trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) is scarce in biota from the sub-Arctic region of the Atlantic. The present study is an investigation on PBDE and HBCD concentrations in eggs from seven marine bird species from Iceland, i.e. common eider (Somateria mollissima), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), guillemot (Uria aalge), fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus) and great skua (Stercorarius skua). Concentrations of sum PBDEs ranged from 44 ng g(-1) fat in eider eggs to 2400 ng g(-1) fat in great skua eggs. The contribution of different PBDE congeners to the sum concentration differed between species. Concentration of HBCDs (sum of alpha-,beta- and gamma- HBCD) ranged from 1.3 ng g(-1) fat in arctic tern eggs to 41 ng g(-1) fat in great black-backed gull. PCA on PBDE and HBCD shows different trends between the two BFR groups, further indicating different sources/usage. Investigations on any potential health or population effects of environmental pollutants on the great skua are advised since both the PBDE and HBCD concentrations are high.

  • 85.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Assessment of emerging and traditional halogenated contaminants in guillemot (Uria aalge) egg from Nort-Western Europe and the Baltic Sea2009Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, nr 13, s. 4174-4183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are readily detected in biological samples at remote sites in the Arctic and sub-Arctic due to long-range transport from source areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of POPs, polybrominated contaminants and their metabolites in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden to assess spatial trends of these compounds in the Arctic and sub-Arctic areas of Europe. Egg samples were extracted, and cleaned for chemical analysis. Concentrations of PCBs, 4,4′-DDE and β-HCH were an order of magnitude higher in eggs from the Baltic Proper compared to eggs from the North Atlantic. Concentrations of HCB were of the same magnitude at all sites, ranging from 160 to 520 ng/g fat. Concentration of BCPS was 100 times higher in eggs from the Baltic compared to eggs from the North Atlantic and seems therefore to be special regional problem. Concentrations of PBDEs were lower in eggs from the North Atlantic compared to eggs from the Baltic Proper but the difference was not as large as for PCBs and 4,4′-DDE. HBCDD showed the same spatial trend as PCBs, where the concentrations in eggs from the Baltic Proper were an order of magnitude higher than in eggs from the North Atlantic. OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites of PCBs, showed the same trend as the parent compounds while spatial trends of MeSO2-DDE and OH-PBDEs, metabolites of 4,4′-DDE and PBDEs, respectively, differed from the trend of the parent compounds. This may be due to two factors; firstly, the limited ability of birds to metabolise DDT, and secondly, to natural production of OH-PBDE, respectively. Guillemot is suggested as a monitoring species for circumpolar monitoring.

  • 86.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Svavarsson, Jorundur
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Ake
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Organochlorine Compounds and Their Metabolites in Seven Icelandic Seabird Species - a Comparative Study2010Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 9, s. 3252-3259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is designed to assess the occurrence of a few organochlorine contaminants and their metabolites in eggs of different marine bird species in Iceland, a country located in the sub-Arctic of the North-Western Atlantic. Previous investigations from e.g. Sweden and The Netherlands have shown some obvious differences in contaminant concentrations, including e.g. hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) and other bird species. Eggs from seven marine bird species, Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), common eider (Somateria mollissima), guillemot, fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), and great skua (Stercorarius skua), that all breed in Iceland, were collected and analyzed for several persistent organic compounds and their metabolites. The contaminant levels varied between the species investigated. The highest concentrations were found in eggs from the great skua (18 and 23 mu g/g I.w. of CB-153 and 4,4'-DDE, respectively). The concentration difference was generally 2 orders of magnitude higher in great skua for all organochlorine compounds analyzed with the exception of HCB. HCB did not vary as much between the seven species (ranging from 34 to 710 ng/g I.w). OH-PCB and MeSO2-PCB metabolites congener concentrations and patterns showed differences in metabolic capacity between bird species. Guillemot and great skua seem to distinguish themselves most from other species i.e. with the absence of 4-OH-CB187 and low relative levels of 4-OH-CB146 in guillemot and the low abundance of OH-PCBs in great skua.

  • 87.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Tomy, Gregg
    Weihe, Pál
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Concentrations of organohalogen compounds in the West-Nordic compared to the Baltic Region2008Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 88.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Tomy, Gregg
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Weihe, Pál
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Spatial trends of brominaed and fluorinated environmental contaminants in Guillemot eggs (Uria aalge) from the arctic and sub-arctic in North-West Europe2007Ingår i: 4th International Workshop on brominated flame retardants: BFR 2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 89.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Tomy, Gregg
    Svavarsson, Jörundur
    Weihe, Pál
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Spatial trends of chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated environmental contaminants in Guillemot eggs (Uria aalge) from West-North Europe2007Ingår i: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: SETAC Europe 17th annual Meeting, 2007, s. 176-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 90.
    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Norström, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Olsson, Mats
    Pham-Tuan, Hai
    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Temporal trend of bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone, methylsulfonyl-DDE andd -PCB in Baltic guillemot (Uria aalge) egg 1971-2001 - A comparison to 4,4'-DDE and PCB trends2006Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 141, nr 2, s. 226-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 91.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Jones, Bernt
    Lindqvist, Nils Gunnar
    Eriksson, Sune
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Hyperthyroidism, a new disease in cats - Is it caused by exposure to environmental organic pollutants?2009Ingår i: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 71, Peking, 2009, s. 2720-2725Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 92. Langer, Pavel
    et al.
    Kocan, Anton
    Tajtáková, Mária
    Rádiková, Zofia
    Petrík, Ján
    Koska, Juraj
    Ksinantová, Lucia
    Imrich, Richard
    Hucková, Miloslava
    Chovancová, Jana
    Drobná, Beáta
    Jursa, Stanislav
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Gasperá­ková, Daniela
    Trnovec, Tomás
    Seböková, Elena
    Klimes, Iwar
    Possible effects of persistent organochlorinated pollutants cocktail on thyroid hormone levels and pituitary-thyroid interrelations.2007Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 110-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In polluted district of Michalovce in East Slovakia (POLL) and two districts with background pollution (BCGR) 2046 adults (834 males and 1212 females aged 20-75 years) were examined. Serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOab) were estimated by electrochemiluminiscent assay and also these of 15 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, also dioxins, furans, coplanar- and mono-ortho-PCBs as well as selected hydroxylated and methylsulphonated PCBs and DDE metabolites were measured by appropriate methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry principle. In POLL significantly higher levels of all organochlorines were found than these in BCGR. When pooled values from both areas were stratified in terms of PCBs level and treated as continuous variables, positive association of PCBs with FT4 and TT3 was found, the latter two being also mutually associated. However, within the category of PCBs level <530ng/glipid (n=232) the association between PCBs and both the FT4 (p<0.09) and TT3 (p<0.03) was negative and any association of these was not found within the category of PCBs level of 531-1000ng/g (n=691). In contrast, in the category of 531-2000ng/g (n=1307) positive association appeared between PCBs and FT4 (p<0.001) as well as TT3 (p<0.05). Highly significant association of PCBs with FT4 (p<0.001) was further found in the categories with PCBs level of 1001-101414ng/g (n=1307) and 2001-101414 (n=1123), while significant association with TT3 was observed only in the category of 531-2000ng/g. Such findings suggest possible threshold level in positive effect of PCBs on FT4 and TT3 level which seems to be individual and located somewhere around the PCBs level of 1000ng/g. However, highly significant negative association of both FT4 and TT3 with TSH was found in each of above indicated PCBs categories. Considerable difference in FT4 and TT3 level between large groups of subjects with the same range of PCBs level was also found suggesting different individual susceptibility to the effects of organochlorines. Among a total of 26 cases from POLL with very low TSH level (<0.5mUl(-1)) 13 cases showed very high level of PCBs, FT4 and TT3, thus supporting a hypothesis on a novel sporadic form of high PCBs related peripheral subclinical hyperthyroidism possibly resulting from the long-term disruption of equilibrium between bound and free thyroxine in plasma by high PCBs level followed by a striking inhibition of TSH release from the pituitary.

  • 93. Langer, Pavel
    et al.
    Tajtáková, Mária
    Kocan, Anton
    Petrík, Ján
    Koska, Juraj
    Ksinantová, Lucia
    Rádiková, Zofia
    Ukropec, Jozef
    Imrich, Richard
    Hucková, Miloslava
    Chovancová, Jana
    Drobná, Beáta
    Jursa, Stanislav
    Vlcek, Miroslav
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Shishiba, Yoshimasa
    Trnovec, Tomás
    Seböková, Elena
    Klimes, Iwar
    Thyroid ultrasound volume, structure and function after long-term high exposure of large population to polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and dioxin.2007Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 118-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined 2,046 adults (834 males and 1,212 females aged 20-75 years) from polluted district in East Slovakia (POLL) and two neighboring upstream and upwind located districts of background pollution (BCGR). By ultrasound we estimated the thyroid volume (ThV), hypoechogenicity (HYE), nodules and cysts. Serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOab) and thyroglobulin were estimated by electrochemiluminiscent assay and these of 15 PCB congeners, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane by high-resolution gas chromatography. In 320 subjects also selected hydroxylated and methylsulfonated PCB metabolites, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), five dioxin-like coplanar and eight mono-ortho PCB congeners were estimated. Urinary iodine was measured by automatic microplate method. Reciprocal positive association was found between three major POPs (PCBs, DDE and HCB), the levels of these and also PCDDs plus PCDFs in polluted area being considerably higher than in background pollution area. ThV in groups of males and females from POLL with high PCBs level was significantly higher (p<0.001 by t-test) then in age and sex matched groups from BCGR with low PCBs level. In 1,048 males and females aged <60 years with serum PCBs level >1,000 ng g(-1) lipid (median=1,756 ng g(-1)) a significant effect of age on ThV was found (p<0.01 by ANOVA), while in 921 respective subjects with PCBs level <1,000 ng g(-1) (median=661 ng g(-1)) it was not. These findings supported the view on the additional effect of PCBs on ThV other than that of age. Since the urinary iodine in both districts showed optimal range, any interfering effect of unsatisfactory iodine intake on ThV may be excluded. The frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis signs such as HYE, increased serum level of TPOab and TSH resulting in subclinical or overt thyroid hypofunction was positively associated with sex, age and organochlorine levels. The increase of such frequency in males with POPs levels was much more abrupt than that in females. No considerable differences in the frequency of thyroid nodules as related to PCBs level were found.

  • 94. Legradi, Jessica
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Cenijn, Peter
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Legler, Juliette
    Disruption of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) present in the marine environment2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 24, s. 14703-14711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are of growing concern, as they have been detected in both humans and wildlife and have been shown to be toxic. Recent studies have indicated that OH-PBDEs can be more toxic than PBDEs, partly due to their ability to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), an essential process in energy metabolism. In this study, we determined the OXPHOS disruption potential of 18 OH-PBDE congeners reported in marine wildlife using two in vitro bioassays, namely the classic rat mitochondrial respiration assay, and a mitochrondrial membrane potential assay using zebrafish PAC2 cells. Single OH-PBDE congeners as well as mixtures were tested to study potential additive or synergistic effects. An environmental mixture composed of seven OH-PBDE congeners mimicking the concentrations reported in Baltic blue mussels were also studied. We report that all OH-PBDEs tested were able to disrupt OXPHOS via either protonophoric uncoupling and/or inhibition of the electron transport chain. Additionally we show that OH-PBDEs tested in combinations as found in the environment have the potential to disrupt OXPHOS. Importantly, mixtures of OH-PBDEs may show very strong synergistic effects, stressing the importance of further research on the in vivo impacts of these compounds in the environment

  • 95. Li, Li
    et al.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Gustafsson, Asa
    Krais, Annette M.
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. Tongji University, China; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Characterization of residential household dust from Shanghai by particle size and analysis of organophosphorus flame retardants and metals2019Ingår i: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 31, nr 1, artikel-id 94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)