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  • 51.
    Ahlberg-Hultén, Gunnel
    Stockholms universitet.
    Psychological Demands and Decision Latitude Within Health Care Work: Relation to Health and Significance1999Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific evaluation of the psychosocial work environment for health care personnel. The theoretical basis is the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell. The model consists of the dimensions psychological demands and decision latitude, the latter is a combination of intellectual discretion and authority over decision.

    The results in study I indicated that there are strong relationships between job strain, high psychological demands and low decision latitude, and blood pressure during work among health care personnel. In study II, symptoms from the low back were associated with all three dimensions psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority while symptoms from the neck were related to lack of work support. The results in study III indicated that the combination of somatic and psychiatric care could be associated with higher levels of job strain and psychological symptoms.

    Study IV showed that substantial changes in working conditions had been frequent in the public sector during the period 1988-1996 and that registered nurses and nurse assistants had very different developments. Registered nurses had got a more intense work environment with increased skill utilization but also increased hindrances to perform work. Nurse assistants on the other hand had experienced decreased skill utilization. Temporary employment and part time work, common among health care personnel with low education, were the factors that explained the greatest part of deterioration of skill utilization and possibility to take part in planning of work. These different trends may negatively influence social climate as these two occupational groups often work together.

    Study V is a qualitative validation of the demand-control model. The findings showed that the model is equally relevant for women as for men and also relevant for health care personnel. Compared to occupational groups working with either "things" or "symbols" health care personnel experienced higher levels of psychological demands and lower levels of decision latitude.

    It is concluded that the demand-control scale is relevant for use in studies of psychosocial work environment in health care, possibly supplemented with the effort-reward scale. In order to reach a more solid understanding of the psychosocial work environment, questionnaire data should be combined with qualitatively analyzed interviews. The indications of a deteriorated psychosocial work environment for health care personnel in this and other studies calls for radical changes that promote less psychological demands and more decision latitude within this occupational sector.

  • 52.
    Ahlesten, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psykometriska egenskaper hos Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykologisk inflexibilitet är ett centralt begrepp inom Acceptance and committment therapy (ACT). I enlighet med teorin bakom ACT är människor psykiska lidande starkt sammankopplat med komponenterna som utgör psykologisk inflexibilitet; upplevelsemässigt undvikande och kognitiv fusion. Det psykiska måendet bland barn och ungdomar tenderar att försämras och behovet av psykologiska vårdinsatser ökar. I det sammanhanget är det viktigt med fungerande skattningsinstrument som möjliggör bedömningar och utvärderingar av vårdbehov och vårdinsatser. I uppsatsen undersöktes psykometriska egenskaper hos självskattningsinstrumentet Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) i en grupp ungdomar som vårdas av Statens institutionsstyrelse. Av resultaten framgick att såväl reliabilitet som validitet var god i de utvalda måtten, faktorstrukturen tolkades som endimensionell. Även graden av psykologisk inflexibilitet i gruppen undersöktes. Bland undersökningsdeltagarna hade flickorna signifikant högre AFQ-Y-resultat jämfört med normpopulationen. Pojkarna avvek inte från normpopulationen.

  • 53. Ahlgren, Inger
    Interaction between form and content in linguistic perception1975Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 54.
    Ahlquist, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vad orsakar ilska?2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilka situationer som vanligen orsakar ilska hos vuxna individer, och att ur dessa försöka härleda vilka faktorer som i dessa situationer orsakat ilskan. Genom en enkätundersökning fick 55 psykologistudenter vardera beskriva två situationer som gjort dem arga, samt vad det var som gjort dem arga. På detta material utfördes en induktiv tematisk analys, vilket visade på fem olika huvudorsaker till ilska. Dessa var: Hot mot ens (eller signifikant annans) välbefinnande; Normbrytande beteende och orättvisa; Bristande kontroll över relevant situation samt förhindrelse att uppnå mål; Ens förväntningar bryts till det negativa; Negativa tillstånd. I en vidare diskussion behandlas att dessa teman förefaller passa väl in i ett evolutionistiskt synsätt på emotioner. Ilska förefaller vara en handlingsmotiverande emotion som huvudsakligen fyller funktionen som mobiliserande kraft gentemot negativa utvecklingar.

  • 55. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, s. 127-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 56. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The effect of daylight versus darkness on driver sleepiness: a driving simulator study2018Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, nr 3, artikel-id e12642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness studies are often carried out with alert drivers during daytime and sleep-deprived drivers during night-time. This design results in a mixture of different factors (e.g. circadian effects, homeostatic effects, light conditions) that may confound the results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 ± 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove on a rural road. A 2 × 2 design was used with the conditions daylight versus darkness, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results show that light condition had an independent effect on the sleepiness variables. The subjective sleepiness measured by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, lateral position more left-oriented, speed lower, electroencephalogram alpha and theta higher, and blink durations were longer during darkness. The number of line crossings did not change significantly with light condition. The day/night condition had profound effects on most sleepiness indicators while controlling for light condition. The number of line crossings was higher during night driving, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, blink durations were longer and speed was lower. There were no significant interactions, indicating that light conditions have an additive effect on sleepiness. In conclusion, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and blink durations increase primarily with sleep deprivation, but also as an effect of darkness. Line crossings are mainly driven by the need for sleep and the reduced alertness at the circadian nadir. Lane position is, however, more determined by light conditions than by sleepiness.

  • 57. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Anund, Anna
    Hallvig, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Video-based observer rated sleepiness versus self-reported subjective sleepiness in real road driving2015Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikel-id 38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Observer-rated sleepiness (ORS) based on video recordings of the driver's face is often used when analysing naturalistic driving data. The aim of this study is to investigate if ORS ratings agree with subjective self-reported sleepiness (SRS). Methods: Forty raters assessed 54 video-clips showing drivers with varying levels of sleepiness. The video-clips were recorded during a field experiment focusing on driver sleepiness using the same cameras that are typically used in large-scale field studies. The weak results prompted a second test. Ten human factors researchers made pairwise comparisons of videos showing the same four participants in an alert versus a very sleepy condition. The task was simply to select the video-clip where the driver was sleepy. Results: The overall average percentage of video segments where ORS and SRS matched was 41 % in Test 1. ORS 0 (alert) and ORS 2 (very sleepy) were easier to score than ORS 1 and it was slightly harder to rate night-time drives. Inter-rater agreement was low, with average Pearson's r correlations of 0.19 and Krippendorff's alpha of 0.15. In Test 2, the average Pearson's r correlations was 0.35 and Krippendorff's alpha was 0.62. The correspondence between ORS and SRS showed an agreement of 35 %. Conclusions: The results indicate that ORS ratings based on real road video recordings correspond poorly with SRS and have low inter-rater agreement. Further research is necessary in order to further evaluate the usefulness of ORS as a measure of sleepiness.

  • 58. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Nyström, Marcus
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    Fors, Carina
    Sandberg, David
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers' sleepiness level: Eye movements improve the sleep/wake predictor2013Ingår i: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 26, s. 20-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a driver’s sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye movement measurements and on the sleep/wake predictor model (SWP, which predicts the sleepiness level) and evaluate the ability to predict severe sleepiness during real road driving. Twenty-four drivers participated in an experimental study which took place partly in the laboratory, where the fit-for-duty data were acquired, and partly on the road, where the drivers sleepiness was assessed. A series of four measurements were conducted over a 24-h period during different stages of sleepiness. Two separate analyses were performed; a variance analysis and a feature selection followed by classification analysis. In the first analysis it was found that the SWP and several eye movement features involving anti-saccades, pro-saccades, smooth pursuit, pupillometry and fixation stability varied significantly with different stages of sleep deprivation. In the second analysis, a feature set was determined based on floating forward selection. The correlation coefficient between a linear combination of the acquired features and subjective sleepiness (Karolinska sleepiness scale, KSS) was found to be R = 0.73 and the correct classification rate of drivers who reached high levels of sleepiness (KSS ⩾ 8) in the subsequent driving session was 82.4% (sensitivity = 80.0%, specificity = 84.2% and AUC = 0.86). Future improvements of a fit-for-duty test should focus on how to account for individual differences and situational/contextual factors in the test, and whether it is possible to maintain high sensitive/specificity with a shorter test that can be used in a real-life environment, e.g. on professional drivers.

  • 59.
    Ahlström, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hörselskadade barn i kommunikation och samspel2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to study the communicative and social development of twelve hard of hearing children, between the ages of two and seven. The children were observed by videorecordings, during a two year period in natural settings in three different sign language preschools, where sign language and spoken Swedish was exposed to the children at a varying extent. The theoretical basis of this thesis is found in modem child development research emphasising the significance of early close relationships with adults and peers. In order to give a description of the cultural context, interviews were made with parents and staffmembers. A descriptive qualitative analysis of the non-verbal and verbal communication between the children and the staff-members was conducted in order to focus on patterns of interaction within the group of hard of hearing children and between hard of hearing and deaf children, as well as between the children and the staff-members. From the analysis, five different patterns of interaction emerged and will be presented as five case studies at an individual and at a group level. These two perspectives were necessary in order to understand the way the hard of hearing children communicated in different contexts. The adults attitudes towards play and language, manifested by the way in which they acted towards the children played a central part to the outcome of peer-peer and adult-child interactions. The research findings indicated that a multitude of circumstances influenced the development of communicative skills of the children. The use of a language that enabled them to understand and to be understood, a supportive communicative style of the adults, where focus was on the content and the quality of the interaction in combination with a positive attitude towards fantasy and role play seemed to promote the children’s well-being and communicative and social development, more than an adult-centred and directive communicative style where the two languages per se were in focus.

  • 60.
    Ahlström Söderling, Celia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    VILKEN ORGANISATION IDENTIFIERAR SIG KONSULTER MED?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att anlita konsulter i stället för att anställa egen personal blir allt vanligare på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att få inblick i vilken organisation konsulter identifierar sig med – konsultbolaget eller uppdragsgivaren. Åtta konsulter på ett konsultbolag inriktat mot offentlig sektor, i Sverige, intervjuades. Intervjuerna berörde både konsultbolagets befintliga upplägg för att öka identifikationen med bolaget samt möjliga sätt att öka denna. Även relationen mellan konsulten och uppdragsgivaren, ur konsultens synvinkel, berördes. I resultatet framkom en bild av att vid långa uppdrag på heltid så identifierar sig konsulterna generellt mer med uppdrags-givaren än med konsultbolaget. Att schemalägga en veckodag då konsulten ska vara på plats på konsultbolagets kontor framträdde som ett möjligt sätt att öka identifikationen med konsultbolaget vid långa heltidsuppdrag.

  • 61.
    Ahocheshm, Arash
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Radikala och extrema grupper: Anslutning, kontinuitet och urkoppling i ljuset av social identitetsteori2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier om engagemang i extrema och radikala grupper har begränsats till en grupp åt gången. Djupare psykologisk förståelse för fenomenet har efterfrågats. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att utforska likheter mellan föredetta medlemmar av olika radikala och extrema grupper, beträffande faktorer bidragande till anslutning, kontinuitet och urkoppling, samt hur processen bakom anslutning, kontinuitet och urkoppling kan förklaras med hjälp av social identitetsteori (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Intervjumaterialet (N=7) analyserades med en blandning av induktiv och deduktiv tematisk analys. Anslutning associeras med utanförskap, dysfunktionella familjeförhållanden, emotionell belastning och manipulation. Kontinuitet associeras med familjeliknande förhållanden, betydelsefulla roller, ökad självsäkerhet, tydliga mål och aspiration, ökade aktiviteter, polariserade föreställningar och motsättningar. Urkoppling associeras med personlig utveckling, distans och psykisk ohälsa. Ett förslag till förklaringsmodell presenteras. Negativ social identitet leder till anslutning, positiv social identitet leder till kontinuitet, hotad social identitet kan leda till eller ifrån kontinuitet, negativ social identiet leder till urkoppling.

  • 62.
    Ahola, Angela
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    How reliable are eyewitness memories? Effects of retention interval, violence of act, and gender stereotypes on observers' judgments of their own memory regarding witnessed act and perpetrator:  2012Ingår i: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 491-503Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) stimulus person's gender, (ii) type of act (neutral or violent), and (iii) retention interval (short or long) on observers' memory of a stimulus person. Participants were presented with one of two acts: neutral (walking around in a store) or violent (robbing a store). The retention interval was 10 minutes or one-three weeks. The dependent variables were questionnaire items concerning the participants' memory of (1) the stimulus person's appearance and (2) the event, and (3) rating scales where the participants were asked to evaluate the stimulus person's aggressiveness, insensitivity, and other personality traits as well as characteristics of the act. Results showed that when the act was violent, and a long retention interval was used, a female, but not a male, stimulus person was evaluated less harshly than with a short retention interval (enhancement of gender stereotype); a stimulus person was seen as behaving in a more masculine way when performing a violent rather than a neutral act; witnessing the violent act resulted in better self-rated memory of the stimulus person; and with increasing retention interval, the violent act was seen as less negative and the neutral act as more negative (regression toward the mean).

  • 63.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    How reliable are eye witness memories?: Effects of retention interval, violence of act, and gender stereotypeson observers’ judgments of their own memory regarding witnessed act andperpetratorManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) stimulus person’s gender, (ii) type of act (neutral or violent), and (iii) retention interval (short or long) on observers’ memory of a stimulus person. Participants were presented with one of two acts; neutral (walking around in a store) or violent (robbing a store). The retention interval was 10 minutes or 1-3 weeks. The dependent variables were questionnaire items concerning the participants' memory of (1) the stimulus person’s appearance and (2) the event, and (3) rating scales where the participants were asked to evaluate the stimulus person’s aggressiveness, insensitivity, and other personality traits as well as characteristics of the act. Results showed that when the act was violent, and a long RI was used, a female, but not a male, stimulus person was evaluated less harshly than with a short RI (enhancement of gender stereotype); a stimulus person was seen as behaving in a more masculine way when performing a violent rather than a neutral act; witnessing the violent act resulted in better self-rated memory of the stimulus person; and with increasing retention interval, the violent act was seen as less negative and the neutral act as more negative (regression toward the mean).

  • 64.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Justice needs a blindfold: Effects of defendants’ gender and attractiveness on judicial evaluation2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender and appearance affect our judgments regarding an individual’s personality, profession, and morality, and create a reference frame within which to act toward that person. The main question of the present thesis is whether these kinds of stereotypical conceptions have implications for the judicial process: how professionals within the judicial process evaluate and judge a defendant, and how and what eyewitnesses remember. Expressed in other words: Is justice blind or do gender and appearances affect the treatment we receive in a judicial process?

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to study the effects of gender and attractiveness on evaluations of defendants accused of crimes of varying seriousness and type. The second theme was to study under what circumstances these effects are particularly strong; emotionality, retention interval, as well as gender and profession of evaluators, were controlled for.

    Study 1 aimed at investigating “pure” gender and attractiveness effects, with psychology students as participants. Study II added the variable of emotionality, as well as six groups of evaluators. Emotionality was studied by including emotional photographs of crime victim injury as well as two levels of vividness in the written description the evaluator was to read. The evaluators were professionals working within the judicial process in Sweden–judges, jury members, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and police officers–as well as law students. Study 1 showed that a male defendant was evaluated more negatively than a female. Study II showed two main tendencies: (i) “same-sex penalty effect”: Sentencing evaluators (judges, jurors) evaluated a defendant of their own gender more harshly than one of the opposite gender; (ii) “male penalty effect”: Nonsentencing evaluators (police officers, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and law students) evaluated and judged a male defendant more harshly than a female. Study III focused on exploring effects of violence (emotionality) and retention interval in the context of gender differences to investigate under which circumstances gender differences might be especially strengthened. Violence was manipulated using two acts: one neutral (walking in a store) and one violent (robbing the same store). Retention interval was of two lengths: 10 minutes and 1-3 weeks. Results revealed a gender-stereotype-enhancement effect, in which the evaluator evaluated the male defendant more harshly with the longer retention interval as well as in the violent act condition. The results of the present studies may have practical implications for the functioning of the judicial process; on the eyewitness hearing level (Study III) as well as on the evidence evaluation-, guilt-, and punishment assessment levels (Studies I and II).

  • 65.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Christianson, Sven Å.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Justice Needs a Blindfold: Effects of Gender and Attractiveness on Prison Sentences and Attributions of Personal Characteristics in a Judicial Process2009Ingår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 90-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effect of gender and facial characteristics of criminal offenders on attributions of crime-relevant traits. The stimulus pictures portrayed women and men of varying attractiveness. Participants were presented with pictures of these female or male faces along with accompanying crime accounts. The crime account described the individual in the picture as a person who had committed one of the following crimes: theft, fraud, drug crime, child molestation, child abuse, or homicide. After reading one case account the participants were asked to evaluate the credibility and other crime-relevant personality traits of the offender. Results showed that female defendants were rated more favourably than were male defendants. Gender worked to the advantage of the female perpetrator. There were also slight tendencies towards more lenient appraisal of the more attractive women.

  • 66.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Is Justice Really Blind?: Effects of Crime Descriptions, Defendant Gender and Appearance, and Legal Practitioner Gender on Sentences and Defendant Evaluations in a Mock Trial2010Ingår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 304-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate how sources of information can bias the judicial process. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of photographs of victims’ injury, and of vivid verbal victim injury description, on the evaluation and sentencing of a defendant in a mock criminal trial. The participants were presented with five different crime accounts: (a) vandalism, (b) arson, (c) child abuse, (d) child molestation, and (e) homicide, all committed by male perpetrators, and were asked to evaluate the trustworthiness, culpability, aggressiveness, guilt, and other crime-relevant personality traits of the defendant, and to set imprisonment sentences. Results of Experiment 1 showed that exposure to photographs of crime victim injuries as well as vivid crime descriptions had only weak and non-significant effects on defendant evaluations, but imprisonment terms tended to be longer in the Photo condition than in the No photo condition. To further investigate the possible effects of photographic information on judicial processes for different crimes (child molestation, child abuse, homicide), Experiment 2 was conducted with legal practitioners (judges, members of Swedish juries, law students, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, police officers) as evaluators. Results showed three tendencies: (a) a ‘‘same-sex penalty effect’’: sentencing evaluators (judges, jurors) evaluated a defendant of the same gender as the evaluator, more harshly than one of the opposite gender, (b) a ‘‘male penalty effect’’: non-sentencing evaluators (police officers, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and law students) evaluated and judged a male defendant more harshly than a female, and (c) for female non-sentencing evaluators, the male penalty effect was enhanced for the more attractive defendants. Overall, the results suggest that defendant gender, defendant appearance, evaluator gender, and evaluator profession can affect the outcome of a criminal trial.

  • 67.
    Ahrén, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Abstrakt eller konkret verklighet?: Om hur psykologisk distans inverkar på perception2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förståelsen för andra människor som krävs för lyckade interaktioner, förklaras i attributionsteorierna "Theory of Mind" och "Simulation Theory. Ett vanligt men ouppklarat fenomen är det fundamentala attributionsfelet, där beteende felaktigt attribueras till inre generella egenskaper. Fenomenet reflekterar en abstrakt mental konstruktion i enlighet med Construal Level Theorys antagande om hur psykologisk distans inverkar på perception. I en modifierad Attitude Attribution Paradigm modell undersöks om spatial distans påverkar det fundamentala attributionsfelet och om skillnader föreligger mellan kvinnor och män. Kort/lång spatial distans primades genom en kontroversiell text, via information om dess kompositionsplats, som fungerade som underlag för bedömning av skribentens åsikt. En variansanalys visade ingen signifikant effekt av spatial distans, inte heller någon skillnad mellan kvinnor och män. Resultaten kan ha påverkats av den modifierade undersökningsmodellen, vilken kan ha medlat en implicit antydan om en uttryckt åsikt.

  • 68.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychosocial determinants and family background in anorexia nervosa: Results from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2012Ingår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 362-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between psychosocial factors and family background and incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a Swedish cohort.

    Method: The Stockholm Birth Cohort, SBC (N = 14,294) contains information on social background and general health in males and females, born in Stockholm 1953. Hospitalizations for AN, based on diagnoses from the ICD-8 through ICD-10, were recorded from 1969 to 2002. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to measure the association between psychosocial characteristics and family background and the risk of AN.

    Results: Higher maternal education was associated with a higher risk for hospitalization for AN. An increased risk for AN was also found among females who stated that they “often compare their future prospects with others.”

    Discussion: Although the study is based on a low number of cases, it confirms earlier findings of higher maternal education among individuals with eating disorders in similar cohorts.

  • 69.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dalman, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Goodman, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    We are family - parents, siblings, and eating disorders in a prospective total-population study of 250,000 Swedish males and females2013Ingår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 693-700Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We examined how parental characteristics and other aspects of family background were associated with the development of eating disorders (ED) in males and females.

    Method: We used register data and record linkage to create the prospective, total-population study the Stockholm Youth Cohort. This cohort comprises all children and adolescents who were ever residents in Stockholm County between 2001 and 2007, plus their parents and siblings. Individuals born between 1984 and 1995 (N = 249, 884) were followed up for ED from age 12 to end of 2007. We used Cox regression modeling to investigate how ED incidence was associated with family socioeconomic position, parental age, and family composition.

    Results: In total, 3,251 cases of ED (2,971 females; 280 males) were recorded. Higher parental education independently predicted a higher rate of ED in females [e.g., adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.69 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.02) for degree-level vs. elementary-level maternal education], but not in males [HR 0.73 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.28), p < 0.001 for gender interaction]. In females, an increasing number of full-siblings was associated with lower rate of ED [e.g., fully adjusted HR 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.97) per sibling], whereas an increasing number of half-siblings was associated with a higher rate [HR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) per sibling].

    Discussion: The effect of parental education on ED rate varies between males and females, whereas the effect of number of siblings varies according to whether they are full or half-siblings. A deeper understanding of these associations and their underlying mechanisms may provide etiological insights and inform the design of preventive interventions

  • 70.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Mothers’ social background and risk of eating disorders in daughters [abstract]2008Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 18, nr suppl. 1, s. 111-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Holmgren, Sven
    von Knorring, Lars
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Personality traits and self-injury behaviour in patients with eating disorders2008Ingår i: European eating disorders review, ISSN 1072-4133, E-ISSN 1099-0968, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 268-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in different aspects of personality and the neuropsychological basis for behaviour in eating disorder patients has increased over the last decade. The present study aims at exploring personality traits, self-injurious behaviour (SIB) and suicide attempts in a group of severely ill eating disorder patients. Patients with eating disorders (<i>N</i> = 38) and age-matched controls (N = 67) were examined concerning self-reported personality traits by means of the Karolinska scales of personality (KSP). Psychosocial history and SIB was collected from medical records. Depression was rated by means of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results indicated significantly higher anxiety-related and detachment traits in both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients and higher hostility in BN patients than controls. No specific personality traits could be defined as typical for self-injurious or suicidal behaviour. The AN group was lower than the BN group on scales measuring impulsivity, guilt and anxiety. Furthermore, presence of SIB and suicide attempts was more frequent among the BN patients.

  • 72.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    von Blixten, Nils
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Holmgren, Sven
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in severely ill patients with eating disorders2011Ingår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 8-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The underlying pathophysiology of eating disorders (ED) is dependent on complex interactions between psychological, biological and social factors. The purpose of the present study was to examine a possible increase in cytokines indicating inflammation, as measured by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in ED patients, and to explore possible relationships between cytokines and self-reported personality traits. Methods: Female patients with severe ED (n = 26) were recruited consecutively from an inpatient clinic and were compared to age-matched healthy females (n = 12). Commercial ELISA tests developed for the measurement of serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were employed. Personality traits were measured using Karolinska Scales of Personality. Results: The patient group displayed increased levels of the cytokine TNF-α and a tendency towards increased IL-6 levels. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine possible relationships between levels of cytokines and personality traits. The results showed that IL-6 levels were positively related to both somatic and psychic anxiety and to aggression scales, such as irritability and suspicion. Increased levels of TNF-α, in turn, were significantly correlated with high scores on the depression-related anxiety scale Inhibition of Aggression. However, increased levels of cytokines in the ED group did not seem to be mainly associated with symptoms of depression. Conclusion: We cannot rule out the possibility that comorbid conditions in the group contribute to the higher cytokine values. Further studies need to explore the possible influence of cytokines on the severity of ED and whether this might be mediated or moderated by specific personality traits.

  • 73.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Silverwood, Richard
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Association of Higher Parental and Grandparental Education and Higher School Grades With Risk of Hospitalization for Eating Disorders in Females: The Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study2009Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 170, nr 5, s. 566-575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eating disorders are a leading cause of disease burden amongyoung women. This study investigated associations of socialcharacteristics of parents and grandparents, sibling position,and school performance with incidence of eating disorders. Theauthors studied Swedish females born in 1952–1989 (n =13,376), third-generation descendants of a cohort born in Uppsalain 1915–1929. Data on grandparental and parental socialcharacteristics, sibling position, school grades, hospitalizations,emigrations, and deaths were obtained by register linkages.Associations with incidence of hospitalization for eating disorderswere studied with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted forage and study period. Overall incidence of hospitalization foreating disorders was 32.0/100,000 person-years. Women with morehighly educated parents and maternal grandparents were at higherrisk (hazard ratio for maternal grandmother with higher educationrelative to elementary education = 6.5, 95% confidence interval:2.2, 19.3, adjusted for parental education). Independent offamily social characteristics, women with the highest schoolgrades had a higher risk of eating disorders (hazard ratio =7.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 24.1 for high compared withlow grades in Swedish, adjusted for parental education). Thus,higher parental and grandparental education and higher schoolgrades may increase risk of hospitalization for eating disordersin female offspring, possibly because of high internal and externaldemands.

  • 74.
    Aiko, Lundequist
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Böhm, Birgitta
    Forssberg, Hans
    The Stockholm Neonatal Project: Cognitive and executive functioning in adolecents born pretermManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Research has shown that premature birth poses a risk for later cognitive development, particularly in the executive domain, but few studies extend beyond the early school years. Adolescence is a critical period for cognitive maturation, and this study investigated the cognitive outcome in a Swedish cohort of prematurely born 18-year olds, in relation to gestational age at birth and medical risks in the perinatal period.

    Participants and Methods:  As part of Stockholm Neonatal Project, 134 adolescents born preterm with very low birth weight (< 1500g) and 94 matched controls born at term, participated in a follow-up study at age 18. General intelligence, as well as executive, memory, language and visual motor functions were measured by WISC-III, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, naming tests, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, face recognition, and Visual Motor Integration test.

    Results: Extremely preterm adolescents (EPT, GA 23-27, n=74) performed worse than adolescents born either very preterm or at term, on all cognitive tasks and particularly on executive measures. 50% of the EPT group had suffered perinatal medical complications, and had more pervasive cognitive deficits than EPTs with low medical risk.  By contrast, very preterm adolescents (GA 28-31; n=36) performed consistently on a par with the controls.  Moderately preterm with very low birth weight (GA 32-36; n=25), who had experienced varying degrees of intrauterine growth retardation, tended to score lower than very preterm and control adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive measures.

    Conclusions: Extremely preterm birth per se poses a risk for long-term cognitive outcome, particularly in executive functions. These risks may be exacerbated by medical complications.  Children born after 28 weeks of gestation or later, with normal birth weight and no perinatal complications, do not have an elevated risk for cognitive deficits at age 18.

  • 75. Airaksinen, Eija
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Kognitiv psykologi.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Low episodic memory performance as a premorbid marker of depression:: Evidence from a 3-year follow-up2007Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 115, nr 6, s. 458-465Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine low episodic memory scores as a potential risk factor for depression.

    Method: A population-based sample of non-depressed individuals (20–64 years) were re-examined 3 years after an initial screening (n ¼ 708). At baseline, information on episodic memory scores, demographic and socioeconomic factors, alcohol use and anxiety diagnoses was collected. The data for depression diagnoses were collected at both baseline and follow-up.

    Results: Logistic regressions, conducted on three separate study groups that were defined according to three assessments of episodic memory (i.e. free + cued recall, free recall, cued recall) among individuals who scored in the 25 lowest or highest percentiles in the memory tests, revealed that low episodic memory performance defined as the sum of free and cued recalls of organizable words constitutes a risk of depression diagnosis 3 years later.

    Conclusion: Low episodic memory performance predated depressive diagnosis and might be considered as a premorbid marker of depression.

  • 76. Airaksinen, Eija
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Cognitive and social functioning in recovery from depression: Results from a population-based three-year follow-up2006Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, Vol. 96, nr 1-2, s. 107-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study prospectively examined cognitive and social functioning in recovery from depression using participants sampled from the general population. Method: Seventy-six depressed persons fulfilling (n=41) and not fulfilling (n=35) the criteria for DSM-IV depression at a threeyear follow-up were compared with respect to episodic memory performance and social functioning at baseline (T1), at follow-up (T2) and change across time. Results: The groups did not differ in episodic memory performance either at T1, T2 or in residual change. However, the groups differed in social functioning at T2 and in residual change indicating improved social functioning in the recovered group. Limitation: The absence of a healthy control group at follow-up. Conclusion: Despite the symptomatic improvement and improved social functioning, cognitive functioning does not follow this general recovery trend, at least not in the three-year interval examined.

  • 77.
    Aita, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ardizzone, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar Generation Y:s arbetsmotivation?2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker förändringar på arbetsmarknaden samtidigt som det sker ett generationsskifte. En ny generation – Generation Y – har gjort sitt intåg. Hur denna generation ser på sin arbetsmotivation och vilka faktorer de drivs av var utgångspunkten för denna studie. I studien deltog tio individer anställda inom en säljorganisation, där data samlades in med kvalitativa intervjuer. Genom en blandning av induktiv och deduktiv tematisk analys framkom ett resultat där åtta faktorer synliggjordes. Resultatet visade att den viktigaste motivationsfaktorn var behovet av arbetskollegor. Dessutom belystes vikten av ett tillgängligt ledarskap. Det framkom även att motivationen i stort påverkades av yttre faktorer såsom materiella och verbala belöningar, men också genom prestationen för att erhålla resultat. Att arbeta mot mål samt att utmanas och utvecklas var också betydelsefullt för motivationen. Samtidigt var behovet av frihet och kreativitet centralt. Dessa faktorer diskuterades utifrån olika motivationsteorier med vidare reflektioner om huruvida dessa är typiska för Generation Y.

  • 78.
    Akob, Maher
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Centrala motiv till att arbeta i brottsofferjouren2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för ideellt arbete har ökat drastiskt de senaste åren. Brottsofferjouren är inget undantag; verksamheten fyller en medmänsklig funktion, det vill säga att lyssna. Rapport från brottsofferjouren visar på en konstant ökning av antalet vittnesstöd/stödpersoner. Syftet med uppsatsen var att ge inblick i blivande och verksamma vittnesstöds/stödpersonens livsvärld och ge en förståelse av de centrala motiven till att de arbetar i brottsofferjouren. Genom induktiv tematisk analys analyserades nio intervjuer. Resultatet visade att besvikelsen på samhället, bristen på meningsfull sysselsättning och sociala kontakter, ett hjälpbehov, personliga erfarenheter samt glädje kan vara motiv bakom det ideella arbetet i brottsofferjouren.

  • 79.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Prejudice: a reflection of core personality?2012Ingår i: The psychology of prejudice: interdisciplinary perspectives on contemporary issues / [ed] Dale W. Russell and Cristel Antonia Russell, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, s. 39-50Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: Is prejudice hard-wired or socially acquired? Is stigmatising the Other inevitable? Do we purposefully draw on stereotypes to provoke prejudice from others? Can we confront and correct our biases? From the judicial system to the marketplace, from women's intentional self-sexualisation to prison exonerees' stigma-by-association, this book offers a compelling and wide-ranging discussion and review of the latest scientific evidence of what prejudice is, how it emerges, what it does, and how the discrimination and stigma that ensue can be reduced.

  • 80.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Generalized Prejudice: Common and Specific Components2011Ingår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 57-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined the personality-prejudice relationship and whether personality and social psychological factors predict different aspects of prejudice. We proposed a distinction between a common component of prejudice that is mainly explained by personality and a specific component mainly explained by situational and group-specific variables. Whereas the former consists of the shared variance of prejudice toward different targets, the latter taps the variance that is unique to a certain type of prejudice. Statistically separating the two components of prejudice toward four target groups, we found that personality variables (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) explained a substantial portion of the variance of the common but a small share of the specific component. We also found group membership (gender) to be more closely associated with the specific than the common component of sexism. The results support our proposed distinction and suggest that personality and social psychological variables explain distinct aspects of prejudice.

  • 81. Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Personality and Social Psychology Factors Explaining Sexism2011Ingår i: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 153-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has almost exclusively examined sexism (negative attitudes toward women) from either a personality or a social-psychology perspective. In two studies (N = 379 and 182, respectively), we combine these perspectives and examine whether sexism is best explained by personality (Big-Five factors, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism) or by social-psychological (group membership and group identification) variables - or by a combination of both approaches. Causal modeling and multiple regression analyses showed that, with the present set of variables, sexism was best explained by considering the combined influence of both personality- and social-psychology constructs. The findings imply that it is necessary to integrate various approaches to explain prejudice.

  • 82.
    Al, Cicek
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    En psykometrisk utvärdering av det arbetspsykologiska testet Predicting Job Performance2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett psykologiskt test används främst inom utbildningssammanhang och kliniska sammanhang, men även inom rekrytering, urval och organisationsutveckling. Det finns idag ett flertal personlighets- och begåvningstest som mäter olika aspekter som kan vara relevanta för en organisation. Predicting Job Performance, PJP, som har sin utgångspunkt i femfaktormodellen, är utvecklat av Psykologiförlaget AB och består av två delar som mäter olika dimensioner av personlighet och begåvning. I denna studie har psykometriska beräkningar utförts för att utvärdera instrumentets reliabilitet samt validitet, främst genom test-retest-metoden. Undersökningsdeltagare var 49 psykologistudenter vid Stockholms Universitet. Majoriteten av skalorna var starkt positivt korrelerade med varandra och uppvisade en tillfredsställande reliabilitet. Resultatet av test-retest-undersökningen visade att de båda delarna av PJP hade tillförlitlig reliabilitet gällande precision och stabilitet över tid. Korrelation mellan personlighetsdelen och kapacitetsdelen undersöktes och visade på god divergent validitet mellan de två deltesterna. Även inlärningsförmågan på den tillhörande kapacitetsdelen undersöktes och visade signifikant inlärning mellan testtillfällena. PJP uppvisar sammantaget på goda psykometriska egenskaper.

  • 83.
    Al, Cicek
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    En turkisk version av det arbetspsykologiska testet Predicting Job Performance2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Personlighetstest avser att mäta olika personlighetsdrag, olika egenskaper som formar individens personlighet. Personlighetstestet Predicting Job Performance, PJP, bygger på den så kallade ”femfaktormodellen” inom personlighetspsykologin och på studier av hur generell problemlösnings-förmåga påverkar arbetsprestation. PJP är ett arbetspsykologiskt instrument för användning i urval av arbetssökande. I föreliggande studie har personlighets-delen i PJP översatts till turkiska med syftet att utforska en turkisk version av instrumentets reliabilitet samt begrepps-validitet. Undersökningsdeltagare var 71 turkisktalande personer bosatta i Sverige och 10 turkisktalande personer bosatta i Istanbul. Resultaten har jämförts med tre andra länder, Sverige, Norge och Finland. Resultatet visar att den turkiska versionen har tillfredsställande inre konsistens (Cronbach alpha) men att de antagna oberoende skalorna är högt korrelerade med varandra. En faktoranalys visar att den antagna faktorstrukturen inte går att replikera i denna studies urval. Den turkiska versionen av instrumentet bör utvärderas ytterligare för att kunna användas vid urvalssammanhang.

  • 84.
    Alaceva, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Barriers in achieving business/IT alignment in a large Swedish company: What we have learned?2015Ingår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, s. 715-728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are still many organizations that face difficulties in achieving business/IT alignment. Prior research has focused on the positive impact of alignment on overall business performance, while the barriers in achieving business/IT alignment were largely unexplored, especially in regards to the social dimension that refers to the people involved in alignment. Therefore this research is focusing on identifying and investigating the barriers that inhibit achieving social dimension of business/IT alignment in large organizations. A case study is conducted in one of the largest Swedish companies. The data is collected through seven semi-structured interviews, field-notes and the use of company's documents that were thematically analyzed. The research presents a unique case of 19 business/IT alignment barriers of social dimension that have been limited so far and which contribute to the business/IT alignment field. The main findings showed that low understanding of counterpart's environment; poor communication; unclear specifications; limited cooperation and lack of mutual commitment and support inhibits the achievement of alignment between business and IT domains on the social dimension. The results could support the researchers to further elaborate frameworks on how to mitigate social barriers in order to achieve a better business/IT alignment. Besides, the discussed barriers can be of practical use for other organizations trying to achieve business/IT alignment with a focus on the social dimension.

  • 85. Alaerts, Maaike
    et al.
    Ceulemans, Shana
    Forero, Diego
    Moens, Lotte N.
    De Zutter, Sonia
    Heyrman, Lien
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie Lenaerts
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet.
    Goossens, Dirk
    De Rijk, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Detailed analysis of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) shows no association with bipolar disorder in the Northern Swedish population2009Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, ISSN 1552-4841, Vol. 150B, nr 4, s. 585-592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Through active reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic neurons, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays an important role in regulating serotonin concentrations in the brain, and it is the site of binding for tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Therefore it has been hypothesized that this transporter is involved in the etiology of bipolar (BP) disorder. Inconsistent association study results for the SLC6A4 gene encoding 5-HTT reported in literature emphasize the need for more systematic and detailed analyses of this candidate gene. We performed an extensive analysis of SLC6A4 on DNA of 254 BPI patients and 364 control individuals from a Northern Swedish isolated population. This analysis consisted of a HapMap LD-based association study including three widely investigated polymorphisms (5-HTTVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and rs3813034), a copy-number variation (CNV) analysis and a mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence and the 3'-UTR of SLC6A4. No single marker showed statistically significant association with BPI, nor did any of the haplotypes. In the mutation analysis 13 novel variants were detected, including 2 amino acid substitutions M389V and 1587L, but these are probably not implicated in risk for BP. No deletions or duplications were detected in the CNV analysis. We conclude that variation in the SLC6A4 gene or its regulatory regions does not contribute to the susceptibility for BP disorder in the Northern Swedish population.

  • 86. Alaerts, Maaike
    et al.
    Ceulemans, Shana
    Forero, Diego
    Moens, Lotte N.
    De Zutter, Sonia
    Heyrman, Lien
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    De Rijk, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Goossens, Dirk
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Support for NRG1 as a Susceptibility Factor for Schizophrenia in a Northern Swedish Isolated Population2009Ingår i: Archives of General Psychiatry, ISSN 0003-990X, E-ISSN 1538-3636, Vol. 66, nr 8, s. 828-837Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a growth factor involved in neurodevelopment, myelination, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and synaptic plasticity, first joined the list of candidate genes for schizophrenia when a 7-marker haplotype at the 5' end of the gene (Hap(ICE)) was shown to be associated with the disorder in the Icelandic population. Since then, more genetic and functional evidence has emerged, which supports a role for NRG1 in the development of schizophrenia.

    Objective: To determine the contribution of NRG1 to susceptibility for schizophrenia in a northern Swedish isolated population.

    Design: Detailed linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based patient- control association study. This is the first study to type and analyze the 7 Hap(ICE) markers and a set of 32 HapMap tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represents variants with a minor allele frequency of at least 1% and fully characterizes the LD structure of the 5' part of NRG1.

    Setting: Outpatient and inpatient hospitals.

    Participants: A total of 486 unrelated patients with schizophrenia and 514 unrelated control individuals recruited from a northern Swedish isolated population.

    Main Outcome Measures: Association between markers and disease.

    Results: Analysis of the Hap(ICE) markers showed the association of a 7-marker and 2-microsatellite haplotype, different from the haplotypes associated in the Icelandic population and overrepresented in northern Swedish control individuals. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis that included all 37 genotyped SNPs was performed by investigating haplotypic association, dependent and independent of LD block structure. We found significant association with 5 SNPs located in the second intron of NRG1 (.007 <= P <= .04). Also, 2-, 3-, and 4-SNP windows that comprise these SNPs were associated (P < 3 x 10(-4)). One protective haplotype (0% vs 1.8%; P < 5 x 10(-5)) and 1 disease risk-causing haplotype (40.4% vs 34.9%, P=.02) were defined.

    Conclusion: The NRG1 gene contributes to the susceptibility for schizophrenia in the northern Swedish population.

  • 87.
    Albert, Ferenc
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    En empirisk studie av stamning: ett försök att tolka stamningens uppkomstbetingelser och behandling enligt psykoanalytisk teori1980Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 88.
    Aldentorp, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sömnighet hos dagtidsarbetande med vanlig 40-timmarsvecka2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett intressant ämne inom sömnforskningen är sömnighet, vilken ofta  mäts med subjektiva skalor som Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Då många undersökningar görs på natt- och skiftarbetare, finns lite data för dagtidsarbetande att jämföra med. Syftet med föreliggande uppsats är att ur sömnighetsdata från förmätningen i en studie vid stressforskningsinstitutet, bilda en uppfattning om sömnighetsmönster hos dagtidsarbetande. Sömn- och vakenhetsdagböcker fylldes i av 821 personer under en vecka och resultaten analyserades med variansanalys för upprepade mätningar med inomgruppsfaktorerna veckodag samt tidpunkt och mellangruppsfaktorerna kön, ålder samt sömnlängd. Signifikanta huvudeffekter återfanns av dag, tid, kön och ålder samt interaktionseffekter av dag/tid, tid/ålder samt tid/kön. Resultaten verkar ge en representativ bild över sömnigheten hos dagtidsarbetande med 40-timmarsvecka, och är troligen generaliserbara till andra inom samma grupp så länge inte arbetsuppgifterna är alltför fysiskt eller mentalt krävande, vilket skulle kunna öka sömnigheten.

  • 89.
    Alderholm, Jessika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ungdomars perspektiv på psykoterapier som de ensidigt avslutat: En kvalitativ enkät- och intervjustudie2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhopp i terapin är vanligt förekommande. Det som saknas i kunskapen kring avhopp och dess bakgrund är patientens inifrånperspektiv och framförallt hos den allt mer växande patientgruppen unga vuxna. Denna studie har genom kvallitativ metod undersökt de unga vuxnas upplevelser av sin tyerapi. Genom tematisk analys av materialet fann man i studien att subjektiv känsla av att må bättre är en anledning till avhopp samtidigt som det var typiskt att de hade kvarstående problem. Anmärkninsgvärt många uttryckte att anledningen till avhoppet var att de var missnöjda med terapeuten och den behandling som man fått. Man upplevde att terapeuten var för snäll och oempatisk samt att metoden inte hjälpte dem med sina problem. Genom empati för individens varande behöver vi möta unga vuxnas förväntningar så att visnterna med att gå kvar i terapi överväger kostnaderna.

  • 90. Alehagen, Siw
    et al.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Wijma, Klaas
    Fear, pain and stress hormones during labor and delivery2005Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 153-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the course of fear, pain and stress hormones during labor, and the associations between fear, pain, stress hormones and duration of labor in nulliparous women with and without epidural analgesia (EDA).

    Method: One day during gestation weeks 37-39, urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure catecholamines and cortisol. Hourly during labor, the participants answered the Delivery Fear Scale and a pain intensity scale, and urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure stress hormones.

    Results: The course of fear, pain and stress hormones differed throughout labor in women with and without EDA. Pain and cortisol increased throughout labor in women without EDA. Women who received EDA had more fear, but not more pain, before the administration of the EDA than women who did not receive EDA. Pain, fear and catecholamines decreased when women received EDA, but fear and pain increased again later in labor. Fear and pain correlated, as well as levels of fear in the different phases of labor. During phase one of labor epinephrine and duration of the phase were negatively correlated.

    Conclusion: The course of fear, pain and concentrations of stress hormones differed, highly influenced by the administration of EDA. Fear and pain correlated more pronounced than stress hormones and fear, pain and duration of labor.

  • 91.
    Alenius, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Molitor, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Expressivt skrivande mot stress: Förståelse av innehåll och process i nio ungdomars texter2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressymtom hos ungdomar, och bland dem främst unga tjejer, har ökat markant de senaste 20 åren och utgör idag ett stort hälsoproblem. Inom ramen för ett projekt mot stress i gymnasieskolan under år 2006 fick elever med självrapporterade stressymtom prova på metoden expressivt skrivande. Föreliggande studie bygger på det textmaterial som nio ungdomar lämnade in, där tjejer utgjorde en stor majoritet. Syftet med studien var att djupare förstå innebörden av ungdomars stress samt att undersöka hur processen ser ut när de använder metoden expressivt skrivande. Två stora områden som upptog deltagarna var relationer i familjen samt olika former av krav på prestation. Det är tydligt att föräldrarna har en fortsatt stor betydelse för dessa ungdomar på väg mot vuxenlivet. Skrivprocessen varierade för de deltagande ungdomarna. En bearbetning av svåra och/eller stressande händelser bedöms dock ha skett hos flertalet. Expressivt skrivande bedöms kunna vara en meningsfull intervention mot stress. I de fall ungdomar mår mycket dåligt kan man dock inte utgå från att expressivt skrivande är tillräckligt. Vidare forskning krävs för att mäta effekten av denna typ av intervention.

  • 92.
    Aleson, Dan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    En effectiveness-studie av KBT-behandlingar för GAD på en specialistmottagning2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En effectiveness-studie undersökte effekten av Dugas och Robichauds (2007) behandlingsmodell för GAD på en specialistmottagning för patienter med komplicerade ångest och eller depressionstillstånd. Utöver detta undersöktes vilka övriga KBT-behandlingar för GAD som förmedlats på mottagningen. Alla patienter behandlades som en del av klinikens ordinarie verksamhet. Huvudutfallsmått var Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) som mättes före och efter behandling. Därutöver mättes även grad av depressiva besvär med PHQ-9 samt grad av klinisk remission efter behandling. Behandlingsmodellens resultat för de patienter som bidragit med eftermätning (completerdata) visade en stor inomgruppseffektstorlek för GAD-7 (Cohen’s d=1,76) och 65% bedömdes även efter behandling inte längre uppfylla kriterier för GAD enligt DSM-IV. Bortfallet av data från före- till eftermätning var dock stort, vilket försvårar tolkningen av huvudutfallsmåttet. Även moderatorer för effekt undersöktes, men inga signifikanta samband mellan behandlingsutfall och tidigare visade moderatorer för effekt såsom ålder, kön eller samtidig farmakologisk behandling kunde visas. Resultaten jämförs med tidigare studier och en diskussion förs kring studiens begränsningar.

  • 93. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Kang, Jian
    Dimensions Underlying the Perceived Similarity of Acoustic Environments2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikel-id 1162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on how people perceive or experience and/or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape) is still in development. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify its underlying acoustic properties. This was the purpose of the present study. Three successive experiments were conducted. With the aid of 30 university students, the first experiment mapped the underlying dimensions of perceived similarity among 50 acoustic environments, using a visual sorting task of their spectrograms. Three dimensions were identified: (1) Distinguishable-Indistinguishable sound sources, (2) Background-Foreground sounds, and (3) Intrusive-Smooth sound sources. The second experiment was aimed to validate the results from Experiment 1 by a listening experiment. However, a majority of the 10 expert listeners involved in Experiment 2 used a qualitatively different approach than the 30 university students in Experiment 1. A third experiment was conducted in which 10 more expert listeners performed the same task as per Experiment 2, with spliced audio signals. Nevertheless, Experiment 3 provided a statistically significantly worse result than Experiment 2. These results suggest that information about the meaning of the recorded sounds could be retrieved in the spectrograms, and that the meaning of the sounds may be captured with the aid of holistic features of the acoustic environment, but such features are still unexplored and further in-depth research is needed in this field.

  • 94. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Kang, Jian
    Towards acoustic indicators for soundscape design2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on how people perceive, experience or understand the acoustic environment as a whole (i.e., soundscape) is still in development, both with regards to acoustic properties, as well as personality and individual differences. In order to predict how people would perceive an acoustic environment, it is central to identify the underlying acoustic properties of soundscapes. In this study these properties were approached by investigating the visual similarity of colour prints of 50 audio spectrograms (time vs. frequency), representing audio recordings of a variety of acoustic environments. In total, 15 female and 15 male students from the University of Sheffield were recruited to assess the 50 spectrograms by sorting them into groups based on how similar they were perceived to be. A distance matrix, derived from the sorting data, was subjected to a Multidimensional Scaling analysis to map the underlying dimensions of similarity among the spectrograms, which are proposed to represent the underlying acoustic properties of the corresponding acoustic environments. Three dimensions were identified. The first dimension relates to Distinguishable–Indistinguishable sound sources, the second dimension to Background–Foreground sounds, and the third dimension to Intrusive–Smooth sound sources. The results also show that established acoustic parameters are inappropriate as indicators of acoustic environments and that further research is needed in this field.

  • 95. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Kang, Jian
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models2016Ingår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 149, s. 65-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape exists through human perception of the acoustic environment. This paper investigates how soundscape currently is assessed and measured. It reviews and analyzes the main soundscape descriptors in the soundscape literature, and provides a conceptual framework for developing predictive models in soundscape studies. A predictive soundscape model provides a means of predicting the value of a soundscape descriptor, and the blueprint for how to design soundscape. It is the key for implementing the soundscape approach in urban planning and design. The challenge is to select the appropriate soundscape descriptor and to identify its predictors. The majority of available soundscape descriptors are converging towards a 2-dimensional soundscape model of perceived affective quality (e.g., Pleasantness–Eventfulness, or Calmness–Vibrancy). A third potential dimension is the appropriateness of a soundscape to a place. This dimensions provides complementary information beyond the perceived affective quality. However, it depends largely on context, and because a soundscape may be appropriate to a place although it is poor, this descriptor must probably not be used on its own. With regards to predictors, or soundscape indicators, perceived properties of the acoustic environment (e.g., perceived sound sources) are winning over established acoustic and psychoacoustic metrics. To move this area forward it is necessary that the international soundscape community comes together and agrees on relevant soundscape descriptors. This includes to agree on numerical scales and assessment procedures, as well as to standardize them.

  • 96. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Margaritis, Efstathios
    Filipan, Karlo
    Puyana Romero, Virginia
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Kang, Jian
    Characterization of the soundscape in Valley Gardens, Brighton, by a soundwalk prior to an urban design intervention2015Ingår i: Proceedings of Euronoise 2015 / [ed] C. Glorieux, Nederlands Akoestisch Genootschap and ABAV - Belgian Acoustical Society , 2015, s. 1547-1552, artikel-id 357Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the soundscape of the Valley Gardens in Brighton before the area is converted into a downtown park. Valley Gardens is located in the busy city centre. It extends from the Brighton Pier at the seafront and approximately 1.5 km to the north. It includes Old Stein, Victoria Gardens, St Peter’s Church, and The Level. In 2015 work will commence on redeveloping Victoria Gardens and St Peter’s Church. In order to characterize the soundscape of the Valley Gardens prior to this urban design intervention a soundwalk was conducted. In October 2014, a group of 21 persons -experts in acoustics and officers of the City Council- were guided through the area together, and assessed the soundscape at eight sites: five within the Valley Gardens and three reference sites. The assessments covered the soundscape quality, how appropriate the soundscape is to the place, the dominance of perceived sound sources, and the affective quality of the soundscape. In addition, binaural recordings and sound-level measurements were conducted at each of the eight sites during the soundwalk. Preliminary results indicate that the Valley Gardens was dominated by the sound of road traffic, and that the soundscape was perceived as inappropriate to the place. Consequently, the planned design intervention should reduce the dominance of road-traffic sound and introduce more positive sounds, like the sound of people and nature. This would be done through careful planning of the landscape and human activities within the area. The plan is to follow-up these results with a post-intervention soundwalk.

  • 97.
    Alexandersson, Pelle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psykometrisk prövning av PG-13; ett självskattningsinstrument för ihållande sorg2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om ”normal” respektive ”patologisk” sorg har under en lång tid varit ett omdiskuterat ämne inom psykologin och psykiatrin. En grupp forskare har tagit fram kriterier på ett syndrom som fått benämningen ihållande sorg (”prolonged grief”). Studier har visat på att ihållande sorg är ett distinkt syndrom separat från depression, posttraumatisk stressyndrom och generaliserat ångestsyndrom. Ihållande sorg föreslås ingå som en diagnos i de kommande versionerna av de diagnostiska manualerna DSM och ICD. Syftet med denna studie var att översätta självskattningsinstrumentet Prolonged Grief Disorder (PG-13) till svenska, och undersöka dess reliabilitet och validitet genom bland annat en explorativ och konfirmatorisk faktoranalys. Studien genomfördes på ett annonsrekryterat heterogent sample (n=162 varav 90 % var kvinnor) vad gäller typ av dödsfall och relation till den avlidne. Respondenterna besvarade en webb- eller pappersenkät som bestod av 75 items. PG-13 bedöms ha en hög reliabilitet, god begrepps- och samtidig validitet samt en måttlig diskriminativ validitet.

  • 98.
    Alexius, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hollander, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Barns behov och vilja vid tvångsvård till följd av omsorgsbrist2014Ingår i: Barnrätt : en antologi / [ed] Ann-Christin Cederborg & Wiweka Warnling-Nerep, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2014, 1, s. 21-38Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid omhändertaganden av barn ska barnets bästa vara avgörande för de beslut som fattas. I den praktiska tillämpningen innefattar begreppet ofta tolkningar av barns behov, såsom dessa definieras av kompetenta vuxna, och barnets vilja, såsom denna uttrycks av barnet eller uttolkas av vuxna. I denna studie undersöks uttrycken barns behov och vilja samt hur barns behov och vilja bedöms i sociala utredningar och domar som rör tvångsomhändertaganden till följd av omsorgssvikt av barn i familjer där någon förälder har intellektuell funktionsnedsättning.

  • 99.
    Alin-Åkerman, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm (LHS).
    Dom är ju två!!: att vänta tvillingar och en longitudinell studie av 34 tvillingpars mentala utveckling1991Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 100.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

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