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  • 51.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sallinen, Mikael
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Optimizing Shift Scheduling2016Ingår i: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine / [ed] Meir H. Kryger, Thomas Roth, William C. Dement, Elsevier, 2016, 6 uppl., s. 742-749Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Söderström, Marie
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Att motverka sömnstörning: orsaker och behandling2008Ingår i: Preventiv medicin: Teori och praktik, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 2008, s. 115-126Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 53.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Change in Work-Time Control and Work-Home Interference Among Swedish Working Men and Women: Findings from the SLOSH Cohort Study2016Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 670-678Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim is to study the influence of change in work-time control (WTC) on work-home interference (WHI) while adjusting for other work-related factors, demographics, changes at work and WHI at baseline among women and men. An additional aim was to explore sex differences in the relation between change in WTC and WHI.

    METHODS: The study included working participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study of the third (2010) and fourth (2012) waves (n = 5440). Based on a seven-item index, four groups of WTC were formed: stable high (40 %), stable low (42 %), increasing (9 %), or decreasing (9 %) WTC over the 2 years. WHI was measured by four items and individuals were categorised in whether suffering or not suffering of WHI. Sex-stratified logistic regression analyses with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the odds of experiencing WHI by change in WTC.

    RESULTS: Controlling for demographics and work-related factors, women with stable low (OR = 1.46; 95 % CI 1.14-1.88) and women and men with decreasing WTC (women OR = 1.99; 95 % CI 1.38-2.85; men OR = 1.80; 95 % CI 1.18-2.73) had higher odds of WHI than those with a stable high WTC. Additionally, adjusting for changes at work and WHI at baseline did not alter the results substantially. Interaction analysis did not reveal any significant sex difference in the relation between WTC and WHI.

    CONCLUSIONS: For both women and men decreased and for women only, low control over working hours resulted in WHI also after adjusting for work-related factors and demographics.

  • 54.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Inflytande över arbetstiden och sjuknärvaro/sjukfrånvaro2013Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 87-99Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flexibla arbetstider blir allt vanligare. De förväntas underlätta verksamhetens förmåga att hantera arbetstoppar, tillgodose anställdas behov av livsbalans samt möjliggöra bättre hälsa och arbetsprestation. Flexibilitet skapas ofta genom att de anställda ges inflytande över arbetstiderna. Vetenskaplig kunskap om sambandet mellan arbetstidskontroll och sjukfrånvaro/sjuknärvaro saknas nästan helt. I föreliggande studie undersöks sambandet mellan arbetstidskontroll samt dess underdimensioner och självrapporterad sjukfrånvaro/sjuknärvaro i ett representativt urval av den arbetande befolkningen i Sverige.

  • 55.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Low control over worktime increases the risk for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Change in work-time control and work-home interference among Swedish working men and women2014Ingår i: Looking at the past – planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity: Book of proceedings / [ed] Nicholas John Artin Andreou, Aditya Jain, David Hollis, Juliet Hassard, Kevin Teoh, European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2014, s. 105-105Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 57.
    Lekander, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Anna Nixon
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ekman, Rolf
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Subjective health perception in healthy young men changes in response to experimentally restricted sleep and subsequent recovery sleep2013Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 34, s. 43-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep and subjective health are both prospectively related to objective indices of health and health care use. Here, we tested whether five days with restricted sleep and subsequent recovery days affect subjective health and is related to increased levels of circulating IL-6 and TNF-α and fatigue. Nine healthy men (23-28years) went through a 6-week sleep protocol with subjects as their own controls in a repeated measures design with a total of 11 nights in a sleep laboratory. The experimental part of the protocol included three baseline days (sleep 23-07h), five days with sleep restriction (03-07h) and three recovery days (23-07h) in the sleep laboratory. Subjective health and fatigue was recorded daily. Eight blood samples were drawn each day (every third hour) on 8days of the protocol and analyzed with respect to IL-6 and TNF-α. Subjective health deteriorated gradually during restricted sleep (p=.002) and returned to baseline levels after three days of recovery. IL-6 and TNF-α did not change significantly. Fatigue increased gradually during sleep restriction (p=.001), which significantly contributed to the association between restricted sleep and subjective health. The study is the first to show that subjective health is directly responsive to changes in sleep length and related to increased fatigue. Thus, subjective health is differently appraised after manipulation of one of its presumed determinants. Larger experimental studies would be beneficial to further distinguish causation from association regarding the underpinnings of subjective health.

  • 58.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    A meta-review of job demands and job resources as related to various health-related outcomes among women and men with different occupations2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This systematic meta-review uses the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to investigate the associations between various psychosocial factors at work and a range of health-related outcomes. Specifically, this study investigated how job demands and resources are linked to health-related outcomes such as depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal complaints and whether the linkages varied between genders and occupations.

    Design/Methodology: This meta-review focuses on meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews published during the past 10 years. These secondary studies were identified through combined searches in different international databases. Search terms were selected to identify a range of psychosocial factors and to retrieve published journal articles, and systematic reports linking such factors to health-related outcomes.

    Results: In total, 14 job demands and 7 job resources were identified. Lining these to outcomes resulted in the identification of 273 potential associations. Taken together, the findings show what is known from previous research, namely that job demands are related to poorer health. As expected resources typically relate to better health outcomes that are beneficial for organizations and individual employees. Separating findings for women and men suggest that the overall linkages between psychosocial factors and health-related outcomes hold for both women and men. However, less is know regarding occupational variations.

    Limitations: A meta-review restricts specificity and detail.

    Research/Practical Implications: Adds to the systematic knowledge of health-related consequences of psychosocial factors at work, for research as well as practice.

    Originality/Value: The use of a meta-approach that discusses issues relating to gender and occupation.

  • 59.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Daylight exposure in the in-door working population in Sweden, relation to sleep, wakefulness and health2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 60. Malmberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Karlson, Björn
    Persson, Roger
    Flisberg, Per
    Orbaek, Palle
    Sleep and recovery in physicians on night call: a longitudinal field study2010Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 10, s. 239-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well known that physicians' night-call duty may cause impaired performance and adverse effects on subjective health, but there is limited knowledge about effects on sleep duration and recovery time. In recent years occupational stress and impaired well-being among anaesthesiologists have been frequently reported for in the scientific literature. Given their main focus on handling patients with life-threatening conditions, when on call, one might expect sleep and recovery to be negatively affected by work, especially in this specialist group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a 16-hour night-call schedule allowed for sufficient recovery in anaesthesiologists compared with other physician specialists handling less life-threatening conditions, when on call.

    Methods: Sleep, monitored by actigraphy and Karolinska Sleep Diary/Sleepiness Scale on one night after daytime work, one night call, the following first and second nights post-call, and a Saturday night, was compared between 15 anaesthesiologists and 17 paediatricians and ear, nose, and throat surgeons.

    Results: Recovery patterns over the days after night call did not differ between groups, but between days. Mean night sleep for all physicians was 3 hours when on call, 7 h both nights post-call and Saturday, and 6 h after daytime work (p < 0.001). Scores for mental fatigue and feeling well rested were poorer post-call, but returned to Sunday morning levels after two nights' sleep.

    Conclusions: Despite considerable sleep loss during work on night call, and unexpectedly short sleep after ordinary day work, the physicians' self-reports indicate full recovery after two nights' sleep. We conclude that these 16-hour night duties were compatible with a short-term recovery in both physician groups, but the limited sleep duration in general still implies a long-term health concern. These results may contribute to the establishment of safe working hours for night-call duty in physicians and other health-care workers.

  • 61.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Boundary Management Preferences, Boundary Control, and Work-Life Balance among Full-Time Employed Professionals in Knowledge-Intensive, Flexible Work2014Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 7-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Profound changes are taking place within working life, where established boundaries between work and personal life are challenged by increased global competition, ever-faster changing markets, and rapid development of boundary transcending information and communication technologies (ICT). The aim of this study was to investigate boundary management preferences in terms of keeping work and personal life domains separated or integrated, that is, segmenting or blending of domains, the perception of being in control of one´s preferred boundaries, and work-life balance among employees at a Swedish telecom company (N = 1,238, response rate 65%, men 73%, mean age 42 years). Psychosocial work factors, individual characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and work-life balance were investigated in relation to boundary management preferences and perceived boundary control. For high boundary control among segmenters, nearly all the studied psychosocial work factors were significant. Among integrators, this was the case only for clear expectations in work. For both groups, the individual capacity for self-regulation was associated with high boundary control. Regarding sociodemographic factors, cohabiting women with children who preferred segmentation had low boundary control. Finally, there was a main effect of boundary control on work-life balance. In particular, male segmenters perceiving high boundary control had better work-life balance than all others. Conclusions of the study are that segmenters need external boundaries in work for succesful boundary management. Moreover, self-regulation seems a crucial boundary competence in knowledge- intensive, flexible work. Results are of value for health promotion in modern work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary control and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 62.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, boundaryless work2013Ingår i: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: abstract proceedings of the 16th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), 22-25 maj, Münster, Tyskland / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, s. 239-240Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary strategies, segmentation and integration, were explored in knowledge intense, boundaryless work. Socio-demographic, work-related and individual factors were investigated in relation to strategy choice, and further, which of these factors that discriminated between succeeding or not with the chosen strategy. Moreover, work-life balance was studied in relation to strategy choice. A questionnaire was sent to employees (n=1238, response rate 65%) at an international telecom company in Sweden. A majority, 82 percent, chose segmentation. Integrators had higher working time per week, more often worked evenings and weekends and at different places than the workplace, especially from home, than segmenters. More integrators perceived their strategy as nonsuccessful. However, these time- and place related aspects were only related to not succeeding with one´s strategy among segmenters. Especially, co-habiting women with children choosing segmentation perceived their strategy as non-successful. In contrast, male segmenters succeeded more often. Discriminating factors in both strategy groups reflected the capacity for self-regulation, i.e., being able to say no and set limits, organizing work efficiently, and work independently. Those who succeeded with the integration strategy, in particular integrating women, reported a higher degree of work-life balance as compared to others. Results needs to be confirmed in other work settings and associations between boundary management and stress and health established. Self-regulation seems a crucial competence in a working life characterized by boundarylessness. Results are of value for health promotion in flexible work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary management and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 63.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, flexible work2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 64.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Segmentering och integrering: om mäns och kvinnors gränssättningsstrategier i högkvalificerat arbete2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gränssättningsstrategier undersöktes bland män och kvinnor (n=673) i högkvalificeradearbeten där gränserna mellan arbete och livet utanför arbetet kanbeskrivas som svaga. Sociodemografiska och arbetsrelaterade faktorer för detvå strategierna, segmentering respektive integrering, undersöktes samt vilkaav dessa faktorer som åtskiljer de som anser sig lyckas respektive inte lyckasmed sin valda strategi. Resultaten visade att valet av segmenteringsstrateginklart dominerade, endast 18 procent klassificerades som integrerare. Integrerarnaangav högre arbetstid per vecka, de jobbade mera på vardagkvällar och helgersamt i högre grad på olika platser än segmenterarna. Det var dock i segmenteringsgruppensom dessa tids- och rumsaspekter hade en särskiljande betydelseför om man lyckades eller inte med sitt strategival. Särskilt sammanboendekvinnor med barn som använde sig av segmentering upplevde i högre grad änövriga att de misslyckades med sin strategi. De faktorer som i båda gruppernaframkom som urskiljande för huruvida man lyckas med sitt strategival rördeindividfaktorer relaterade till gränssättning i arbetet vilka kan betraktas somförmågan till självreglering. Dessa var att kunna arbeta självständigt, organiserasitt arbete effektivt, att veta vad som förväntas i arbetet, att själv kunna avgöranär en uppgift är slutförd samt att kunna säga nej och sätta gränser. Självregleringkan därmed betraktas som en central yrkeskompetens i ett arbetsliv alltmerkännetecknat av gränslöshet. Detta bekräftades av att bland de som lyckadesmed en integrerande strategi så var andelen som även upplevde balans i livetsom högst. Detta var särskilt uttalat bland kvinnor. Fortsatta studier kan inriktaspå prövning av resultaten i andra arbetsrelaterade kontext och ytterligareidentifiering av determinanter för lyckad segmentering eller integrering samt hurdetta sammanhänger med stress och (o)hälsa.

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  • 65.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kompier, Michiel
    Sariaslan, Amir
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Boundaryless Work, Psychological Detachment and Sleep: Does Working 'Anytime – Anywhere' Equal Employees Are 'Always on'?2016Ingår i: New ways of working practices / [ed] Jan De Leede, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, s. 29-47Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life would seem to be crucial if one is to psychologically detach from work during leisure in order to unwind and get sufficient sleep. Drawing from a sample of Swedish professional workers (N = 3,846), a theoretical model was proposed testing the inter-relationships between boundaryless work in time and space, weekly work hours, psychological detachment, sleeping problems and sleep duration using a structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. Findings showed that working boundlessly in time, that is spread out during the working day and week, was directly associated with both long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. In contrast, working boundlessly in space, that is at several different places, was inversely associated with weekly work hours and had no association with psychological detachment. Psychological detachment, in turn, was directly associated with sleeping problems and inversely associated with sleep duration. Sleeping problems were inversely associated with sleep duration. Employees with long weekly work hours had a low degree of sleeping problems. There was also no association between long weekly work hours and sleep duration. These findings contradict earlier research, however, we interpret these findings as that if one works a great deal but is able to mentally detach from work-related feelings and thoughts during free time, then sleep will not be hampered because perseverative cognitions associated with prolonged biological activation will have been interrupted. As such, psychological detachment can be regarded as the mechanism that mediates the relationships between working 'anytime' and long weekly work hours, and sleep. It was concluded working boundlessly in time increases the likelihood for long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. Hence, employees working 'anytime – all the time' run the risk of 'always being on' resulting in disturbed sleep.

  • 66. Møller, S. V.
    et al.
    Axelsson, J.
    Bjorvatn, B.
    Hansen, J.
    Hansen, Å. M.
    Harris, A.
    Hjarsbech, P. U.
    Härmä, M.
    Ingre, M.
    Jensen, M. A.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kolstad, H. A.
    Lie, J. A. S.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Matre, D.
    Nabe-Nielsen, K.
    Pallesen, S.
    Puttonen, S.
    Rugulies, R.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Vistisen, H. T.
    Garde, A. H.
    Co-ordination of research on working hours and health in the Nordic countries: Working hours and Health2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 67.
    Nilsonne, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Almeida, R.
    Fischer, H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, G.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, P.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Increased global FMRI signal variability after partial sleep deprivation: Findings from the Stockholm sleepy brain study2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Neural correlates of sleep deprivation are not fully understood and the difference between young and older adults in this regard has received little attention. We aimed to investigate the effect of partial sleep deprivation on resting state connectivity.

    Methods: 30 younger (20–30 years) and 23 older (65–75 years) healthy participants underwent MR imaging after normal sleep and partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep). We acquired two runs of eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure their eyes remained open during scanning.

    Results: Global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal, was increased following partial sleep deprivation (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, we did not find that partial sleep deprivation inhibited connectivity in the default mode network, nor in other major networks investigated.

    Conclusion: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This novel finding should be confirmed using independent data. Our finding of no difference in default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, could possibly be due to stricter monitoring of participants’ wakefulness compared to some earlier studies.

  • 68.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Frida M.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on self-rated health and sickness2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 69.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Detection of facial mimicry by electromyography during fMRI scanning2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether electromyography (EMG) could be used to detect facial mimicry during fMRI scanning.

    EMG activity in the superciliary corrugator muscle increased when participants viewed angry faces.

  • 70.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, Håkan
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 72.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably in the default mode network, but studies to date have shown inconsistent effects and have largely included young participants. We therefore aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Methods: Participants aged 20-30 (n = 30) and 65-75 (n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Participants were monitored with eye-tracking to ensure they did not fall asleep during scanning. Results: Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, defined as log-transformed standard deviation of average gray matter signal (0.16 [0.07, 0.24], p = 0.0004). In contrast to previous studies, sleep deprivation did not cause major changes in investigated resting state networks, nor did it cause changes in regional homogeneity. Younger participants had higher functional connectivity in most examined resting state networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in brain areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions: We show for the first time that partial sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. This outcome should be examined as a potential biomarker for sleepiness using independent data. Unlike a few earlier studies, we did not find less default mode connectivity in the sleep deprived state, possibly because of stricter monitoring of participants' wakefulness.

  • 73.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Almeida, Rita
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Fransson, Peter
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults: results from the Stockholm Sleepy Brain study2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 9422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably reducing connectivity in the default mode network. Studies to date have however shown inconsistent effects, in many cases lacked monitoring of wakefulness, and largely included young participants. We investigated effects of sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Participants aged 20–30 (final n = 30) and 65–75 (final n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two 8-minutes eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session, monitored by eye-tracking. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. Changes in investigated resting state networks and in regional homogeneity were not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher connectivity in most examined networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, we found that sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, and we speculate that this may be caused by wake-state instability.

  • 74.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Exercise is associated with changes in sleep architecture during stress2014Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, nr Suppl. 1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 75.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thank god it's Friday - sleep improved2017Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 567-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The weekend is usually seen as a window of recovery. Thus, sleep before a day off may be less impaired than that before a workday. However, very few polysomnographical studies have investigated this hypothesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare sleep before a workday with that before a weekend. Seventeen teachers participated. Sleep was recorded with polysomnography on one weekday night during the workweek, and on a workday (Friday) followed by a day off. Sleep diaries and actigraphs were also used. Weekend sleep showed delayed bedtime and time of rising, a longer total sleep time (45 min), increased N3 and N1, and decreased N2 and REM. Sleep spindles were reduced. The results remained after truncation to the shortest common sleep duration (5 h). The increase in N3 from weekday sleep to Friday night sleep was positively correlated with N1 change (r = 0.853, P <= 0.001), and negatively correlated with N2 change (r = -0.614, P <= 0.001). Subjective ratings showed that weekend sleep was associated with less awakening problems and lower subjective arousal during the day. The authors concluded that weekend sleep was longer, and showed increased N3 and N1. The authors suggest that the N3 increase before the day off is a result of lower stress, while the N1 increase may be an effect of sleep spindle suppression via the increase of N3 (which would suppress sleep spindles), thus reducing N2 and enhancing N1.

  • 76.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsson, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Stress vulnerability and the effects of moderate daily stress on sleep polysomnography and subjective sleepiness2013Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 50-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how sleep physiology is affected by naturally occurring high work stress and identify individual differences in the response of sleep to stress. Probable upcoming stress levels were estimated through weekly web questionnaire ratings. Based on the modified FIRST-scale (Ford insomnia response to stress) participants were grouped into high (n = 9) or low (n = 19) sensitivity to stress related sleep disturbances (Drake et al., 2004). Sleep was recorded in 28 teachers with polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphs during one high stress and one low stress condition in the participants home. EEG showed a decrease in sleep efficiency during the high stress condition. Significant interactions between group and condition were seen for REM sleep, arousals and stage transitions. The sensitive group had an increase in arousals and stage transitions during the high stress condition and a decrease in REM, whereas the opposite was seen in the resilient group. Diary ratings during the high stress condition showed higher bedtime stress and lower ratings on the awakening index (insufficient sleep and difficulties awakening). Ratings also showed lower cognitive function and preoccupation with work thoughts in the evening. KSS ratings of sleepiness increased during stress for the sensitive group. Saliva samples of cortisol showed no effect of stress. It was concluded that moderate daily stress is associated with a moderate negative effect on sleep sleep efficiency and fragmentation. A slightly stronger effect was seen in the sensitive group.

  • 77.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Exercise is associated with changes in sleep architecture during stress2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 78. Phillips, Ross Owen
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Anund, Anne
    Sallinen, Mikael
    Fatigue in transport: a review of exposure, risks, checks and controls2017Ingår i: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 742-766Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human fatigue continues to threaten safe transport. There are claims that employers of operators should do more to mitigate the risks, and several regulators are promoting fatigue-risk management in the context of safety management systems (SMS). The current paper reviews fatigue-related risk and exposure factors and control measures for operators of land- and sea-based transport forms. Our review identifies 13 types of measures for the monitoring or control of fatigue risks: optimal staffing; optimal schedule design; optimisation of breaks/naps; monitoring of actual hours worked; optimisation of work content; monitoring and feedback of actual sleep; health screening and treatment; promotion of recovery from work; fitness-for-duty testing; monitoring of fatigue symptoms while operating; control of fatigue while operating; performance monitoring and assistance; and fatigue-proofing. We also identify two systemic measures needed to anchor risk mitigation in SMS: organisational learning and training/other. By structuring monitoring and control measures along Dawson and McCulloch's fatigue-risk trajectory, a framework is obtained that acts as a guide for fatigue-risk management by transport employers. To inform transport managers further, evaluations are needed of the effectiveness of individual control measures as well as whole fatigue-risk management interventions.

  • 79.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Radun, Jenni
    Helgesson, Gert
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Company employees as experimental participants in traffic safety research: Prevalence and implications2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 60, s. 81-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of company employees as experimental participants when testing products, technology or paradigms developed by the same company raises questions about bias in results and research ethics. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of studies authored by car company researchers with car company employees as participants, to assess the risk of bias in such studies, to investigate journal editors’ opinions in the field of traffic safety regarding these procedures, and to offer a general discussion about ethical and methodological implications. Three types of data were collected. We (i) examined guidelines and recommendations for authors in eleven selected peer-reviewed journals in the area of traffic safety; (ii) surveyed editors of these journals; and (iii) reviewed articles authored by researchers from a selected group of car manufacturers and published in these journals during 2011–2015. Guidelines and recommendations for authors in the included journals did not mention whether and under what circumstances company employees can be research participants, nor did publishers’ general guidelines. However, three out of the four editors who responded to our survey believed that this issue of private company researchers using participants from the same company deserves to be explicitly addressed in their journal’s guide for authors. The total number of regular articles and conference papers during 2011–2015 in the eleven journals reviewed was 6763; 95 (1.4%) listed at least one car manufacturer in the authors’ affiliations; and out of these, nine included company employees as participants. In summary, company employees are seldom (0.13%) used as research participants in traffic safety research. Nevertheless, the use of company employees as research participants raises questions about bias in results as well as about incursions into the participants’ autonomy.

  • 80. Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Radun, Jenni
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Night work, fatigued driving and traffic law: the case of police officers2011Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 389-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the well-known difficulties in defining and detecting fatigue, it is a real challenge to incorporate it into either traffic or criminal law. Finnish traffic law forbids fatigued driving "only" on a general level concerning the driver's fitness to drive. We present several comments from Finnish traffic and local police officers regarding their own experiences of driving while fatigued. The comments were extracted from a larger survey of traffic (N=129) and local (N=100) police officers, and prosecutors (N=96). Although the main topic of the survey was the application of the law that forbids fatigued driving, some police officers raised the issue of their own behavior in this respect. We argue that many shift workers, including police officers, break the law, especially when driving home after a night shift.

  • 81. Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Radun, Jenni
    Wahde, Mattias
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Driver fatigue and the law from the perspective of police officers and prosecutors2013Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 18, s. 159-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though police officers and prosecutors play a key role in traffic law application, little is known about their experiences, attitudes, and opinions regarding the complex issue of driver fatigue and the law. This paper is based on an extensive online survey collected from traffic (N = 129) and local (N = 100) police officers and prosecutors (N = 96) in the context of Finnish traffic law, which forbids driving while fatigued in an article relating to a driver’s fitness to drive. While encountering fatigued drivers is very common for police officers, only a small proportion has received training about how to recognize and deal with fatigued drivers. Driving while extremely fatigued is considered rather or extremely negligent behavior by almost all respondents. Although agreement between these three groups exists regarding several issues, they disagree about whether the current law is specific enough, and whether experts might be valuable in court when discussing the possible contribution of fatigue to the cause of a crash. We discuss the application of the law and opinions about the current law formulation, experience and education, as well as general awareness and attitudes, taking into consideration the different nature of police and prosecutor work.

  • 82.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Parkkari, Inkeri
    Radun, Jenni
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Olivier, Jake
    Tervo, Timo
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Focus on professional drivers using in-depth crash data2019Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 575-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Road traffic suicides typically involve a passenger car driver crashing his or her vehicle into a heavy vehicle, because death is almost certain due to the large mass difference between these vehicles. For the same reason, heavy-vehicle drivers typically suffer minor injuries, if any, and have thus received little attention in the research literature. In this study, we focused on heavy-vehicle drivers who were involved as the second party in road suicides in Finland.

    Methods: We analyzed 138 road suicides (2011-2016) involving a passenger car crashing into a heavy vehicle. We used in-depth road crash investigation data from the Finnish Crash Data Institute.

    Results: The results showed that all but 2 crashes were head-on collisions. Almost 30% of truck drivers were injured, but only a few suffered serious injuries. More than a quarter reported sick leave following their crash. Injury insurance compensation to heavy-vehicle drivers was just above euro9,000 on average. Material damage to heavy vehicles was significant, with average insurance compensation paid being euro70,500. Three out of 4 truck drivers reported that drivers committing suicide acted abruptly and left them little opportunity for preventive action.

    Conclusions: Suicides by crashing into heavy vehicles can have an impact on drivers' well-being; however, it is difficult to see how heavy-vehicle drivers could avoid a suicide attempt involving their vehicle.

  • 83.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, J.
    Kaistinen, J.
    Olivier, J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Endangering yourself to save another: A real life ethical dilemma2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 64, s. 318-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike hypothetical trolley problem studies and an ongoing ethical dilemma with autonomous vehicles, road users can face similar ethical dilemmas in real life. Swerving a heavy vehicle towards the road-side in order to avoid a head-on crash with a much lighter passenger car is often the only option available which could save lives. However, running off-road increases the probability of a roll-over and endangers the life of the heavy vehicle driver. We have created an experimental survey study in which heavy vehicle drivers randomly received one of two possible scenarios. We found that respondents were more likely to report they would ditch their vehicle in order to save the hypothetical driver who fell asleep than to save the driver who deliberately diverted their car towards the participant's heavy vehicle. Additionally, the higher the empathy score, the higher the probability of ditching a vehicle. Implications for autonomous vehicle programming are discussed. 

  • 84.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Kaistinen, Jyrki
    Olivier, Jake
    Parkkari, Inkeri
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Professional drivers' views2019Ingår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, nr 8, s. 826-831Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Every profession has its own safety and health risks. In addition to the risk of being involved in a normal road crash, professional heavy vehicle drivers are at risk of becoming victims of people attempting suicide by crashing into their vehicles. Road suicides are not that rare, at least not in Finland, where they represent about 12% of all fatal road crashes. The purpose of this study was to survey professional heavy vehicle drivers about their experiences, views and opinions regarding road suicides.

    Methods: The sample included heavy vehicle drivers (N = 863) randomly recruited from a transport workers' union.

    Results: About 18% of the respondents reported a suspected suicide attempt of a motor vehicle driver crashing into their vehicle, with 15% of these (i.e.2.8% of the whole sample) also reporting a resulting crash. More than half of the respondents reported personally knowing another professional driver who had experienced a crash caused by a suicidal driver. Almost 80% of the drivers reported being afraid that someone would attempt suicide by crashing into their vehicle; however, thinking about such a possibility produces a level of anxiety in less than half of all respondents. Most respondents agreed about the challenges of avoiding a crash if somebody deliberately drives their car towards their vehicle.

    Conclusion: Heavy vehicle drivers perceive road suicides as an occupational risk in their profession. We discuss possible preventive measures against suicide attempts by crashing into a heavy vehicle.

  • 85.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Radun, Jenni
    Wahde, Mattias
    Watling, Christopher N.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Self-reported circumstances and consequences of driving while sleepy2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 32, s. 91-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Driver surveys are indispensable sources of information when estimating the role of sleepiness in crash causation. The purpose of the study was to (1) identify the prevalence of driving while sleepy among Finnish drivers, (2) determine the circumstances of such instances, and (3) identify risk factors and risk groups. Survey data were collected from a representative sample of active Finnish drivers (N = 1121). One-fifth of the drivers (19.5%) reported having fallen asleep at the wheel during their driving career, with 15.9% reporting having been close to falling asleep or having difficulty staying awake when driving during the previous twelve months. Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were found to be associated with both types of sleepiness-related driving instances, while sleep quality was associated only with the latter. Compared to women, men more often reported falling asleep at the wheel; the differences were somewhat smaller with respect to fighting sleep while driving during the previous twelve months. The reported discrepancy in sleepiness-related instances (high prevalence of fighting sleep while driving during the previous twelve months and lower proportion of actually falling asleep) identifies young men (⩜25 years) as one of the main target groups for safety campaigns. Approximately three-quarters of drivers who had fallen asleep while driving reported taking action against falling asleep before it actually happened. Furthermore, almost all drivers who had fallen asleep while driving offered at least one logical reason that could have contributed to their falling asleep. These data indicate some degree of awareness about driving while sleepy and of the potential pre-trip factors that could lead to sleepiness while driving, and supports the notion that falling asleep at the wheel does not come as a (complete) surprise to the driver.

  • 86.
    Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Wahde, M
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Benderius, O
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Driving while fatigued in slippery road conditions - a neglected issue2014Ingår i: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16-20 September, 2014, Tallin, Estonia, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 87. Sallinen, Mikael
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Shift work, sleep and sleepiness - differences between shift schedules and systems2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 121-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this narrative review, we examined what level of research evidence is available that shift workers' sleep-wake disturbances can be minimized through ergonomic shift scheduling. We classified the pertinent studies conducted on real shift workers in field conditions by the type of shift system and study design (ie, whether the shift systems were modified or not - "treatment" versus "no treatment"). The results of the observational studies in which no changes to the shift system were made (ie, no treatment) showed that, irrespective of the shift system, night and early-morning shifts and quick returns are associated with short sleep and increases in sleepiness. The same is true for very long shifts (>16 hours) and extremely long weekly working hours (>55 hours). For all categories of shift systems, there was a lack of controlled intervention studies, limiting the possibility to provide solution-focused recommendations for shift scheduling. Most of the controlled intervention studies had been conducted on workers under regular 3-shift systems. These studies suggested that a change from slowly backward-rotating shifts to rapidly forward-rotating shifts is advantageous for alertness and, to some degree, sleep. We also found that a change from an 8- to 12-hour shift system does not necessarily result in impairments in the sleep-wake pattern. The level of research evidence was affected by many of the studies' frequent methodological limitations in measuring sleep and sleepiness. In all, to have reliable and solution-focused recommendations for shift scheduling, methodologically sound controlled intervention studies are required in different categories of shift systems.

  • 88. Sallinen, Mikael
    et al.
    Sihvola, Maria
    Puttonen, Sampsa
    Ketola, Kimmo
    Tuori, Antti
    Härmä, Mikko
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sleep, alertness and alertness management among commercial airline pilots on short-haul and long-haul flights2016Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 98, s. 320-329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Airline pilots' sleep and on-duty alertness are important focus areas in commercial aviation. Until now, studies pertaining to this topic have mainly focused on specific characteristics of flights and thus a comprehensive picture of the matter is not well established. In addition, research knowledge of what airline pilots actually do to maintain their alertness while being on duty is scarce. To address these gaps in research knowledge, we conducted a field study on a representative sample of the airline pilots of a medium-sized airline. The sample consisted of 90 pilots, of whom 30 flew long-haul (LH) routes, 30 short-haul (SH) routes, and 30 flew both. A total of 86 pilots completed the measurements that lasted for almost two months per pilot. The measurements resulted in a total of 965 flight duty periods (FDPs) including SH flights and 627 FDPs including LH flights. During the measurement periods, sleep was measured by a diary and actigraphs, on-duty alertness by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) in all flight phases, and on-duty alertness management strategies by the diary. Results showed that SH and LH FDPs covering the whole domicile night (00:00-06:00 at home base) were most consistently associated with reduced sleep-wake ratio and subjective alertness. Approximately every 3rd FDP falling into this category involved a reduced sleep-wake ratio (1:3 or lower) and every 2nd a reduced level of subjective alertness (KSS rating 8-9 in at least one flight phase). The corresponding frequencies for the SH and LH FDPs that partly covered the domicile night were every 10th and every 5th FDP and for the pure non-night FDPs every 30th and every 36th FDP, respectively. The results also showed that the pilots tended to increase the use of effective on-duty alertness management strategies (consuming alertness-promoting products and taking strategic naps) in connection with the FDPs that overlapped the domicile night. Finally, the results showed that the frequency of flights involving reduced subjective alertness depended on how alertness was assessed. If it was assessed solely in the flight phase just before starting the landing procedures (top of descent) the phenomenon was less frequent than if the preceding cruise phase was also taken into account. Our results suggest that FDPs covering the whole domicile night should be prioritised over the other FDPs in fatigue management, regardless of whether an FDP is a short-haul or a long-haul. In addition, the identification of fatigue in flight operations requires one to assess pilots' alertness across all flight phases, not only at ToD. Due to limitations in our data, these conclusions can, however, be generalise to only LH FDPs during which pilots can be expected to be well acclimatised to the local time at their home base and SH night FDPs that include at least 3h of flying in the cruise phase.

  • 89. Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Karlsson, Johan G.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night - a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience2011Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 34, nr 10, s. 1317-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several indicators during real driving at night, compared with daytime driving.

    DESIGN: Participants drove 55 km (at 90km/h) on a 9-m-wide rural highway in southern Sweden. Daytime driving started at 09:00 or 11:00 (2 groups) and night driving at 01:00 or 03:00 (balanced design).

    SETTING: Instrumented car on a real road in normal traffic.

    PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen participants drawn from the local driving license register.

    INTERVENTIONS: Daytime and nighttime drives.

    MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS: The vehicle was an instrumented car with video monitoring of the edge of the road and recording of the lateral position and speed. Electroencephalography and electrooculography were recorded, together with ratings of sleepiness every 5 minutes. Pronounced effects of night driving were seen for subjective sleepiness, electroencephalographic indicators of sleepiness, blink duration, and speed. Also, time on task showed significant effects for subjective sleepiness, blink duration, lane position, and speed. Sleepiness was highest toward the end of the nighttime drive. Night driving caused a leftward shift in lateral position and a reduction of speed. The latter two findings, as well as the overall pattern of sleepiness indicators, provide new insights into the effects of night driving.

    CONCLUSION: Night driving is associated with high levels of subjective, electrophysiologic, and behavioral sleepiness. CITATION: Sandberg D; Anund A; Fors C; Kecklund G; Karlsson JG; Wahde M; Åkerstedt T. The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night-a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience. 

  • 90.
    Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Wadhe, Mattias
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The impact of sleepiness on lane positioning in truck drivers2013Ingår i: Driver Distraction and Inattention: Advances in Research and Countermeasures, Volume 1 / [ed] Michael A. Regan, John D. Lee, Trent W. Victor, Farnham: Ashgate, 2013, s. 405-416Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter concerns the detection of sleepiness in truck drivers. Data obtained from a driver sleepiness study involving real-world driving are used in order to analyse the performance of several sleepiness indicators based on driving behavior; such as, for example, variability in lateral position and heading angle. Contrary to the results obtained for passenger cars, for heavy trucks it is found that indicators based on variability provide little or no information; their performance does not rise significantly above chance levels. However, the data indicate that there is a significant difference in the average lane position for sleepy and alert drivers, respectively, such that a sleepy driver generally places the vehicle closer (by about 0.2 m) to the centre of the road than an alert driver. The analysis also shows a significant, monotonous, increase in average lateral position (measured from the right, outer, lane boundary towards the lane centre) between the four cases of (i) daytime alert driving, (ii) daytime sleepy driving, (iii) night-time alert driving and (iv) nighttime sleepy driving.

  • 91. Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Detecting Driver Sleepiness Using Optimized Nonlinear Combinations of Sleepiness Indicators2011Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 97-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting sleepiness in car drivers. First, a variety of sleepiness indicators (based on driving behavior) proposed in the literature were evaluated. These indicators were then subjected to parametric optimization using stochastic optimization methods. To improve performance, the functional form of some of the indicators was generalized before optimization. Next, using a neural network, the best performing sleepiness indicators were combined with a mathematical model of sleepiness, i.e., the sleep/wake predictor (SWP). The analyses were based on data obtained from a study that involved 12 test subjects at the moving-base driving simulator at the Swedish National Road and Transportation Research Institute (VTI), Linkoping, Sweden. The data were derived from 12 1-h driving sessions for each test subject, with varying degrees of sleepiness. The performance measure (range [0,1]) for indicators was taken as the average of sensitivity and specificity. Starting with indicators proposed in the literature, the best such indicator, i.e., the standard deviation of the yaw angle, reached a performance score of 0.72 on previously unseen test data. It was found that indicators based on a given signal gave essentially equal performance after parametric optimization, but in no case was it better than 0.72. The best generalized indicator (the generic variability indicator) obtained a performance score of 0.74. SWP achieved a score of 0.78. However, by nonlinearly combining SWP with the generic variability indicator, a score of 0.83 was obtained. Thus, the results imply that a nonlinear combination of a measure based on driving behavior with a model of sleepiness significantly improves driver sleepiness detection.

  • 92. Santoft, Fredrik
    et al.
    Salomonsson, Sigrid
    Hesser, Hugo
    Lindsäter, Elin
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Mediators of Change in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Clinical Burnout2019Ingår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 475-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence supporting the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for stress-related illness is growing, but little is known about its mechanisms of change. The aim of this study was to investigate potential mediators of CBT for severe stress in form of clinical burnout, using an active psychological treatment as comparator. We used linear mixed models to analyze data from patients (N = 82) with clinical burnout who received either CBT or another psychological treatment in a randomized controlled trial. Potential mediators (i.e., sleep quality, behavioral activation, perceived competence, and therapeutic alliance) and outcome (i.e., symptoms of burnout) were assessed weekly during treatment. The results showed that the positive treatment effects on symptoms of burnout favoring CBT (estimated between-group d = 0.93) were mediated by improvements in sleep quality, ab = -0.017,95% CIasymmetric [-0.037, -0.002], and increase in perceived competence, ab = -0.037, 95% CIasymmetric [-0.070, -0.010]. Behavioral activation, ab = -0.004 [-0.016, 0.007], and therapeutic alliance, ab = 0.002 [-0.006, 0.011], did not significantly mediate the difference in effects between the treatments. Improving sleep quality and increasing perceived competence may thus constitute important process goals in order to attain symptom reduction in CBT for clinical burnout.

  • 93. Santoft, Fredrik
    et al.
    Salomonsson, Sigrid
    Hesser, Hugo
    Lindsäter, Elin
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Processes in cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: Predicting subsequent symptom change2019Ingår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 67, artikel-id 102118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder, little is known about the processes during treatment that bring about change. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the proposed processes of change according to the cognitive model of social anxiety disorder predicted subsequent symptom reduction in CBT delivered as therapist-guided bibliotherapy. We analyzed data from patients with social anxiety disorder (N = 61) who participated in an effectiveness trial of CBT in primary care. Seven putative processes and outcome (i.e., social anxiety) were assessed on a weekly basis throughout treatment. We used linear mixed models to analyze within-person relations between processes and outcome. The results showed a unidirectional effect of reduced avoidance on subsequent decrease in social anxiety. Further, we found support for reciprocal influences between four of the proposed processes (i.e., estimated probability and cost of adverse outcome, self-focused attention, and safety behaviors) and social anxiety. The remaining two processes, (i.e., anticipatory and post-event processing) did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but were predicted by prior symptom reduction. The findings support that several of the change processes according to the cognitive model of social anxiety disorder are involved in symptom improvement.

  • 94.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress – a group randomized intervention study using diary data2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 109-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Insufficient time for recovery between workdays may cause fatigue and disturbed sleep. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention that reduced weekly working hours by 25% on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress for employees within the public sector.

    Method Participating workplaces (N=33) were randomized into intervention and control groups. Participants (N=580, 76% women) worked full-time at baseline. The intervention group (N=354) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline and after 9 and 18 months follow-up. Sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, perceived stress,and worries and stress at bedtime were measured with diary during one week per data collection.

    Result A multilevel mixed model showed that compared with the control group, at the 18-month follow-up, the intervention group had improved sleep quality and sleep duration (+23 minutes) and displayed reduced levels of sleepiness, perceived stress, and worries and stress at bedtime on workdays (P<0.002). The same effects were shown for days off (P<0.006), except for sleep length. Effect sizes were small (Cohen’s f2<0.08). Adding gender, age, having children living at home, and baseline values of sleep quality and worries and stress at bedtime as additional between-group factors did not influence the results.

    Conclusion A 25% reduction of weekly work hours with retained salary resulted in beneficial effects on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress both on workdays and days off. These effects were maintained over an 18-month period. This randomized intervention thus indicates that reduced worktime may improve recovery and perceived stress.

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  • 95.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Total workload and recovery in relation to worktime reduction – a randomized controlled intervention study with time-use dataManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: A 25% reduction of weekly work hours for full-time employees has been shown to improve sleep and alertness and reduce stress during both workdays and days off. The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees use their time during such an intervention: does total workload (paid and non-paid work) decrease, and recovery time increase, when work hours are reduced?

    Methods: Full-time employees within the public sector (N=636; 75% women) were randomized into intervention group and control group. The intervention group (N=370) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline, after 9 months and 18 months. Time-use was reported every half hour daily between 06 and 01 a.m. during one week at each data collection. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed modeling.

    Results: Compared to the control group, the intervention group increased the time spent on domestic work and relaxing hobby activities during workdays when worktime was reduced (p≤0.001). On days off, more time was spent in free-time activities (p=0.003). Total workload decreased (-65 minutes) and time spent in recovery activities increased on workdays (+53 minutes). The pattern of findings was similar in subgroups defined by gender, family status and job situation.

    Conclusions: A worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers resulted in decreased total workload and an increase of time spent in recovery activities, which is in line with the suggestion that worktime reduction may be beneficial for long-term health and stress.

  • 96.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands .
    Total workload and recovery in relation to worktime reduction: a randomised controlled intervention study with time-use data2018Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, nr 3, s. 218-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives A 25% reduction of weekly work hours for full-time employees has been shown to improve sleep and alertness and reduce stress during both workdays and days off. The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees use their time during such an intervention: does total workload (paid and non-paid work) decrease, and recovery time increase, when work hours are reduced?

    Methods Full-time employees within the public sector (n=636; 75% women) were randomised into intervention group and control group. The intervention group (n=370) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline, after 9 months and 18 months. Time-use was reported every half-hour daily between 06:00 and 01:00 during 1 week at each data collection. Data were analysed with multilevel mixed modelling.

    Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group increased the time spent on domestic work and relaxing hobby activities during workdays when worktime was reduced (P≤0.001). On days off, more time was spent in free-time activities (P=0.003). Total workload decreased (-65 min) and time spent in recovery activities increased on workdays (+53 min). The pattern of findings was similar in subgroups defined by gender, family status and job situation.

    Conclusions A worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers resulted in decreased total workload and an increase of time spent in recovery activities, which is in line with the suggestion that worktime reduction may be beneficial for long-term health and stress.

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  • 97.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Söderström, Marie
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    A randomized controlled intervention of workplace-based group cognitive behavioral therapy for insomniaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Sleep disturbance is common in the working population, often associated with work stress, health complaints and impaired work performance. This study evaluated a group intervention at work, based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for insomnia, and the moderating effects of burnout scores at baseline.

    Methods: This is a randomized controlled intervention with a waiting-list control group. Participants were employees working at least 75% of full time, reporting self-perceived regular sleep problems. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention and at a three-month follow-up through diaries, wrist-actigraphy and questionnaires including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). Fifty-one participants (63% women) completed data collections.

    Results: A multilevel mixed model showed no significant differences between groups for sleep over time, while there was a significant effect on insomnia symptoms when excluding participants working shifts (N=11) from the analysis (p=0.044). Moreover, a moderating effect of baseline-levels of burnout scores was observed on insomnia symptoms (p=0.009). A post-hoc analysis showed that individuals in the intervention group with low burnout scores at baseline (SMBQ<3.75) displayed significantly reduced ISI scores at follow-up, compared to individuals with high burnout scores at baseline (p=0.005).

    Conclusions: Group CBT for insomnia given at the workplace did not reduce sleep problems looking at the group as a whole, while it was indicated that the intervention reduced insomnia in employees with regular daytime work. The results also suggest that workplace-based group CBT may improve sleep in employees with primary insomnia if not concomitant with high burnout scores. 

  • 98.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Söderström, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. KBT-Centralen, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    A randomized controlled intervention of workplace-based group cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia2018Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 4, s. 413-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep disturbance is common in the working population, often associated with work stress, health complaints and impaired work performance. This study evaluated a group intervention at work, based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia, and the moderating effects of burnout scores at baseline. This is a randomized controlled intervention with a waiting list control group. Participants were employees working at least 75% of full time, reporting self-perceived regular sleep problems. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention and at a 3-month follow-up through diaries, wrist-actigraphy and questionnaires including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). Fifty-one participants (63% women) completed data collections. A multilevel mixed model showed no significant differences between groups for sleep over time, while there was a significant effect on insomnia symptoms when excluding participants working shifts (N = 11) from the analysis (p = 0.044). Moreover, a moderating effect of baseline-levels of burnout scores was observed on insomnia symptoms (p = 0.009). A post-hoc analysis showed that individuals in the intervention group with low burnout scores at baseline (SMBQ < 3.75) displayed significantly reduced ISI scores at follow-up, compared to individuals with high burnout scores at baseline (p = 0.005). Group CBT for insomnia given at the workplace did not reduce sleep problems looking at the group as a whole, while it was indicated that the intervention reduced insomnia in employees with regular daytime work. The results also suggest that workplace-based group CBT may improve sleep in employees with primary insomnia if not concomitant with high burnout scores.

  • 99.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mood impairment is stronger in young than in older adults after sleep deprivation2019Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, nr 4, artikel-id e12801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation commonly impairs affective regulation and causes worse mood. However, the majority of previous research concerns young adults. Because susceptibility to sleep deprivation and emotion regulation change distinctively across adult age, we tested here the hypothesis that the effect of sleep deprivation on mood is stronger in young than in older adults. In an experimental design, young (18–30 years) and older adults (60–72 years) participated in either a sleep control (young, n = 63; older, n = 47) or a total sleep deprivation condition (young, n = 61; older, n = 47). Sleepiness, mood and common symptoms of sleep deprivation were measured using established questionnaires and ratings. Sleep‐deprived participants felt more sleepy, stressed and cold, and reported lower vigour and positive affect, regardless of age. All the other outcome measures (negative affect, depression, confusion, tension, anger, fatigue, total mood disturbance, hunger, cognitive attenuation, irritability) showed a weaker response to sleep deprivation in the older group, as indicated by age*sleep deprivation interactions (ps < 0.05). The results show that older adults are emotionally less affected by sleep deprivation than young adults. This tolerance was mainly related to an attenuated increase in negative mood. This could possibly be related to the well‐known positivity effect, which suggests that older adults prioritize regulating their emotions to optimize well‐being. The results also highlight that caution is warranted when generalizing results from sleep deprivation studies across the adult lifespan.

  • 100.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fors, Carina
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Taillard, Jacques
    Phillip, Pierre
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness2012Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 595-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2 cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n = 8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness.

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