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  • 551.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Articulatory and perceptual factors controlling the age- and sex-conditioned variability in formant frequencies of vowels1984In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech sounds, as heard by listeners, contain phonetic, personal, and transmission information. The differences between the formant frequencies of vowels spoken by men, women, and children show a fairly uniform tendency in several studies and languages, and they are regarded as personal quality differences. The differences between the sexes are mainly due to the descent of the larynx in males during puberty. The observed tendency in female/male formant frequency ratios is reproduced in a calculation taking into account the physiological consequences of larynx descent and assuming that the vowel specific neural commands to the articulators remain unchanged. The perception of phonetic quality is seen as a process of tonotopic gestalt recognition. The tonality (=critical-band rate) distances between the formants in phonetically identical vowels are claimed and shown to be invariant as long as they are smaller than 6 Bark. The absolute position of the formants allows personal variation. The tonality distance between the first formant and the fundamental is smaller in most vowels spoken by women than in those by men and children. As for the role of the fundamental in this connection, some alternative hypotheses are discussed.

  • 552.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Conventional, biological and environmental factors in speech communication: a modulation theory.1994In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 51, no 1-3, p. 170-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech signals contain various types of information that can be grouped under the headings phonetic, affective, personal, and transmittal. Listeners are capable of distinguishing these. Previous theories of speech perception have not considered this fully. They have mainly been concerned with problems relating to phonetic quality alone. The theory presented in this paper considers speech signals as the result of allowing conventional gestures to modulate a carrier signal that has the personal characteristics of the speaker. This implies that in general the conventional information can only be retrieved by demodulation. In order to perceive the phonetic quality of a speech signal, listeners evaluate the deviations of the properties of the signal (F0, formant frequencies, etc.) from those they expect of a neutral vocalization produced by the speaker with properties given by his age, sex, vocal effort, speech rate, etc. In degraded speech signals, this is shown to result in a perceptual bias towards neutral vowels. It is also argued that speech is perceived on the basis of compatibility testing (and not by optimal matching), so that listeners will hear what they expect to hear as long as they do not notice any counter evidence in the signal.

  • 553.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Der Vokalismus im Ostmittelbairischen1982In: Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, ISSN 0044-1449, E-ISSN 2366-2395, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 289-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 554.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Die spektrale Auflösung bei der Wahrnehmung der Klangfarbe von Vokalen1984In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 54, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distances between neighbouring partials of vowels are in many cases larger than the bendwidths of the formants and also often larger than the critical bandwidth (1 Bark). Several results of different experiments with synthetic one- and two-formant vowels suggest that an efficient bandwidth of resolution of roughly 3 Bark is basic to the perception of spectral features of vowels. A corresponding spectral dispersion or integration did not, however, appear in experiments with non-speech harmonic sounds. K. Benedini investigated the timbre differences between harmonic sounds with up to six harmonics of 100 Hz. An analysis of the estimated timbre differences shows that both the bandwidth of resolution and the perceptual weight of the partials is proportional to their frequency. The weight of the fundamental is, however, substantially increased in comparisons between residual and complete harmonic sounds. Further, the perceived difference between two sounds turns out to be dependent on the remaining sounds presented in a perceptual experiment. The timbre differences between low-passed harmonic sounds of different width can be accounted for exclusively on the basis of the tono-topical distances between the upper flanks of these sounds. It is concluded that the judgement of differences in timble involves the prior extraction, induced by context, of relevant dimensions. The bandwidth of spectral resolution that appears with the perception of vowel-like sounds may in part be due to an intrincsic inacuity to the phonetic templates supposedly stored in memory.

  • 555.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lippenrundung bei schwedischen Vokalen1979In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 44-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a steady transition between unrounded, 'outrounded', and 'inrounded' Swedish vowels, or are these distinct categories? By which articulatory parameters can these distinctions be described? These questions, actualised through confusion data in speechreading, are answered by means of articulatory measurements of lip-opening, lip-protrusion, and jaw-lowering in 4 subjects. It is found, i.a., that rounded and unrounded vowels form clearly separated categories, and that inrounded vowels, including /o/, are distinguished from outrounded ones by their smaller lip-opening and, if long, by increased lowering of the jaw.

  • 556.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perceptual dimension of openness in vowels.1981In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 1465-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 557.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Acoustic effects of variation in vocal effort by men, women, and children.2000In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 3438-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustic effects of the adjustment in vocal effort that is required when the distance between speaker and addressee is varied over a large range (0.3-187.5 m) were investigated in phonated and, at shorter distances, also in whispered speech. Several characteristics were studied in the same sentence produced by men, women, and 7 year-old boys and girls: duration of vowels and consonants, pausing and occurrence of creaky voice, mean and range of F0, certain formant frequencies (F1 in [a] and F3), SPL of voiced segments and [s], and spectral emphasis. In addition to levels and emphasis, vowel duration, F0, and F1 were substantially affected. “Vocal effort” was defined as the communicational distance estimated by a group of listeners for each utterance. Most of the observed effects correlated better with this measure than with the actual distance, since some additional factors affected the speakers’ choice. Differences between speaker groups emerged in segment durations, pausing behavior, and in the extent to which the SPL of [s] was affected. The whispered versions are compared with the phonated versions produced by the same speakers at the same distance. Several effects of whispering are found to be similar to those of increasing vocal effort.

  • 558.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The perceptual evaluation of F0 excursions in speech as evidenced in liveliness estimations.1995In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 1905-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to learn how listeners evaluate F0 excursions, a set of experiments was performed in which subjects had to estimate the liveliness of utterances. The stimuli were obtained by LPC analysis of one natural utterance that was modified by resynthesizing F0 , the formant frequencies, and the time scale in order to simulate some of the natural extra- and paralinguistic variations that affect F0 and/or liveliness, namely the speaker's age, sex, articulation rate, and voice register. In each case, the extent of the F0 excursions was varied in seven steps. The results showed that, as long as the stimuli appeared to have been produced in the modal register (of men, women, and children), listeners judged F0 intervals to be equivalent if they were equal in semitones. When the voice register was shifted without adjustment in articulation , listeners appeared to judge the F0 excursions in relation to the spectral space available below F1 . The liveliness ratings were found to be strongly dependent on articulation rate and to be affected by the perceived age of the speaker which, with the manipulated stimuli used here, turned out to be significantly affected by the sex of the listener.

  • 559.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The effect of local speaking rate on the perception of quantity in Estonian.2003In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 187-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Estonian language with its elaborate system of contrasts in quantity, whose essentials are described in the paper, is used to investigate human perception of distinctive contrasts in the duration of vowels, consonants and larger units. In the experiments reported, the speaking rate of a preceding or following syllable was manipulated in addition to that of a target V, C or VC sequence that carried a quantity distinction in disyllabic words. The results confirmed that the second syllable in such words, in particular the duration of its vowel, serves as a reference, but they showed segments of additional syllables to contribute in the same direction. The results provided no support for ascribing quantity to any larger units than phonetic segments. Speech rate effects of similar magnitude have been observed in Japanese, while effects of the same kind were found to be smaller in Dutch. These differences may be linked with the functions durational contrasts have in the different languages. It appears that listeners have to adapt more fully to variations in the local speaking rate when there are no additional cues and the functional load of quantity distinctions is high.

  • 560.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perceptual relativity in identification of two-formant vowels1987In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is attempted to reduce the phonetic quality of vowels to the positions of the peaks in their tonotopical spectra relative to the other peaks, simultaneous or preceding in context. Synthetic two-formant vowels were identified by speakers of languages that differentiate richly among high vowels (Swedish, Turkish). The parameters F1 (204-801 Hz) and F2' (509-3702 Hz) were systematically varied in steps of 0.75 critical bandwidth. F0 was kept close below F1 in all vowels. These were presented in two orders with subsequently rising or falling F2'. Most subjects heard predominantly close vowels. The "isophones" of most subjects could be described in a uniform manner implying a normalization with respect to two reference points, one at a distance of 3 critical bands above F0 and the other one at an absolute position corresponding to 2.8 kHz. It is speculated that this second reference point might represent a default position of the third formant or the like.

  • 561.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual perception of openness and lip rounding in front vowels2007In: Journal of Phonetics, Vol. 35, p. 244-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables /gig/, /gyg/, /geg/ and /gøg/, produced by four speakers, were video-recorded and presented to male and female subjects in auditory, visual and audiovisual mode and also in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with incongruent cues to vowel openness, roundedness, or both. With audiovisual stimuli, subjects perceived openness nearly always by ear. Most subjects perceived roundedness by eye rather than by ear although the auditory conditions were optimal and the sensation was an auditory one. This resulted in fused percepts such as when an acoustic /geg/ dubbed onto an optic /gyg/ was predominantly perceived as /gøg/. Since the acoustic cues to openness are prominent, while those to roundedness are less reliable, this lends support to the “information reliability hypothesis” in multisensory perception: The perception of a feature is dominated by the modality that provides the more reliable information. A mostly male minority relied less on vision. The between-gender difference was significant. Presence of lip rounding (a visibly marked feature) was noticed more easily than its absence. The influence of optic information was not fully explicable on the basis of the subjects’ success rates in lipreading compared with auditory perception. It was highest in stimuli produced by a speaker who smiled.

  • 562.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Hörselkliniken, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Cecilgård, Margareta
    Hägg, Åsa
    Tvåspråkighet - en jämförande studie2007In: Audio-Nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 34, no 1-2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 563.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Hägg, Åsa
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Tvåspråkighet avseende tidig parallell tal- och teckenspråksutveckling hos barn med hörselskada eller dövhet.2005In: Logopednytt, no 6, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 564.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Another look at spatial prepositions and the modification problem2013In: Iberia: An International Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 1989-8525, E-ISSN 1989-8525, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to propose a unification of two strands of research within the semantics of spatial prepositions. The first strand focuses on the so-called modification problem, which can be stated as follows. Some, but not all spatial prepositions can be modified by measure phrases, such as ten meters (e.g. ten meters in front of the car). The second strand focuses on so-called prepositional aspect, in particular the fact that some but not all spatial prepositions can occur with the temporal adverbial phrase in one hour (e.g. to). A simple unified syntactic and semantic approach of aspect properties is offered, to account the data. This unified account is shown to explain and predict why telic/non-cumulative prepositions cannot combine with measure phrases (viz. *ten meters to the park). It is discussed whether prepositions that can combine with measure phrases, such as ten meters in front of the car and ten meters towards the car, have different lexical aspect properties, such as cumulativity and/or monotonicity. The answer is offered via a standard analysis of the distribution of these complex phrases with the temporal adverbs in one hour/for one hour. The consequences of the unified analysis are discussed in detail.

  • 565.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Ave' and Tene': Another look at auxiliary selection in Aquilan2014In: Dialectologia, ISSN 2013-2247, E-ISSN 2013-2247, no 13, p. 115-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a unified approach on two poorly understood problems of auxiliary selection in the Aquilan dialect. The first problem pertains to the distribution of an auxiliary verb that denotes the notion of “possession”, tene’. The second problem pertains to the distribution of a more standard auxiliary verb, ave´, which denotes the notion of “existence” in compound tenses, in suppletive distribution with esse. A proposed solution is that the distribution of both auxiliary verbs can be accounted via a simple analysis of Aquilan’s person-driven agreement: how a verb interacts with its arguments. This analysis is based on a formal (type-logical) representation of Distributed Morphology combined with Type-Logical calculi, and shown to correctly account and predict the distribution of these auxiliary verbs.

  • 566.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Experimental Entailments: The Case of Spatial Prepositions2014In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 112-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an experimental study on native speakers’ access to lexical relations among spatial relations. Our main focus is a still poorly understood domain: the lexical relations that hold between (pairs of) directional spatial prepositions (from, to) and locative prepositions (at). Two broad families of proposals exist in the literature. One family suggests that the members of these two classes of prepositions are connected via the entailment relation. Another family suggests that the overlap relation connects directional and locative prepositions. These two proposals differ with respect to the predictions they make on how speakers can accept and logically connect sentences that include such pairs of prepositions. We offer an experimental study, based on a variant of the Truth-Value Judgment Task, which aims to adjudicate which family of proposals makes the correct predictions. Then, we discuss the theoretical import of the results.

  • 567.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Metaphoric and Literal Readings for Spatial Prepositions: The Case of Boolean Phrases2015In: Language and Semiotic Studies, ISSN 2096-031X, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 52-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an account of how literal and metaphoric readings of spatial prepositions in so-called “Boolean Phrases” can arise. The account aims to explain how metaphoric and literal readings can interact, when two (spatial) prepositional phrases are the arguments of one phrase headed by Boolean connectives and and or (e.g. in front of the car and over his problems). It is shown that these phenomena can receive a more thorough compositional analysis by assuming that both types of readings are part of a larger semantic domain for spatial prepositions, logical connectives and their combinations thereof.

  • 568.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    On the Syntax and Semantics of Haber and Tener2013In: Lingue e linguaggio, ISSN 1720-9331, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 89-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach on the syntax and semantics of the two spanish auxiliary verbs haber and tener and their distributional properties. It is argued that these verbs share key syntactic properties, but denote two different types of semantic relations. While tener denotes a property ascribed to the subject, haber only introduces the temporal reference of a sentence. This proposal on the semantics of tener and haber is then inserted in a broader proposal on auxiliary verbs, copulae and their distribution. It is shown that the current proposal can correctly account the distribution of tener and haber, and be seamlessly integrated with standard approaches to ser and estar.

  • 569.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    On The Syntax and Semantics of Spanish Spatial Prepositions2013In: Borealis: A journal of International Spanish Linguistics, ISSN 1893-3211, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 117-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 570.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. 2Centre for Cognition and its Disorders (CCD), Macquarie University.
    The interpretation of Spatial 'At': An Experimental Study2013In: Journal of cognitive science, ISSN 1598-2327, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 47-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study on the interpretation of the spatialpreposition at in adult speakers, based on a variant of the Truth ValueJudgment Task. It is shown that speakers can interpret at as denoting a spatialrelation that stands in the “lexical entailment” relation with other spatial prepositions(e.g. inside, in front of, on top of, behind). For instance, if multiplelocated entities are involved in this relation, then they may occupy locationsthat can be “internal”, “external”, or placed on different verses of the samedirection, e.g. in front or behind a certain landmark object. It is discussed whichsemantic hypothesis correctly predicts these findings, and what the implicationscould be, for a theory of spatial prepositions and their Semantics.

  • 571.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    WHICH MODEL OF BIOLOGICAL PLAUSIBILITY FOR LANGUAGE? THE CASE OF “WHAT DARWIN GOT WRONG”2013In: Language and information society, ISSN 1598-1886, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 103-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 572.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Akagi, Nobuaki
    The interpretation of plural definites in discourse: the case of spatial prepositions2013In: Linguistics and the human sciences, ISSN 1742-2906, E-ISSN 1743-1662, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 201-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n this paper we offer a study on the interpretation of plural definites in discourse (‘the tank engines’) and their interaction with spatial adpositions (‘to’ and ‘at’). The novel empirical findings in the paper support the following assumptions on the contribution of spatial adpositions to the interpretation of plural definites. First, the interpretation of plural definites can be influenced by the lexical aspect type of adpositions. While ‘to’ as ‘telic’ predicate can license both a ‘collective’ and a ‘distributive’ reading for plural definites, ‘at’ as an ‘atelic’ predicate only licenses a ‘collective’ reading. Second, the precise lexical content of adpositions determines which interpretation is accessed. It is claimed that ‘at’ denotes a ‘general location’ relation between locatum and landmark object, and thus licenses a collective reading for plural definites.

  • 573.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Typology of nominal and adjectival suppletion2013In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 112-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a sample-based typological account of suppletion in nouns and adjectives. The distribution of the grammatical categories involved in the suppletive forms is presented along with the lexical meanings most commonly found to be suppletive. It is demonstrated that nominal suppletion is not a rare phenomenon and most commonly involves the feature number followed by possession. The noun ‘child’ is the most common suppletive noun. In general, nouns referring to humans are more likely to be suppletive than others. The investigation shows that adjectival suppletion is less common than nominal suppletion and affects frequent adjectives with general meanings of the types value and size.

  • 574.
    Van Meerbergen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Dutch.
    Dick Bruna in Zweedse vertaling: Een multimodale vertaalanalyse van kindbeelden2010In: Literatuur zonder leeftijd, ISSN 0929-8274, Vol. 24, no 81, p. 47-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel undersöks hur skilldringen av barnet ändras när en bilderbok om kaninen Miffy av nederländske Dick Bruna översätts till svenska. I artikel undersöks även hur en multimodal textanalys (Kress & van Leeuwen 2006) kan integreras som metod för att undersöka översättning av bilderböcker.

  • 575.
    Van Meerbergen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Dutch.
    Nederlandse prentenboeken worden Zweeds: Een multimodale vertaalanalyse2011In: de Leeswelp, ISSN 1780-3845, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This article is written in Dutch and discusses some of the main issues in my doctoral thesis "Nederländska bilderböcker blir svenska. En multimodal översättningsanalys" (2010). The thesis deals with the translation of Dutch and Flemish picture books between 1995 and 2006. It includes a general bibliographical study and also a more detailed translation analysis about the Miffy-books by Dutch picture book artits Dick Bruna. In order to analyse how both words and images are translated, multimodal text analysis is integrated as a tool in the translation analysis.

  • 576.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e0147924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words–in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only.

  • 577. Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ek, Carl-Henrik
    Comparing Distributions of Color Words: Pitfalls and Metric Choices2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. e89184-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic x-square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method.

  • 578.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negative existentials: a cross linguistic study2013In: Rivista di Linguistica = Italian Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1120-2726, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 107-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to provide a cross-linguistic outline of the negation strategies in existential predications like ‘There are no mice in the basement’. It is found that there is a strong cross-linguistic tendency to use a special negation strategy in these predications. Furthermore, the special negators, labelled here ‘negative existentials’, show a number of similarities in terms of their semantics, morphosyntax, use and diachronic origin. In light of this, it is suggested that they represent a linguistic construction of its own, and in fact, a separate conceptual domain.

  • 579.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Negative Existential Cycle Revisited2014In: Linguistics, ISSN 2072-8379, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1327-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on crosslinguistic data and the postulation of six language types, the Negative Existential Cycle was proposed by Croft (1991) as a way of modeling the evolution of standard negation markers from existential negators. The current investigation tests this model by applying it to two language families, Slavonic and Polynesian, checking which cycle types are instantiated in these families and outlining pathways of transition between different types. In Slavonic, we observe one type without variation and two types with internal variation. All cycle types are instantiated in Polynesian, which is correlated with characteristics specific to this family. Three pathways are outlined for the partial or complete transfer of negative existentials into the verbal domain. The first is contingent on negative existentials being used in specific constructions and the direct inheritance or expansion of use of these constructions; the second involves negative existentials being used as emphatic negators external to the proposition and their subsequent reanalysis as clause internal negators without any additional pragmatic content. The third pathway, observed in Polynesian only, is through subordination processes leading to the re-interpretation of negative existentials as general markers of negation. Additionally, a time dimension needs to be added when modeling this cycle, as its completion, i.e., the negative existential turning into a full-fledged marker of standard negation, appears to take longer than 2,000 years.

  • 580.
    Veselinova, Ljuba Nikolova
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Booza, J. C.
    Studying the Multilingual City: a GIS-based approach2009In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 145-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in two distinct disciplines, urban geography and sociolinguistics, readily points out the multiethnic and multilingual character of metropolitan areas. However, there is still demand for studies which establish the language structure of modern cities. For the purposes of this pilot study, we focus on the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA), Michigan. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology together with census data were used to arrive at an adequate description of the spatial distribution of languages currently spoken in Detroit and its immediate surroundings. Data from the 2000 US Census are entered into a GIS system and presented visually with a subsequent analysis of the emerging spatial patterns. Due to limitations of the data, we had to restrict the mapping to languages used at home. The study suggests one possible model for the initial stages of mapping the multilingual city; moreover, the data analysed here provide the infrastructure necessary for further research on phenomena such as language shift and language death as well as other aspects of a dynamic multilingual situation.

  • 581.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Estruturas causativas no Português: Um estudo sobre a relação entre o modo conjuntivo e os conceitos de subjetificação e domínio2013In: Revista Portuguesa de Humanidades, ISSN 0874-0321, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 97-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies carried out within a cognitive-functional perspective of linguistic analysisdistinguish a relation between the structural properties of complements of causationverbs and the kind of causation they designate. The present paper follows this lineof investigation. However, the focus of the analysis is put on the relation between thesubjunctive mood and the concepts of subjectification and dominion in causativestructures. The hypothesis put forward is that the relation between the Portuguesecausation verbs fazer and deixar, on the one hand, and the subjunctive complement, onthe other, can be can be explained in terms of subjectification, i.e. a diminished degreeof subject control. Accordingly, it is argued that the subjunctive mood designates anevent that is located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion.

  • 582.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Extending the dominion of effective control: Its applicability to mood choice in Spanish and Portuguese2014In: Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 0936-5907, E-ISSN 1613-3641, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 583-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the model of Cognitive Grammar, the concept of dominion is fundamental to the analysis of the conceptualizer’s attitude toward an event or a proposition. However, the concept has, first and foremost, been understood in epistemic terms, whereas there has been less concern with the conceptualizer’s efforts to influence and manipulate the course of events in the world. This being so, the present paper shows that the conceptualizer’s dominion of effective control is relevant in a number of linguistic contexts. The analysis provides evidence for this particular feature in factive contexts, deontic contexts, contexts of volition and causation, and in adverbial clauses of purpose, manner and condition. The analysis further shows that the conceptualizer’s dominion of effective control is capable of providing a conceptually grounded explanation for the occurrence of the Spanish and the Portuguese subjunctive mood in these grammatical contexts.

  • 583.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Factividade e modo verbal2014In: Revue Romane, ISSN 0035-3906, E-ISSN 1600-0811, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 52-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional way of explaining the subjunctive mood in Portuguese is utterly related to the distinction made between reality and non-reality. That is, while the indicative mood has been explained in terms of reality, the subjunctive has been the mood of non-reality. Although this explanation covers many occurrences of the subjunctive mood, it is also recognized that it fails to explain the use of the subjunctive mood in factive contexts. This being so, the present study aims at explaining the variation between the indicative and subjunctive mood in factive contexts from a Cognitive Grammar perspective. The hypothesis put forward is that the mood variation can be explained in terms of dominion and control. Thus, it is claimed that the subjunctive mood in factive contexts can be explained by a reduced degree of active control, this being consistent with an event that is located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion of effective control. On the other hand, the indicative mood occurs in contexts of epistemic control that are located inside the conceptualizer’s epistemic dominion. An additional analysis of the subjunctive mood in other grammatical contexts corroborates the initial claim.

  • 584.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Impersonals with ser ('to be') and the dominion of effective control2014In: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 41, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper analyses the semantic meaning of the subjunctive mood in complements of deontic and evaluative impersonal expressions. From the perspective of Cognitive Grammar, it is argued that the meaning of the subjunctive mood is to designate events that are located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion, whereas the impersonal expression puts focus on the relevant dominion, i.e. the dominion of effective control. Thus, the analysis shows that there is a conceptual relation between the conceptual content of the impersonal expression, on the one hand, and occurrence of the subjunctive mood, on the other hand. An additional analysis concerns the occurrence and the meaning of the inflected infinitive in contexts that imply a low degree of effective control.

  • 585.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Instructions or dominion?: The meaning of the Spanish subjunctive mood2013In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 359-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a highly interesting study, Dam and Dam-Jensen (2010) put forward the idea that the indicative and the subjunctive mood in Spanish complementizer phrases can be explained by the instructions they convey. The indicative instructs the addressee to locate the situation created by the verb relative to the situation of utterance, whereas the subjunctive instructs the addressee not to locate the situation described by the verb relative to the situation of utterance. Although this explanation is most appealing, the present paper argues that it also may create explanatory problems. Thus, it is claimed that the notion of dominion can explain the semantic meaning of the Spanish subjunctive mood. This verbal mood designates events that are located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion, either in terms of epistemic control or in terms of effective control.

  • 586.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Mood choice in complements of Spanish comprender and Portuguese compreender (‘understand’) – distribution and meaning2017In: Languages in Contrast: International Journal for Contrastive Linguistics, ISSN 1387-6759, E-ISSN 1569-9897, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 279-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper analyzes the occurrence of indicative and subjunctive complements of the verbs comprender (Spanish) and compreender (Portuguese) in European Spanish and European Portuguese. A quantitative analysis based on 400 occurrences of the complements randomly selected from the newspaper genre shows that the indicative mood occurs more frequently than the subjunctive mood in both languages, although the subjunctive mood is more frequent in the Portuguese corpus than in the Spanish one. The analysis also shows that the occurrence of the subjunctive complement is highly restricted to contexts in which the subject of the main clause verb is either 1st person or 3rd person singular. From the theoretical perspective of Cognitive Grammar, the mood alternation is explained by the concept of dominion, i.e. the indicative complement designates an event that is located within the conceptualizer’s epistemic dominion, whereas the subjunctive complement designates an event that is located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion of effective control.

  • 587.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    O modo verbal em expressões impessoais com o verbo ser2012In: Revue Romane, ISSN 0035-3906, E-ISSN 1600-0811, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 76-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subjunctive mood has frequently been explained in terms of unreality, presupposition, non-assertion and the distinction between new and old information. Although these explanations offer a partial account of the semantics of this mood, it is shown that many occurrences of the subjunctive mood remain unexplained. This being so, the present paper aims at explaining the indicative and subjunctive mood in impersonal expressions with the verb ser from a Cognitive Grammar perspective of linguistic analysis. The analysis shows that the variation between the indicative and subjunctive mood in this grammatical context can be explained in terms of dominion and control. An extension of the analysis further shows that it may account for the occurrence of the subjunctive mood in other grammatical contexts.

  • 588.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    The Portuguese Future Subjunctive: A Dominion Analysis2017In: Review of Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 1877-9751, E-ISSN 1877-976X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 58-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the analysis of the Portuguese future subjunctive mood would contribute to a greater understanding of the general meaning of the subjunctive mood, this verb form has received considerably little attention compared to the other subjunctive forms, namely, the past and present subjunctives. The aim of the present paper is to fill this gap. Using the theoretical perspective of Cognitive Grammar, it will be shown that the Portuguese future subjunctive shares many characteristic features with other tenses of the subjunctive mood. In particular, the analysis shows that the Portuguese future subjunctive can be explained by the concept of dominion. Thus, the present paper provides a conceptually grounded and unified explanation for the meaning of the Portuguese subjunctive mood.

  • 589.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Laddade ord2011In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 590.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Laddade ord2010In: Populär kommunikation, ISSN 1402-2567Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 591.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Tranströmer visar världen på nytt2014In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 592. Von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engström, Elisabet
    Uhlén, Inger
    Segmental and suprasegmental properties in nonword repetition - An explorative study of the associations with nonword decoding in children with normal hearing and children with bilateral cochlear implants2015In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 216-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored nonword repetition (NWR) and nonword decoding in normal-hearing (NH) children and in children with bilateral cochlear implants (CI). Participants were 11 children, with CI, 5:0-7:11 years (M = 6.5 years), and 11 NH children, individually age-matched to the children with CI. This study fills an important gap in research, since it thoroughly describes detailed aspects of NWR and nonword decoding and their possible associations. All children were assessed after having practiced with a computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach during four weeks. Results showed that NH children outperformed children with CI on the majority of aspects of NWR. The analysis of syllable number in NWR revealed that children with CI made more syllable omissions than did the NH children, and predominantly in prestressed positions. In addition, the consonant cluster analysis in NWR showed significantly more consonant omissions and substitutions in children with CI suggesting that reaching fine-grained levels of phonological processing was particularly difficult for these children. No significant difference was found for nonword-decoding accuracy between the groups, as measured by whole words correct and phonemes correct, but differences were observed regarding error patterns. In children with CI phoneme, deletions occurred significantly more often than in children with NH. The correlation analysis revealed that the ability to repeat consonant clusters in NWR had the strongest associations to nonword decoding in both groups. The absence of as frequent significant associations between NWR and nonword decoding in children with CI compared to children with NH suggest that these children partly use other decoding strategies to compensate for less precise phonological knowledge, for example, lexicalizations in nonword decoding, specifically, making a real word of a nonword.

  • 593. von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

  • 594.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Two kinds of productive signs in Swedish Sign Language: Polysynthetic signs and size and shape specifying signs2000In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 237-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 595.
    Wikén Bonde, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, German.
    Att översätta Freud: The how of the saying is also the what2011In: med andra ord, ISSN 1104-4462, no 69, p. 4-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 596. Williams, Quentin Emmanuel
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Multilingualism in transformative spaces: contact and conviviality2013In: Language Policy, ISSN 1568-4555, E-ISSN 1573-1863, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 289-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa is a highly mobile country characterized by historical displacements and contemporary mobilities, both social and demographic. Getting to grips with diversity, dislocation, relocation and anomie, as well as pursuing aspirations of mobility, is part of people's daily experience that often takes place on the margins of conventional politics. A politics of conviviality is one such form of politics of the popular that emerges in contexts of rapid change, diversity, mobility, and the negotiation and mediation of complex affiliations and attachments. The questions in focus for this paper thus pertain to how forms of talk, born out of displacement, anomie and contact in the superdiverse contexts of South Africa, allow for the articulation of life-styles and aspirations that break with the historical faultlines of social and racial oppression. We first expand upon the idea of (marginal) linguistic practices as powerful mediations of political voice and agency, an idea that can be captured in the notion of linguistic citizenship, the rhetorical foundation of a politics of conviviality. We then move on to analyze the workings of linguistic citizenship in the multilingual practices of two distinct manifestations of popular culture, namely hip hop and a performance by a stand-up comedian in Mzoli's meat market in Gugulethu, Cape Town. The paper concludes with a general discussion on the implications for politics of multilingualism and language policy.

  • 597.
    Williams, Quentin
    et al.
    University of Western Cape.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Performing rap ciphas in late modern Cape Town: Extreme locality and multilingual citizenship2010In: Africa Focus, ISSN 0772084X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 39-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of hip-hop in Cape Town, and indeed South Africa, has traditionally focused on the narratives and poetics of resistance, race and counter-hegemonic agency in the context of apartheid and the early days of post-apartheid. Despite this attention, hip-hop cipha performances remain relatively under-researched. The aim of this paper is to suggest that cipha performances display linguistic and discursive features that not only are of particular interest to rap music and hip-hop on the Cape Flats of Cape Town specifically, but that also engage core issues around multilingualism, agency and voice more generally. It demonstrates how in the process of entextualization a sense of locality, extreme locality, emerges in cipha performances by means of verbal cueing, representing place, expressing disrespect (dissing), and the (deictic) reference to local coordinates that is achieved by transposing or recontextualizing transidiomatic phrases, and by incorporating local proxemics and audience reactions through commentary and response. It concludes by suggestingthat competition around acceptable linguistic forms and framings (metalinguistic disputes) of extreme locality comprise the very micro-processes behind the formation of new registers. At the same time, these registers create the semiotic space for the exercise of agency and voice through multilingual practices, that is, multilingual citizenship.

  • 598.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model1998In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 295-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 599.
    Witt, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Institutionalized Intermediates: Conceptualizing Soviet Practices of Indirect Translation2017In: Translation Studies, ISSN 1478-1700, E-ISSN 1751-2921, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 166-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Soviet Union, practices of indirect literary translation, particularly the use of interlinear intermediates, were institutionalized in the early 1930s through special terminology, specific administrative treatment within the literary apparatus, and educational efforts. Such practices continued until the end of the Soviet era, but were intensely debated and criticized, rendering problems of indirect translation both visible and articulated in a unique way. Drawing on archival sources, this article presents an overview of such issues, taking into consideration the heretofore scant attention given the subject in both Western and Russian scholarship. Conceptualizing the massive Soviet experience in the field, it aims at providing new perspectives on the phenomenon of indirect translation.

  • 600.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

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