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  • 551.
    Strzelecka, Elzbieta
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Andraspråksundervisning i ett kognitivt lingvistiskt perspektiv: En första kartläggning2012Inngår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 85-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Använder sig andraspråksundervisningen av metoder som bygger på kunskap från kognitivt lingvistisk forskning? För att försöka kartlägga relationen mellan, å ena sidan, andraspråksundervisningen i Skandinavien idag, och, å andra sidan, grundläggande påståenden inom kognitiv lingvistik, har material från svenska och norska universitet samlats in. Materialet består av intervjuer med andraspråkslärare om deras undervisningsstil, en observation av ett undervisningstillfälle med fokus på undervisningsstilen, samt andraspråksläroböcker. Resultaten visar att andraspråksundervisningen inte kan ses som uttalat kognitivt lingvistisk, men att den, på ett implicit sätt, i många stycken harmonierar väl med insikter från kognitiv lingvistik. Mer specifikt har tre områden identifierats där undervisningen använder kunskap som är kompatibel med insikter från kognitiv lingvistik. Områdena är: (1) Lärarens användning av sin kropp samt av studenterna kroppar, då hon förklarar ett ord. Detta område i undervisningen kopplas till föreställningsscheman inom kognitiv lingvistik, i korthet förspråkliga, kroppsligt förankrade erfarenheter som hjälper oss att strukturera spatiala relationer och abstrakta företeelser. (2) Jämförelser mellan språk och produktion av olika ord som hör till skilda ordklasser. Detta område i undervisningen relateras till formning (construal) inom kognitiv lingvistik, vilket kortfattat handlar om hur en situation språkligt kan beskrivas på flera olika sätt. (3) Ordförklaringar, som belyser sambandet mellan ett ords metaforiska och icke-metaforiska betydelse. Detta område i undervisningen förbinds med semantisk motivation inom kognitiv lingvistik, där det hävdas att polysema relationer kan beskrivas schematiskt. Resultaten utgör en första orientering för de forskare och pedagoger som är intresserade av att utveckla delar av andraspråksundervisningen i en kognitivt lingvistisk anda. 

  • 552.
    Sullet-Nylander, Françoise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Engel, Hugues
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Forsgren, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Emploi modal de proposer que p en contexte non-volitif2009Inngår i: Cahiers chronos, ISSN 1384-5357, Vol. 21, s. 85-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [fr]

    Les trois auteurs analysent l’usage du subjonctif et de l’indicatif dans l’emploi modal de la périphrase proposer que p en contexte non-volitif. Un bref excursus à propos du subjonctif en français est suivi des interprétations possibles du verbe proposer + complétive. Or, à côté de l’interprétation volitive de ce verbe, où le subjonctif est de mise, proposer peut également figurer dans un contexte explicatif ou non-volitif. Dans ce cas, étant donné le statut de verbum dicendi de proposer, ce serait le mode indicatif qui l’emporterait. C’est ainsi qu’une section de cet article est consacrée à la manière dont l’opposition indicatif-subjonctif est traitée, à partir de grammaires de tradition française, dont Damourette et Pichon (1911-1936), et d’études en la matière, dont, entre autres, Guillaume (1929). Quant aux dictionnaires de langue française, ce ne sont que les dictionnaires non contemporains qui citent l’emploi de la construction proposer que p en contexte non-volitif, là où aucune mention ne figure dans les dictionnaires modernes. Ce qui est confirmé par l’existence d’attestations de cet emploi jusqu’au XVIIe siècle environ. De ce fait, pour témoigner de l’emploi actuel de proposer que p en contexte non-volitif, les auteurs s’appuient sur un corpus contemporain tiré de la base de données Frantext et de Google. Il en résulte que cette structure y est non seulement répertoriée, mais qu’elle est majoritairement suivie de l’indicatif et qu’elle présente une variation modale. Ainsi l’usage du subjonctif dans ce contexte découlerait-il d’une variation stylistique et serait sans doute influencé par le contexte volitif

  • 553.
    Sundberg, Gunlög
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Bedömning och testning av andraspråksfärdighet i Norden2006Inngår i: Språk i Norden, ISSN 0108-8270, s. 107-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Människor som flyttar till de nordiska länderna i dag behöver ofta i migrations- och integrationsprocessen kunna visa att de behärskar något av de nordiska språken. Detta ställer krav på oss som sysslar med Nordens språk som andraspråk att som en del av vår profession på ett rättssäkert sätt kunna bedöma och intyga andraspråksfärdighet i förhållande till de språkliga krav som finns inom utbildning, på arbetsmarknad och i vissa länder för medborgarskap. I en europeisk kontext är också de sex nivåerna i The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-skalan) från Europarådet ett tecken på behovet av samsyn om den språkförmåga som bedöms. I denna artikel görs en översikt över vad som just nu görs i de nordiska länderna på detta område.

  • 554.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in Shetland English2012Inngår i: World Englishes, ISSN 0883-2919, E-ISSN 1467-971X, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 434-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of pulmonic ingressive speech, a severely understudied phenomenon within varieties of English. While ingressive speech has been reported for several parts of the British Isles, New England, and eastern Canada, thus far Newfoundland appears to be the only locality where researchers have managed to provide substantial evidence from audio recordings. The present investigation is based on a digital speech corpus consisting of over 40 hours of interviews, recorded between 1980 and 1985 throughout the entire Shetland archipelago, including the most remote isles; speech samples from 49 men and 47 women are included in the corpus. Ingressive speech was found throughout the Shetland Isles, and occurred on discourse particles representing yes and no responses, such as yeah, aye, no, and mmm. It was attested for 27 per cent of males and 32 per cent of females, although significantly more tokens were contributed by females. Both voiced and voiceless ingressives were encountered, which revealed further clues to potential gender marking: 72 per cent of all tokens from males were voiceless, and 65 per cent of tokens from females were voiced. While the paper provides firm evidence for ingressive speech in Shetland, it also discusses recent observations indicative of a decline in ingressive speech within the isles.

  • 555.
    Svanlund, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Metaphor and convention2007Inngår i: Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 0936-5907, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 47-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that lexical metaphors should be seen as graded: they differ in their conventionalized ability to activate concepts from the source domain. Such differences in metaphorical strength are analyzed, along with other (graded) dimensions of conventionality. Co-occurrence patterns for conventionalized metaphors from the WEIGHT domain in Swedish are investigated in some detail, making use of extensive corpus data. The results indicate large differences in metaphorical strength. This provides implications for the relation between conceptual and lexical levels of metaphor, which are found to be more dialectic than usually assumed, especially within Conceptual Metaphor Theory.

  • 556.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    35 anos de Educação Bilínguede surdos – e então?/35 years of Bilingual Deaf Education – and then?2014Inngår i: Educar em Revista, ISSN 0104-4060, E-ISSN 1984-0411, nr 2, s. 33-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [pt]

    Neste artigo, apresenta-se um panorama dos últimos 35 anos de educaçãobilíngue para surdos, na Suécia. Faz-se uma breve apresentação dosconceitos de “primeira língua/língua materna” e “segunda língua/línguaestrangeira”, utilizados neste contexto específico, para debater alguns dosprincipais pressupostos subjacentes ao ensino de primeira e segunda línguapara crianças surdas. Discutimos os principais resultados da abordagembilíngue, demonstrando o alto nível de conquistas, quando consideradas emuma perspectiva internacional. Esses resultados são comparados com dadosdo primeiro período de educação de surdos na Suécia, após a fundação daescola de Manilla em 1809. A base comum para estes exemplos de sucessona educação de surdos pode ser resumida como uma atitude positiva emrelação à língua de sinais e seus usuários. Em seguida, discutem-se algumasdiferenças entre as línguas de sinais naturais versus a utilização simultâneade sinais e fala, quando o interlocutor surdo normalmente recebe informaçõeslinguísticas inconsistentes, fazendo com que esta prática seja menosadequada para o aprendiz da língua. Segue-se uma discussão de ensinode língua para crianças surdas, incluindo o ensino de uma terceira língua,como o Inglês, por exemplo. Observa-se que o grupo de usuários de línguade sinais está sofrendo uma grande mudança na atualidade, especialmentedevido ao crescente número de crianças com implantes cloceares: enfatiza-sea necessidade do bilinguismo para este grupo, incluindo a língua de sinais.

  • 557.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Aquisicão de segunda lingua por surdos1999Inngår i: Espaco: informativo técnico-científico de Livros, ISSN 0103.7668, nr 9, s. 38-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 558.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bilingual education for deaf children in Sweden2010Inngår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 159-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 559.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Bilingual education for the deaf in Sweden1993Inngår i: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, nr 81, s. 291-332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 560.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Döva barn bör få lära sig både teckenspråk och svenska2005Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, s. 1667-1668Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 561.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Dövas tvåspråkighet1983Inngår i: Att undervisa, ISSN 0345-0384, nr 5, s. 10-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 562.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Ensenyar a llegir I escriure e als nens sords2004Inngår i: L'Espai, Revista de l'associació de pares de nens sords de Catalunya, Vol. 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 563.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Få chanser till utbildning för vuxna barndomsdöva1989Inngår i: SDR-Kontakt, ISSN 0036-1194, nr 6, s. 20-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 564.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Ge alla döva samma chans - satsa på komvux1984Inngår i: SDR-kontakt, ISSN 0036-1194, nr 10/11, s. 36-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 565.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Kurciuju mokymas dvialbiu metodu: svedisko modelio ivertinimas1997Inngår i: Akiratis, ISSN (0002), nr 2-3, s. 4-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 566. Svartholm, Kristina
    Svenska för döva: Föredrag vid DHB:s representantskaps årsmöte, Härnösand den 24 okt 19871987Inngår i: DHB-Dialog, ISSN 0281-3106, nr 4, s. 7-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 567.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Svenska för döva i gymnasieskolan1993Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift för hörsel- och dövundervisning NTD, ISSN 1651-6036, nr 2, s. 79-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 568.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Svenska för döva i gymnasieskolan - projektet som kom bort1994Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift för hörsel- och dövundervisning NTD, ISSN 1651-6036, nr 3, s. 87-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 569.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Svenska för vuxna barndomsdöva1989Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift för hörsel- och dövundervisning NTD, ISSN 1651-6036, nr 2, s. 87-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 570.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Svenska som andraspråk för döva - vad är det?1997Inngår i: DHB Dialog, ISSN 0281-3106, nr 2, s. 9-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 571.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Tal och tecken: antingen - eller?1983Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift för hörsel- och dövundervisning NTD, ISSN 1651-6036, nr 3, s. 83-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 572.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Tvåspråkighet och måluppfyllelse i ett historiskt perspektiv.2010Inngår i: Dövas Tidning, Tidskrift för Sveriges Dövas Riksförbund, ISSN 1402-1978, nr 1/2, s. 24/24-25/25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 573.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Ahlström, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ur Barndomshörselskadades erfarenheter och upplevelser av tvåspråkighet1999Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift för hörsel- och dövundervisning NTD, ISSN 1651-6036, nr 1, s. 25-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 574.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Wolf, Monica
    Svenska för vuxna barndomsdöva: Presentation av ett projekt1987Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift för hörsel- och dövundervisning NTD, ISSN 1651-6036, nr 2, s. 115-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 575. Sánchez, Laura
    Against ‘Canonical Word Order’: Evidence of basic word order transfer at the initial stage of LnA2011Inngår i: Newcastle Working Papers in Linguistics, ISSN 2041-1057, Vol. 17, s. 220-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 576.
    Sánchez, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    An inquiry into the role of L3 proficiency on crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition2014Inngår i: Odisea. Revista de Estudios Ingleses, ISSN 1578-3820, Vol. 15, s. 169-188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of multilingualism, studies have proliferated that investigate the interaction of the different languages. The study presented here sets out to examine the role that proficiency plays on the occurrence of a specific interaction, namely interlanguage transfer from a prior non–native language (L2 German) upon another non–native language (L3 English) at the level of syntax in Spanish/ Catalan bilinguals. Data were collected from 80 learners of L3 English who were at different proficiency levels (as indicated by a 30-item cloze test), while data for the analysis of transfer was elicited using a story telling task. Statistical tests revealed significant differences across proficiency levels, i.e. low and pre–intermediate (p= .032), low and intermediate levels (p= .000), and pre–intermediate and intermediate levels (p= .018).

  • 577.
    Sánchez, Laura
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    L2 activation and blending in third language acquisition: Evidence of crosslinguistic influence from the L2 in a longitudinal study on the acquisition of L3 English2015Inngår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 252-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a four-year longitudinal study that examined the role of prior linguistic knowledge on the written L3 production of 93 Spanish/Catalan learners. Two research questions guided the study: the first asked whether a background language (L1s Spanish/Catalan, L2 German) would activate in parallel with L3 English during word construction attempts involving verbal forms, and if so, which would be the source language of blending. The second addressed the progressive readjustments of L2 activation and blending in the course of the first 200 hours of instruction. The elicitation technique was a written narrative based on a story telling task. Data were collected first when the learners were on average 9.9 years old (T1), and again at the ages of 10.9 (T2), 11.9 (T3) and 12.9 (T4). The focus of analysis was on word construction attempts that involved verbal forms. The results suggest that a background language, the L2, did indeed activate, especially at early stages of L3 acquisition.

  • 578. Sánchez, Laura
    Spanish/German codeswitching in a written corpus2006Inngår i: SYSTEM. An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Psycholinguistics, Vol. 34, s. 289-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 579. Sánchez, Laura
    Systematicity and variability in over time interlanguage development: Sequences in the acquisiton of order within VPs in English as a foreign language2011Inngår i: Odisea. Revista de Estudios Ingleses, Vol. 11, s. 59-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 580.
    Sánchez, Laura
    et al.
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Jarvis, Scott
    The Use of Picture Stories in the Investigation of Crosslinguistic Influence2008Inngår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 329-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 581.
    Söderlund, Göran B. W.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. University of Southampton, UK.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Loftesnes, Jan M.
    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.
    The effects of background white noise on memory performance in inattentive school children2010Inngår i: Behavioral and Brain Functions, ISSN 1744-9081, E-ISSN 1744-9081, Vol. 6, nr 55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental for cognitive performance; however, a recent computational model based on the concepts of stochastic resonance and dopamine related internal noise postulates that a moderate amount of auditive noise benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. On the basis of this model we predicted that inattentive children would be enhanced by adding background white noise while attentive children's performance would deteriorate. Methods: Fifty-one secondary school pupils carried out an episodic verbal free recall test in two noise conditions. In the high noise condition, verb-noun sentences were presented during auditory background noise (white noise, 78 dB), and in the low noise condition sentences were presented without noise. Results: Exposure to background noise improved performance for inattentive children and worsened performance for attentive children and eliminated episodic memory differences between attentive and inattentive school children. Conclusions: Consistent with the model, our data show that cognitive performance can be moderated by external background white noise stimulation in a non-clinical group of inattentive participants. This finding needs replicating in a larger sample using more noise levels but if replicated has great practical applications by offering a non-invasive way to improve school results in children with attentional problems.

  • 582. Thutloa, Alfred
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Does active participation in health enhance health outcomes and health care delivery systems?2012Inngår i: Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics PLUS, ISSN 2224-3380, Vol. 41, s. 117-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 a Committee of the United Nations Economic and Social Council recognised health as essential for exercising all other rights (Djité 2008). The World Health Organization (1998) also sees health as a vital resource for enabling citizens to lead individually, socially and economically productive lives. However health is one space where the opportunities to participate and exercise voice is directed by the provision of health resources and material. Now in late modernity health has become a goal for citizens to work towards or they risk suffering from chronic illness and premature death (Cockerham 2005). The procurement of health has also shifted from the state as the provider of equitable health care to all citizens to a commodity that can be purchased in an expanding health market place (Kickbusch 2004). If health has become the responsibility of the citizen, issues of health literacy, multimodal access to information and multilingualism need to be considered. This research report focuses on work produced as part of the first author’s doctoral project, exploring the phenomenon of consumption of health resources for health citizenship in the private health insurance industry. Based on data collected from 75 participants through an electronic questionnaire, as well as different genres of information utilised for health promotion, the project investigated how the construction of information and the multimodal tools used by two leading South African health insurers influenced the consumers’ health subjectivity. Data collected showed the importance of multilingual information, health literacy and multimodal tools for enabling participation and voice among consumers. In addition, the consumers proposed more accessible information and better designed newsletters and web sites to help them with information seeking for health knowledge and health citizenship.

  • 583.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet. Department of Foreign Languages, University of Bergen.
    Expertise without deliberate practice?: The case of simultaneous interpreters2013Inngår i: The Interpreters' Newsletter, ISSN 1591-4127, Vol. 1, nr 18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberate practice (Ericsson 2007) is a type of focused, goal-oriented practice that is part of the process of developing expertise. A less explored area in interpreting research, deliberate practice is a construct that is not easily investigated using an experimental research design.

    This article reports on in-depth interviews with three interpreters. By exploring their background, training, views on interpreting, and perceptions of core areas of deliberate practice (such as practice, setting clear goals and being open to feedback), an impression of their practice habits emerges. The article concludes that deliberate practice as defined by Ericsson is not consciously employed by these interpreters. Some of the implications of these findings for the application of expertise theory in interpreting are outlined in the discussion. 

  • 584.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Exploring cognitive aspects of competence in signed language interpreting: First impressions2018Inngår i: Hermes - Journal of Language and Communication Studies, ISSN 0904-1699, E-ISSN 1903-1785, nr 57, s. 49-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign language interpreting of dialogues shares many features with the interpreting of dialogues between non-signed languages. We argue that from a cognitive perspective in dialogue interpreting, despite some differences between the two types of interpreting, sign language interpreters use many of the same processes and handle similar challenges as interpreters between non-signed languages. We report on a first exploration of process differences in sign language interpreting between three novice and three experienced Swedish Sign Language interpreters. The informants all interpreted the same dialogue and made a retrospection of their interpreting immediately after the task. Retrospections were analyzed using tools for identifying reported processing problems, instances of monitoring, and strategy use (see Ivanova 1999). Furthermore, the interpreting products (both into Swedish Sign Language and into Swedish) and their differences were qualitatively analyzed. The results indicate that there are differences between the two groups, both in terms of the retrospective reports and in terms of the interpreting product. As expected, monitoring seems to be a factor determined by experience. The experienced interpreters seemed to have more efficient ways of handling turn taking and the internalization of new vocabulary. The study also concludes that to use instruments devised for simultaneous conference interpreting (Ivanova 1999; Tiselius 2013), the instruments need to be adapted to the dialogue setting, even though in the case of sign language interpreting the simultaneous interpreting technique is used even in dialogue interpreting.

  • 585.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet. Wester Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    The (un-) ethical interpreting researcher: ethics, voice and discretionary power in interpreting research2019Inngår i: Perspectives: studies in translatology, ISSN 0907-676X, E-ISSN 1747-6623, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 747-760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses different aspects of research ethics, the researcher’s voice and discretionary power in interpreting studies. Research ethics is laid down in international conventions, which in turn are reflected in national regulations and ethical vetting. Discretionary power is understood as the leeway for making conscientious decisions within the rules and regulations governing a certain field. Although research ethics in interpreting has as yet received little scholarly attention, it is important that the field discusses aspects such as informed consent and the collection, analysis and reporting of data. This article uses three case studies to discuss how researchers can handle such ethical issues. Interpreting researchers often are or have been active interpreters, and this is yet another potential challenge for the field. Such duality potentially means that the researcher needs to navigate two ethical systems, that of the interpreter and that of the researcher – systems that may come into conflict with each other. It may also entail the risk of the researcher’s voice taking over the participants’ narrative.

  • 586.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Stakeholder beliefs in English-medium instruction for young learners in Sweden2018Inngår i: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 37-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While several studies have investigated English-medium instruction (EMI) or content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in Swedish upper secondary and tertiary education, few have investigated such programmes in Swedish primary schools. This paper explores perceptions among staff and students about affordances and constraints in the learning of content and languages, drawing on data from a larger longitudinal case study of an English-Swedish bilingual primary class during Grades 4-6. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with a school leader, 12 teachers and 22 students as well as fieldnotes and photographs from classroom observations. Thematic analysis of the data revealed the belief among staff that learners acquired English naturally by being ‘forced’ to use it in English-medium subjects taught by native speakers of English. The use of Swedish among students in these subjects was generally seen as a potential scaffold when communicative difficulties arose, as students who were more proficient in English could translate and provide their classmates with explanations of difficult concepts in Swedish. However, staff and students nonetheless voiced concerns about students’ content learning as well as about limited development of subject-specific language in Swedish, which could have implications for their future Swedish-medium studies. Meanwhile, although multilingual students’ mother tongues were valued by the students themselves, participants did not acknowledge them as legitimate learning resources for use in the mainstream classroom, where only English and Swedish were allowed to be used in interaction.

  • 587.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Analytical expressions for the tonotopic sensory scale1990Inngår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 88, nr 1, s. 97-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accuracy and simplicity of analytical expressions for the relations between frequency and critical bandwidth as well as critical-band rate (in Bark) are assessed for the purpose of applications in speech perception research and in speech technology. The equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) is seen as a measure of frequency resolution, while the classical critical-band rate is considered a measure of tonotopic position. For the conversion of frequency to critical-band rate, and vice versa, the inversible formula z=[26.81/(1+1960/f )]–0.53 is proposed. Within the frequency range of the perceptually essential vowel formants (0.2–6.7 kHz), it agrees to within ±0.05 Bark with the Bark scale, originally published in the form of a table.

  • 588.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Articulatory and perceptual factors controlling the age- and sex-conditioned variability in formant frequencies of vowels1984Inngår i: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 49-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech sounds, as heard by listeners, contain phonetic, personal, and transmission information. The differences between the formant frequencies of vowels spoken by men, women, and children show a fairly uniform tendency in several studies and languages, and they are regarded as personal quality differences. The differences between the sexes are mainly due to the descent of the larynx in males during puberty. The observed tendency in female/male formant frequency ratios is reproduced in a calculation taking into account the physiological consequences of larynx descent and assuming that the vowel specific neural commands to the articulators remain unchanged. The perception of phonetic quality is seen as a process of tonotopic gestalt recognition. The tonality (=critical-band rate) distances between the formants in phonetically identical vowels are claimed and shown to be invariant as long as they are smaller than 6 Bark. The absolute position of the formants allows personal variation. The tonality distance between the first formant and the fundamental is smaller in most vowels spoken by women than in those by men and children. As for the role of the fundamental in this connection, some alternative hypotheses are discussed.

  • 589.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Conventional, biological and environmental factors in speech communication: a modulation theory.1994Inngår i: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 51, nr 1-3, s. 170-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech signals contain various types of information that can be grouped under the headings phonetic, affective, personal, and transmittal. Listeners are capable of distinguishing these. Previous theories of speech perception have not considered this fully. They have mainly been concerned with problems relating to phonetic quality alone. The theory presented in this paper considers speech signals as the result of allowing conventional gestures to modulate a carrier signal that has the personal characteristics of the speaker. This implies that in general the conventional information can only be retrieved by demodulation. In order to perceive the phonetic quality of a speech signal, listeners evaluate the deviations of the properties of the signal (F0, formant frequencies, etc.) from those they expect of a neutral vocalization produced by the speaker with properties given by his age, sex, vocal effort, speech rate, etc. In degraded speech signals, this is shown to result in a perceptual bias towards neutral vowels. It is also argued that speech is perceived on the basis of compatibility testing (and not by optimal matching), so that listeners will hear what they expect to hear as long as they do not notice any counter evidence in the signal.

  • 590.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Der Vokalismus im Ostmittelbairischen1982Inngår i: Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, ISSN 0044-1449, E-ISSN 2366-2395, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 289-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 591.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Fonetik.
    Die spektrale Auflösung bei der Wahrnehmung der Klangfarbe von Vokalen1984Inngår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 54, s. 237-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distances between neighbouring partials of vowels are in many cases larger than the bendwidths of the formants and also often larger than the critical bandwidth (1 Bark). Several results of different experiments with synthetic one- and two-formant vowels suggest that an efficient bandwidth of resolution of roughly 3 Bark is basic to the perception of spectral features of vowels. A corresponding spectral dispersion or integration did not, however, appear in experiments with non-speech harmonic sounds. K. Benedini investigated the timbre differences between harmonic sounds with up to six harmonics of 100 Hz. An analysis of the estimated timbre differences shows that both the bandwidth of resolution and the perceptual weight of the partials is proportional to their frequency. The weight of the fundamental is, however, substantially increased in comparisons between residual and complete harmonic sounds. Further, the perceived difference between two sounds turns out to be dependent on the remaining sounds presented in a perceptual experiment. The timbre differences between low-passed harmonic sounds of different width can be accounted for exclusively on the basis of the tono-topical distances between the upper flanks of these sounds. It is concluded that the judgement of differences in timble involves the prior extraction, induced by context, of relevant dimensions. The bandwidth of spectral resolution that appears with the perception of vowel-like sounds may in part be due to an intrincsic inacuity to the phonetic templates supposedly stored in memory.

  • 592.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Lippenrundung bei schwedischen Vokalen1979Inngår i: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 44-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a steady transition between unrounded, 'outrounded', and 'inrounded' Swedish vowels, or are these distinct categories? By which articulatory parameters can these distinctions be described? These questions, actualised through confusion data in speechreading, are answered by means of articulatory measurements of lip-opening, lip-protrusion, and jaw-lowering in 4 subjects. It is found, i.a., that rounded and unrounded vowels form clearly separated categories, and that inrounded vowels, including /o/, are distinguished from outrounded ones by their smaller lip-opening and, if long, by increased lowering of the jaw.

  • 593.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Perceptual dimension of openness in vowels.1981Inngår i: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 69, nr 5, s. 1465-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 594.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Acoustic effects of variation in vocal effort by men, women, and children.2000Inngår i: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 107, nr 6, s. 3438-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustic effects of the adjustment in vocal effort that is required when the distance between speaker and addressee is varied over a large range (0.3-187.5 m) were investigated in phonated and, at shorter distances, also in whispered speech. Several characteristics were studied in the same sentence produced by men, women, and 7 year-old boys and girls: duration of vowels and consonants, pausing and occurrence of creaky voice, mean and range of F0, certain formant frequencies (F1 in [a] and F3), SPL of voiced segments and [s], and spectral emphasis. In addition to levels and emphasis, vowel duration, F0, and F1 were substantially affected. “Vocal effort” was defined as the communicational distance estimated by a group of listeners for each utterance. Most of the observed effects correlated better with this measure than with the actual distance, since some additional factors affected the speakers’ choice. Differences between speaker groups emerged in segment durations, pausing behavior, and in the extent to which the SPL of [s] was affected. The whispered versions are compared with the phonated versions produced by the same speakers at the same distance. Several effects of whispering are found to be similar to those of increasing vocal effort.

  • 595.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    The perceptual evaluation of F0 excursions in speech as evidenced in liveliness estimations.1995Inngår i: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 97, nr 3, s. 1905-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to learn how listeners evaluate F0 excursions, a set of experiments was performed in which subjects had to estimate the liveliness of utterances. The stimuli were obtained by LPC analysis of one natural utterance that was modified by resynthesizing F0 , the formant frequencies, and the time scale in order to simulate some of the natural extra- and paralinguistic variations that affect F0 and/or liveliness, namely the speaker's age, sex, articulation rate, and voice register. In each case, the extent of the F0 excursions was varied in seven steps. The results showed that, as long as the stimuli appeared to have been produced in the modal register (of men, women, and children), listeners judged F0 intervals to be equivalent if they were equal in semitones. When the voice register was shifted without adjustment in articulation , listeners appeared to judge the F0 excursions in relation to the spectral space available below F1 . The liveliness ratings were found to be strongly dependent on articulation rate and to be affected by the perceived age of the speaker which, with the manipulated stimuli used here, turned out to be significantly affected by the sex of the listener.

  • 596.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    The effect of local speaking rate on the perception of quantity in Estonian.2003Inngår i: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 187-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Estonian language with its elaborate system of contrasts in quantity, whose essentials are described in the paper, is used to investigate human perception of distinctive contrasts in the duration of vowels, consonants and larger units. In the experiments reported, the speaking rate of a preceding or following syllable was manipulated in addition to that of a target V, C or VC sequence that carried a quantity distinction in disyllabic words. The results confirmed that the second syllable in such words, in particular the duration of its vowel, serves as a reference, but they showed segments of additional syllables to contribute in the same direction. The results provided no support for ascribing quantity to any larger units than phonetic segments. Speech rate effects of similar magnitude have been observed in Japanese, while effects of the same kind were found to be smaller in Dutch. These differences may be linked with the functions durational contrasts have in the different languages. It appears that listeners have to adapt more fully to variations in the local speaking rate when there are no additional cues and the functional load of quantity distinctions is high.

  • 597.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Perceptual relativity in identification of two-formant vowels1987Inngår i: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 143-157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is attempted to reduce the phonetic quality of vowels to the positions of the peaks in their tonotopical spectra relative to the other peaks, simultaneous or preceding in context. Synthetic two-formant vowels were identified by speakers of languages that differentiate richly among high vowels (Swedish, Turkish). The parameters F1 (204-801 Hz) and F2' (509-3702 Hz) were systematically varied in steps of 0.75 critical bandwidth. F0 was kept close below F1 in all vowels. These were presented in two orders with subsequently rising or falling F2'. Most subjects heard predominantly close vowels. The "isophones" of most subjects could be described in a uniform manner implying a normalization with respect to two reference points, one at a distance of 3 critical bands above F0 and the other one at an absolute position corresponding to 2.8 kHz. It is speculated that this second reference point might represent a default position of the third formant or the like.

  • 598.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Audiovisual perception of openness and lip rounding in front vowels2007Inngår i: Journal of Phonetics, Vol. 35, s. 244-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables /gig/, /gyg/, /geg/ and /gøg/, produced by four speakers, were video-recorded and presented to male and female subjects in auditory, visual and audiovisual mode and also in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with incongruent cues to vowel openness, roundedness, or both. With audiovisual stimuli, subjects perceived openness nearly always by ear. Most subjects perceived roundedness by eye rather than by ear although the auditory conditions were optimal and the sensation was an auditory one. This resulted in fused percepts such as when an acoustic /geg/ dubbed onto an optic /gyg/ was predominantly perceived as /gøg/. Since the acoustic cues to openness are prominent, while those to roundedness are less reliable, this lends support to the “information reliability hypothesis” in multisensory perception: The perception of a feature is dominated by the modality that provides the more reliable information. A mostly male minority relied less on vision. The between-gender difference was significant. Presence of lip rounding (a visibly marked feature) was noticed more easily than its absence. The influence of optic information was not fully explicable on the basis of the subjects’ success rates in lipreading compared with auditory perception. It was highest in stimuli produced by a speaker who smiled.

  • 599.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Hörselkliniken, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Cecilgård, Margareta
    Hägg, Åsa
    Tvåspråkighet - en jämförande studie2007Inngår i: Audio-Nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 34, nr 1-2, s. 12-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 600.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Hägg, Åsa
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Tvåspråkighet avseende tidig parallell tal- och teckenspråksutveckling hos barn med hörselskada eller dövhet.2005Inngår i: Logopednytt, nr 6, s. 12-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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