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  • 651.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "Just to give you kind of a map of where we are going": a taxonomy of metadiscourse in spoken and written academic English2010Inngår i: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 9, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     

    One of the basic functions to which language is put is to comment on discourse or on language itself. Reflexivity in language occurs in everyday discourse as well as in specialised discourse, such as academic papers or lectures. It is often referred to as metadiscourse, or „discourse about discourse‟, as in In this paper, I explore… or just to give you kind of a map of where we are going… Such expressions are very common in academic genres, where the writer/speaker is expected to guide the audience through the discourse, for example by making its structure explicit. While research into metadiscourse has focused on academic writing, academic speech has remained largely unexplored. Furthermore, comparisons of spoken and written metadiscourse are rare, so the similarities and differences between spoken and written types of metadiscourse are unknown.

    The present qualitative and corpus-based study compares the use of personal metadiscourse in 30 spoken university lectures to that of 130 highly proficient essays by graduate students. The purpose is to present an empirically based taxonomy of the discourse functions of spoken and written metadiscourse with respect to academic English. Despite claims in previous research that separate treatment is needed, a lumping approach is taken rather than a splitting one. The goal is to create one taxonomy for both modes, thereby highlighting both similarities and differences in the distribution of discourse functions across speech and writing.

    The proposed taxonomy consists of 23 discourse functions, divided into four main categories:

    Metalinguistic comments, Discourse organisation, Speech act labels and References to the audience. The findings reveal that most of the discourse functions in the taxonomy occurred in both speech and writing, although spoken metadiscourse performed a greater range of discourse actions than written metadiscourse. Differences in the conditions of speech and writing did indeed cause variation in the use of metadiscourse: The discourse functions REPAIRING, MARKING ASIDES and CONTEXTUALISING occurred only in the spoken data because of the lack of time for planning and revision in real-time discourse, while MANAGING COMPREHENSION/CHANNEL and MANAGING AUDIENCE DISCIPLINE occurred only in the spoken data because of the direct presence of an audience. Factors related to genre were also found to cause variation in the use of metadiscourse: ARGUING was considerably more common in the written data, since academic writers typically need to put a great deal of work into argumentation, while lecturers generally present information not based on their own research. MANAGING THE MESSAGE, on the other hand, was common in the spoken data, which can be attributed to lecturers adopting a more authoritative role than student writers.

     
  • 652.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Rapport building in student group work2011Inngår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 2932-2947Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How do students build rapport in online group work, especially if all they have to work with is asynchronous text? Taking this question as a point of departure, this paper presents research into the ‘interactional’ function in group work among university students, specifically investigating rapport-building language use, defined as communicative acts promoting social concord. Rapport building is examined in online student group work, using written material in the form of discussion board messages (from the Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning). To help bring out what is characteristic of the online type of discourse, spoken face-to-face material also representing student– student interaction (from the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English) is included. Frequency word lists based on the two sets of material were used in combination with concordancing in order to find which of the most frequent expressions functioned as rapport building, thus combining corpus-based and discourse-analytical methods. A taxonomy of rapport-building discourse functions was developed, containing four major categories: discourse-structuring, intratextual, face-saving and bonding units. Each of these covers specific discourse functions; in the case of bonding units, these are Agreeing; Aligning with in-group; Commiserating; Complimenting; Seeking agreement; Offering encouragement; Thanking; Responding to thanks; and Chatting.

  • 653.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "What uh the folks who did this survey found": expert attribution in spoken academic lectures2008Inngår i: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 83-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic writing has been said to display a tension between originality and humility to the community (Myers 1990; Berkenkotter & Huckin 1995; Hyland 1999). One of the fundamental ways in which this tension plays out is in references to previous research, or ‘attribution’. While recent research has emphasized the importance of attribution in academic writing—Hyland (1999), for example, found the average number of citations in research articles to be as high as 70 per 10,000 words—the role of attribution in spoken academic discourse is relatively uncharted territory. In this study of attribution in academic speech, transcripts of 30 large lectures from the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE; Simpson et al. 1999) were analysed, totalling 250,000 words. References to expert sources in the academic domain were analysed, specifically third person attribution (including third person pronouns, proper names, and a selection of nouns), as in “um and, Marx points out that those are the tools that the proletariat are gonna use”. The research questions were: To what degree dolecturers situate intertextually the knowledge and facts they are presenting? Do thedisciplinary differences found in written citation practices also occur in speech? Howvariable are the formal realizations of attribution in speech?Contrary to previous research findings (e.g. Biber 2006; Swales 2005), the studyshowed both that expert attribution is quite pervasive and that there is disciplinaryvariation in academic speech. The findings are compared to studies of attribution inacademic writing (e.g. Hyland 1999; Tadros 1993), with the goal of contributing tocurrent research on the commonalities that academic speech (lectures) exhibits withacademic writing on one hand, and non-academic speech on the other.

  • 654.
    Ädel, Annelie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Mauranen, Anna
    English Department, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Metadiscourse: diverse and divided perspectives 2010Inngår i: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 655. Åsman, Thea Palm
    et al.
    Pedersen, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    How Bert got into Ned's head: domestication in the translation of literature for young readers2013Inngår i: Perspectives: studies in translatology, ISSN 0907-676X, E-ISSN 1747-6623, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 143-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to discover to what extent the American translation of the Swedish children's novel Berts dagbok had been adapted to its audience as a result of the translator's initial norm. Previous research has found that while translators of children's literature traditionally mainly employ domesticating strategies, recent research has shown that current translations of canonized children's literature, and literature aimed at a slightly older demographic segment, have been more source-oriented. We therefore decided to investigate whether the translator's initial norm had been to domesticate the text, i.e. adapting any unfamiliar cultural context with regard to the new audience, American children and young teenagers. Through the analysis of coupled pairs it was concluded that the translator's initial norm was still to domesticate the text, and, as a result, a majority of the extracted examples had been replaced by something more familiar to the new audience, which consequently moved the story from Sweden to USA.

  • 656.
    Östberg, Urban
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    De indoeuropeiska språkens historia2008Inngår i: Språkbruk, ISSN 0358-9293, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 657.
    Östberg, Urban
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Ett träd med vida grenar2009Inngår i: Historielärarnas förenings årsskrift, ISSN 0439-2434, s. 151-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 658.
    Östberg, urban
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Seglivade språkmyter2009Inngår i: Språkbruk, ISSN 0358-9293, nr 1, s. 29-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 659.
    Östberg, Urban
    Stockholms universitet. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Snön faller rikligt i svenska språket2009Inngår i: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, nr 2, s. 33-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 660.
    Östberg, Urban
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Språkets rot sökes genom grenars studier2008Inngår i: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 661.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Courtaux, Servane
    Visual Iconicity Across Sign Languages: Large-Scale Automated Video Analysis of Iconic Articulators and Locations2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 725Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use automatic processing of 120,000 sign videos in 31 different sign languages to show a cross-linguistic pattern for two types of iconic form–meaning relationships in the visual modality. First, we demonstrate that the degree of inherent plurality of concepts, based on individual ratings by non-signers, strongly correlates with the number of hands used in the sign forms encoding the same concepts across sign languages. Second, we show that certain concepts are iconically articulated around specific parts of the body, as predicted by the associational intuitions by non-signers. The implications of our results are both theoretical and methodological. With regard to theoretical implications, we corroborate previous research by demonstrating and quantifying, using a much larger material than previously available, the iconic nature of languages in the visual modality. As for the methodological implications, we show how automatic methods are, in fact, useful for performing large-scale analysis of sign language data, to a high level of accuracy, as indicated by our manual error analysis.

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