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  • 91901.
    Örnberg, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Kommunal verksamhet genom privaträttsliga subjekt2014Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal rules and principles governing the outsourcing of municipal services to private actors is examined in this dissertation from constitutional, EU law and municipal law perspectives. This comprehensive analysis is carried out with the aim of giving a more complete portrayal of this area of law as developing and being influenced by a number of different legal sources, thereby becoming more fragmented and difficult to understand.

    An overall conclusion presented here is that the transfer of municipal services to private actors may jeopardise the procedural safeguards designed to strengthen the individual’s position in relation to public authorities. The national government imposes great responsibility on municipalities to fulfil public obligations in a number of different areas and the municipalities must contractually guarantee that activities transferred to private actors are conducted in accordance with applicable rules and principles. The substance of these contracts is therefore of upmost importance in order for a municipality to fulfil its responsibilities.

    The role of the legislator is not only to require or permit municipalities to expose their activities to competition but also to maintain good administration when executing public authority, both within and outside the public organisation. Clarifying and reinforcing the public nature of administrative tasks transferred to private actors is therefore essential. Furthermore, Sweden’s EU membership in combination with the extensive privatisation of public activities that has occurred during recent decades implies that there is need for a greater awareness of what constitutes public activities. In this respect, developing criteria similar to those established by the Court of Justice of the European Union, placing focus on the function of the activity performed rather than the subject performing it, could also be a way for Sweden to determine what is to constitute public activity.

  • 91902.
    Örström, Åke
    Stockholms högskola.
    Über die chemischen Vorgänge, insbesondere den Ammoniakstoffwechsel, bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleies: Mit 14 Figuren im Text1941Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91903.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Att utvärdera psykoterapi och kritiskt granska psykoterapistudier2016Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur avgör du som terapeut på ett tillförlitligt sätt att dina patienter blir bättre? Vad menas egentligen med begreppet evidens? Hur kan du bedöma om en studie är välgjord?

    Denna bok hjälper dig som kliniker att utvärdera den behandling du bedriver på ett systematiskt och evidensbaserat sätt. Paradoxalt nog har forskning visat att psykoterapeuter har svårt att bedöma om deras patienter förbättras eller försämras under behandlingens gång. Därför har Lars-Göran Öst här samlat beprövade utvärderingsskalor som är lämpliga att använda session för session, samt före, efter och vid uppföljning av behandling. 

    I boken finns även en mall för att granska och förstå den metodologiska kvaliteten hos psykoterapistudier i vetenskapliga tidskrifter. Med hjälp av denna kan du på ett säkrare sätt bedöma vilka slutsatser som kan dras och vilken användbarhet en studie har för ditt eget kliniska arbete. I grunden handlar detta om att dina patienter ska få bästa möjliga vård.

    Boken vänder sig till både blivande och yrkesverksamma psykologer, psykoterapeuter samt till alla andra som vill veta mer om evidensbaserad psykoterapi.

  • 91904.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: 40 years of progress2008Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, nr Suppl 47, s. 5-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT) have been evaluated in randomized controlled studies (RCT) and anxiety disorders since 1966 and for each disorder there are at least two CBT methods that are considered evidence based (empirically supported) today. Numerous meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of these methods against various control conditions. However, none has looked at whether modern CBT studies lead to better treatment effects than were obtained 10-40 years ago. The aim of this paper is to present a meta-analysis focusing on the mean extent of change achieved by the CBT treatments across decades (from the 1970s onwards). Database searches yielded a total of 432 RCTs for the anxiety disorders combined and 364 of these allowed calculation of within-group effect size (ES) or percentage clinical improvement. Separate ESs were calculated for three central measures: independent assessor rating, self-report and behavioral approach test. The results showed that in most instances there was no significant change in ES across time. In a few instances, the treatment effects were greater in modern studies. However, it was more common with a negative development, or a mixed development (first positive then negative or vice versa). There was no significant change in proportion of clinical improvement. Treatment time and attrition either increased or remained stable. If the single studies that gave the highest ES each decade were compared, all anxiety disorders besides panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder showed a positive development. Possible explanations to the results are discussed.

  • 91905.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Det empiriska stödet för KBT vid psykiska störningar2013Inngår i: KBT inom psykiatrin / [ed] Lars-Göran Öst, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, s. 389-407Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91906.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: A systematic review and meta-analysis2008Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 296-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades a number of therapies, under the name of the third wave of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been developed: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). The purposes of this review article of third wave treatment RCTs were: (1) to describe and review them methodologically, (2) to meta-analytically assess their efficacy, and (3) to evaluate if they currently fulfil the criteria for empirically supported treatments. There are 13 RCTs both in ACT and DBT, 1 in CBASP, 2 in IBCT, and none in FAP. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the third wave treatment RCTs used a research methodology that was significantly less stringent than CBT studies; that the mean effect size was moderate for both ACT and DBT, and that none of the third wave therapies fulfilled the criteria for empirically supported treatments. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve future RCTs to increase the possibility of them becoming empirically supported treatments.

  • 91907. Öst, Lars-Göran
    Experimental studies in behaviour therapy1976Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91908.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Forskningsdesigner2012Inngår i: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, 1, s. 91-140Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 91909.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Inventing the wheel once more or learning from the history of psychotherapy research methodology: Reply to Gaudiano's comments on Öst's (2008) review2009Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 1071-1073Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Gaudiano's criticism of one part of my review of ACT outcome research (Öst, 2008) is refuted on all issues but one. It is clear that the average amount of grant support for the ACT-studies was smaller than that of CBT-studies, even if the proportion of studies having grant support was not lower. However, that fact should only influence 25% (2 out of 8) of the methodology variables on which ACT-studies had lower mean scores than CBT-studies. It is not acceptable that a relatively new treatment, such as ACT, should be evaluated by more lenient criteria than already established therapies like CBT. If proponents of a new treatment wish to claim that their therapy is empirically supported then they have to accept to be evaluated by the APA Task Force criteria. It is time that ACT researchers start using the current psychotherapy research methodology.

  • 91910.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    KBT inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin2017Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Här beskrivs hur KBT kan tillämpas vid de vanligaste psykiatriska tillstånden hos barn och unga. Boken inleds med en beskrivning av vad som är utmärkande för arbete med barn, ungdomar, och deras familjer och nätverk. De diagnoser som tas upp är bland annat social ångest, generaliserat ångestsyndrom, tvångssyndrom, PTSD, stresstörning, depression, ADHD och autism. Författarna visar hur KBT-modellen och beteendeanalysen kan se ut, beskriver olika behandlingsvägar och ger belysande fallvinjetter. Boken avslutas med en genomgång av det ökande empiriska stödet för KBT vid de olika tillstånden.

  • 91911.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Klinisk signifikans2012Inngår i: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, s. 493-502Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 91912.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    One-Session Treatment: Principles and Procedures with Adults2012Inngår i: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, s. 59-95Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When I started research and clinical work with specific phobics in the mid 1970s, very little differentiation was made in the research literature between agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia regarding the number of therapy sessions. Thus, I used eight 1-hour sessions in my early studies on specific phobias. After having worked with that format for about 5 years I started getting bored seeing the same patients week after week. I also began to question why behavior therapists should follow the same format as devised by psychodynamic short-term therapy (i.e. one session per week for 12–20 weeks).

  • 91913.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Rebuttal of Atkins et al. (2017) critique of the Öst (2014) meta-analysis of ACT2017Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 97, s. 273-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Atkins et al. strongly criticize my (Öst, 2014) systematic review and meta-analysis of ACT. The bulk of their re-examination of my article is divided into four parts: a) Selection of studies, b) Ratings of methodological quality, c) Meta-analysis, and d) Judgments of quality of evidence. It is evident from my paper that I have refuted their claims regarding each of these parts. Regarding a) Selection of studies I showed that only four studies had a cell size of less than 10 and their inclusion did not change the mean effect size or increased variability. Concerning b) Ratings of methodological quality I have showed that my ratings were reliable and had accuracy. As for c) Meta-analysis, I have demonstrated that I got very similar results to those of A-Tjak et al. (2015) that Atkins et al. describes as a much better meta-analysis. Regarding d) Judgments of quality of evidence, Atkins et al. brought up 23 studies for which they argued that I have done an incorrect evaluation but for every single study I have disproved their arguments and maintain my 2014 evaluation of the evidence base of ACT. Thus, there is no reason to follow Atkins et al. suggestion that my review “should now be set aside in making decisions regarding the treatment efficacy of ACT.”

  • 91914.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Specifik fobi2013Inngår i: KBT inom psykiatrin / [ed] Lars-öran Öst, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, s. 75-92Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91915.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Klinisk psykologi.
    The Claustrophobia Scale: A psychometric evaluation2007Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 1053-1064Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test--retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  • 91916.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis2014Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 61, s. 105-121Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) has attracted a lot of interest during the last 10-15 years with a strong increase of the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The present review and meta-analysis includes 60 RCTs (4234 participants) on psychiatric disorders, somatic disorders, and stress at work. The mean effect size across all comparisons was small (0.42). Compared to the Ost (2008) meta-analysis there was no significant improvement in methodological quality and deterioration in effect size (from 0.68). When ACT was compared to various forms of cognitive or behavioral treatfnents a small and non-significant effect size of 0.16 was obtained. An evidence-base evaluation showed that ACT is not yet well-established for any disorder. It is probably efficacious for chronic pain and tinnitus, possibly efficacious for depression, psychotic symptoms, OCD, mixed anxiety, drug abuse, and stress at work, and experimental for the remaining disorders.

  • 91917.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Training Therapists in One-Session Treatment and Assessing Their Competence2012Inngår i: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, s. 161-175Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no formalized training for therapists to do one-session treatment (OST), at least not any which has been empirically evaluated. However, a description follows of the way the training for people aspiring to become a protocol therapist in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), or just wanting to work clinically with OST, has been arranged. The major part of this chapter consists of a detailed description of the different items included in the competence rating scale, and explanations of why the respective competencies are important for carrying out OST successfully. This means that the training should focus on providing therapists with adequate skills in the areas covered by the rating scale.

  • 91918.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cederlund, Rio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: Does parent education training improve the outcome?2015Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 67, s. 19-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if a parent education course would improve the outcome for children with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel, Turner, and Morris (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow-up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre-to post-treatment and from post-to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy.

  • 91919.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cederlund, Rio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: Does parent education training improve the outcome?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if

    a parent education course would improve the outcome for the children and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel et al. (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow- up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia, but significantly better. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre- to post-treatment, and from post- to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy. 

  • 91920.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
    Havnen, Audun
    Hansen, Bjarne
    Kvale, Gerd
    Cognitive behavioral treatments of obsessive-compulsive disorder. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published 1993-20142015Inngår i: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 40, s. 156-169Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is ranked by the WHO as among the 10 most debilitating disorders and tends to be chronic without adequate treatment. The only psychological treatment that has been found effective is cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). This meta-analysis includes all RCTs (N = 37) of CBT for OCD using the interview-based Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, published 1993 to 2014. The effect sizes for comparisons of CBT with waiting-list (1.31), and placebo conditions (1.33) were very large, whereas those for comparisons between individual and group treatment (0.17), and exposure and response prevention vs. cognitive therapy (0.07) were small and non-significant. CBT was significantly better than antidepressant medication (0.55), but the combination of CBT and medication was not significantly better than CBT plus placebo (0.25). The RCTs have a number of methodological problems and recommendations for improving the methodological rigor are discussed as well as clinical implications of the findings.

  • 91921.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Karlstedt, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Widén, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Delivered by Students in a Psychologist Training Program: An Effectiveness Study2012Inngår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 160-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little is known about the efficacy of clinically inexperienced student therapists carrying out cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) under supervision during a professional, psychologist training program. The current study evaluated this by collecting pre- and posttreatment data on 591 consecutive patients receiving treatment at the Psychotherapy Clinic of the Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden, over an 8-year period. The patients had mainly anxiety disorders or depression with a mean duration of 15 years, and received individual CBT for a mean of 18 sessions. They improved significantly on both general measures (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI], Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], and Quality of Life Inventory [QOLI]) and disorder-specific self-report scales. The proportions of recovered patients on the BAI (63%) and the BDI (60%) were higher than those of a comparison effectiveness study. On the specific self-report scales the current sample improved as much as the samples in extant efficacy trials. We conclude that clinically inexperienced student therapists who receive supervision from experienced supervisors can achieve treatment effects that are on a par with those of experienced licensed psychotherapists.

  • 91922.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Ollendick, Thomas H.
    Brief, intensive and concentrated cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis2017Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 97, s. 134-145Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common disorders affecting youths in the general population, with up to 10% of children and 20% of adolescents meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder at any one point in time. Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT), varying between 9 and 18 weeks of treatment, are considered evidence-based for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. During the last two decades treatments that are brief, intensive, or concentrated (BIC) have been developed and this meta-analysis includes 23 RCTs of these new approaches across the anxiety disorders. BIC yielded a lower attrition (2.3%) than standard CBT (6.5%). The effect sizes (ES) for comparison of BIC with waiting-list (1.47) and placebo (0.91) were significant, whereas that with standard CBT (0.01) was not. Regarding remission at post/recovery at follow-up BIC (54%/64%) and standard CBT (57%/63%) were comparable and both were significantly higher than placebo (26%/35%), which was higher than WLC (7%/9%). Within-group ES at post and follow-up were 1.50 and 1.53 for BIC, and 0.98 and 1.05 for standard CBT, indicating maintenance of the effects up to 12 months after therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of BIC are discussed and we suggest that BIC-interventions represent a paradigm shift in the delivery of services for youth with anxiety disorders.

  • 91923.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Specific phobias2013Inngår i: CBT for Anxiety Disorders: a practitioner book / [ed] G. Simos, S. G. Hofmann, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2013, s. 107-133Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the state of the art for the specific phobias, bringing both updates and discussion on the preliminary recommendations put forward to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) work group. It discusses diagnostic criteria for specific phobia, and two important issues: how we might categorize dental phobia and test anxiety, and the boundary between specific phobia and agoraphobia. It also highlights clinical features (e.g., age of onset, gender, focus of fear, neurobiology and physiology, comorbidity, impairment, risk factors, and treatment response) of specific phobia. Then, it presents a broad overview of evidence-based treatment methods (variants of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)) and the efficacy of these. The chapter concludes with a description of the treatment of a complex case of specific phobia.

  • 91924.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Riise, Eili N.
    Wergeland, Gro Janne
    Hansen, Bjarne
    Kvale, Gerd
    Cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments of OCD in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis2016Inngår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 43, s. 58-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) among the 10 most debilitating disorders. The treatments which have been found effective are cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI). This meta-analysis includes all RCTs of CBT (25) and SRI (9) for OCD in youth using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (C-YBOCS). CBT yielded significantly lower attrition (12.7%) than SRI (23.5%) and placebo (24.7%). The effect sizes for comparisons of CBT with waiting-list (1.53), placebo (0.93), and SRI with placebo (0.51) were significant, whereas CBT vs. SRI (0.22) and Combo (CBT + SRI) vs. CBT (0.14) were not. Regarding response rate CBT (70%) and Combo (66%) were significantly higher than SRI (49%), which was higher than placebo (29%) and WLC (13%). As for remission CBT (53%) and Combo (49%) were significantly higher than SRI (24%), placebo (15%), and WLC (10%), which did not differ from each other. Combo was not more effective than CBT alone irrespective of initial severity of the samples. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have a number of methodological problems and recommendations for improving research methodology are discussed as well as clinical implications of the findings.

  • 91925. Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Thulin, Ulrika
    Ramnerö, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure in-vivo in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia2004Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 42, nr 10, s. 1105-1127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 91926.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wicksell, R.
    Moderatorer, mediatorer och verkningsmekanismer2012Inngår i: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, s. 425-466Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 91927.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Asessments and decisions: from report to intervention in child welfare2011Inngår i: Book of Abstracts: Social Work and Social Care Research: Innovation, Interdisciplinarity and Impact, 2011, s. 137-137Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the factors that influence decision making in front-line child welfare in Sweden and the implications for different groups of children, types of social problems and for the character of the work. Data stem from a study of social workers’ handling of reports and requests that were followed until interventions were decided upon or cases closed without intervention. Risks were found to be considered in a narrow perspective. Where no distinct criteria for eligibility are at hand voluntary counselling is offered, mainly directed to mothers. Children are not in focus and the attitude is to keep them out of the system for their own good. In deciding eligibility to scarce services of the ‘right’ clients, high work pressure creates a focus on sorting and gate-keeping activities. This crucial sorting process displays the pattern of a heavily tapered funnel with few interventions at the end. Put into an institutional context, social workers discretion can be explained as a rational way for practice to handle organizational limitations, restricted resources and changing policies. By using a ‘consensual ideology’ to handle the contradictory demands of protection and welfare issues, practice keeps clients at a distance instead of working closely together with them.

  • 91928.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Barnavårdsutredningar: Stora skillnader beroende på var barnet bor2000Inngår i: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, nr 3, s. 43-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91929.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Bedömningar och beslut: Från anmälan till insats i den sociala barnavården2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is on social workers’ role in assessing and making decisions in child welfare cases. The primary aim is to identify factors that influence decisions concerning reports assessed, investigated, dismissed or processed to intervention within child welfare agencies in Swedish municipalities. Social policy, professional and organisational factors are perspectives considered in the analysis.

    All reports and requests for support for children and adolescents in the 0–19 age group were collected during two months in two local agencies, in 2003 (n= 260) and followed by interviews with social workers. Factors connected to social workers’ assessments at different stages in the process were tested in regression models and grounds for their assessments explored.

    Main results: two-thirds of reports are sorted out without investigation. One-fifth led to interventions. The highest probability for a report to be investigated was if it was assessed as acute, concerned abuse, came from a professional (not the police) concerned a girl and handled in the integrated agency. The most common problems, such as family conflicts and antisocial behaviour were investigated the least. A majority of the children came from underprivileged families, mainly poor single mothers.

    The process draws the pattern of a heavily tapered funnel with few interventions at the end. Children are not in focus and the attitude is to keep them out of the system for their own good. Social policy and organisational factors restrict social workers’ discretion. Contradictory demands are solved by a ‘consensual ideology’. Parallel tracks appear on risks in a narrow perspective and on voluntary counselling mainly directed to mothers. This forms child welfare into a rejecting practice, where hard social conditions are individualized. Legislation gives municipalities considerable leeway to produce a variety of services and interventions, but practice works on the basis of another kind of rationality.

  • 91930.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Child Welfare and Child Protection: Differences and similarities in policy and practice in Sweden and Great Britain2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from research on front line practice in Child Welfare in Sweden and in Child Protection in Great Britain have shown interesting similarities in spite of differences in policies and general welfare. Drawing from my own study and two British ones practice strategies to handle policy are discussed. In recent years there have been changing policies in Great Britain to support The Child Protection Services from a protection approach to a more Child Welfare one. However researchers show that the notion of risk is still central and a precondition for interventions as well as for services. They argue that the so-called risk-discourse will lead to more families being referred and investigated and less given help and support. In Sweden Child Protection has been conceived quite differently, with fewer laws dealing specifically with child abuse and neglect, problems that are not a typical reason for providing child-welfare services. The preventive approach implies that investigations are not limited to cases of suspected maltreatment. They may also be initiated if needs of services is assessed as well as by an application from a parent or a child. Policy changes in Sweden have been reversed to them in Great Britain and Child Protection issues are nowadays more stressed acknowledging the best interests of the child. British researchers argue that focus on protection makes social work more investigatory and procedurally driven with more families being referred and resources allocated to the sorting process, thus draining time and resources from prevention and family support. In Sweden as in Great Britain the accountability of social work has been questioned. The critique in Sweden concerns the variety of procedures as well as deficiencies in documentation and reviews leading to a lack of knowledge on the effects of interventions as well as risks of missing maltreated children.

    In the ambition of a more systematic, child focused and evidence based social work Sweden has implemented a Swedish variant of the English system The Integrated Children´s System (ICS) by the National Board of Health and Welfare, Children’s needs in focus (BBIC). It has been adapted to Swedish law and practice and a majority of Swedish municipalities are now licensed to use it. On the whole implementation has been a success, mostly because the profession itself has been a driving force in testing and implementing BBIC. However real knowledge on how it has affected social work is lacking as no thorough evaluation has been done.

    Demands on accountability make social workers ‘risk concerned’. Structured systems for documentation and tools for practice built on scientific knowledge is a way for practice to handle expectations on them to identify those children at greatest risk. The question can be put if more structured procedures and risk-assessment tools will lead to better targeting and a possibility to create necessary resources to develop family support services. Swedish as well as British local studies of practice show that a lot of energy in Child Welfare is put down in gate-keeping activities, with few decided services in the end.

  • 91931.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Den nya frivilligheten1998Inngår i: Nordisk sosialt arbeid, ISSN 0333-1342, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 2-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The new voluntarism.

    The article is based on an evaluation of the first two years of the Swedish volunteer centre Viljan. The aim is to arrive at a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of voluntary work based on the experience of one volunteer centre. The stydy comprised 39 users and 62 volunteers. Viljan's users consists of two main groups frail, elderly women and single mothers. The group of single mothers needed baby-sitters but also wanted an adult contact for themselves. It is difficult for Viljan to meet this need. The direction taken by Viljan has been a relatively traditional role of befriending the old and the sick, initially with strong control from the social services. All the interviewees were satisfied with the help they had recieved, but it was clear that they want more assistance and contact, which they do not dare to ask for out of fear if becoming a burden. Volunteers and the users appear to have the same needs for social contact which is why they turned to Viljan. There is a serious risk, however, that the volunteer centre may emphasize assistance to people to the expence of meetings between people and that the volunteers may be proffesionalized. The volunteers live all over the Stockholm area, few of them living close to the people they help. The volunteer centre can be seen as a modern welfare phenomenon, which make visible civic needs which the family, the public sphere and the private sphere have not been able to satisfy. Viljan appears to be able to fill this vacuum partially.

  • 91932.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    I skuggan av LVU: om tvångsmöjligheternas närvaro i sorteringsprocessen2017Inngår i: Tvångsvård av barn och unga: rättigheter, utmaningar och gränszoner / [ed] Pernilla Leviner, Tommy Lundström, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91933.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. FoU Södertörn, Sverige.
    Insatser inom socialtjänstens öppna barn- och ungdomsvård i Botkyrka, Gotland, Haninge, Huddinge, Nacka, Nynäshamn, Salem, Södertälje, Tyresö och Värmdö2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91934.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Reflection groups using Vignettes – a method to deepen professional knowledge2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the pursuit of integrating practice and research a successful method has been created that uses a research technique (the Vignette method) as a way for practitioners to come together and reflect on their own practice. Over 600 professionals from the social services, nursery schools and schools have participated in these Reflection groups. The aim of Reflection groups using Vignettes is a way to elucidate practice knowledge in social work by critical reflections and research techniques. Assembling social workers exclusively or together with other professional partners in reflection groups together with a researcher creates new knowledge. Typical cases with problematic situations or episodes are described in intensifying sequences. Each sequence demonstrates information crucial for assessments and decision making. Questions are put to each vignette on how to go about in the case and why. Thus comparisons can be made on social workers attitudes and work procedures as they are put in front of the same information. Themes that arise in the group process are put together and with the help of the researcher linked to theoretical concepts and current research. By using an example from a reflection group with vignettes about a Child Protection investigation in an ethnic minority family, issues on ethnic sensitivity in social work are discussed. The method becomes a tool for making visible ethnocentrisms, prejudices about gender, class and sexuality as well as hidden structures in the work process. The overall aim is to develop assessments in Child Protection investigations.

  • 91935.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Using ‘Consensual Ideology’: A Way to Sift Reports in Child Welfare2014Inngår i: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 63-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the factors that influence decision making in front line child welfare in Sweden and the implications for different groups of children, types of social problems and for the character of the work. Data stem from a study of social workers’ handling of reports and requests that were followed until interventions were decided upon or cases closed without ntervention. Risks were found to be considered in a narrow perspective. Though Swedish child welfare has been recognised as a family service system, need aspects are down-prioritised. Gender-related attitudes are reflected in the labelling of ‘capable’ mothers and in the higher probability of girls being investigated. In deciding eligibility to scarce services of the ‘right’ clients, high work pressure creates a focus on gate-keeping activities and the attitude is to keep children out of the system for their own good. This crucial sorting process displays the pattern of a heavily tapered funnel with few interventions at the end. Put into an institutional context, social workers’ discretion can be explained as a rational way for practice to handle organisational limitations, restricted resources and changing policies. Demands of protection and welfare issues are handled by individualising difficult social conditions and by ‘consensual ideology’.

  • 91936.
    Östberg, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Backlund, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Wiklund, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    När man misstänker att barn far illa: En studie av hur professionella inom BVC, förskola och skola förhåller sig till anmälningsplikten2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this report was to gain knowledge on how mandated reporters from different professional fields (staff in child health care, pre-school and school) reason and act in case of child maltreatment suspicion of children 0-12. The principal research method was focus groups (n=3) in which participants were discussing themes in accordance with study objective. The groups were homogenous in terms of professional field affiliation and consisted of 8-9 participants in each group. The mode of analysis was qualitative. 

    What to do if you have a suspicion of child abuse? What should social service workers and educators do if there is any suspicion that a child does not fare well? This Save the Children study is about how Child Welfare Service staff and pre-school and shool officials in Sweden are responding to their obligation to report suspected cases of child abuse and neglect. It is based on interviews made to professionals directly working with children who are mandated to inform the proper authorities if there is a reasonable suspicion that a child is being harmed by caregivers. This study was initiated within the framework of the larger project "Educate do not punish" coordinated between Save the Children in Italy, Romania, Lithuania and Sweden, aimed at protecting children from corporal punishment by supporting the inclusion of the explicit ban of corporal punishment in all settings.

  • 91937.
    Östberg, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Egelund, Tine
    Socialforskningsinstitutet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    Kvilhaug, Anita
    Liebing, Anna
    Social barnavård - kunskap och professionalisering: En komparativ studie av undervisningen om social barnavård i svensk socionomutbildning och dansk socialrådgivarutbildning2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91938.
    Östberg, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Lönnback, Eva Britt
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Vinjettcirkeln: en metod att fördjupa sin kunskap i tvärkulturellt socialt arbete2005Inngår i: Tvärkulturellt socialt arbete: av socialarbetare för socialarbetare / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Eva britt Lönnback, Stockhom: Socialtjänstförvaltningen, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten , 2005, s. 72-93Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91939.
    Östberg, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Sallnäs, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Wiklund, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Organisering, sortering och marknadsorientering2012Inngår i: När samhället träder in: Barn, föräldrar och social barnavård / [ed] Ingrid Höjer, Marie Sallnäs, Yvonne Sjöblom, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, s. 31-46Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Social barnavård är den del av socialtjänsten som har det yttersta ansvaret för att ge stöd, hjälp och skydd till socialt utsatta barn och familjer. I När samhället träder in analyseras den sociala barnavården på flera nivåer och utifrån olika perspektiv. Boken behandlar barnavårdens organisatoriska ramar, de insatser de professionella har till sitt förfogande samt hur berörda barn och familjer uppfattar barnavården och dess arbete. I boken diskuteras också insatsers utfall och hur de kan undersökas.

    När samhället träder in vänder sig till studerande vid socionomutbildningar, i socialt arbete och i andra samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen på universitet och högskola samt till yrkesverksamma inom socialt arbete och angränsande områden.

  • 91940.
    Östberg, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Wiklund, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Backlund, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Signs-of-Safety i praktiken: En studie om användning i Stockholms län2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Signs-of-Safety utvecklades i Australien och kan i grunden ses som en modell för utredning och uppföljning i socialt barnavårdsarbete i avsikt att säkerställa barns säkerhet och skydd. I denna rapport redovisas en studie av modellens spridning och tillämpning i Stockholms stads stadsdelar samt övriga kommuner i Stockholm län. Tre delstudier presenteras. Det övergripande syftet med studien var att undersöka i vilken omfattning och på vilket sätt Signs-of-Safety används i Stockholms län samt att beskriva och analysera principiellt viktiga förtjänster och begränsningar som är förenade med att ta modellen i bruk.

  • 91941.
    Östberg, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Wåhlander, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Milton, Pia
    Barnavårdsutredningar i sex kommuner: En vinjettstudie2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe, analyse and compare different models of child welfare investigation and assessment of families. We selected six local authorities and used vignettes to study investigation/assessment procedures for families with children age 0–12 years, that were reported to the authority for child maltreatment. Each of the local authorities had, in one way or another, attracted wide spread professional attention due to their use of certain models of social work with children.

    The study aims to answer the following questions:

    • Do local authorities use more or less standardardized models in child welfare investigation and family assessment?

    • If yes, how can these models be described?

    • Does the process of the investigation/family assessment vary with the choice of model?

    Results reveal certain patterns in child welfare investigations, mainly based on how local child welfare work is organized. But there are also wide variations between local authorities with similar organisations and even with the same choice of models. Also, there are great variations within most local authorities, regardless of how they are organized or what model of investigation/assessment they use. Results suggest that professed use of a ”model” in investigation/assesment work does not necessarily lead to daily child welfare work becoming more predictable. That is, a child welfare report can generate different investigation processes and outcomes within a local authory, even if social workers claim to use a specific model in their work. A ”model” should be understood as a basic orientation with considerable variety. If a ”model” in child welfare work is defined as a standardized, replicable method of investigation/assessment and decisionmaking, producing a predictable process or outcome in child welfare investigations – then there are no models. One way to study investigation/assessment work in child welfare is to focus the organizational context. In this study we have categorized organisations with a sub-unit doing only investigative work as specialised organisations and organisations where the social worker investi73 gate/assess as well as give advice, administrate placements in care etc. as integrated organisations. Results vary between social workers in specialised and integrated organisations. Social workers in specialised organisations tend to start investigations sooner, use more coercive actions and strive towards ”harder” interventions in the form of placements in residential and foster care. Social workers in integrated organisations tend to vary more in their decisions, and favour mostly in-home-treatment. The study points toward a lack of distinct concepts, assessment standards, predictable procedures and outcomes in child welfare investigations. Results indicate a professional uncertainty about central issues in this most formalised area of child welfare. Investigation procedures and outcomes seem to differ considerably between local authorities and individual professionals – that is depending on the geographic residence of the family and what social worker that is assigned to the case.

  • 91942.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Consumer behaviour as I see it… What makes a real man?2010Inngår i: Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective / [ed] Michael R Solomon, Gary Bamossy, Søren Askegaard, Margaret K Hogg, Prentice-Hall, 2010, 4, s. 232-234Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 91943.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Eating out in europe: Picnics, gourmet dining and snacks since the late eighteenth century2005Inngår i: Consumption, markets & culture, ISSN 1025-3866, E-ISSN 1477-223X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 87-91Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91944.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Masculine self-presentation2013Inngår i: The Routledge companion to identity and consumption / [ed] Ayalla A. Ruvio and Russell W. Belk, London: Routledge, 2013, s. 129-136Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91945.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Masculinity and Fashion2012Inngår i: Gender, culture, and consumer behavior / [ed] Cele C. Otnes, Linda Tuncay Zaye, London & New York: Routledge, 2012, s. 255-280Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91946.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    No more mister mom: masculinity and consumption2019Inngår i: Handbook of research on gender and marketing / [ed] Susan Dobscha, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, s. 211-228Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 91947.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    The challenge of the ‘new masculinity’: conservative reactions to a new consumption ethos2012Inngår i: Nordic fashion studies / [ed] Peter McNeil and Louise Wallenberg, Stockholm: Axl Books, 2012, s. 37-56Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91948.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för modevetenskap.
    The Mythological Aspects of Country-of-Origin: The Case of the Swedishness of Swedish Fashion2011Inngår i: Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, ISSN 2093-2685, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 223-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In both practical marketing management and marketing scholarship the concept of County-of-Origin has been widely employed the last couple of decades. Despite the ubiquity of country-of-origin references in contemporary marketing there are conceptual blind spots in our understanding of the concept. In this article the theoretical perspective of country-of-origin is discussed using the empirical example of Swedish fashion to illustrate how marketing related to the notion of place is al- ways contingent on the various mythologies always already present. Departure is hence taken in the notion that an under- standing of contemporary Swedish fashion cannot be decoupled from an overall understanding of Sweden's role in popular culture. This base in popular culture, together with the partic- ular historicity of Swedish fashion, forms a basis of different versions of Swedishness on which contemporary fashion brands —both Swedish and foreign—can build. A number of different ways in which Swedish fashion brands relate to these available mythologies of Swedishness, as well as other place myth- ologies is outlined. On a theoretical level the paper addresses calls for more research on the symbolic aspects of coun- try-of-origin.

    To argue that the place where something “comes from” is important for the success of a market offering is by no means a novel thought. In mainstream marketing country-of-origin is typically seen as a cognitive cue, i.e. “an informational stim- ulus about or relating to a product that is used by consumers to infer beliefs regarding product attributes such as quality”. Culturally influence marketing researchers have critiqued this notion and added that country-of-origin is not merely a piece of information that goes into making decisions, rather coun- try-of-origin might link a product to a rich product-country im- agery, with sensory, affective and ritual connotations. Furthermore, since contemporary production and branding proc- esses are rather complex, oftentimes encompassing multiple lo- cations, the designation product-country image is sometimes used rather than country-of-origin to signal that it is rather the place that something is associated with that matters, rather than where something is produced.

    Brands are important for consumers for several reasons. In the view of McCracken, consumption objects as well as brands represent bridges to displaced meanings, i.e. properties of our personality that we cannot attain in the here and now. The lack of these properties, we are led to believe, is what pre- vents us from being realized as a better version of ourselves. By the magical whims of advertising it is as if these proper- ties come to reside in the consumption objects. It is in this light that the notion of Swedish fashion, or any other place connected to a product group, needs to be thought about. Brand owners who try to connect their brand to a particular place trust that consumers will value this positively, and con- sumers value the place branding activities since they help them both in making decisions and in constructing a coherent life narrative. Country-of-origin might influence consumer product evaluations in three principle ways: cognitive, affective and normative. Cognitive means that country-of-origin is used as a cue for product quality, e.g. consumers might hold beliefs that garments sown in Italy are of high quality and garments sown in Turkey are of low quality. Affective means that coun- try-of-origin has symbolic and emotional value to consumers, e.g. consumers emanating from a particular country might be emotionally attached to certain brands and products from that country. Normative means that consumers might hold social and personal norms related to products from certain countries, e.g. some might not want to purchase products produced in sweatshops in which worker safety cannot be assured and oth- ers might want to purchase only locally produced products in order not to affect the environment with unnecessary shipping costs.

    In order to discuss the use of Swedishness in the marketing of Swedish fashion the potential marketing positions related to place can be structured according to the two dimensions Intended Market and Place Marketing Approach. Intended Market refers to whether a brand caters to the Intranational (Swedish) Market alone or whether they are also aspiring to a broader International audience. Place Marketing Approach refers to whether a company is leveraging the mythologies rooted in the Intranational (Swedishness) in building their brand or whether a company are using the mythologies the International, which might encompass both other places and no place at all. These two dimensions create four possible positions: provincial, national, pseudo-international, and cosmopolitan. One important insight from this article is that the possible meaning positions that a company can take is not limited to the factual location of the company; either a national or an international marketing approach can be taken by Swedish or international companies.

    A Swedish company leveraging a Swedish marketing approach could be said to have an indexical connection to the place. They can, in some way, claim lineage to the country of Sweden either because production takes place there or because the company in some other way is based in Sweden. Other companies might also leverage the mythologies of Swedishness but they then merely have an iconic connection to the place. There is a resemblance between the expression of the company and that of the available mythologies of the place, but no gen- uine physical connections. The same reasoning goes for the companies adapting a pseudo-international approach; they have an iconic connection to the places from which they draw their mythologies. By thinking about marketing based on coun- try-of-origin in this way we decouple the available strategies from the physical location of the companies and instead view various country-of-origin mythologies as cultural resources that can be leveraged by companies in their brand building activities. Depending on the intended market companies will need to adapt the way in which they perpetuate the available mythologies. This is especially the case for companies with a strong position on the local market but with aspirations to go global. These companies might then oscillate between a provin- cial position on the Swedish market and Swedish position on the international market. 

  • 91949.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för modevetenskap.
    Thou shalt sport a banana in thy pocket: Gendered body size ideals in advertising and popular culture2010Inngår i: Marketing Theory, ISSN 1470-5931, E-ISSN 1741-301X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 45-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article addresses the issue of how idealized accounts of penis size - a bodily feature that plays a crucial role in how masculinity is constructed today-gets produced and reproduced through advertising and popular culture. The analysis shows that there are plenty of normative accounts of a particular penis size, despite a lack of explicit representations in mainstream cultural outlets. These normative messages are so ubiquitous that men in Western consumer cultures are bombarded with the archaic imperative: thou shalt sport a banana in thy pocket. Discourse analysis is used to illustrate the different sets of interpretive repertoires available that circumvent the taboos surrounding penis size in subtle and roundabout ways in order to create a sense of an ideal that should be adhered to. These sets of discourses function to give an ambivalent message in which males are caught in a discursive cross-fire where they are potentially made to feel anxious about their anxiousness and embarrassed about their embarrassedness.

  • 91950.
    Östberg, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Vägen till helvetet är kantad av goda intentioner: en kritisk granskning av marknadsföringen2013Inngår i: Företagsekonomin och samhället / [ed] Hans Hasselbladh, Mikael Holmqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, s. 273-294Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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