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  • 1. Bono, Mayumi
    et al.
    Efthimiou, EleniFotinea, Stavroula-EvitaHanke, ThomasHochgesang, JulieKristoffersen, JetteMesch, JohannaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.Osugi, Yutaka
    8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2. Clark, Becky
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    A global perspective on disparity of gender anddisability for deaf female athletes2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 64-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the significance of gender and disability issues has graduallyincreased in the global society during the past three decades,there are only few studies with regard to the deaf community andsport. This article examines the level of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearingwomen’s participation in sports and the factors for their continuedunderrepresentation. The WomenSport International’s Task Force onDeaf and Hard of Hearing Girls and Women in Sport conducted aworld-wide survey to determine and assess the needs of deaf andhard of hearing girls and women in sport. A snapshot of the resultsand issues and future aspirations are provided.

  • 3.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter: Version 7 (januari 2018)2018Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Crowdsourcing for the Swedish Sign Language Dictionary2018In: 8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings / [ed] Mayumi Bono, Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Yutaka Osugi, Paris: European Language Resources Association, 2018, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe how we are actively using the Swedish Sign Language (SSL) community in collecting and documenting signs and lexical variation for our language resources, particularly the online Swedish Sign Language Dictionary (SSLD). Apart from using the SSL Corpus as a source of input for new signs and lexical variation in the SSLD, we also involve the community in two ways: first, we interact with SSL signers directly at various venues, collecting signs and judgments about signs; second, we discuss sign usage, lexical variation, and sign formation with SSL signers on social media, particularly through a Facebook group in which we both actively engage in and monitor discussions about SSL. Through these channels, we are able to get direct feedback on our language documentation work and improve on what has become the main lexicographic resource for SSL. We describe the process of simultaneously using corpus data, judgment and elicitation data, and crowdsourcing and discussion groups for enhancing the SSLD, and give examples of findings pertaining to lexical variation resulting from this work.

  • 5.
    Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Den medelpadska dövhistorien: Från Sundsvallsbranden till Sundsvallsbron2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    From Design and Collection to Annotation of a Learner Corpus of Sign Language2018In: 8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings / [ed] Mayumi Bono, Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Yutaka Osugi, Paris: European Language Resources Association, 2018, p. 121-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to present part of the project “From Speech to Sign – learning Swedish Sign Language as a second language” which include a learner corpus that is based on data produced by hearing adult L2 signers. The paper describes the design of corpus building and the collection of data for the Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2). Another component of ongoing work is the creation of a specialized annotation scheme for SSLC-L2, one that differs somewhat from the annotation work in Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC), where the data is based on performance by L1 signers. Also, we will account for and discuss the methodology used to annotate L2 structures.

  • 7.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråkets framtid2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråkskommunikation och nyttjande av teckenrummet i dialog mellan personer med dövblindhet: Forskning om teckenspråk XXVII2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns i Sverige runt 2000 personer under 65 år med dövblindhet. En andel av dem är döva sedan barndomen och har förvärvat sin synnedsättning senare i livet. De har då vanligen svenskt teckenspråk som sitt förstaspråk och har i takt med att synen blivit sämre övergått till att använda sig av taktilt teckenspråk som är en del av det svenska teckenspråket, men som inte i samma utsträckning grundar sig i vad som kan uppfattas visuellt. I den här forskningsrapporten studeras taktil teckenspråkskommunikation och hur de personer med dövblindhet som först lärt sig det visuella svenska teckenspråket innan de övergår till att använda taktilt svenskt teckenspråk använder sig av teckenrummet i dialoger med varandra. Till grund för analysen ligger en korpus som består av åtta informanter i varierande åldrar från olika delar av Sverige. Denna korpus har kunnat skapas tack vare medel från Mo Gårds forskningsfond och arbetet med att annotera dialogerna har pågått allt sedan inspelningarna genomfördes år 2013. Idag har strax under hälften av korpusen annoterats och det är den annoterade delen som ligger till grund för analysen som redovisas i denna rapport. Bland annat beskrivs hur informanterna skapar gemensam mening och förståelse när de inte ser varandra och hur de ger återkopplingar på ett sätt som skiljer sig från hur man gör i det visuella svenska teckenspråket. Dessutom visas skillnader mellan det visuella och taktila svenska teckenspråket avseende andelen bokstaveringar, som är högre i det taktila, liksom förekomsten av pekningar som istället är mindre vanliga där.

  • 9. Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The Deaf Sport Movement in Europe: Deaf Sport Without Borders2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Tolkad tolkutbildning2018In: Tolking: språkarbeid og profesjonsutøvelse / [ed] Hilde Haualand, Anna-Lena Nilsson, Eli Raanes, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2018, p. 317-335Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet fokuseras olika aspekter av tolkanvändning inom ramen för teckenspråkstolkutbildningen. Kapitlet bygger på intervjuer med studenter, lärare och tolkar och analysen visar att tolkstudenter under utbildningen genomgår en process från att vara rena nykomlingar till att bli legitima perifera deltagare (Lave och Wenger, 1991) i en teckenspråkstolkgemenskap. Genom att använda tolk i utbildningen får studenterna ett situerat lärande där de genom att möta professionella tolkar övergår från att mer eller mindre omedvetet använda tolk i syfte att tillägna sig undervisningsinnehållet, till att bli medvetna såväl om tolkyrket som profession som om tolkens maktposition gentemot döva tolkanvändare.

  • 11.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kimmelman, Vadim
    University of Amsterdam.
    Oomen, Marloes
    University of Amsterdam.
    de Lint, Vanja
    University of Amsterdam.
    Transitivity prominence within and across modalities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of transitivity as a scalar phenomenon is well known (e.g., Hopper & Thompson 1980; Tsunoda 1985; Haspelmath 2015). However, as with most areas of linguistic study, it has been almost exclusively studied with a focus on spoken languages. A rare exception to this is Kimmelman (2016), who investigates transitivity in Russian Sign Language (RSL) on the basis of corpus data. Kimmelman attempts to establish a transitivity prominence hierarchy of RSL verbs, and compares this ranking to the verb meanings found in the ValPal database (Hartmann, Haspelmath & Bradley 2013). He arrives at the conclusion that using the frequency of overt objects in corpus data is a successful measure of transitivity prominence, and that the prominence ranking of RSL verbs correlate with that found for spoken languages in Haspelmath (2015). In this paper, we expand on these intra- and cross-modal comparisons of transitivity prominence by introducing four other sign languages to the sample: Finnish Sign Language (FinSL), Swedish Sign Language (SSL), Sign Language to the Netherlands (NGT), and German Sign Language (DGS). FinSL and SSL are known to be historically related (cf. Bergman & Engberg-Pedersen 2010), while the other are not related, which allows us to look at both modality and relatedness effects in our sample. Of the 80 core verb meanings in the ValPal database, Kimmelman (2016) included the 25 most frequent verbs in his corpus. For our study, we have annotated all occurrences of these 25 verb meanings in a subset of the corpora of FinSL (2h 40min; 18,446 tokens), SSL (2h 5min; 16,724 tokens), NGT (≈80,000 tokens), and DGS (≈58,000 tokens). We annotate whether a verb occurs with an overt object as well as the type of object (direct, indirect, clausal, or a locative). Looking at the ValPal verb meanings with ≥5 sign tokens in all four new languages, we arrive at 12 verbs that are found in all five sign languages and the spoken languages (SpL) of the ValPal database – see Table 1. In Table 1, we see that there is a general agreement across languages – both signed and spoken – in how transitivity prominent a verb meaning is. Spearman’s rank correlation shows a significant (p<0.05) correlation between all possible pairs except SSL–SpL (p=0.091) and SSL– RSL (p=0.074), corroborating Kimmelman’s finding that there are patterns of transitivity prominence present across languages and modalities. It is interesting that SSL thus diverges from the other sign languages in this sample: this deserves further investigation. We also wanted to investigate the transitivity prominence as a property of individual languages. In order to do so, we took the individual languages of the ValPal database and measured each verb meaning in each language with regard to its transitivity prominence. This meant calculating how many of the verb forms associated with a specific verb meaning took a P argument. Note that this is quite different from calculating transitivity prominence based on corpus data: with corpora, we calculated the proportion of verbal tokens occurring with an overt object, and with the ValPal database, we calculated the proportion of transitive verb associated with a particular concept. We included the 12 verb meanings found across all languages (the five sign languages and 33 spoken languages). We then calculated mean distances across verb meanings and languages, and plotted this with multidimensional scaling in Figure 1. In the figure, we see that the five sign languages form a part of a cluster, suggesting either modality-based similarities, or similarities that come with the difference in data (corpus data rather than lexical data). On the other hand, sign languages as a group are not clearly opposed to spoken languages as a group, which implies that the corpus-based and lexical calculations of transitivity are comparable. Interestingly, FinSL and SSL are not more strongly associated than the other sign languages, which implies that their historical relatedness is not directly relevant to transitivity. In our presentation, we will present the results and the conclusions in more detail, as well as discuss the possibilities of using corpus data to establish valency patterns for languages in the signed modality.

    References Bergman, Brita & Elisabeth Engberg-Pedersen. 2010. Transmission of sign languages in the Nordic countries. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 74–94. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Hartmann, Iren, Martin Haspelmath & Taylor Bradley (eds.). 2013. Valency Patterns Leipzig. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://valpal.info/. Haspelmath, Martin. 2015. Transitivity prominence. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency classes in the world’s languages: Vol 1 - Introducing the framework, and case studies from Africa and Eurasia, 131–148. Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton. Hopper, Paul J. & Sandra A. Thompson. 1980. Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language 56(2). 251–299. Kimmelman, Vadim. 2016. Transitivity in RSL: A corpus-based account. In Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen & Johanna Mesch (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining, 117–120. Paris: European Language Resources Association (ELRA). Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1985. Remarks on transitivity. Journal of Linguistics 21(2). 385. doi:10.1017/S0022226700010318.

  • 12.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    A second language learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes work on an ongoing learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). The purpose of this learner corpus is to provide a solid database for second language research in SSL, as there is a lack of research regarding how adults learn a signed language as a second language, and the availability of such a corpus for research would ultimately lead to new insights in the field. Work on this SSL learner corpus started in 2013 (Schönström & Mesch, 2014), and it now contains longitudinal data collected from 2013 to 2016. The corpus consists of data from two groups of learners. Data collection for the first group was completed in 2014 and contains 9:06 hours of data from a total of 18 learners. Data collection from the second group is ongoing.

    The longitudinal data collection consisted of interviews as well as picture and video retellings recorded on four occasions over a period of 1.5 years. The learners consisted of students from a sign language interpreter program at university level. The first collection began one month after course onset, and the second one 1.5 years after onset. The aim was to obtain a wider range of data illustrating the learners’ different developmental stages. The recorded material has been annotated and transcribed in the multimodal annotation tool ELAN using current SSL annotation conventions, especially for annotation of glosses as well as a special annotation schema for L2 analysis according to our particular research objectives.

    For those who are learning SSL, we hypothesize that simultaneous and spatial structures in a gestural-visual modality are challenging to learn (cf. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). Earlier we began analyzing the mouth actions of L2 learners (Mesch, Schönström, Riemer-Kankkonen & Wallin, 2016). Data was annotated according to annotation tiers for mouthing categories, such as mouth movements borrowed from Swedish (mouthing without sound), and mouth gestures, as well as L2 tiers. The next step is to analyze a set of complex sign categories (i.e. signs modified according to meaning and space). We are interested in how learners acquire depicting signs as well as other complex sign categories, i.e. modified signs and indicating signs. This overlaps partly with the use of space for meaning and reference, which is a challenge to annotate. In our presentation, we will show our annotation scheme and discuss the challenges of annotating these structures in an L2 context. 

  • 13.
    Simper Allen, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    “Cut and Break”-descriptions in Swedish Sign Language. Children´s and adults´ depicting verb constructions.2017In: 11th International Symposium on Iconicity in Language and Literature, Brighton, England (UK) 6–8 April 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focus on depicting verb construction in Swedish Sign Language. The study describe both adults’ and children’s verb constructions in descriptions of cutting and breaking events in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), specifically focusing on the number of hands used in signing, handshape category and hand activity. 14 deaf adults (ages 20–72) and 11 deaf children (2;1–6;6) of deaf parents, all native-users of SSL, performed a task that involved describing 53 video clips of cutting and breaking events. The clips show an event in which an actor separates material, either with the aid of a tool or without. Additionally, some clips show an entity separating by itself without an actor being involved.The adults described the events with depicting verb constructions that are produced with two hands. The analysis of the handshapes produced three categories: substitutor, manipulator and descriptor. The most frequent construction in the description of events without a tool was two acting manipulators (depicting a hand handling an object), whereas in descriptions of events with a tool the combinations were acting substitutor or manipulator with a non-acting manipulator. The acting hand referred to the tool and the non-acting manipulator to the affected entity. In descriptions of events without an actor, either two substitutors or two manipulators were used. In addition to depicting verb constructions, the descriptions also contained resultative complements, i.e. signs carrying information about the result of the activity being carried out. The complements were either lexical signs or some form of depicting verb construction. Similar observations have not been noted for any other signed language.In the manner of the adults, the children used depicting verb constructions in descriptions of cutting and breaking events (681 tokens). Nearly half of the verb constructions that were used by the children corresponded to the adult target forms. The majority of the constructions describing events without a tool corresponded to the adult target forms using two acting manipulators, even among the youngest informants. In events with a tool, only a third of the constructions corresponded to the adult target forms (emerging at 4;8–5;0); the remaining two-thirds were deviating constructions in terms of number of hands, handshape category and hand activity.Pervasive features of children’s constructions were the addition of contact between the hands and a preference for substitutors, something not found in adults’ constructions. These features were elucidated within the framework of Real Space blending theory, with the study showing that children first use visible blended entities and that invisible blended entities do not emerge until 4;8–5;0. Moreover, if children did imitate the activities in cutting and breaking events, they would use constructions with two manipulators imitating the actor manipulating an object. But that’s not the case!

  • 14. Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Den uppländska dövhistorien: Profiler, pionjärer och dövas föreningsliv i Uppland2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Elicited imitation tasks (EITs) as a tool for measuring sign language proficiency in L1 and L2 signers2017In: Book of abstracts, 2017, p. 6-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous literature, elicited imitation tasks (EITs) have been discussed with regard to the effect that memory skills have on performing tasks. More recent studies have shown, however, that EITs are a reliable tool for measuring language proficiency for L1 users and L2 learners (Klem et al., 2015; Gaillard & Tremblay, 2016). There have also been recommendations for minimizing the negative impacts of poor memory skills, for example, by shortening sentence structures.

    In contrast to spoken languages, which are merely linear in structure, sign languages operate in the gestural-visual mode, which relies on a visual pattern that allows for a degree of simultaneity in production. For instance, when signing a single lexical sign, the shape, movement and location of the hand combine to express phonological properties at the same time. Additionally, there are more complex signs with internal morphological structures that involve multiple handshapes, movements and locations. Such features need to be taken into account when valid and reliable EITs are developed for signed languages, and in recent years, there have been a growing number of sign language tests developed within the framework of EITs, e.g. American Sign Language, ASL-SRT (Hauser et al., 2008), and Swedish Sign Language, SSL-SRT (Schönström, 2014).

    In this talk, we will discuss sentence structure as well as the scoring method of the tests we have developed on two EITs for Swedish Sign Language: SSL-SRT, which is targeted for L1 signers, and SignRepL2, targeted for L2 signers. We found that for the L2 group, complex (single) signs can be used as test items, and there are qualitative differences related to the linguistic properties of signs. We will also describe different scoring paradigms for the respective tests. Our results will be presented and discussed in relation to the EIT theoretical framework.

  • 16.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gesture, signs and L2/M2 acquisition corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of L2/M2 acquisition in signed languages is contributing toour understanding of human languages in various ways. What are the challenges oflearning a new language that is manifested in a different modality? Is there anymodality-specific component, as well as language-specific component, that is harder toacquire than others? And how does this relate to questions concerning the acquisition ofsigned modalities in light of gesture-language discussions (Kendon, 2014)? For example,it has been shown in earlier research that a gesture “strategy” can be advantageous aswell as disadvantageous for the L2 learners of any signed language (Ortega & Morgan,2015). In light of this, our paper will present some preliminary notes from the analysis of an L2learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language that consists of longitudinal data (1.5 years) from hearing adult students learning SSL in an SSL interpreting program at theuniversity level. The learner corpus in SSL, which was started in 2013, so far contains approximately 14 hours of data from a total of 26 learners and is still expanding. We also collected data from a control group consisting of three L1 learners. Additionally, part of the corpus has been annotated with tiers for sign glosses and an L2 relatedanalysis. We conducted a qualitative analysis that included a performance analysis on the sign vocabulary on annotated data in the SSL as L2 corpus and compared the outcomes with the L1 control group. In our analysis, we adopted an applied view, dividing up thevocabulary into the three main sign types proposed by (Hodge & Johnston, 2014): 1) lexical signs; 2) partly lexical signs; and 3) non-lexical signs. In our study, we are specifically interested in how L2 learners acquire “partly lexical signs”, i.e. pointing signs (pronouns, indexing signs) and depicting signs (classifier constructions, polycomponential signs). We hypothesized that learning a language in a modality thatallows for a high degree of iconically motivated vocabulary makes it possible forlearners to, in fact, imitate the tasks or events from a stimulus in an elicited narrative task. But what are the error types, and how should the differences between depicting signs by L1 and L2 signers be described? Is there a gesture strategy used here, and is it linked to a typical L2/M2 strategy? Our results showed qualitative differences between L2 and L1 learners regarding theuse of depicting signs. In the L2 group, depicting signs describing size and shape were used less frequently than in the L1 group, while the L2 group varied more in depicting signs representing handle (agentive) classifiers. Furthermore, the learners also relied onother strategies, e.g. fingerspellings and mouthings. The results will be discussed froman acquisition view as well in light of the gesture-language discussion.

  • 17. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    GIVE or TAKE: Transitivity prominence of Finnish Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language verbs2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we apply methodology presented in Kimmelman (2016) and investigate the transitivityprominence of verbs in Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). Specifically,we ask how similar or different FinSL and SSL verbs are in terms of their transitivity prominence,and how the transitivity prominence of FinSL and SSL verbs compares with that of verbs inother languages. The term transitivity prominence refers to the relative frequency with which a verboccurs with an object. Haspelmath (2015) has shown that in spoken languages, verbs form a rankedcontinuum between those that are highly transitivity prominent and those that occur with no objectat all. Recently, Kimmelman (2016) has argued that Haspelmath's ranking applies also to the verbsof Russian Sign Language (RSL).Our investigation is based on annotated corpus data comprising narratives, conversations andpresentations. For FinSL, we use material from 20 signers (2h 40min, 18446 sign tokens) and forSSL from 28 signers (1h 54min, 15186 sign tokens). From this data, we identified 18 verb lexemeswhich all have enough tokens and which are all comparable between languages. In FinSL, the totalnumber of verb tokens is 745 and in SSL the corresponding number is 579. All the verbs were annotatedfor overt direct and indirect objects and for overt clausal complements. The annotation workwas carried out by different annotators following common guidelines.Concerning the results, our data suggests that there are clear similarities in what verbs rankhighest (e.g. GIVE, TAKE) and what lowest (e.g. HAPPY, COLD) in terms of their transitivity prominencein FinSL and SSL. On the basis of Haspelmath (2015) and Kimmelman (2016), these are thesame verbs that are ranked highest and lowest also in spoken languages and in RSL (Table 1).However, the data also shows that certain verbs (e.g. SEARCH, TALK, PLAY) may differ considerablyin the position they occupy in the ranking. Although some of these differences can be assumed to betrue differences between languages, we suspect that some may, despite our best efforts, be traceableback to issues relating to the type of data as well as to the way the samples were formed and objectsannotated. In our presentation, we will present the results of our comparative study and discuss thedata and methodology-related issues in more detail.

  • 18.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Härmed tecknar jag dig ...2017In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 7, p. 52-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Iconic Locations in Swedish Sign Language: Mapping Form to Meaning with Lexical Databases2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 221-225, article id 026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a method for mapping the phonological feature location of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) signs to the meanings in the Swedish semantic dictionary SALDO. By doing so, we observe clear differences in the distribution of meanings associated with different locations on the body. The prominence of certain locations for specific meanings clearly point to iconic mappings between form and meaning in the lexicon of SSL, which pinpoints modalityspecific properties of the visual modality.

  • 20.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    International Sign: Linguistic, Usage, and Status Issues, edited by Rachel Rosenstock and Jemina Napier (Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2016)2017In: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, E-ISSN 1533-6263, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 403-406Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Object marking in the signed modality: Verbal and nominal strategies in Swedish Sign Language and other sign languages2017In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 279-287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Persontecken avslöjar vilka vi är2017In: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 3, p. 7-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Resources for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in mainstream schools in Sweden: A survey2017In: Deafness and Education International, ISSN 1464-3154, E-ISSN 1557-069X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although once placed solely in deaf schools, a growing number of deaf students in Sweden are now enrolling in mainstream schools. In order to maintain a functional educational environment for these students, municipalities are required to provide a variety of supporting resources, e.g. technological equipment and specialized personnel. However, the functions of these resources and how these relate to deaf students’ learning is currently unknown. Thus, the present study examines public school resources, including the function of a profession called a hörselpedagog (HP, a kind of pedagogue that is responsible for hard-of-hearing students). In particular, the HPs’ perspectives on the functioning and learning of deaf students in public schools were examined. Data were collected via (i) two questionnaires: one quantitative (n = 290) and one qualitative (n = 26), and (ii) in-depth interviews (n = 9). These show that the resources provided to deaf children and their efficacy are highly varied across the country, which holds implications for the language situations and learning of deaf students.

  • 24.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kaneko, Michiko
    Signed renga: Exploration of collaborative forms in sign language poetry2017In: African Studies, ISSN 0002-0184, E-ISSN 1469-2872, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 381-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South African Sign Language (SASL) poetry is still exploring many forms of poetry genres. This article describes the recent development of a new ‘genre’ in sign language poetry: signed renga (group poetry). The article will outline the form – what it is, how it has developed and spread, and why it is an apparently successful poetic genre. A sketch of a workshop from Signing Hands Across the Water 2 (SHAW 2) will also be provided to illustrate how renga emerges out of group work. First we will briefly explain common features of signed renga, drawing on a body of signed renga in British, Irish and Swedish Sign Languages. The second half of the article is an in-depth analysis of one signed renga, titled South Africa, which emerged from the SHAW 2 festival, with a focus on transitions as collaborative performance using shared signing space and eye gaze direction

  • 25. Meir, Irit
    et al.
    Aronoff, Mark
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hwang, So-One
    Ilkbasaran, Deniz
    Kastner, Itamar
    Lepic, Ryan
    Lifshitz Ben-Basat, Adi
    Padden, Carol
    Sandler, Wendy
    The effect of being human and the basis of grammatical word order: Insights from novel communication systems and young sign languages2017In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 158, p. 189-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies a central factor that gives rise to the different word orders found in the world’s languages. In the last decade, a new window on this long-standing question has been provided by data from young sign languages and invented gesture systems. Previous work has assumed that word order in both invented gesture systems and young sign languages is driven by the need to encode the semantic/syntactic roles of the verb’s arguments. Based on the responses of six groups of participants, three groups of hearing participants who invented a gestural system on the spot, and three groups of signers of relatively young sign languages, we identify a major factor in determining word order in the production of utterances in novel and young communication systems, not suggested by previous accounts, namely the salience of the arguments in terms of their human/animacy properties: human arguments are introduced before inanimate arguments (‘human first’). This conclusion is based on the difference in word order patterns found between responses to depicted simple events that vary as to whether both subject and object are human or whether the subject is human and the object inanimate. We argue that these differential patterns can be accounted for uniformly by the ‘human first’ principle. Our analysis accounts for the prevalence of SOV order in clauses with an inanimate object in all groups (replicating results of previous separate studies of deaf signers and hearing gesturers) and the prevalence of both SOV and OSV in clauses with a human object elicited from the three groups of participants who have the least interference from another linguistic system (nonliterate deaf signers who have had little or no exposure to another language). It also provides an explanation for the basic status of SOV order suggested by other studies, as well as the scarcity of the OSV order in languages of the world, despite its appearance in novel communication systems. The broadest implication of this study is that the basic cognitive distinction between humans and inanimate entities is a crucial factor in setting the wheels of word ordering in motion.

  • 26.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Types and trends of name signs in the Swedish Sign Language community2017In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 30, p. 7-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the domain of name signs (i.e., signs used as personal names) in the Swedish Sign Language (SSL) community. The data are based on responses from an online questionnaire, in which Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing participants answered questions about the nature of their name signs. The collected questionnaire data comprise 737 name signs, distributed across five main types and 24 subtypes of name signs, following the categorization of previous work on SSL. Signs are grouped according to sociolinguistic variables such as age, gender, and identity (e.g., Deaf or hearing), as well as the relationship between name giver and named (e.g., family or friends). The results show that name signs are assigned at different ages between the groups, such that children of Deaf parents are named earlier than other groups, and that Deaf and hard of hearing individuals are normally named during their school years. It is found that the distribution of name sign types is significantly different between females and males, with females more often having signs denoting physical appearance, whereas males have signs related to personality/behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the distribution of sign types has changed over time, with appearance signs losing ground to personality/behavior signs – most clearly for Deaf females. Finally, there is a marginally significant difference in the distribution of sign types based on whether or not the name giver was Deaf. The study is the first to investigate name signs and naming customs in the SSL community statistically – synchronically and diachronically – and one of the few to do so for any sign language.

  • 27.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Universal Dependencies for Swedish Sign Language2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 303-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first effort to annotate a signed language with syntactic dependency structure: the Swedish Sign Language portion of the Universal Dependencies treebanks. The visual modality presents some unique challenges in analysis and annotation, such as the possibility of both hands articulating separate signs simultaneously, which has implications for the concept of projectivity in dependency grammars. Our data is sourced from the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, and if used in conjunction these resources contain very richly annotated data: dependency structure and parts of speech, video recordings, signer metadata, and since the whole material is also translated into Swedish the corpus is also a parallel text.

  • 28.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    ”Va sa han?”: Technologies and Participation Strategies in Mainstream School Settings2017In: Marginalization Processes across Different Settings: Going beyond the Mainstream / [ed] Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017, p. 164-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of pupils with cochlear implant (CI) has seen a sharp increase in mainstream schools in Sweden. This study focuses on communicative strategies in mainstream classrooms where pupils with CI are members. The empirical ethnographic data comes from two mainstream classrooms in Sweden where pupils and adults use a range of technologies, and strategies, (co)creating opportunities for communication and learning in everyday classroom life. The analyses indicate that pupils with CIs are responsible for their own communicative participation in mainstream classrooms (when they can't make sense of or don't hear oral talk), while their right to choose or regulate communication channels are not uncommonly curtailed by the adults. Different technologies play an important role in mainstream classrooms where pupils with CIs are members but these at the same time sometimes create barriers for participation. Technologies cannot therefore be seen as a panacea for pupils with CI in mainstream educational settings.

  • 29.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Articulatory plurality is a property of lexical plurals in sign language2016In: Lingvisticæ investigationes, ISSN 0378-4169, E-ISSN 1569-9927, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 391-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign languages make use of paired articulators (the two hands), hence manual signs may be either one- or two-handed. Although two-handedness has previously been regarded a purely formal feature, studies have argued morphologically two-handed forms are associated with some types of inflectional plurality. Moreover, recent studies across sign languages have demonstrated that even lexically two-handed signs share certain semantic properties. In this study, we investigate lexically plural concepts in ten different sign languages, distributed across five sign language families, and demonstrate that such concepts are preferentially represented with two-handed forms, across all the languages in our sample. We argue that this is because the signed modality with its paired articulators enables the languages to iconically represent conceptually plural meanings.

  • 30. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Puupponen, Anna
    Aspects of the rhythm in Finnish and Swedish Sign Language2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate a hypothesis, derived from the intuitions of native signers, that there is a rhythmic difference between two historically related sign languages, Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). We define the notion of rhythm as 'the organization of units in time' and presume that the rhythmic feel of a language is determined by the phonetic properties and events that are used in the marking of the areas and borders of temporally ordered units such as signs and sentences (Patel & Daniele 2003; Patel 2006). In previous studies (Boyes Braem 1999; Sandler 2012), it has been suggested that the markers of rhythmic sequences in signed language are, for example, temporal duration, punctual indices (e.g. head nods), and articulatory contours. Accordingly, we approach our hypothesis with three main research questions: (i) Are the signing speed and sign duration different in FinSL and SSL, (ii) Are head nods aligned differently in terms of syntactic units in FinSL and SSL, and (iii) Is the motion of the head different in terms of its articulatory contour in FinSL and SSL sentences? The study is based on narratives collected with identical tasks in both languages (5 Snowman and Frog, where are you? stories per language). The total amount of video material is one hour (30+30 minutes) and it includes signing from twenty (10+10) signers. All of the material has been annotated for signs, sentences and nods. The material also includes 3D numerical data on the head motion of signers (the yaw, pitch, and roll angles). The 3D data has been obtained with computer-vision technology implemented in SLMotion software (Karppa et. al 2014). Concerning question (i), we have not so far found any significant differences in the signing speed and sign duration of the two languages. With a pilot sample of 4+4 signers and 1100 signs per language, we have determined the average signing speed to be two signs per second in both languages, and the average duration of (the core of) the sign to be 0.27 seconds in SSL and 0.29 seconds in FinSL. Concerning (ii), the average number of nods per story was higher in FinSL than in SSL but both languages tended to align nods with syntactic boundaries: of the total number of nods, 81% in FinSL and 77% in SSL occurred on a syntactic boundary, and generally also at the end of the sentence (Figure 1). Concerning question (iii), our initial tests with Snowman revealed that, for example, the amplitude of the tilting-like (roll) motion of the head decreased similarly toward the end of sentences in both languages (Figure 2) but FinSL signers employed this particular type of motion more often in the marking of syntactic junctures than SSL signers (Figure 3). The preliminary results indicate some differences between FinSL and SSL. In our presentation we will present the final results and discuss them in detail with respect to our initial hypothesis.

  • 31.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Distribution and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 143-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate frequency and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) using the SSL Corpus. The duration of signs is correlated with frequency, with high-frequency items having shorter duration than low-frequency items. Similarly, function words (e.g. pronouns) have shorter duration than content words (e.g. nouns). In compounds, forms annotated as reduced display shorter duration. Fingerspelling duration correlates with word length of corresponding Swedish words, and frequency and word length play a role in the lexicalization of fingerspellings. The sign distribution in the SSL Corpus shows a great deal of cross-linguistic similarity with other sign languages in terms of which signs appear as high-frequency items, and which categories of signs are distributed across text types (e.g. conversation vs. narrative). We find a correlation between an increase in age and longer mean sign duration, but see no significant difference in sign duration between genders.

  • 32.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Manual backchannel responses in signers' conversations in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 50, p. 22-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study aims to determine the manual backchannel responses that signers use in Swedish Sign Language discourse by analyzing a subset of the SSL Corpus. The investiga- tion found 20% of the backchannel responses in this data to be manual. The study focuses on the manual backchannel responses that consist of signs (mostly the sign gloss YES) and gesture-like signs (PU “palms up”), and other manual activities, which can occur at a relatively low height in signing space. With respect to age groups, younger signers engage in more weak manual activity than older signers.

  • 33.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics. University of Groningen.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Morphological complexity influences Verb–Object order in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity (CL4LC) / [ed] Dominique Brunato, Felice Dell'Orletta, Giulia Venturi, Thomas François & Philippe Blache, Osaka: International Committee on Computational Linguistics (ICCL) , 2016, p. 137-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational linguistic approaches to sign languages could benefit from investigating how complexity influences structure. We investigate whether morphological complexity has an effect on the order of Verb (V) and Object (O) in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), on the basis of elicited data from five Deaf signers. We find a significant difference in the distribution of the orderings OV vs. VO, based on an analysis of morphological weight. While morphologically heavy verbs exhibit a general preference for OV, humanness seems to affect the ordering in the opposite direction, with [+human] Objects pushing towards a preference for VO.

  • 34. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Puupponen, Anna
    Laaksonen, Jorma
    On the rhythm of head movements in Finnish and Swedish Sign Language sentences2016In: The Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2016 / [ed] Jon Barnes, Alejna Brugos, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, Nanette Veilleux, 2016, p. 850-853Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates, with the help of computer-vision technology,the similarities and differences in the rhythm of themovements of the head in sentences in Finnish (FinSL) andSwedish Sign Language (SSL). The results show that themovement of the head in the two languages is often very similar:in both languages, the instances when the movement of thehead changes direction were distributed similarly with regardto clause-boundaries, and the contours of the roll (tilting-like)motion of the head during the sentences were similar. Concerningdifferences, direction changes were found to be usedmore effectively in the marking of clause-boundaries in FinSL,and in SSL the head moved nearly twice as fast as in FinSL. However, the small amount of data means that the results canbe considered to be only preliminary. The paper indicates theroll angle of the head as a domain for further work on head related rhythm.

  • 35.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Pfau, Roland, Markus Steinbach & Annika Herrmann (eds.), A matter of complexity: Subordination in sign languages2016In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 311-317Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign Language: Tactile2016In: The SAGE Deaf Studies Encyclopedia / [ed] Genie Gertz, Patrick Boudreault, Sage Publications, 2016, p. 820-821Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37. Lepic, Ryan
    et al.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Sandler, Wendy
    Taking meaning in hand: Iconic motivations in two-handed signs2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally in sign language research, the issue of whether a lexical sign is articulated with one hand or two has been treated as a strictly phonological matter. We argue that accounting for two-handed signs also requires considering meaning as a motivating factor. We report results from a Swadesh list comparison, an analysis of semantic patterns among two-handed signs, and a picture-naming task. Comparing four unrelated languages, we demonstrate that the two hands are recruited to encode various relationship types in sign language lexicons. We develop the general principle that inherently "plural" concepts are straightforwardly mapped onto our paired human hands, resulting in systematic use of the two hands across sign languages. In our analysis, "plurality" subsumes four primary relationship types — interaction, location, dimension, and composition — and we predict that signs with meanings that encompass these relationships — such as 'meet', 'empty', 'large', or 'machine' — will preferentially be two-handed in any sign language.

  • 38. Puupponen, Anna
    et al.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The alignment of head nods with syntactic units in Finnish Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language2016In: Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2016 / [ed] Jon Barnes, Alejna Brugos, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, Nanette Veilleux, 2016, p. 168-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the relationship between specifichead movement events – head nods, often treated as prosodicboundary markers – and syntactic units in Finnish (FinSL) andSwedish Sign Language (SSL). In the study we investigatedthe alignment of head nods with syntactic units on the basis ofa total of 20 (10+10) FinSL and SSL narratives. The results ofthe study show that in both languages head nods appeared similarlyon syntactic boundaries and that the tendency was toalign nods sentence-finally. However, not all head nods behavedthis way: for example, a relatively large number of headnods were also found to occur sentence-initially or elsewherein the sentence. Furthermore, head nods occurring on syntacticboundaries also had non-boundary marking functions, and notall syntactic boundaries occurred with head nods.

  • 39.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The interaction between mouth actions and signs in Swedish Sign Language as an L22016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we observed several patterns related to interaction and the synchronization of mouth actions and hands among L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) compared to native signers. Previous research on signed languages has examined the synchronization of mouthings and mouth gestures (e.g. the edited volume by Boyes Braem & Sutton-Spence 2001; Crasborn et al. 2008; Johnston et al. in press). Another line of sign language research has investigated phonological errors made by L2 learners of sign languages (adult learners of signing as a second language) across a limited number of languages, primarily in the use of manual parts (e.g. Rosen 2004) as well as in the use of non-manual parts (e.g. McIntire & Reilly 1988), not including mouth actions. The current study draws from both of these research areas in an effort to answer two questions: (i) Do L2 learners use mouthings borrowed from spoken language to a greater extent than L1 (native) signers? And (ii) how do borrowed mouthings and mouth gestures interact with manual signs? In other words, what are the distribution and the scope of mouthings with respect to prosodic constituents of SSL? We based this study on an analysis of an L2 Swedish Sign Language corpus (Mesch & Schönström 2014), which consists of 9:06 hours of data from 17 different L2 signers, and a control group of 3 deaf native L1 signers who provided 0:34 hours of video. For the analysis, we sampled data consisting of various materials (interviews, picture and video retellings) from six L2 learners and compared it to parallel data from the control group. With respect to question (i), our analysis revealed a greater use of mouthings borrowed from spoken Swedish among the L2 group, and for (ii), we found a lack of prosodic features in spreading/interaction between mouthings and signs in SSL as an L2. Compared to the L1 control group, L2 learners either overused or avoided mouthing. Among L2 speakers, our analysis also revealed that Swedish function words (e.g. som ‘as’) often appeared as mouthings without corresponding manual signs, thus being articulated simultaneously with a “mismatched” sign (as in Example 1). Furthermore, the interaction of signs and mouthing was often dependent on Swedish mouthing: whereas L1 signers produced the pattern in Example 2, in which mouthing belonging to the first unit spread to the second unit, the L2 learners’ mouthings often followed a strict 1-to-1 pattern, in which mouthings accompanied single manual signs and rarely spread across sign boundaries. As shown in this study, linguistic factors impacting SSL as an L2 include bilingualism and different modalities, i.e. how mouthing and signs interact. This has implications for L2 teaching, in how L2 learners should be taught to use “unvoiced” articulations of spoken words with manual signs. For future research, it would be useful to compare these results with those of deaf people who are late learners of SSL, since they rarely have a spoken language as an L1 (and thus lack that type of interference).

  • 40.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Towards an Annotation of Syntactic Structure in the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, p. 19-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes on-going work on extending the annotation of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with a level of syntactic structure. The basic annotation of SSLC in ELAN consists of six tiers: four for sign glosses (two tiers for each signer; one for each of a signer’s hands), and two for written Swedish translations (one for each signer). In an additional step by Östling et al. (2015), all ¨ glosses of the corpus have been further annotated for parts of speech. Building on the previous steps, we are now developing annotation of clause structure for the corpus, based on meaning and form. We define a clause as a unit in which a predicate asserts something about one or more elements (the arguments). The predicate can be a (possibly serial) verbal or nominal. In addition to predicates and their arguments, criteria for delineating clauses include non-manual features such as body posture, head movement and eye gaze. The goal of this work is to arrive at two additional annotation tier types in the SSLC: one in which the sign language texts are segmented into clauses, and the other in which the individual signs are annotated for their argument types.

  • 41.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Visualizing Lects in a Sign Language Corpus: Mining Lexical Variation Data in Lects of Swedish Sign Language2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the possibilities for mining lexical variation data across (potential) lects in Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The data come from the SSL Corpus (SSLC), a continuously expanding corpus of SSL, its latest release containing 43 307 annotated sign tokens, distributed over 42 signers and 75 time-aligned video and annotation files. After extracting the raw data from the SSLC annotation files, we created a database for investigating lexical distribution/variation across three possible lects, by merging the raw data with an external metadata file, containing information about the age, gender, and regional background of each of the 42 signers in the corpus. We go on to present a first version of an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used as a tool for investigating lexical variation across different lects, and demonstrate a few interesting finds. This tool makes it easier for researchers and non-researchers alike to have the corpus frequencies for individual signs visualized in an instant, and the tool can easily be updated with future expansions of the SSLC.

  • 42. Efthimiou, Eleni
    et al.
    Fotinea, Stavroula-EvitaHanke, ThomasHochgesang, JulieKristoffersen, JetteMesch, JohannaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43. Kristensson, Christy
    et al.
    Steiner, Edit
    Mesch, Urban
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    110 fantastiska år med Idrottsklubben Surd2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2015Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Dye, Matthew
    Leeson, Lorraine
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Building up L2 Corpora in Different Signed Languages: SSL, ISL and ASL2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Raanes, Eli
    Ferrara, Lindsay
    Co-forming real space blends in tactile signed language dialogues2015In: Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 0936-5907, E-ISSN 1613-3641, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 261-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a linguistic study examining the use of real space blending in the tactile signed languages of Norwegian and Swedish signers who are both deaf and blind. Tactile signed languages are typically produced by interactants in contact with each other’s hands while signing. Of particular interest to this study are utterances which not only consist of the signer producing signs with his or her own hands (or other body parts), but which also recruit the other interactant’s hands (or another body part). These utterances, although perhaps less frequent, are co-constructed, in a very real sense, and they illustrate meaning construction during emerging, embodied discourse. Here, we analyze several examples of these types of utterances from a cognitive linguistic and cognitive semiotic perspective to explore how interactants prompt meaning construction through touch and the involvement of each other’s bodies during a particular type of co-regulation.

  • 47.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Jonsson, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Communicating and hand(ling) technologies: everyday life in educational settings where pupils with cochlear implants are mainstreamed2015In: Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, ISSN 1055-1360, E-ISSN 1548-1395, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 256-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different technologies are commonly used in mainstream classrooms to teach pupils who wear surgically implanted cochlear hearing aids. We focus on these technologies, their application, how pupils react to them, and how they affect mainstream classrooms in Sweden. Our findings indicate that language ideologies play out in specific ways in such technified environments. The hegemonic position wielded by adults with regard to the use of technology usage has specific implications for pupils with cochlear implants.

  • 48.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Dövas svenska - ett tvåspråkigt perspektiv2015In: LiSetten, ISSN 1101-5128, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Enriching the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with Part of Speech Tags Using Joint Bayesian Word Alignment and Annotation Transfer2015In: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics: NODALIDA 2015, May 11-13, 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania / [ed] Beáta Megyesi, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 263-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used a novel Bayesian model of joint word alignment and part of speech (PoS) annotation transfer to enrich the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with PoS tags. The annotations were then hand-corrected in order to both improve annotation quality for the corpus, and allow the empirical evaluation presented herein.

  • 50.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gloss annotations in the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2015In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, E-ISSN 1569-9811, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 102-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) was compiled during the years 2009–2011 and consists of video-recorded conversations with 42 informants between the ages of 20 and 82 from three separate regions in Sweden. The overall aim of the project was to create a corpus of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) that could provide a core data source for research on language structure and use, as well as for dictionary work. A portion of the corpus has been annotated with glosses for signs and Swedish translations, and annotation of the entire corpus is ongoing. In this paper, we outline our scheme for gloss annotation and discuss issues that are relevant in creating the annotation system, with unique glosses for lexical signs, fingerspelling and productive signs. The annotation guidelines discussed in this paper cover both one- and two-handed signs in SSL, based on 33,600 tokens collected for the SSLC.

  • 51.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Svensk teckenspråkskorpus - dess tillkomst och uppbyggnad2015Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Swedish sign language corpus2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Technologically framed participation: A glimpse from everyday school life of two mainstreamed pupils with cochlear implants in Sweden2015In: Educating Diverse Learners: Many Ways, One Goal / [ed] Penny Panagiopoulou, Mirto Markopoulou and Andreas Xeroudakis, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, deaf pupils were traditionally placed in segregated deaf schools. However, during the last decade, the number of children attending mainstream schools after receiving cochlear implants (CIs) has increased dramatically, resulting in lower attendance at deaf schools. Despite the significance of this trend, there exists little knowledge regarding the everyday lives of these pupils in mainstream settings. This paper examines how pupils with CIs interact with school staff and other pupils in classroom settings and how different technologies (e.g. hearing aids and microphones) are used there. Furthermore, it aims to identify opportunities and limitations regarding the pupils’ participation in communication and teaching. The paper builds upon data from an ethnographic study in which fieldwork was conducted in two mainstream Swedish classrooms, both of which including one pupil with CIs. Interaction in these classrooms was documented through participant observations, video recordings and field notes, and the analysis shows that audiologically-oriented and communicative-link technologies play major roles in everyday interaction by both facilitating and limiting the participation of pupils with CIs in different ways, and that it mostly is the school staff that determine how and when these shall be used. The results also indicate that the pupils are largely responsible for their own participation. Overall, the current paper provides a glimpse of one way to educate children with CIs in Sweden, namely, in mainstream schools, and the focus is on what really happens in the technologically framed interaction in these classrooms.

  • 54.
    Bergman, Brita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckentranskription2015Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Available but not accessible: Options for adapting old Swedish Sign Language archives to modern documentation conventions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Video is an important medium for linguistic and historic research on signed language. Video recordings of Swedish Sign Language (SSL), mainly from the 1970s, have been preserved for the next generation, but the organizing, archiving, and sharing of this material is not standardized. The Swedish National Association for the Deaf (SDR) has been one of the biggest producers of SSL material, before the production moved to Swedish Broadcasting (SVT). A large amount of video recordings, produced 1970-1990, are in the SDR archive, preserved but not systematically archived and documented. SSL material by SVT since 1974 is available through streaming in their “open archive” (“Öppet arkiv”)—about 72 entries—and the Swedish Media Database at the National Library of Sweden (KB)—about 7,100 entries. The CLARIN Research Infrastructure and the national Swedish consortium SWE-CLARIN is one way for scholars in the humanities and social sciences to access data, and provides tools for exploring, annotating, and analyzing data (Nilsson Björkenstam et al, 2014). Corpus-based work on SSL started in 2003, preceding the SSL Corpus project (2009-2011), and this work provides a model for annotation work, and metadata and archiving procedures. This could be applied to older archives, such as the SDR material.

  • 57.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Commentary on Kita, van Gijn & van der Hulst (1998)2014In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mesc