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  • 1.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    20 år med förändringar i skolan: Vad har hänt med likvärdigheten?2011Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    40 Years of Gender Inequality among Men and Women in High-Prestige occupations – Does the Story Differ among the Young?2019In: Gender, Age and Inequality in the Professions: Exploring the Disordering, Disruptive and Chaotic Properties of Communication / [ed] Marta Choroszewicz, Tracey L. Adams, Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    65,6 miljoner flyktingar i världen år 2016: Alexander Betts och Paul Collier: Refuge: Transforming a Broken Refugee System, Allan Lane, 20172017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 79-80Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Capital-Labor Accord on Financialization? The Growth and Impact of Alternative Investment Funds in Sweden.2014In: Financialisation, New Investment Funds, and Labour: An International Comparison / [ed] Howard Gospel, Andrew Pendleton, Sigurt Vitols, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Comparative Study of Net Transfers for Different Immigrant Groups: Evidence from Germany2014In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 175-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of immigration to Western welfare states, certain aspects, such as the financial cost of providing social welfare, have become a subject of debate. The net amount of costs and tax payments, sometimes referred to as net transfers, has been used as a measure for evaluating the sustainability of welfare state systems. The present study analyses determinants of the volume of net transfers in Germany in 2002 with reference to immigrants from Poland, Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Iran. The study focuses on the differences and similarities between their outcomes. In line with previous research, the results below suggest that employment situation and family composition explain a large part of the differences in net transfers. One outcome that has not previously been adequately addressed, however, is that the legal immigration status granted on arrival in Germany is of considerable importance.

  • 6.
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A comparison of family and neighborhood effects on grades, test scores, educational attainment and income - evidence from Sweden2011In: Journal of Economic Inequality, ISSN 1569-1721, E-ISSN 1573-8701, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 207-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares sibling and neighborhood correlations in school performance, educational attainment and income as a way to learn whether the neighborhood where a child grows up in might explain parts of the sibling similarities found in previous sibling correlation studies. The data are based on a cohort of nearly 13,000 individuals born in 1953 and their siblings, all of whom grew up in the Stockholm area. The results show that neighborhood correlations are in general very small and in particular they are much smaller than the sibling correlations. Living in the same neighborhood does not seem to add much to the sibling similarities. 

  • 7. Bratberg, Espen
    et al.
    Davis, Jonathan
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schnitzlein, Daniel D.
    Vaage, Kjell
    A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility Curves in Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 72-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine intergenerational mobility differences between Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US. Using ranks, we find that the US is substantially less intergenerationally mobile than the three European countries and that the most mobile region of the US is less mobile than the least mobile regions of Norway and Sweden. Using a linear estimator of income share mobility, we find that the four countries have very similar rates of intergenerational mobility. However, when we use non-parametric versions of rank and income share mobility, we find that the US tends to experience lower upward mobility at the bottom of the income distribution than Norway and Sweden.

  • 8. Corak, Miles
    et al.
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    A Comparison of Upward and Downward Intergenerational Mobility in Canada, Sweden and the United States2014Report (Other academic)
  • 9. Corak, Miles
    et al.
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    A comparison of upward and downward intergenerational mobility in Canada, Sweden and the United States2014In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 30, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use new estimators of directional rank mobility developed by Bhattacharya and Mazumder (2011) to compare rates of upward and downward intergenerational mobility across three countries: Canada, Sweden and the United States. These measures overcome some of the limitations of traditional measures of intergenerational mobility such as the intergenerational elasticity, which are not well suited for analyzing directional movements or for examining differences in mobility across the income distribution. Data for each country include highly comparable, administrative data sources containing sufficiently long time spans of earnings. Our most basic measures of directional mobility, which simply compare whether sons moved up or down in the earnings distribution relative to their fathers, do not differ much across the countries. However, we do find that there are clear differences in the extent of the movement. We find larger cross-country differences in downward mobility from the top of the distribution than upward mobility from the bottom. Canada has the most downward mobility while the U.S. has the least, with Sweden in the middle. We find some differences in upward mobility but these are somewhat smaller in magnitude. An important caveat is that our analysis may be sensitive to the concept of income we use and broader measures such as family income could lead to different conclusions. Also, small differences in rank mobility translate into rather large differences in absolute mobility measured in dollars, due to large differences in income inequality across countries.

  • 10.
    Esser, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Framework for Comparing Social Protection in Developing and Developed Countries: The Example of Child Benefits2009In: International Social Security Review, ISSN 0020-871X, E-ISSN 1468-246X, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 91-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article outlines a conceptual and theoretical framework for improved comparative analysis of publicly provided social protection in developing countries, drawing on the research tradition of the study of longstanding welfare democracies. An important element of the proposed institutional approach is the establishment of comparable qualitative and quantitative indicators for social protection. The empirical example of child benefits indicates that differences between developed and developing countries should not be exaggerated, and that the prevalence of child benefits in sub-Saharan African and Latin American countries today resembles the inter-war period (1919-1938) situation in developed regions.

  • 11.
    von Essen, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Karslsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A matter of transient anonymity: Discrimination by gender and foreignness in online auctionsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Marx, Ive
    et al.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A New Dawn for Minimum Income Protection?2013In: Minimum Income Protection Flux / [ed] Marx, I, Nelson, K, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 1-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current economic crisis has presented itself as a formidable challenge to the welfare states of Europe. It is more relevant than ever to ask: do existing minimum income protection schemes succeed in adequately protecting citizens, be it whether they are excluded from work, working, retired, or having children? Drawing on in-depth and up-to-date institutional data from across Europe and the US, this volume details the reality of minimum income protection policies over time. Including contributions from leading scholars in the field, each chapter provides a systematic cross-national analysis of minimum income protection policies, developing concrete policy guidance on an issue at the heart of the European debate.

  • 13.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Note on Immigrant Representation in Temporary Agency Work and Self-employment in Sweden2008In: LABOUR, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 495-507Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. te Grotenhuis, Manfred
    et al.
    Pelzer, Ben
    Eisinga, Rob
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schmidt-Catran, Alexander
    Konig, Ruben
    A novel method for modelling interaction between categorical variables2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 427-431Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Holmlund, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Researcher's Guide to the Swedish Compulsory School Reform2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying different types of returns to education, educational reforms are commonly used in the economics literature as a source of exogenous variation in education. The Swedish compulsory school reform is one example; the reform extended compulsory education throughout the country, in different municipalities at different points in time. Such variation across cohorts and regions can be used in a differences-in-differences framework, in order to estimate causal effects of education. This paper provides a guide to researchers who consider using the Swedish reform in an empirical analysis: I present a description and background of the reform, provide some baseline results, a reliability analysis of the reform coding, a discussion of whether the reform is a valid instrument, and comment on the interpretation of IV estimates of returns to schooling.

  • 16.
    Gränsmark, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Rib Less Makes you Consistent but Impatient: A Gender Comparison of Expert Chess Players2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents empirical findings on gender differences in time preference and time inconsistency which are based on international chess data from 1.5 million expert games. Controls are included for age, nationality and playing strength where the latter accounts for gender differences in productivity. Impatience is measured by considering preferences for different game durations. Inconsistency is measured by exploiting the 40th move time control, where over-consumption of thinking time is inefficient. The results reveal that men are more impatient while women are more time inconsistent. Moreover, the difference in impatience increases with expertise while the difference in inconsistency decreases.

     

  • 17. Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Halldén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Scandinavian success story? Women’s labour market outcomes in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current research, the extensive family policies of the Scandinavian countries have been problematized and described as hampering women's careers. However, mechanisms have been little investigated and the Scandinavian countries are often regarded as a single policy model. Based on an account of institutional variety we study gender gaps in hourly wages and access to authority positions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and explore the importance of segregation, skills and work interruptions. The analysis uses pooled cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey (ESS) for 2004 and 2010. The results show that gender gaps vary both in size and regarding the mechanisms producing them. In particular, we find that gender segregation has a radically different impact in the four countries. The analysis suggests that the mechanisms linking family policies to labour market outcomes are more complex than envisaged in the current debate and point to the importance of comparing seemingly similar countries.

  • 18.
    Ström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A shared experience: studies on families and unemployment2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper I Unemployment and families. A review of research The purpose of this paper is to offer a broad review of research on the consequences of unemployment for families and family members. A large number of empirical studies have been divided into subgroups according to subject: unemployed individuals and the couple; the spouses of unemployed individuals; and the children of unemployed individuals. The discussion of the studies focuses on the extent to which observed effects can be ascribed specifically to unemployment, and the importance of other factors, such as intervening variables. Although there are some dissenting voices, most studies focusing on unemployment and families do suggest that the unemployed and their families are exposed to adverse events and circumstances to a greater extent than other people. However, precisely what role unemployment plays in this, and what significance other related factors have, is still largely unclear.

    Paper II Keep out of the reach of children. Parental unemployment and children’s accident risks in Sweden 1991-1993 In the early 1990s, unemployment levels increased dramatically in Sweden. Although the effects of unemployment on unemployed individuals are well documented, research on parental unemployment and children has been limited. The aim of the present study is to explore the relationship between parental unemployment and the risk of accidents to children in Sweden during the period 1991–1993. Two independent samples are used: the Swedish Level of Living Survey 1991 (original sample 6,733 individuals) and the Swedish Longitudinal Study among Unemployed 1992–1993 (original sample 792). The samples were taken during periods of low and high unemployment. The results indicate that parental unemployment is associated with an increased risk of accidents among children in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The increased risk does not seem to be due to the effects of adverse selection into unemployment on parental well-being, financial difficulties or alcohol consumption. It is also suggested that low parental well-being is of causal significance within the unemployed group.

    Paper III Unemployment and gendered divisions of domestic labor A certain level of gender inequality prevails both in families and in societies, regardless of which countries are studied. This is, among other things, intimately associated with the fact that women have the main responsibility for home and family. Here, I study whether unemployment is associated with alterations in the gendered division of domestic labor among Swedish men and women. Levels of domestic labor activity during periods of unemployment are explored, as well as the question of whether any associations persist after the individual re-enters employment. The data materials used are the Swedish Longitudinal Study among Unemployed 1992-1993, as well as the Swedish Level of Living Survey from 1991. The results indicate that although gender is the best predictor of levels of domestic labor activity, labor market status also affects levels of domestic labor activity. In other words, women are more active than men are, but the unemployed are more active compared with the employed. The hypothesis that male unemployment is associated with a more equal division of domestic labor is thus supported. For women, the hypothesis that unemployment is related to an exacerbated unequal division of domestic labor receives support. It however appears questionable whether unemployment has any permanent effects on activity in domestic labor, since the re-employed decrease their domestic labor activity.

    Paper IV Unemployment and the first birth. Swedish couples 1991-2000 The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between unemployment and fertility in Sweden during the period 1991-2000, with particular emphasis on gender differences. This period was characterized by high unemployment as well as very low total fertility. Given that the decision option is available, characteristics of both presumptive parents are likely to influence the decision as to whether, and if so when, to have a child. Even so, previous research has focused on the individual rather than the couple. The present study uses couple data from the 1991 and 2000 Level of Living Surveys and register data from the Swedish Labor Market Board. The findings indicate that unemployment on the individual level is unrelated to first-birth intensities regardless of which spouse is unemployed. What does appear to be related to first-birth intensities, however, is the couples’ educational level, which is used here as a proxy for prospects on the labor market.

  • 19.
    Tåhlin, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A tale of two distinctions: The significance of job requirements and informal workplace training for the training gap2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20. Lindahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA, Germany .
    Sandgren-Massih, Sofia
    Sjögren, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Uppsala Center for Labor Studies, Sweden.
    A Test of the Becker-Tomes Model of Human Capital Transmission Using Microdata on Four Generations2014In: Journal of Human Capital, ISSN 1932-8575, E-ISSN 1932-8664, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 80-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the well-known Becker-Tomes model of intergenerational transmission of human capital. A Swedish data set, which links individual measures on educational attainments of four generations, enables us to use great-grandparents' education as an instrumental variable. The identifying assumption, which holds within the Becker-Tomes framework, is that great-grandparents' education is unrelated to great-grandchildren's education, conditional on the education of the parent and grandparent. We test the model's prediction that the structural parameter for grandparents' education enters with a negative sign in an intergenerational regression model.

  • 21.
    Farm, Ante
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A Theory of Vacancies2005Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Celikaksoy, Emine Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    A wage premium or penalty: An analysis of endogamous marriage effects among the children of immigrants?2007In: Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0028-0453, Vol. 145, no 3, p. 288-311Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bos, Marieke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Accept or Reject: Do Immigrants Have LessAccess to Bank Credit?Evidence from Swedish Pawnshop Customers2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies to what extent immigrants have less access to main-stream credit than their native counterparts. For this purpose I use a large,unique data set with a panel of Swedish pawnshop customers. The data al-low me to investigate to what extent pawnshop customers actively apply formainstream bank credit and how successful they are by comparing credit ap-plications from immigrants and natives and the corresponding bank decisions.I do not Önd that immigrants have a di§erent propensity to apply for main-stream bank credit. However, I do Önd that banks have a lower propensity togrant loans to immigrants from African descent compared to their Nordic-borncounterparts. Robustness tests based on data from recent immigrants onlysuggest that the demand for credit varies with the duration of residence whiledi§erences in loan-granting rates are enduring.

  • 24.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Access to Education Over the Working Life in Sweden: Priorities, Institutions and Efficiency2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate individuals to adjust their skills to changes in market demands, Sweden has a relatively generous policy to stimulate formal adult education at the compulsory, upper secondary and tertiary levels. This paper provides an overview of what research has reported to assess if and/or how it may be an efficient use of tax payers' money. Some institutional factors are also briefly presented to discuss what is likely to be required for such a policy to exist in a particular country.

  • 25.
    Hirvonen, Lalaina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Accounting for Intergenerational Earnings Persistence: Can We Distinguish Between Education, Skills, and Health?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the difficulty in disentangling the underlying channels of intergenerational earnings persistence by means of path analysis and recursive models. On closer examination, these models manifest their shortcomings as regards accounting for how parental earnings have a direct impact on their offspring's earnings, but also have an effect through other factors such as education, skills and health. The estimated effects of these mediating factors are likely to capture the influence of other mechanisms not taken into account in the analysis. Nonetheless, the results suggest that education is the most important mechanism in the earnings transmission process, although it is sensitive to the inclusion of other covariates and the order in which these are entered into the equation. Nonlinear specifications suggest that the effect of a father's earnings on his son's has the greatest impact primarily through education and IQ in the upper middle categories of the earnings distribution of the fathers, while health status is of secondary importance.

     

  • 26.
    Hirvonen, Lalaina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Accounting for Intergenerational Earnings Persistence: Can We Distinguish Between Education, Skills, and Health?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the difficulty in disentangling the underlying channels of intergenerational earnings persistence by means of path analysis and recursive models. On closer examination, these models manifest their shortcomings as regards accounting for how parental earnings have a direct impact on their offspring's earnings, but also have an effect through other factors such as education, skills and health. The estimated effects of these mediating factors are likely to capture the influence of other mechanisms not taken into account in the analysis. Nonetheless, the results suggest that education is the most important mechanism in the earnings transmission process, although it is sensitive to the inclusion of other covariates and the order in which these are entered into the equation. Nonlinear specifications suggest that the effect of a father’s earnings on his son’s has the greatest impact primarily through education and IQ in the upper middle categories of the earnings distribution of the fathers, while health status is of secondary importance.

     

     

  • 27.
    Kjellsson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Accumulated occupational class and self-rated health. Can information on previous experience of class further our understanding of the social gradient in health?2013In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 81, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a social gradient in health with better health for people in more advantaged positions in society. This research has mainly been on the relationship between current position and health, or social position in childhood and health, but less is known about the potential accumulative impact of positions held in adulthood. In this paper I use the economic activity histories from the Swedish Level of Living survey to examine the relationship between accumulated occupational class positions and health. Step-wise linear probability models are used to investigate how to best capture the potential association between class experience and self-rated health (SRH), and whether the effect of current class is modified when measures of accumulated class are included. I then further test the potentially lasting association between previous exposure to the health risk of working class by analysing only individuals currently in higher or intermediate level service class; the classes under least exposure. I find a positive association between accumulated experiences of working class and less than good SRH. Furthermore, even for employees currently in non-manual positions the risk for less than good SRH increases with each added year of previous experience within working class. This suggests that the social gradient can be both accumulative and lasting, and that more information on the mechanisms of health disparities can be found by taking detailed information on peoples' pasts into account. Although gender differences in health are not a focus in this paper, results also indicate that the influence of class experiences on health might differ between men and women.

  • 28.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Activation Policy in Sweden2007In: Activation policies in Europe, Brussels: Peter Lang , 2007, p. 127-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Koerselman, Kristian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Admissible statistics of educational achievement scores2010In: Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5 / [ed] María Jesús Mancebón-Torrubia, Domingo P. Ximénez-de-Embún, José María Gómez-Sancho, Gregorio Giménez Esteban, Madrid: Aede, asociacion de economia de la educacion , 2010, p. 781-796Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor economists regularly regress educational achievement scores on covariates to examine what acts achievement. I discuss the measurement and interpretation of achievement scores, and argue that, as the scores are typically measured on an ordinal scale, their analysis in terms of higher level statistics such as means is inappropriate, and that we should use quantile-based analysis instead. I investigate how large possible bias from mean-based methods is by comparing test score distributions to the distribution of monetary value of the same scores. In most cases, the bias will be quantitatively small, and conclusions qualitatively robust.

  • 30. Pape, Hilde
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Adolescent drinking – a touch of social class?2017In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 792-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To estimate whether parental socio-economic status (SES) is associated with adolescent drinking, and the degree to which a possible association may be accounted for by various parental factors.

    Design and setting

    Cross-sectional Norwegian school survey from 2006 (response rate: 86%).

    Participants

    Students aged 13–14 years (n = 5797), 15–16 years (n = 6613) and 17–18 years (n = 5351), of whom 51% were girls.

    Measurements

    Parents' education was our main SES indicator, and we distinguished between low (7%) and middle/high (93%) educational level. The outcomes comprised past-year drinking and intoxication. We also applied measures on general parenting, parents' alcohol-related permissiveness and parental intoxication. The main analyses were conducted using Poisson regression.

    Findings

    Parents' education had no statistically significant impact on alcohol use among the 17–18-year-olds, while 13–16-year-olds with low educated parents had an elevated relative risk (RR) of both drinking [RR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–1.29] and intoxication (RR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.21–1.44). The RRs became statistically insignificant when including all the parental factors as covariates in the regression models. Among adolescents who had consumed alcohol, low parental education was related to more frequent drinking (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.11–1.38) and intoxication episodes (RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.22–1.66). Again, the RRs became statistically insignificant when we accounted for all the parental factors. This pattern was replicated when we applied an alternative indicator for low parental SES.

    Conclusions

    Adolescent drinking in Norway appears to be related inversely to parents' social standing. The elevated risk of low socio-economic status vanishes when general parenting, alcohol-related parental permissiveness and parents' drinking are accounted for.

  • 31.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Adolescent time preferences predict lifetime outcomes2014In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 124, no 580, p. F739-F761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between time preferences and lifetime social and economic outcomes. We use a Swedish longitudinal data set that links information from a large survey on children's time preferences at age 13 to administrative registers spanning over five decades. Our results indicate a substantial adverse relationship between high discount rates and school performance, health, labour supply and lifetime income. Males and high-ability children gain significantly more from being future oriented. These discrepancies are largest regarding outcomes later in life. We also show that the relationship between time preferences and long-run outcomes operates through early human capital investments.

  • 32.
    Torssander, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Adult children's socioeconomic positions and their parents' mortality: a comparison of education, occupational class, and income2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 122, p. 148-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that the parents of well-educated children live longer than do other parents and that this association is only partly confounded by the parent's own socioeconomic position. However, the relationships between other aspects of children's socioeconomic position (e.g., occupational class and economic resources) and parental mortality have not been examined. Using the Swedish Multi-generation Register that connects parents to their children, this paper studies the associations of children's various socioeconomic resources (education, occupation, and income) and parents' mortality. The models are adjusted for a range of parental socioeconomic resources and include the resources of the parents' partners. In addition to all-cause mortality, five causes of death are analyzed separately (circulatory disease mortality, overall cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer). The results show net associations between all included indicators of children's socioeconomic position and parents' mortality risk, with the clearest association for education. Children's education is significantly associated with all of the examined causes of death except prostate cancer. Breast cancer mortality is negatively related to offspring's education but not the mothers' own education. To conclude, children's education seems to be a key factor compared with other dimensions of socioeconomic position in the offspring generation. This finding suggests that explanations linked to behavioral norms or knowledge are more plausible than those linked to access to material resources. However, it is possible that children's education to a greater degree than class and income captures unmeasured parental characteristics. The cause-specific analyses imply that future research should investigate whether offspring's socioeconomic position is linked to the likelihood of developing diseases and/or the chances of treating them. A broader family perspective in the description and explanations of social inequalities in health that includes the younger generation may increase our understanding of why these inequalities persist across the life course.

  • 33.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Adult Education for a Better Society?2008Book (Refereed)
  • 34. Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina
    et al.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Adult Learning, Labor Market Outcomes, and Inequality: The Case of Sweden2014In: Adult Learning in Modern Societies: An International Comparison from a Life-Course Perspective / [ed] Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Elina Kilpi-Jakonen, Daniela Vono de Vilhena, Sandra Buchholz, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 184-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35. Ermisch, John
    et al.
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Smeeding, Timothy
    Wilson, James A.
    Advantage in Comparative Perspective2012In: From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage / [ed] Ermisch, John; JÀntti, Markus; Smeeding, Timothy, Russell Sage Foundation , 2012, p. 3-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Affluence, Happiness, Meaningfulness or Freedom of Action? On Measuring Quality of Life to Assess Societal Development2018In: Nova Acta Leopoldina, ISSN 0369-5034, Vol. 417, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a gap in school performance between native and immigrant pupils in Sweden.This article analyzes the role of age at immigration, which is believed to be an importantdeterminant of this gap, since it is inversely related to the time spent acquiring Swedenspecificskills before graduation. The analysis exploits within-family variation in a largeset of register data on immigrant siblings (and native children) graduating fromcompulsory school between 1988 and 2003. The estimated negative impact from shortduration of residence prior to graduation is significantly less than the one observed usinga standard cross-sectional approach which fails to net out family-fixed effects. Thecritical age at arrival is about 10. Above this age, there is a strong negative impact onperformance, where the sibling-difference estimates are 27-54 percent less negative thanthe cross-sectional ones. The results show both similarities and striking differencesbetween boys and girls and between children of different origin. Moreover, children withshort duration of residence perform significantly better in mathematics than in a range ofsubjects taken together. This demonstrates the importance of Sweden-specific skills.

  • 38.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register DataManuscript (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Age at Immigration and School Performance: A Siblings Analysis Using Swedish Register Data2008In: Labour Economics, Vol. 15, p. 1366-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Bodin, Theo
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ageing workers and an extended working life2017In: Arbetslivet och socialförsäkringen: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 13–14 januari 2016, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2017, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41. Mikami, Fumiko
    et al.
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Aging and the Labour Force in Japan and Sweden2008In: Welfare Policy and Labour Markets - The Japanese and Swedish Models under Transition, Japan: Norudikku Shuppan (Nordic (Förlag)) , 2008, p. 261-291Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alcohol and homocide in the United States - is the link dependent on wetness?2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 458-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Several aggregate-level studies have suggested that the relationship between alcohol and homicide is stronger in countries with an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern than in countries where drinking is more tempered. The present paper extends this research tradition by analysing the alcohol–homicide link in various regions in the USA.

    Design and Methods. I used annual time-series data for the US states covering the period 1950–2002. Alcohol sales figures were used as proxy for alcohol consumption. Mortality data were used as indicators of homicide. The states were sorted into three groups labelled Dry, Moderate and Wet, where the last group has the highest prevalence of hazardous drinking according to survey data. Group-specific data were analysed using (i) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and (ii) fixed effects modelling. All modelling was based on differenced data, thus eliminating time trends and interstate correlations, both of which may bias estimates.

    Results. The ARIMA estimates displayed a statistically significant gradient in alcohol effects; the effect was strongest in Wet, and weakest and insignificant in Dry states. The fixed-effects estimates showed a corresponding pattern, although the gradient was less steep and insignificant. The gradient was also weakened if the effects were expressed in absolute rather than relative terms. The spatial pattern revealed no ecological correlation between alcohol and homicide.

    Discussion and Conclusions. Results provided mixed support for the hypothesis that the relationship between alcohol and homicide is stronger in wet than in dry states in the USA. Future research should probe more specific indicators of homicide as well as alcohol consumption.

  • 43. Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Jukkala, Tanya
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alcohol and Suicide in Russia, 1870-1894 and 1956-2005:  Evidence for the Continuation of a Harmful Drinking Culture Across Time?2011In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 341-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Previous research suggests that a strong relation exists between alcohol consumption and suicide in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. This study extends this analysis across a much longer historical time frame by examining the relationship between heavy drinking and suicide in tsarist and post-World War II Russia. Method: Using alcohol poisoning mortality data as a proxy for heavy drinking, time-series analytical modeling techniques were used to examine the strength of the alcohol–suicide relation in the provinces of European Russia in the period 1870-1894 and for Russia in 1956-2005. Results: During 1870-1894, a decreasing trend was recorded in heavy drinking in Russia that contrasted with the sharp increase observed in this phenomenon in the post-World War II period. A rising trend in suicide was recorded in both study periods, although the increase was much greater in the latter period. The strength of the heavy drinking–suicide relation nevertheless remained unchanged across time, with a 10% increase in heavy drinking resulting in a 3.5% increase in suicide in tsarist Russia and a 3.8% increase in post-World War II Russia. Conclusions: Despite the innumerable societal changes that have occurred in Russia across the two study periods and the growth in the level of heavy drinking, the strength of the heavy drinking–suicide relation has remained unchanged across time. This suggests the continuation of a highly detrimental drinking culture where the heavy episodic drinking of distilled spirits (vodka) is an essential element in the alcohol–suicide association.

  • 44.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Niknami, Susan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alcohol availability and arime: lessons from liberalized weekend sales restrictions2014In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 81, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate a large-scale experimental scheme implemented in Sweden whereby the state in the year 2000 required all alcohol retail stores in selected areas to stay open on Saturdays. The purpose of the scheme was to evaluate possible social consequences of expanding access to alcohol during weekends. Using rich individual level data we show that this increase in alcohol availability raised both alcohol use and crime.

  • 45.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Niknami, Susan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alcohol Availability and Crime: Lessons from Liberalized Weekend Sales Restrictions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In February 2000, the Swedish state monopoly alcohol retail company launched a largescale experiment in which all stores in selected counties were allowed to keep open onSaturdays. We assess the effects on crime of this expansion in access to alcohol. Toisolate the impact of the experiment from other factors, we compare conviction rates inage cohorts above and below the national drinking age restriction in counties where theexperiment had been implemented, and contrast these differences to those in countiesthat still prohibited weekend alcohol commerce. Our analysis relies on extensiveindividual conviction data that have been merged to population registers. Afterdemonstrating that Saturday opening of alcohol shops significantly raised alcohol sales,we show that it also increased crime. The increase is confined to crimes committed onSaturdays and is driven by illegal activity among individuals with low ability and amongpersons with fathers that have completed at least some secondary education. Althoughthe increases in crime and alcohol sales were slightly higher during the initial phase ofthe experiment, our evidence suggests that both effects persist over time. Our analysisreveals that the social costs linked to the experiment exceed the monetary benefits. 

  • 46.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in the United States, 1950-20022007In: Contempory Drug Problems, Vol. 34, p. 513-525Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Jiang, Heng
    et al.
    Livingstone, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia .
    Dietze, Paul
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kerr, William C.
    Alcohol Consumption and Liver Disease in Australia: A Time Series Analysis of the Period 1935–20062014In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the study was to examine for Australia whether the link between population alcohol consumption and liver disease mortality varies over time, using 71 years of data. Methods: Overall and gender-specific rates of liver disease mortality were analysed in relation to total alcohol consumption as well as for different beverage types by using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time series methods. Separate models were developed for the entire time period and for two sub-periods (1935–1975, 1976–2006). Results: A 1-l increase in adult per capita consumption of pure alcohol led to a rise of ∼10% in overall liver disease mortality rates and a 11 and 9% increase in female and male liver disease mortality, respectively. The strength of the relationship between per capita consumption and liver disease mortality diminished over time. Spirits consumption was found to be the main driving factor in liver mortality rates between 1935 and 1975, while beer consumption was found to be the most significant predictor in liver diseases in the last three decades. In a comparative perspective, the effect of per capita alcohol consumption on liver disease in Australia is similar to the USA, Southern and Eastern Europe countries, but weaker than in Canada and western European countries. Conclusion: An increase in per capita alcohol consumption in Australia is likely to lead to an increase in liver disease. Changes in the most important beverage over the study period suggest substantial shifts in drinking patterns and preferences among the heaviest Australian drinkers.

  • 48. Sherk, Adam
    et al.
    Stockwell, Tim
    Chikritzhs, Tanya
    Andréasson, Sven
    Angus, Colin
    Gripenberg, Johanna
    Holder, Harold
    Holmes, John
    Mäkelä, Pia
    Mills, Megan
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Woods, Jonathan
    Alcohol Consumption and the Physical Availability of Take-Away Alcohol: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of the Days and Hours of Sale and Outlet Density2018In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were completed studying the effect of changes in the physical availability of take-away alcohol on per capita alcohol consumption. Previous reviews examining this topic have not focused on off-premise outlets where take-away alcohol is sold and have not completed meta-analyses. Method: Systematic reviews were conducted separately for policies affecting the temporal availability (days and hours of sale) and spatial availability (outlet density) of take-away alcohol. Studies were included up to December 2015. Quality criteria were used to select articles that studied the effect of changes in these policies on alcohol consumption with a focus on natural experiments. Random-effects meta-analyses were applied to produce the estimated effect of an additional day of sale on total and beverage-specific consumption. Results: Separate systematic reviews identifi ed seven studies regarding days and hours of sale and four studies regarding density. The majority of articles included in these systematic reviews, for days/hours of sale (7/7) and outlet density (3/4), concluded that restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol reduces per capita alcohol consumption. Meta-analyses studying the ef-fect of adding one additional day of sale found that this was associated with per capita consumption increases of 3.4% (95% CI [2.7, 4.1]) for total alcohol, 5.3% (95% CI [3.2, 7.4]) for beer, 2.6% (95% CI [1.8, 3.5]) for wine, and 2.6% (95% CI [2.1, 3.2]) for spirits. The small number of included studies regarding hours of sale and density precluded meta-analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that decreasing the physical availability of take-away alcohol will decrease per capita consumption. As decreasing per capita consumption has been shown to reduce alcohol-related harm, restricting the physical availability of take-away alcohol would be expected to result in improvements to public health.

  • 49.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Alcohol Consumption as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review of Associations at the Individual and at the Population Level2016In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, no 20, p. 489-506Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to provide an updated review of the magnitude of the relationship between alcohol use and suicidal behaviour at the individual and the population level. Systematic literature searches retrieved 14 reviews of individual level studies and 16 primary population level studies. Alcohol abuse and alcohol intoxication are often present in suicidal behaviour; risk of suicide is elevated in alcohol abusers and increasing population drinking tends to be associated with increase in suicide rates. Estimated magnitude of the relationship differs for men and women and it varies at the population level across cultures with different drinking pattern. These variations probably reflect gender differences and cultural variation in drinking behavior generally. Empirical evidence for a causal relationship is still urgently needed.

  • 50.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Pape, H.
    Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence2010In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 105, no 9, p. 1580-1586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Is alcohol related causally to violence, and if so, is the effect of drinking contingent on suppressed anger such that it is strongest among individuals who are highly inclined to withhold angry feelings? We addressed these questions by analysing panel data using a method that diminishes the effects of confounding factors. Design We analysed data on heavy episodic drinking and violent behaviour from the second (1994) and third (1999) waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study ( n = 2697; response rate: 67%). The first difference method was applied to estimate the association between these behaviours, implying that changes in the frequency of violence were regressed on changes in the frequency of drinking. Hence, the effects of time-invariant confounders were eliminated. Analyses were conducted for the whole sample, and for groups scoring low, medium and high on a short version of the STAXI anger suppression scale. Findings Changes in drinking were related positively and significantly to changes in violent behaviour, but the alcohol effect varied with the level of suppressed anger: it was strongest in the high-anger group (elasticity estimate = 0.053, P = 0.011) and weakest (and insignificant) in the low-anger group (elasticity estimate = 0.004, P = 0.806). Conclusions Alcohol use may be related causally to violence, but the effect of drinking is confined to individuals who are inclined to suppress their angry feelings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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