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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bartning, Inge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Erman, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. English department, Stockholm.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Forsberg Lundell, Fanny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Föremålet för inlärning [kap. 3]2014In: avancerad andraspråksanvändning: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag , 2014, no 2, 20-46 p., M2005-0459Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Figures of Speech2003Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Fixed, flexible, or fragmentary?: Types of idiom variation2007In: Collocations and Idioms 1: Papers from the First Nordic Conference on Syntactic Freezes, Joensuu, May 19–20, 2006, Joensuu, Faculty of Humanities, University of Joensuu , 2007, 14–26- p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Heading for witty poeticity: wordplay in headlines in The Times Literary Supplement2010In: Humour in language: textual and linguistic aspects / [ed] Anders Bengtsson & Victorine Hancock, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2010, 15-29 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Iconicity and poeticity in the discourse functions of figures of speech2011In: Selected papers from the 2008 Stockholm Metaphor Festival / [ed] Christina Alm-Arvius, Nils-Lennart Johannesson & David Minugh, Stockholm: Department of English, 2011, 95-137 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study deals with the nature of poeticity and iconicity and their role in the discourse functions of figures of speech: schemes and tropes. The concept of poeticity is that of Roman Jakobson. The poetic function is a particular kind of meaning which is created from language-internal material. It is found in rhythmic schematic repetition and more deliberate tropes whose poetic qualities seem foregrounded and aesthetically designed. Accordingly, they will have rhetorical and mnemonic potential. Moreover, poetic uses will have a monistic character, as their form and meaning will fuse, and this may make it difficult to translate and paraphrase them. Metonymic instantiations and conventional, entrenched metaphors will not be noticeably poetic, but the semantic status of a given use will be a result of more specific discourse factors. The poetic function can interact with factually descriptive, affective, and interpersonal meanings, which are extra-linguistically oriented, as well as with meaningful textual structuring. Poeticity is found in many different text types. It will be a global organisational feature in poetry, but tends only to occur locally in prose. In addition, prototypical iconicity concerns motivated similarity between a linguistic form and the kind of phenomenon out in the world that it represents. However, iconicity has also been used about the similarity relation between e.g. a metaphorical meaning and its source. Iconicity and poeticity often occur together, and they will strengthen and help to foreground each other’s characters.

  • 6.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Incidental nominal compounds in the Skellefte dialect: An example of the interface between word formation and syntax2000In: Language structure and variation, Almqvist & Wiksell International , 2000Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Introduction to Semantics1998Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Lexical polysemy2007In: Further Insights into Semantics and Lexicography, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin , 2007, 43–55- p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Live, moribund and dead metaphors2006In: Nordic Journal of English Studies: Special issue on metaphors, Vol. 5, no 1, 7-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Metaphor and Metonymy2008In: Selected Papers from the 2006 and 2007 Stockholm Metaphor Festivals / [ed] N.-L. Johannesson & D. Minugh, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis , 2008, 2, 3-24 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this article metonymy and metaphor are described in relation to the notion of poetic meaning, the definitional feature shared by all types of figurative uses. Even if both these types of tropes will draw on encyclopaedic experiences, or pre- or extra-linguistic cognitive complexes, they are also formed in relation to established structures in a language system. In other words, their occurrence shows how intertwined linguistic knowledge and experientially based cognition will be. Moreover, it is arguable that at least “fully alive” metaphors will have a more noticeable poetic and figurative character than metonymic uses. The reason for this is that a metaphor brings together domains that are felt to be similar in some respect, although they are also clearly different. In this imaginative coalescence many features in the source are suppressed, and a kind of “fake” superordinate category is created: the generalised target meaning. It spans both the ordinarily concrete source and some other phenomenon, often something more abstract. The poetic or figurative character of metonymies is by comparison more inconspicuous, presumably because they constitute descriptive or referential shortcuts in relation to just one meronymically structured domain or chain of contiguous domains.

  • 11.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Polysemy: conventional and incidental cases2011In: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 4, 11-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polysemy is a key question in the field of semantics. Empirical observations, analysis and description of polysemy are important for theoretical considerations and development as well as for applied linguistics, e.g. lexicography.

    Polysemy occurs when a lexical unit or a construction is used to represent different but also related meanings. Polysemous variation is either conventional and systematic or the result of merely incidental, contextually induced meaning shifts. A polyseme has one or more distinct and entrenched sense potentials, but they sometimes combine or fuse in actual language use. In addition, there are more general types of regular polysemy that are only pragmatically instantiated, as well as idiosyncratic and unpredictable meaning changes. By comparison, a monosemic element has only one conventional sense, while homonyms just happen to be formally identical although their meanings are not related.

    Important factors in polysemous variation are (i) the occurrence of different types of meaning, or language functions, (ii) differences in experiential domain connections, and (iii) differences in sense relations. The following types of polysemous variation have been recognised: collocational tailoring, domain shift, metaphor, metonymy, perspective shift, value reversal, irony, emotive colouring, interpersonal signal, and idiom breaking.  

  • 12.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Semantics and pragmatics2008In: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 1, no 1, 29-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Christina Alm-Arvius

    English Department,

    Stockholm University

    SE106 91 Stockholm

    Sweden

    Christina.Alm-Arvius@English.su.se

    http://www.english.su.se/

     

     

    Semantics and Pragmatics

     

    Abstract:

    Meanings in natural language use can be either systematic or incidental, but all the same it does not appear possible to identify a set of consistent and non-contradictory criteria for distinguishing two general contrasting meaning categories termed semantics and pragmatics respectively. Instead the most valid theoretical description seems to be to include any possible meanings of a language, or its use, in the qualitative notion of semantics, and, in addition, recognise the occurrence of incidental pragmatic meaning variations and additions. In other words, semantics is the wider or superordinate category, encompassing all and any language meanings, while pragmatics is a smaller, subordinate category, including only situationally induced or personally variable meaning aspects.

     

    Key words: deixis, implicatures, pragmatics, presuppositions, reference, semantics, semantics of understanding, speech acts, truth-conditional semantics

  • 13.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Word-Class Status of Worth1995In: Studies in Anglistics, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 1995Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Trolls2012In: Metaphor in Use: Context, culture, and communication / [ed] Fiona MacArthur et al., Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, 309-327 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The persistent occurrence of the noun troll in Swedish indicates that it is a culturally entrenched notion in Sweden as well as in other Scandinavian countries. The aim of this chapter is to explore the use of troll in modern Swedish and to show how culturally-entrenched concepts, and the attitudes that are associated with them, are integrated in the language of a speech community as part of its heritage. The noun has a complex and variable sense potential, and both literal and metaphorical uses of the noun are attitudinally coloured, although these attitudes may be ambiguous and even contradictory. Using linguistic evidence gathered from dictionaries and Internet sources, this chapter describes and discusses the rich and partly antithetical set of attitudes expressed by the conventional and novel metaphorical expressions that draw on this Scandinavian mythological concept, and briefly compares Swedish uses of troll with those found in English, finding that even though the word is used also in this comparatively closely related language, it is devoid of the rich cultural associations of the donor term.

     

  • 15.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Vad är det för mening med joyceanskan i Finnegan's Wake?2004In: Circularrundbrev, Vol. 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    We shall soon grow to know each other better: Know, a gradable verb2004In: An International Master of Syntax and Semantics: Gothenburg Studies in English 88, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, Gothenburg , 2004, 21–30- p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Seiler Brylla, CharlottaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.Shaw, PhilipStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Computer mediated discourse across languages2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Seiler Brylla, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Shaw, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Introduction2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Alvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 1, 11-16 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "I know that women don't like me!": Presuppositions in therapeutic discourse2009In: Journal of Pragmatics: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language Studies, ISSN 0378-2166, Vol. 41, no 4, 721-737 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest problems concerning presuppositions has been correctly dealing with their sensitivity to the context, i.e. why inferences triggered by certain expressions do not project out in all linguistic environments, even though the triggering words preserve their semantic content in different settings. The answer which is of particular interest here goes along with the principles of the binding theory of presuppositions developed by van der Sandt (1992). According to this theory, presuppositions behave asanaphors and can be resolved in the same way at the level of discourse representation.

    This article contributes to a very scarce body of empirical work on presuppositions, as it scrutinizes examples of presuppositions that act like discourse anaphors in the context of three psychotherapeutic sessions. Such sessions can be analyzed in the same way as ordinary spoken discourse; however, the initial premise that the usage of presuppositions differs in this genre in comparison to daily interaction is confirmed. The results of both quantitative and qualitative analysis indicate that presuppositions are used for different strategic reasons in the two genres compared, which influences the way they should be interpreted and also their frequency.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    RESULT and PURPOSE relations with and without 'so'2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 148, 1-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence relations differ in their tendency to be explicitly marked. How such relations are recognized and what determines their tendency to be marked is a matter of debate. The connective so represents a special case: it can be used to signal RESULT coherence relations and the more specific cause-effect relation of PURPOSE, but overt marking has been claimed to be required for PURPOSE and optional for RESULT. We present written corpus and experimental results on the use of so that show that RESULT and PURPOSE with this connective can be reliably distinguished from each other, and that the modal auxiliaries can/could and will/would are strongly associated with PURPOSE. In the corpus study, PURPOSE always occurs with explicit so, while RESULT is often left unmarked. These results are in line with recent claims based on annotated corpus data that implicit (unmarked) and explicit (marked) coherence relations can be qualitatively different (e.g. Sporleder and Lascarides, 2008; Webber, 2009). However, in our experiments using strongly purposive event pairs, 35-40% of examples were identified as PURPOSE without a connective or a modal verb cue. We argue that the difference between the corpus results and the experimental results can be explained as a difference between the tasks of speakers and hearers, and we outline an explanation for how marking can be obligatory for PURPOSE relations and yet optional for RESULT. We also propose that nonveridicality seems to play a key role in a marking requirement for PURPOSE, and explain why the unusual marking pattern found makes it difficult to give a pragmatic account similar to more well-known language asymmetries.

  • 21.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Erman, BrittStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language and Gender from Linguistic and Textual Perspectives2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Beckman, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Ambivalent Screens: Quentin Tarantino and the Power of Vision2015In: Film-Philosophy, ISSN 1466-4615, Vol. 19, 85-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reveling in the self-reflexive and the metacinematic, Quentin Tarantino's films are often associated with a Baudrillardian postmodernity. His most recent Inglorious Basterds (2009) continues in the same self-referential vein as his earlier films but adds a blatant falsification of history which pushes the question of the reality and images even further. But, this essay asks, is a Baudrillardian perspective the most fruitful one in comprehending the creative potential of Tarantino's latest film? Moving from Baudrillard through Virilio to Deleuze and Guattari, the essay explores ways in which the film's investment in vision and screens opens for a creative and enabling engagement with images - not cinema as truth, as Deleuze would have it, but the truth of cinema. As such, Tarantino's in many ways outrageous film provides an important contribution to analyzes of the relation between perceptions of the image and conceptions of the real and contributes to the politically crucial endeavor of understanding what images 'want.'

  • 23.
    Beckman, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Becoming Pawn: Alice, Arendt and the New in Narrative2014In: Journal of Narrative Theory, ISSN 1549-0815, Vol. 44, no 1, 1-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Beckman, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Culture Control Critique: Allegories of Reading the Present2016Book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Beckman, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Freaks of Time: Reevaluating Memory and Identity through Daniel Knauf's Carnivale2012In: Time in Television Narrative: Exploring Temporality in Twenty-First-Century Programming / [ed] Melissa Ames, University Press of Mississippi, 2012, 178-189 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Beckman, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Killing Mothers: Feminisms, Love Power, and Critique: Recension av Lena Gunnarsson, The Contradictions of Love: Towards a Feminist-Realist Ontology of Sociosexuality (2014)2014In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, no 3-4, 199-205 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Beckman, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Magnus Ullén (red.) Våldsamma fantasier. Studier i fiktionsvåldets funktion och attraktion. Kulturvetenskapliga skriftserien, 2:2014. Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2014, 230 s.2014In: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, Vol. 44, no 3-4, 131-134 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Berggren, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Bedömning som lärande: Vad elever kan lära sig genom att ge feedback2014In: CEPRA-striben, ISSN 1903-8143, no 14, 45-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Berggren, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Learning from giving feedback: a study of secondary-level students 2015In: ELT Journal, ISSN 0951-0893, E-ISSN 1477-4526, Vol. 69, no 1, 58-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on how Swedish lower secondary-level students can improve their writing ability by acting as peer reviewers. It is based on an empirical study carried out in a Swedish EFL classroom, and it addresses the implementation of a teaching unit which included negotiations of a joint criteria list, feedback training, group peer reviewing, and the production of first and final drafts of the written task. Findings suggest that the peer reviewers increased their awareness of audience and genre, and that the content of the reviewed reply letters inspired subsequent revision changes affecting writing at the macro-level in particular.

  • 30.
    Beyza, Björkman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as the Lingua Franca of Engineering: The Morphosyntax of Academic Speech Events2008In: Nordic Journal of English Studies: NJES, ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 7, no 3, 103-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An analysis of polyadic lingua franca speech: A communicative strategies framework2014In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 66, 122-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an analysis of the communicative strategies (CSs) used by speakers in spoken lingua franca English (ELF) in an academic setting. The purpose of the work has primarily been to outline the CSs used in polyadic ELF speech which are used to ensure communication effectiveness in consequential situations and to present a framework that shows the different communicative functions of a number of CSs. The data comprise fifteen group sessions of naturally occurring student group-work talk in content courses at a technical university. Detailed qualitative analyses have been carried out, resulting in a framework of the communication strategies used by the speakers. The methodology here provides us with a taxonomy of CSs in natural ELF interactions. The results show that other than explicitness strategies, comprehension checks, confirmation checks and clarification requests were frequently employed CSs in the data. There were very few instances of self and other-initiated word replacement, most likely owing to the nature of the high-stakes interactions where the focus is on the task and not the language. The results overall also show that the speakers in these ELF interactions employed other-initiated strategies as frequently as self-initiated communicative strategies.

  • 32.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Attitudes towards English in university language policy documents in Sweden2015In: Attitudes towards English in Europe: English in Europe, Volume 1 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Neil Bermel, Gibson Ferguson, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, 115-138 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents a discourse analytic study of the existing language policy documents from nine Swedish universities with regard to attitudes towards English. The discourse of the language policy documents has been studied carefully to investigate how the use of English is mentioned, what main themes it occurs in and what these themes seem to indicate with regard to attitudes towards the use of English in Swedish higher education. Four main themes for English emerge from the results of the investigation: 1) English as an important language that one is required to be proficient in; 2) English is here to stay, but it needs to be used alongside the local language Swedish and other languages where possible, aiming for parallel language use; 3) English poses a threat to Swedish (and other languages); and finally 4) English used in such university settings needs to be plain, comprehensible and intelligible. The theme with the strongest presence in the documents overall is theme 2, which is also explicitly stated in the rules, regulations and guidelines in these documents. Although there are few explicit instances of theme 3 in the data, the strong presence of theme 2 reveals the underlying attitudes in the documents: Swedish as an academic language is under threat and therefore must be “maintained”, “promoted” and “protected”. The results suggest that, despite the everyday language practices (as defined by Spolsky 2004) of the individuals in these higher education settings and which language they need for their everyday tasks, the use of English seems to be encouraged only if it occurs with the local language Swedish.

  • 33.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a lingua franca in higher education: Implications for EAP2011In: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, no 22, 79-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has brought a number of changes for higher education in continental Europe and elsewhere, a major one being the increasing use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as the medium of instruction. With this change, RAP is faced with a new group of learners who will need to use it predominantly in ELF settings to communicate with speakers from other first language backgrounds. This overview paper first discusses the changes that have taken place in the field of EAP in terms of student body, followed by an outline of the main findings of research carried out on ELF These changes and the results of recent ELF research have important implications for EAP instruction and testing. It is argued here that EAP needs to be modified accordingly to cater for the needs of this group. These revolve around the two major issues: norms and standards for spoken English and target use. If the aim of EAP instruction and testing is to prepare speakers for academic settings where English is the lingua franca, the findings of ELF research need to be taken into consideration and then integrated into EAP curriculum design and testing, rethinking norms and target use. The norms and standards used by EAP instruction must be based on this realistic English, and educational resources should be deployed more realistically, including the usage of ELF, thereby validating the pluralism of English. This paper argues that any practice that excludes this perspective would be reducing EAP qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • 34.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a Lingua Franca in the business domain (BELF)2016In: Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and Agendas: English in Europe, Volume 6 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 89-92 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as an academic lingua franca: An investigation of form and communicative effectiveness2013Book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Exploring ELF: Academic English Shaped by Non-native Speakers2013In: English Language Teaching, ISSN 1916-4742, E-ISSN 1916-4750, Vol. 67, no 4, 494-497 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    From code to discourse in spoken ELF2009In: English as a lingua franca: studies and findings / [ed] Anna Mauranen, Elina Ranta, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars , 2009, 225-254 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Investigating English as a lingua franca in applied science education: Aims, methods, findings and implications2012In: Current Trends in LSP Research. Aims and Methods / [ed] Petersen, M.; Engberg, J., Bern: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, 163-186 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language ideology or language practice?: An analysis of language policy documents at Swedish universities2014In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 33, no 3-4, 335-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language practices, language beliefs, values (and ideology), and language planning or management (Spolsky 2004). The results show that the language policy documents refer heavily to official documents that have as their primary aim to protect and promote the Swedish language (e. g., the Language Act 2009), which appears to have been the point of departure for the language policy work in these settings, reflecting their protectionist stance towards the local language, Swedish. Little focus is put on actual language practices in these policy documents. The description of language practices is often limited to the description of the existing situation, based on concerns about Swedish losing ground as a result of the widespread use of English. Similarly, the notion of ELF is used primarily for description of the existing situation without sufficient guidance as to how students and staff in these university settings are to use English in their everyday practices. These results bring to the fore the question of what the purpose of university language policy documents should be with reference to a speech community's everyday practices. It is suggested here that university language policy documents would benefit from taking research on actual language practices as their starting point and base their work on research on language practices, striving to provide guidance on local choices made for communicative effectiveness.

  • 40.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Morphosyntactic variation in spoken English as a lingua franca interactions: Revisiting linguistic variety2018In: Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca / [ed] Jennifer Jenkins, Will Baker, Martin Dewey, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Peer assessment of spoken lingua franca English in tertiary education in Sweden: criterion-referenced versus norm-referenced assessment2013In: Of Butterflies and Birds, of Dialects and Genres: essays in Honour of Philip Shaw / [ed] Johannesson, N. L., Melchers, G., Björkman, B., Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 109-123 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD adviser and student interactions as a spoken academic genre2016In: The Routledge handbook of English for Academic Purposes / [ed] Ken Hyland, Philip Shaw, Routledge, 2016, 348-361 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervision meetings in an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) setting: linguistic competence and content knowledge as neutralizers of institutional and academic power2017In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 6, no 1, 111-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates PhD supervision meetings, using material from naturally occurring speech of ten hours by PhD supervisors and students who all use English as a lingua franca (ELF) for research purposes. The recordings have been transcribed in their entirety, with conversation analytical procedures and additional ethnographic interviews with the PhD supervisors. The present paper is a follow-up to the two previous studies by the author (in European Journal for Applied Linguistics 3[2], 2015, and The Routledge Handbook of English for Academic Purposes, 2016) and focuses on linguistic competence and content knowledge as factors possibly mitigating the power asymmetry present in the interactions. The findings show no observable power asymmetries manifested in the interactions or in the interview responses by the supervisors. The analyses showed that the supervisors’ and the students’ level of linguistic competence seemed very similar, which was further supported by the supervisors’ self-reports of their own English and their informal evaluations of their students’ levels of proficiency. When it comes to content knowledge, the students overall showed very good command of their subjects, disciplinary conventions and their projects in general, further supported by their supervisors’ evaluations in the interview data. Based on these findings, it is suggested here that in ELF interactions of this particular type where the speakers have similar levels of linguistic competence and content knowledge, power asymmetries become less visible.

  • 44.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervisor-PhD student interactions in an English-medium Higher Education (HE) setting: Expressing disagreement2015In: European Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2192-953X, Vol. 3, no 2, 205-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest figures, the increase in English-taught programs in European Higher Education (HE) has been tremendous at a growth rate of 500% since 2002 (Wächter and Maiworm 2014). In all these HE institutes, English serves as the main lingua franca for students and staff. The present paper reports from such a HE setting in Sweden and focuses on how disagreement is expressed in PhD supervisor-PhD student supervision meetings, a spoken genre largely neglected in the study of spoken academic discourse. The material comprises digitally-recorded, naturally-occurring speech adding up to approximately seven hours, all by PhD supervisors and students from different L1 backgrounds, who all use English as a lingua franca. All recordings have been transcribed, and the instances of disagreement have been analysed by a mixed-methods approach, drawing on Conversation Analysis (CA). The results show, first of all, that the PhD students directly construct disagreement with their supervisors on content-related advice despite the academic and institutional power asymmetry present in these interactions. The supervisors, on the other hand, seem to indirectly construct disagreement with their students. It is suggested here that linguistic competence and content knowledge may be two factors mitigating the power asymmetry. Also, the expression of disagreement does not seem to be perceived as confrontational by either the supervisors or students. On the contrary, disagreement seems to be typical of this spoken genre in this setting, implying that it may even be a “preferred second” turn in this spoken genre with reference to the enculturation of the PhD student into the academic community.

  • 45.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Policies in the European Higher Education Arena2016In: Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and Agendas: English in Europe, Volume 6 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 145-152 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Pragmatic strategies in English as an academic lingua franca:  Ways of achieving communicative effectiveness2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, Vol. 43, no 4, 950-964 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will report the findings of a study that has investigated spoken English as a lingua franca (ELF) usage in Swedish higher education. The material comprises digital recordings of lectures and student group-work sessions, all being naturally occurring, authentic high-stakes spoken exchange, i.e. from non-language-teaching contexts. The aim of the present paper, which constitutes a part of a larger study, has been to investigate the role pragmatic strategies play in the communicative effectiveness of English as a lingua franca. The paper will document types of pragmatic strategies as well as point to important differences between the two speech event types and the implications of these differences for English-medium education. The findings show that lecturers in ELF settings make less frequent use of pragmatic strategies than students who deploy these strategies frequently in group-work sessions. Earlier stages of the present study (Björkman, 2008a, Björkman, 2008b and Björkman, 2009) showed that despite frequent non-standardness in the morphosyntax level, there is little overt disturbance in student group-work, and it is highly likely that a variety of pragmatic strategies that students deploy prevents some disturbance. It is reasonable to assume that, in the absence of appropriate pragmatic strategies used often in lectures, there is an increased risk for covert disturbance

  • 47.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Questions in academic ELF interaction2012In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, Vol. 1, no 1, 93-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of David Deterding, Misunderstandings in English as a Lingua Franca. An Analysis of ELF Interactions in South-East Asia. 2015In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 4, no 2, 385-389 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of Philippe Van Parijs Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World2013In: International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, ISSN 0269-8595, E-ISSN 1469-9281, Vol. 26, no 3, 354-359 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    'So where we are': Spoken lingua franca English at a Swedish technical university2008In: English Today, Vol. 24, no 2, 11-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) by engineering students and its effectiveness in content courses at a technical university, reporting the preliminary results of part of a study that investigates authentic and high-stakes speech events at a Swedish technical university. The main aim of my research is to find out what kind of divergence from standard morphosyntactic forms of English if any leads to disturbance, i.e. breakdown, in ELF speech.

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