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  • 1.
    Björkman, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Income Shocks and Gender Gaps in Education: Evidence from Uganda2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses exogenous variation in rainfall across districts in Uganda to estimate the causal effects of household income shocks on children's enrollment and cognitive skills conditional on gender. I find negative income shocks to have large negative and highly significant effects on female enrollment in primary schools and the effect grows stronger for older girls. The effect on boys' enrollment is smaller and only marginally significant. Moreover, I find that a negative income shock has an adverse effect on test scores in general and test scores of female students in particular. The results imply that households respond to income shocks by varying the quantity and quality of girls' education while boys are to a large extent sheltered -- a finding consistent with a model where parents' values of child labor differ across sexes.

  • 2. Björkman, Martina
    et al.
    Reinikka, Ritva
    Svensson, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Local Accountability2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and implementing incentives that give rise to a strong relationship

    of accountability between service providers and beneficiaries is viewed by many as critical

    for improving service delivery. How to achieve this in practice and if it at all works,

    however, remain open questions. Systematic evaluation of service delivery innovations

    to increase accountability can show what works, what doesn’t and why, a first step to

    scaling up success. This paper discusses one such attempt: a randomized evaluation of a

    Citizen Report Card project at the community level in primary health care in Uganda.

    The Citizen Report Card project collected quantitative information on the quality and

    quantity of health service provision from citizens and public health care providers. This

    information were then assembled in "easy access" report cards that were disseminated,

    together with practical information on how best to use this information, in community,

    staff, and interface meetings by local community organizations in order to enhance citizens’

    ability to monitor the health care providers. The intervention improved both the quality

    and quantity of health service provision in the treatment communities: One year into

    the program, average utilization was 16 percent higher in the treatment communities; the

    weight of infants higher, and the number of deaths among children under-five markedly

    lower. Treatment communities became more extensively involved in monitoring providers

    following the intervention, but we find no evidence of increased government funding. These

    results suggest that the improvements in the quality and quantity of health service delivery

    resulted from increased effort by the health unit staff to serve the community.

  • 3. DellaVigna, Stefano
    et al.
    Kaplan, Ethan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    The Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does media bias affect voting? We analyze the entry of Fox News in cable markets and its impact on voting. Between October 1996 and November 2000, the conservative Fox News Channel was introduced in the cable programming of 20 percent of US towns.

    Fox News availability in 2000 appears to be largely idiosyncratic, conditional on a set of controls. Using a data set of voting data for 9,256 towns, we investigate if Republicans gained vote share in towns where Fox News entered the cable market by the year 2000. We find a significant effect of the introduction of Fox News on the vote share in Presidential elections between 1996 and 2000. Republicans gained 0.4 to 0.7 percentage points in the towns which broadcast Fox News. Fox News also affected the Republican vote share in the Senate and voter turnout. Our estimates imply that Fox News convinced 3 to 28 percent of its viewers to vote Republican, depending on the audience measure. The Fox News effect could be a temporary learning effect for rational voters, or a permanent effect for non-rational voters subject to persuasion.

  • 4.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Regionalism vs. Multilateralism2006In: Global Free Trade versus Trade Agreements: Case of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Economic Association, Colombo , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Swedish Board of Trade.
    Euro Effects on the Intensive and Extensive Margins of Trade2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate that the euro has increased trade within the eurozone by about 26 per cent and trade between the eurozone and outsiders by about 12 per cent on average for the years 2002-2005 compared to 1995-1998. The percentage increases were smaller for products that were exported every year during the sample period than for products that were not, indicating significant and substantial effects on the extensive margin of trade. The euro effects were concentrated to semi-finished and finished products, in particular to industries with highly processed products such as pharmaceuticals and machinery.

  • 6.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Euro effects on the intensive and extensive margins of trade2006In: CESifo Working Paper, no 1881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate that the euro has increased trade within the eurozone by about 26 per cent and trade between the eurozone and outsiders by about 12 per cent on average for the years 2002-2005 compared to 1995-1998. The percentage increases were smaller for products that were exported every year during the sample period than for products that were not, indicating significant and substantial effects on the extensive margin of trade.

    The euro effects were concentrated to semi-finished and finished products, in particular to industries with highly processed products such as pharmaceuticals and machinery.

  • 7.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Trade Volume Effects of the Euro: Aggregate and Sector Estimates2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The gravity model is used to estimate the trade volume effects of the creation of the European currency union. The euro is estimated to have raised the level of aggregate trade between euro countries in 1998-2002 compared to 1989-1997 by 15 per cent and the level of trade with outside countries by 8 per cent. The effect is clearly increasing over time.

    Estimates for one-digit SITC sectors yield a concentration of effects to highly processed manufactures, indicating that the spillover is caused by increasing vertical specialization across countries.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Monetary Regimes, Labour Mobility and Equilibrium Employment2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the impact of the monetary regime on labour markets in a small open economy, by considering the game between large wage setters and an independent central bank in a two-sector model with potential labour mobility between sectors. Two monetary regimes are considered: membership in a monetary union and an inflation target combined with a flexible exchange rate. A key result is that when there is perfect labour mobility between sectors, the monetary regime does not matter for real wages, employment or profits. Moreover, introducing labour mobility substantially reduces wages and increases employment. Other findings are that when labour is immobile between sectors: (i) the real wage in the tradables sector is higher under inflation targeting than in a monetary union, while the reverse applies to the non-tradables sector; (ii) inflation targeting generates higher employment and profits than membership in a monetary union; and (iii) both workers and firms in the two sectors in general prefer inflation targeting to membership in a monetary union.

  • 9.
    Lindbeck, Assar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Palme, Mårten
    Department of Economics.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Job Security and Work Absence: Evidence from a Natural Experiment2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the consequences for sickness absence of a selective softening of job security legislation for small firms in Sweden in 2001. According to our differences-in-difference estimates, aggregate absence in these firms fell by 0.2-0.3 days per year. This aggregate net figure hides important effects on different groups of employees. Workers remaining in the reform firms after the reform reduced their absence by about one day. People with a high absence record tended to leave reform firms, but these firms also became less reluctant to hire people with a record of high absence.

  • 10.
    Lindbeck, Assar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    A Model of Income Insurance and Social Norms2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large literature on ex ante moral hazard in income insurance emphasizes that the individual can affect the probability of an income loss by choice of lifestyle and hence, the degree of risk-taking. The much smaller literature on moral hazard ex post mainly analyzes how a “moral hazard constraint” can make the individual abstain from fraud (“mimicking”). The present paper instead presents a model of moral hazard ex post without a moral hazard constraint; the individual's ability and willingness to work is represented by a continuous stochastic variable in the utility function, and the extent of moral hazard depends on the generosity of the insurance system. Our model is also well suited for analyzing social norms concerning work and benefit dependency.

  • 11.
    Nyberg, Sten
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindbeck, Assar
    Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Raising Children to Work Hard: Altruism, Work Norms and Social Insurance2006In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 121, p. 1473-1503Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Persson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Siven, Claes-Henric
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Becker Paradox and Type I vs. Type II Errors in the Economics of Crime2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two real-world observations are not easily replicated in models of crime. First, although capital punishment is optimal in Becker’s (1986) model, it is rarely observed in the real world. Second, criminal procedure and the evaluation of evidence vary across societies and historical periods, the standard of proof being sometimes very high and sometimes quite low. In this paper, we develop a general equilibrium model of judicial procedure allowing for innocent persons being convicted. We show that the median voter theorem applies to this model, making judicial procedure endogenous. So formulated, the model can replicate both empirical observations.

  • 13.
    Svedberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Declining child malnutrition: a reassessment.2006In: Int J Epidemiol, ISSN 0300-5771, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1336-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Svensson, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    The institutional economics of foreign aid2006In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 115-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Tonin, Mirco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    The effects of the minimum wage in an economy with tax evasion2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of the labor market is built where imperfect detection in case of auditing induces underreporting of earnings. The introduction of the minimum wage makes some workers increase compliance, boosting fiscal revenues. A spike at the minimum wage level appears in the distribution of earnings. The model predicts a positive correlation between the size of the spike at the minimum wage level and the size of the informal economy. Empirical evidence supporting this prediction is presented.

1 - 15 of 15
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