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  • 1. Renman, Viktor
    et al.
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Gómez, Cesar Pay
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Edström, Kristina
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Valvo, Mario
    Manganese Hexacyanomanganate as a Positive Electrode for Nonaqueous Li-, Na-, and K-Ion Batteries2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 36, p. 22040-22049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    K2Mn[Mn(CN)(6)] is synthesized, characterized, and evaluated as possible positive electrode material in nonaqueous Li-, Na-, and K-ion batteries. This compound belongs to the rich and versatile family of hexacyanometallates displaying distinctive structural properties, which makes it interesting for ion insertion purposes. It can be viewed as a perovskite-like compound in which CN-bridged Mn(CN)(6) octahedra form an open framework structure with sufficiently large diffusion channels able to accommodate a variety of insertion cations. By means of galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry tests in nonaqueous alkali metal half-cells, it is demonstrated that this material is able to reversibly host Li+, Na+, and K+ ions via electrochemical insertion/deinsertion within a wide voltage range. The general electrochemical features are similar for all of these three ion insertion chemistries. An in operando X-ray diffraction investigation indicates that the original monoclinic structure is transformed into a cubic one during charging (i.e., removal of cations from the host framework) and that such a process is reversible upon subsequent cell discharge and cation reuptake.

  • 2.
    Chamoun, Mylad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries Based on Available Resources: Investigation and Development towards Efficient Battery Performance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries employing water based electrolytes enable extremely low manufacturing costs and are inherently safer than Li-ion batteries. Batteries based on zinc, manganese dioxide, iron, and air have high energy relevancy, are not resource restricted, and can contribute to large scale energy storage solutions. Zinc has a rich history as electrode material for primary alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries. Historically, its use in secondary batteries has been limited because of morphological uncertainties and passivation effects that may lead to cell failure. Manganese dioxide electrodes are ineffective as rechargeable electrodes because of failure mechanisms associated with phase transformations during cycling. The irreversibility of manganese dioxide is strongly correlated to the formation of the electrochemically inactive spinel, Mn3O4/ZnMn2O4. The development of the iron electrode for Fe–air batteries was initiated in late the 1960s and these batteries still suffer from charging inefficiency, due to the unwanted hydrogen evolution reaction. Meanwhile, the air electrode is limited in long-term operation because of the sluggish oxygen evolution and reduction kinetics. These limitations of the Fe–air battery yield poor overall efficiencies, which bring vast energy losses upon cycling.

    Herein, the limitations described above were countered for rechargeable Zn–MnO2 and Fe–air batteries by synthesizing electrode materials and modifying electrolyte compositions. The electrolyte mixture of 1 M KOH + 3 M LiOH for rechargeable alkaline Zn–MnO2 batteries limited the formation of the inactive spinels and improved their cycle life significantly. Further, the formation of the inactive spinels was overcome in mildly acidic electrolytes containing 2 M ZnSO4, enabling the cells to cycle reversibly at lower pH via a distinctive reaction mechanism. The iron electrodes were improved with the addition of stannate, which suppressed hydrogen evolution. Furthermore, optimal charge protocols of the iron electrodes were identified to minimize the hydrogen evolution rate. On the air electrode, the synthesized NiCo2O4 showed excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for oxygen evolution and reduction, and was incorporated to a flow assisted rechargeable Fe–air battery, in order to prove the practicability of this technology. Studies of the electrode materials on the micro, macro, nano, and atomic scales were carried out to increase the understanding of the nature of and interactions between of these materials. This included both in operando and ex situ characterization. X-ray and neutron radiation, and analytical- and electrochemical methods provided insight to improve the performance and cycle life of the batteries.

  • 3.
    Li, Yunxiang
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Wang, Xia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Thersleff, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO)-Templated Activated Carbons2019In: Acs Omega, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 9889-9895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microporous activated carbon was prepared by depositing and pyrolyzing propylene within the microporous voids of SAPO-37 and subsequently removing the template by a treatment with HCl and NaOH. The carbon had a high surface area and large micropore and ultramicropore volumes. The yield, crystallinity, morphology, and adsorption properties compared well with those of a structurally related zeolite-Y-templated carbon. No HF was needed to remove the SAPO-37 template in contrast to the zeolite Y template, which could be of industrial importance.

  • 4. Mink, Janos
    et al.
    Stirling, Andras
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mihály, Judith
    Németh, Csaba
    Drees, Markus
    Hajba, Laszlo
    Vibrational properties and bonding analysis of copper hexacyanoferrate complexes in solid state2019In: Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0570-4928, E-ISSN 1520-569X, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 369-424Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrational spectroscopic study of crystalline copper hexacyanoferrate complexes of composition K4Cu6II [Fe-II(CN)(6)](4)nH(2)O (1) and Cu-6(II)[Fe-III(CN)(6)](4)nH(2)O (2) with -Cu-N equivalent to C-Fe- bridging structures have been performed. The cubic Fmm (O-h(5)) unit-cells contain ideally 4 Fe and 4 Cu ions which were calculated by periodic density functional theory (DFT) (using the Gaussian09 C.01 software package) for ideal lattice compositions of K8Cu4II[Fe-II(CN)(6)](4) (1a), K4Cu4II[Fe-III(CN)(6)](4) (2a) and with lattice water molecules KCu4II[Fe-III(CN)(6)](3)6H(2)O (3a). Systematically, non-linear Cu-N equivalent to C structure was fitted with Cu-N equivalent to C bond angles about 155 degrees for complexes 1a, 2a, and 3a. Practically, all optically active internal modes of Fe(CN6)(n-) moieties resulted from factor group analysis as 4A(1g) + 6E(g) + 4F(1g) + 10F(1u) were experimentally observed and assigned. Some low-frequency translatory and librational modes were also interpreted. Vibrational bands were assigned to cis- and trans-Cu(NC)(4)(OH2) complexes which are formed in the lattice holes of both complexes. Vibrational spectra and force constants of a great number of transition metal hexacyano complexes of compositions K-4[M-II(CN)(6)], K-3[M-III(CN)(6)], CsLi2[M-III(CN)(6)] and Prussian blue analogues have been reexamined and recalculated. Internal and external modes of 6 different lattice water species (coordinated, hydrogen bonded, or zeolitic type) have been interpreted for complex 2 using results of periodic DFT calculation of model complex 3a.

  • 5.
    Grins, Jekabs
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Wardecki, Dariusz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). University of Warsaw, Poland; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Carlson, Stefan
    Biendicho, Jordi J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Spain.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    A structural study of Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr3-xYx(Fe1.25Ni0.75)O7-delta with x <= 0.75 by neutron powder diffraction and EXAFS/XANES spectroscopy2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 13, p. 5313-5323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structures of Ruddlesden-Popper n = 2 member phases Sr3-xYxFe1.25Ni0.75O7-delta with 0 <= x <= 0.75 have been investigated using neutron powder diffraction and K-edge Fe and Ni EXAFS/XANES spectroscopy in order to gain information about the evolution of the oxygen vacancy distribution and Fe/Ni oxidation state with x. Both samples prepared at 1300 degrees C under a flow of N-2(g), with delta = 1.41-1.00, and samples subsequently annealed in air at 900 degrees C, with delta = 0.44-0.59, were characterized. The as-prepared x = 0.75 phase has delta = 1, the O1 atom site is vacant, and the Fe3+/Ni2+ ions have a square pyramidal coordination. With decreasing x the O3 occupancy decreases nearly linearly to 81% for x = 0, while the O1 occupancy increases from 0 for x = 0.4 to 33% for x = 0. The air-annealed x = 0.75 sample has a delta value of 0.59 and the Fe3+/Fe4+/Ni2+/Ni3+ ions have both square pyramidal and octahedral coordination. With decreasing x, the delta value decreases to 0.45 for x = 0, implying an increase in the oxidation states of Fe/Ni ions. EXAFS/XANES data show that for the as-prepared samples the coordination changes are predominantly for Ni2+ ions and that the air-annealed samples contain both Fe3+/Fe4+ and Ni2+/Ni3+ ions.

  • 6.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Samain, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Spain; STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah
    Hermann, Raphaël P.
    Istomin, Sergey Ya.
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Crystal Structure and Coordination of B-Cations in the Ruddlesden-Popper Phases Sr3-xPrx(Fe1.25Ni0.75)O7- (0 x 0.4)2018In: Inorganics, ISSN 2304-6740, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compounds Sr3-xPrxFe1.25Ni0.75O7- with 0 x 0.4 and Ruddlesden-Popper n = 2 type structures were synthesized and investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetry, and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Both samples, prepared at 1300 degrees C under N-2(g) flow and samples subsequently air-annealed at 900 degrees C, were studied. The structures contained oxygen vacancies in the perovskite layers, and the Fe/Ni cations had an average coordination number less than six. The oxygen content was considerably higher for air-annealed samples than for samples prepared under N-2, 7 - = similar to 6.6 and similar to 5.6 per formula unit, respectively. Mossbauer data collected at 7 K, below magnetic ordering temperatures, were consistent with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) results. The electrical conductivity was considerably higher for the air-annealed samples and was for x = 0.1 similar to 30 Scm(-1) at 500 degrees C. The thermal expansion coefficients were measured in air between room temperature and 900 degrees C and was found to be 20-24 ppmK(-1) overall.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    DFT predictions of Prussian Blue structures2018In: DFT predictions of Prussian Blue structures, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Kravchenko, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Neagu, Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zakharchuk, Kiryl
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Pankov, Vladimir
    Yaremchenko, Aleksey A.
    High-Temperature Structural and Electrical Characterization of Reduced Oxygen-Deficient Ruddlesden-Popper Nickelates2018In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-1948, E-ISSN 1099-1948, no 28, p. 3320-3329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-temperature characterization of oxygen-deficient Sr-rich (La1-xSrx)(2)NiO4-delta (x = 0.5-0.8) solid solutions under mildly reducing conditions with p(O-2) approximate to 5x10(-5) atm was performed by employing structural and thermal analysis, TEM, and electrical conductivity measurements. Oxygen losses from the crystal lattice on reduction were found to result in a reversible transition from the tetragonal (I4/mmm) to the orthorhombic (Immm) structure and shrinkage of the crystal lattice for the compositions with x > 0.5. TEM and thermogravimetric analysis evidenced slow kinetics of the structural transition. The increase in oxygen deficiency under reducing conditions is accompanied by localization of the electronic charge carriers, a drop of the p-type electronic conductivity, and a transition from metallic-like to semiconducting behavior. The extent of changes in oxygen nonstoichiometry, unit--cell dimensions, average Ni oxidation state, electron-hole concentration, and electronic conductivity on reduction is interrelated with the strontium content. The results suggest that the electrical conductivity of (La1-xSrx)(2)NiO4-delta ceramics depends mainly on the average Ni oxidation state.

  • 9.
    Neagu, Alexandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Local structure of perovskite ferroelectric ceramics as revealed by 3D electron diffuse scattering: A walk in between the Bragg peaks2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local structural disorder in crystalline materials plays a crucial role in understanding their properties. The means to study structural disorder is diffuse scattering (DS). Even though DS was observed since the early days of X-ray diffraction the weak intensity and the sheer number of different kinds of disorder hindered the development of a unique solution strategy. However, the advent of X-ray and neutron synchrotron sources together with recent advances in automated electron diffraction techniques have unraveled a new world in between Bragg peaks where a wealth of information is available.

    In this thesis electron diffraction is used to explore the different kinds of DS in three-dimensions, for several perovskite ferroelectric ceramics. Based on the information presented in the reconstructed 3D reciprocal space volumes, disordered atomic structures were proposed and verified by the calculated electron diffraction patterns. A complex structural model for the local disorder in 85Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-10K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-5BaTiO3 piezoceramic was developed by analyzing the morphology and intensity of electron DS in 3D. Next, the influence of potassium-content on the octahedral-tilt disorder for three different piezoceramics was studied by a combination of dark-field imaging and electron diffraction. Further on, the temperature-dependence of electron DS for 95Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-5BaTiO3 piezoceramic revealed a local structural phase transition that was correlated with the depolarization mechanism. Lastly, strong electron DS was recorded from a Pb-based relaxor and simulations of disordered atomic structures showed that the local structure resembles a dipolar glass state. These demonstrate that electron diffraction is a powerful tool for the study of local structural disorder in crystalline materials, especially for ceramics. The major advantage is that we are able to record single-crystal electron diffraction data from individual grains. Moreover, since we are analyzing a 3D reciprocal volume several orientations can be studied simultaneously and we are not limited to zero-Laue zones. Finally, the models for local structural disorder provided valuable insight into how macroscopic properties are influenced by local structural disorder, in addition to the average structure.

  • 10. Keshavarz, Samara
    et al.
    Kontos, Sofia
    Wardecki, Dariusz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Kvashnin, Yaroslav O.
    Pereiro, Manuel
    Panda, Swarup K.
    Sanyal, Biplab
    Eriksson, Olle
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Gunnarsson, Klas
    Svedlindh, Peter
    Magnetic properties of Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr3-&: A combined experimental and theoretical investigation2018In: Physical review materials, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 044005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comprehensive study of the magnetic properties of Sr3-xYx(Fe1.25Ni0.75)O-7(-delta )(0 <= x <= 0.75). Experimentally, the magnetic properties are investigated using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction (NPD). This is complemented by a theoretical study based on density functional theory as well as the Heisenberg exchange parameters. Experimental results show an increase in the Ned temperature (T-N) with an increase of Y concentrations and O occupancy. The NPD data reveal that all samples are antiferromagnetically ordered at low temperatures, which has been confirmed by our theoretical simulations for the selected samples. Our first-principles calculations suggest that the three-dimensional magnetic order is stabilized due to finite interlayer exchange couplings. The latter give rise to finite interlayer spin-spin correlations, which disappear above T-N.

  • 11. Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    et al.
    Noréus, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Offer, Colin
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Smith, Ronald I.
    Hull, Stephen
    New Opportunities for Air Cathode Batteries; in-Situ Neutron Diffraction Measurements2018In: Frontiers in energy research, ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries with air electrodes are gaining interest as Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) for Electrical Vehicles (EVs) because of their high specific energy density. The electrochemical performance of these batteries is limited by the metallic electrode, which suffers structural transformations and corrosion during cycling that reduces the cycle life of the battery. In this context, relevant information on the discharge products may be obtained by in-situ neutron diffraction, a suitable technique to study electrodes that contain light elements or near neighbor elements in the periodic table. Case studies of MH-air and Fe-air batteries are highlighted.

  • 12.
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    The adsorption kinetics of CO2 on copper hexacyanoferrate studied by thermogravimetric analysis2018In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 272, p. 70-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CO2 adsorption and CO2 adsorption kinetics were evaluated by thermogravimetry on two Prussian blue analogues, K2x/3CuII [Fe-x(II) Fe-1-x(III) (CN)(6)](2/3), with nominally K-free x = 0.0 and K-rich x = 1.0. Differential isosteric heats of adsorption were determined from adsorption isotherms using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and integral values by differential scanning calorimetry. The average differential heats of CO2 adsorption are 28 kJ/mol for x = 0.0 and 33 kJ/mol for x = 1.0. Both compositions show small maxima in differential heat at similar to 1 mmol/g. The integral adsorption heats were determined to be 26 kJ/mol for both x = 0.0 and x = 1.0. The kinetic CO(2 )adsorption/desorption curves can be modeled by a double exponential function describing two parallel processes with different rate constants. The activation energies for CO2 adsorption on x = 0.0 were 6 (1) kJ/mol for the faster component and 16 (1) kJ/mol for the slower one, while the corresponding values for x = 1.0 were 9 (1) kJ/mol and 7 (1) kJ/mol, respectively. The maximum CO2 uptake for both compositions was found to be similar to 4.5 mmol/g, 19.8 wt%, at 1 bar and 273 K. The materials exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and stable cyclic performance at room temperature. The kinetics were slower for the samples with x = 1.0 than for x = 0.0 which may be attributed to interactions between CO2 molecules and K+ ions.

  • 13.
    Åkerblom, Ida E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    A thermogravimetric study of thermal dehydration of copper hexacyanoferrate by means of model-free kinetic analysis2017In: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 721-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics of thermal dehydration of K2x/3Cu[Fe(CN)6]2/3·nH2O was studied using thermogravimetry for x = 0.0 and 1.0. Data from both non-isothermal and isothermal measurements was used for model-free kinetic analysis by the Friedman and KAS methods. The water content was determined to be n = 2.9 – 3.9, with an additional ~10% of water, likely surface adsorbed, that leaves very fast when samples are exposed to a dry atmosphere. The determined activation energies are 19 kJ (mol H2O)-1 for x = 0.0 and 16 kJ (mol H2O)-1 for x = 1.0. The dehydration is adequately described as a diffusion controlled single step reaction following the D3 Jander model. The determined dehydration enthalpy is, 11 kJ (mol H2O)-1 for x = 0.0 and 27 kJ (mol H2O)-1 for x = 1.0, relative to that of water. The increase with increasing x is evidence for that the H2O molecules form bonds to the incorporated K+ ions.

  • 14. Kravchenko, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Zakharchuk, Kiryl
    Viskup, Alexander
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Pankov, Vladimir
    Yaremchenko, Aleksey
    Impact of Oxygen Deficiency on the Electrochemical Performance of K2NiF4-Type (La1-xSrx)(2)NiO4-delta Oxygen Electrodes2017In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 600-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite-related (La1-xSrx)(2)NiO4-delta (x= 0.5-0.8) phases were explored for possible use as oxygen electrodes in solid electrolyte cells with a main focus on the effect of oxygen deficiency on the electrocatalytic activity. (La1-xSrx)(2)NiO4-d solid solutions were demonstrated to preserve the K2NiF4-type tetragonal structure under oxidizing conditions. Acceptor-type substitution by Sr is compensated by the formation of oxygen vacancies and electron holes and progressively increases high-temperature oxygen nonstoichiometry, which reaches as high as d= 0.40 for x= 0.8 at 950 degrees C in air. The electrical conductivity of (La1-xSrx)(2)NiO4-d ceramics at 500-1000 degrees C and p(O-2) >= 10(-3) atm is p-type metallic-like. The highest conductivity, 300 Scm(-1) at 800 degrees C in air, is observed for x= 0.6. The average thermal expansion coefficients, (14.0-15.4) x 10(-6) K-1 at 25900 degrees C in air, are sufficiently low to ensure the thermomechanical compatibility with common solid electrolytes. The polarization resistance of porous (La1-xSrx)(2)NiO4-d electrodes applied on a Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-delta solid electrolyte decreases with increasing Sr concentration in correlation with the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the nickelate lattice and the anticipated level of mixed ionic-electronic conduction. However, this is accompanied by increasing reactivity between the cell components and necessitates the microstructural optimization of the electrode materials to reduce the electrode fabrication temperature.

  • 15.
    Wardecki, Dariusz
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Neutron Diffraction and EXAFS Studies of K2x/3Cu[Fe(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O2017In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1285-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF), K2x/3Cu[Fe-(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O, with nominal compositions x = 0.0 and x = 1.0 was studied by neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The compound crystallizes in space group Fm (3) over barm, with a = 10.1036(11) angstrom and a = 10.0588(5) angstrom for x = 0.0 and x = 1.0, respectively. Difference Fourier maps for x = 0.0 show that the coordinated water molecules are positioned at a site 1921 close to vacant N positions in the -Fe-C-N-Cu- framework, while additional zeolitic water molecules are distributed over three sites (8c, 32f, and 48g) in the -Fe-C-N-Cu- framework cavities. The refined water content for x = 0.0 is 16.8(8) per unit cell, in agreement with the ideal 16 (n = 4). For x = 1.0, the refinement suggests that 2.6 K atoms per unit cell (x = 0.98) are distributed only over the sites 8c and 32f in the cavities, and 13.9(7) water per unit cell are distributed over all the four positions. The EXAFS data for Fe, Cu, and K K-edges are in agreement with the NPD data, supporting a structure model with a linear -Fe-C-N-Cu- framework and K+ ions in the cavities.

  • 16.
    Ojwang, Dickson Odhiambo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Prussian blue analogue copper hexacyanoferrate: Synthesis, structure characterization and its applications as battery electrode and CO2 adsorbent2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prussian blue (PB) and Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) are compounds with potential applications in a large variety of fields such as gas storage, poison antidotes, electrochromism, electrochemistry and molecular magnets. The compounds are easy to synthesize, cheap, environmentally friendly and have been pursued for both fundamental research and industrial purposes. Despite the multifunctionality of PB and PBAs, they have complicated compositions, which are largely dependent on the synthesis methods and storage conditions. Thus, performing investigations on such compounds with defined composition, stoichiometry and crystal structure is essential.

    This thesis has focused on synthesis and detailed structure characterization of copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) via X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Mössbauer spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), infrared (IR) and Raman techniques. In addition, kinetics of thermal dehydration process, CO2 adsorption and CO2 adsorption kinetics were investigated. Moreover, in operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were performed to gain insight into the structure-electrochemistry relationships in an aqueous CuHCF/Zn battery during operation.

  • 17. Renman, Viktor
    et al.
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Valvo, Mario
    Gomez, Cesar Pay
    Gustafsson, Torbjorn
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Structural-electrochemical relations in the aqueous copper hexacyanoferrate-zinc system examined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 369, p. 146-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The storage process of Zn2+ in the Prussian blue analogue (PBA) copper hexacyanoferrate (Cu[Fe(CN)(6)](2/3)-nH(2) O-CuHCF) framework structure in a context of rechargeable aqueous batteries is examined by means of in operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Via sequential unit-cell parameter refinements of time-resolved diffraction data, it is revealed that the step-profile of the cell output voltage curves during repeated electrochemical insertion and removal of Zn2+ in the CuHCF host structure is associated with a non-linear contraction and expansion of the unit-cell in the range 0.36 < x < 1.32 for Znx/3Cu[Fe(CN)(6)](2/3)-nH(2)O. For a high insertion cation content there is no apparent change in the unit-cell contraction. Furthermore, a structural analysis with respect to the occupancies of possible Zn2+ sites suggests that the Fe(CN)(6) vacancies within the CuHCF framework play an important role in the structural-electrochemical behavior of this particular system. More specifically, it is observed that Zn2+ swaps position during electrochemical cycling, hopping between cavity sites to vacant ferricyanide sites.

  • 18.
    Tran, Dung Trung
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    SUePDF: a program to obtain quantitative pair distribution functions from electron diffraction data2017In: Journal of applied crystallography, ISSN 0021-8898, E-ISSN 1600-5767, Vol. 50, p. 304-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SUePDF is a graphical user interface program written in MATLAB to achieve quantitative pair distribution functions (PDFs) from electron diffraction data. The program facilitates structural studies of amorphous materials and small nanoparticles using electron diffraction data from transmission electron microscopes. It is based on the physics of electron scattering as well as the total scattering methodology. A method of background modeling is introduced to treat the intensity tail of the direct beam, inelastic scattering and incoherent multiple scattering. Kinematical electron scattering intensity is scaled using the electron scattering factors. The PDFs obtained after Fourier transforms are normalized with respect to number density, nanoparticle form factor and the non-negativity of probability density. SUePDF is distributed as free software for academic users.

  • 19. Zeng, Lunjie
    et al.
    Tran, Dung Trung
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Olsson, Eva
    Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 29679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  • 20. Bajwa, Anjali
    et al.
    Balakrishnan, Malini
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Batra, Vidya S.
    Removal of volatile organic compounds over bagasse ash derived activated carbons and monoliths2016In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 1561-1573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unburned carbon in bagasse ash was separated and used as a starting material for activated carbon and carbon monolith preparation. The separated carbon was steam activated in a rotary kiln under different conditions and compared with carbon activated in limited supply of air. The activated carbon from the rotary kiln showed surface areas ranging from 324 to 601 m(2)/g. Different phenolic resins and cellulosic binders were used to prepare the monoliths using slurry casting method. The effects of different preparation conditions on the properties of the monolith were studied. Upon monolith formation, the surface area was reduced slightly and surface areas in the range 92-479 m(2)/g were achieved. The activated carbons and monoliths were tested for static adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using benzene, xylene, hexane and toluene as model compounds. With the activated carbons, adsorption capacities as high as 22.5, 31.1, 27.5 and 25.0 g/100 g sample were obtained for toluene, benzene, xylene and hexane, respectively. The adsorption capacities were reduced for the corresponding monoliths. The waste derived activated carbons and monoliths show promising results as adsorbents for the removal of volatile organic compounds.

  • 21.
    Ojwang, Dickson O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Wardecki, Dariusz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Valvo, Mario
    Renman, Viktor
    Häggström, Lennart
    Ericsson, Tore
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah
    Hermann, Raphael P.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Structure Characterization and Properties of K-Containing Copper Hexacyanoferrate2016In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 5924-5934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper hexacyanoferrate, Cu-II[Fe-III(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O, was synthesized, and varied amounts of IC ions were inserted via reduction by K2S2O3 (aq). Ideally, the reaction can be written as Cu-II[Fe-III(CN)(6)](2/3)-nH(2)O + 2x/3K(+) + 2x/3e(-)K(+) <-> K-2x/3 Cu-II[Fe-x(II).Fe-1-x(II),(CN)(6)](2/3)-nH(2)O. Infrared, Raman, and Mossbauer spectroscopy studies show that Fe-II is continuously reduced to Fell with increasing x, accompanied by a decrease of the a-axis of the cubic Fn (3) over barm unit cell. Elemental analysis of K by inductively coupled plasma shows that the insertion only begins when a significant fraction similar to 10% of the Fe-III, has already been reduced. Thermogravimetric analysis shows a fast exchange of water with ambient atmosphere and a total weight loss of similar to 26 wt % upon heating to 180 degrees C, above which the structure starts to decompose. The crystal structures of Cu-III[Fe-III(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O and K2/3Cu[Fe(CN)(6)](2/3)center dot nH(2)O were refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. In both, one-third of the Fe(CN)(6) groups are vacant, and the octahedron around Cull is completed by water molecules. In the two structures, difference Fourier maps reveal three additional zeolitic water sites (8c, 32f, and 48g) in the center of the cavities formed by the-Cu-N-C-Fe- framework. The K-containing compound shows an increased electron density at two of these sites (32f and 48g), indicating them to be the preferred positions for the K+ ions.

  • 22.
    Konar, Sumit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nylén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bernin, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ruschewitz, Uwe
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    The many phases of CaC22016In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 239, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymorphic CaC2 was prepared by reacting mixtures of CaH2 and graphite with molar ratios between 1:1.8 and 1:2.2 at temperatures between 700 and 1400 degrees C under dynamic vacuum. These conditions provided a well controlled, homogeneous, chemical environment and afforded products with high purity. The products, which were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and Raman spectroscopy, represented mixtures of the three known polymorphs, tetragonal CaC2-I and monoclinic CaC2-II and -III. Their proportion is dependent on the nominal C/CaH2 ratio of the reaction mixture and temperature. Reactions with excess carbon produced a mixture virtually free from CaC2-I, whereas high temperatures (above 1100 degrees C) and C-deficiency favored the formation of CaC2-I. From first principles calculations it is shown that CaC2-I is dynamically unstable within the harmonic approximation. This indicates that existing CaC2-I is structurally/dynamically disordered and may possibly even occur as slightly carbon-deficient phase CaC2-delta. It is proposed that monoclinic II is the ground state of CaC2 and polymorph III is stable at temperatures above 200 degrees C. Tetragonal I represents a metastable, heterogeneous, phase of CaC2. It is argued that a complete understanding of the occurrence of three room temperature modifications of CaC2 will require a detailed characterization of compositional and structural heterogeneities within the high temperature form CaC2-IV, which is stable above 450 degrees C. The effect of high pressure on the stability of the monoclinic forms of CaC2 was studied in a diamond anvil cell using Raman spectroscopy. CaC2-II and -III transform into tetragonal CaC2-I at about 4 and 1GPa, respectively.

  • 23. Istomin, S. Ya.
    et al.
    Karakulina, O. M.
    Rozova, M. G.
    Kazakov, S. M.
    Gippius, A. A.
    Antipov, E. V.
    Bobrikov, I. A.
    Balagurov, A. M.
    Tsirlin, A. A.
    Michau, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tuning the high-temperature properties of Pr2NiO4+delta by simultaneous Pr- and Ni-cation replacement2016In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, no 40, p. 33951-33958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel Pr2-xSrxNi1-xCoxO4 +/-delta (x = 0.25; 0.5; 0.75) oxides with the tetragonal K2NiF4-type structure have been prepared. Room-temperature neutron powder diffraction (NPD) study of x = 0.25 and 0.75 phases together with iodometric titration results have shown the formation of hyperstoichiometric oxide for x = 0.25 (delta = 0.09(2)) and a stoichiometric one for x = 0.75. High-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HT XRPD) showed substantial anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) along the a-and c-axis of the crystal structure, which increases with increasing the Co content from TEC(c)/TEC(a) = 2.4 (x = 0.25) to 4.3 (x = 0.75). High-temperature NPD (HT NPD) study of the x = 0.75 sample reveals that a very high expansion of the axial (Ni/Co)-O bonds (75.7 ppm K-1 in comparison with 9.1 ppm K-1 for equatorial ones) is responsible for such behaviour, and is caused by a temperature-induced transition between low- and high-spin states of Co3+. This scenario has been confirmed by high-temperature magnetization measurements on a series of Pr2-xSrxNi1-xCoxO4 +/-delta samples. For compositions with high Ni content (x = 0.25 and 0.5) we synthesised K2NiF4-type oxides Pr2-x-ySrx+y(Ni1-xCox)O-4 +/-delta, y = 0.0-0.75 (x = 0.25); y = 0.0-0.5 (x = 0.5). The studies of the TEC, high-temperature electrical conductivity in air, chemical stability of the prepared compounds in oxygen and toward interaction with Ce2-xGdxO2-x/2 (GDC) at high temperatures reveal optimal behaviour of Pr1.35Sr0.65Ni0.75Co0.25O4+delta. This compound shows stability in oxygen at 900 degrees C and does not react with GDC at least up to 1200 degrees C. It features low TEC of 13 ppm K-1 and high-temperature electrical conductivity in air of 280 S cm(-1) at 900 degrees C, thus representing a promising composition for use as a cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC).

  • 24. Bajwa, Anjali
    et al.
    Moraga, Francisca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Balakrishnan, Malini
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Batra, Vidya S.
    Activated Carbon Monoliths by Pressureless Technique for Environmental Applications2015In: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1944-7442, E-ISSN 1944-7450, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1420-1426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon monoliths have been prepared through simple procedure by carbonization in inert atmosphere at 550 C from commercial activated carbon and from unburned carbon in it ykste bctgasse fly asb; US nig, In 0 different kin dS phenolic resin binders. The bagasse fly ash was collected ft on; sugar mills where bagasse is used as a biomass based fuel for cogeneration. Commercial actuated carbon based monoliths whet -e 5 and 10 wt % of the actuated carbon had been replaced by iron oxide (hematite) were dic0 prepared. Results indicate that BET sutfac:e area decreases upon carbonization and loading of hematite. Scanning electron microscopy studies shows that the iron oxide is well distributed over the monoliths and X-ray diffraction shows that it is reduced to magnetite during carbonization. Temperature programmed reduction eAperintents show that the iron oxides on the monoliths are redox active. The monoliths based on commercial activated carbon show 80% remotwl of phenol in dihtted phenol based water solutions whereas unburned carbon derived monoliths showed 5-/ % removal in similar solution.

  • 25. Kaban, I.
    et al.
    Jovari, P.
    Escher, B.
    Tran, Dung Trung
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Webb, M. A.
    Regier, T. Z.
    Kokotin, V.
    Beuneu, B.
    Gemming, T.
    Eckert, J.
    Atomic structure and formation of CuZrAl bulk metallic glasses and composites2015In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 100, p. 369-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 metallic glass is studied experimentally by high-energy X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution, electron diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The atomic structure of the glass is modeled by reverse Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. RMC modeling of seven experimental datasets enabled reliable separation of all partial pair distribution functions for Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 metallic glass. A peculiar structural feature of the ternary alloy is formation of the strong Al-Zr bonds, which are supposed to determine its high viscosity and enhanced bulk glass formation. Analysis of the local atomic order in Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 glass and Cu10Zr7, CuZr2 and CuZr B2 crystalline structures elucidates their similarities and differences explaining the phase formation sequence by devitrification of the glass.

  • 26.
    Samain, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Amshoff, Philipp
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Biendicho, Jordi J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England.
    Tietz, Frank
    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah
    Hermann, Raphael P.
    Istomin, Sergey Ya.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia.
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Crystal structure and high-temperature properties of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr3-xYx(Fe1.25Ni0.75)O7-delta (0 <= x <= 0.75)2015In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 227, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ruddlesden-Popper n=2 member phases Sr3-xYxFe1.25Ni0.75O7-delta, 0 <= x <= 0.75, have been investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetry and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Both samples as-prepared at 1300 degrees C under N-2(g) flow and samples subsequently air-annealed at 900 degrees C were studied. The as-prepared x=0.75 phase is highly oxygen deficient with delta=1, the O1 atom site being vacant, and the Fe3+/Ni2+ ions having a square pyramidal coordination. For as-prepared phases with lower x values, the Mossbauer spectral data are in good agreement with the presence of both 5- and 4-coordinated Fe3+ ions, implying in addition a partial occupancy of the O3 atom sites that form the basal plane of the square pyramid. The air-annealed x=0.75 sample has a delta value of 0.61(1) and the structure has Fe/Ni ions in both square pyramids and octahedra. Mossbauer spectroscopy shows the phase to contain only Fe3+, implying that all Ni is present as Ni3+. Air-annealed phases with lower x values are found to contain both Fe3+ and Fe4+. For both the as-prepared and the air-annealed samples, the Y3+ cations are found to be mainly located in the perovskite block. The high-temperature thermal expansion of as-prepared and air-annealed x=0.75 phases were investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry and the linear thermal expansion coefficient determined to be 14.4 ppm K-1. Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the air-annealed samples have higher conductivity than the as-prepared ones.

  • 27. Shafeie, S.
    et al.
    Dreyer, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Awater, R. H. P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Golod, Taras
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Biendicho, J. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Istomin, S. Ya.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Crystal structure, thermal expansion and high-temperature electrical conductivity of A-site deficient La2-zCo1+y(MgxNb1-x)(1-y)O-6 double perovskites2015In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 229, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New La-deficient double perovskites with P2(1)/n symmetry, La-similar to 1.90(Co1-x2+Mgx2+)(Co1/33+Nb2/35+)O-6 with x=0, 0.13 and 0.33, and La-2(Co1/22+Mg1/22+) (Co1/23+Nb1/25+)O-6 were prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 degrees C. Their crystal structures were refined using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. Our results show that certain cations such as Nb5+, with very strong B-O bonds in the perovskite structure, can induce A-site vacancies in double perovskites. Upon heating in N-2 gas atmosphere at 1200 degrees C similar to 1% O atom vacancies are formed together with a partial reduction of the Co3+ content. The average thermal expansion coefficient between 25 and 900 degrees C of La-1.90(Co2/32+Mg1/32+)(Co1/33+Nb2/35+)O-6 was determined to be 17.4 ppm K-1. Four-point electronic conductivity measurements showed that the compounds are semiconductors, with conductivities varying between 3.7.10(-2) and 7.7.10(-2) S cm(-1) at 600 degrees C and activation energies between 0.77 and 0.81 eV. Partial replacement of La3+ with Sr2+ does not lead to any increase of conductivity, while replacement of Mg2+ with Cu2+ in La1.9CoCu1/3Nb2/3O6 and La1.8CoCu1/2Nb1/2O6 leads to similar to 100 times larger conductivities at 600 degrees C, 0.35 and 1.0 S cm(-1), respectively, and lower activation energies, 0.57 and 0.73 eV, respectively.

  • 28.
    Spektor, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Extreme water catalyzed transformations of SiO2, TiO2 and LiAlSiO42015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dramatic change in properties of water near its critical point (i.e. T = 374 °C and p = 22.1 MPa, note: 100 MPa = 0.1 GPa = 1 kbar ≈ 1000 atm) has been a subject of numerous studies and also lead to the development of various applications (e.g. in waste destruction, biomass processing, and the synthesis of advanced ceramic materials). However, comparatively little is known about the behavior of water at gigapascal pressures. The present study attempts to explore catalytical properties and reactivity of extreme water with respect to several oxide systems: SiO2, TiO2 and LiAlSiO4. “Extreme water” here is defined as existing at p,T conditions of 0.25–10 GPa and 200–1000 °C, thus considering both supercritical fluid and hot compressed ice. The study shows that extreme water can make high pressure mineral phases accessible at relatively mild T conditions. At the same time, high pressure aqueous environments appear efficient in stabilizing novel metastable structures and may be considered as a general route for synthesizing new materials.

    The hydrothermal treatment of SiO2 glass at 10 GPa and 300–550 °C yielded an unusual ultrahydrous form of stishovite with up to 3% of structural water. At the same time, the extreme water environment enhanced notably the kinetics of stishovite formation, making it accessible at unprecedentedly low temperatures. Thus, for the SiO2–H2O system water acts as both catalyst and reactant. For TiO2 a hydrothermal high pressure treatment proved to be of high importance for overcoming the kinetical hindrance of the rutile – TiO2-II transformation. 6 GPa and 650 °C were established as the mildest conditions for synthesizing pure TiO2-II phase in less than two hours. The crystallization of LiAlSiO4 glass in an extreme water environment yielded a number of different phases. In the low pressure region (0.25 – 2 GPa) mainly a zeolite (Li-ABW) and a dense anhydrous aluminosilicate (α-eucryptite) were obtained. At pressures above 5 GPa the formation of novel pyroxene-like structures with crystallographic amounts of structural water was observed.

    The overall conclusion of this study is that extreme water environments show a great potential for catalyzing phase transitions in oxide systems and for stabilizing novel structures via structural water incorporation.

  • 29. Kravchenko, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Khalyavin, Dmitry
    Zakharchuk, Kiryl
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Pankov, Vladimir
    Yaremchenko, Aleksey
    High-temperature characterization of oxygen-eficient K2NiF4-type Nd2-xSrxNiO4-delta O4-delta (x=1.0-1.6) for potential SOFC/SOEC applications2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 47, p. 23852-23863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously unexplored oxygen-deficient RuddLesden-Popper Nd2-xSrxNiO4-delta (x = 1.0-1.6) nickelates were evaluated for potential use as oxygen electrode materials for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis ceRs, with emphasis on structural stability, oxygen nonstoichiometry, dimensional changes, and electrical properties. Nd2-xSrxNiO4-delta ceramics possess the K2NiF4-type tetragonal structure under oxidizing conditions at 25-1000 degrees C. Acceptor-type substitution by strontium is compensated by the generation of eLectron-hoLes and oxygen vacancies. Oxygen deficiency increases with temperature and strontium doping reaching -1/8 of oxygen sites for x = 1.6 at 1000 degrees C in air. Strongly anisotropic expansion of the tetragonal Lattice on heating correlated with oxygen nonstoichiometry changes results in an anomalous dilatometric behavior of Nd2-xSrxNiO4-delta ceramics under oxidizing conditions. Moderate thermal expansion coefficients, (11-14) x 10(-6) K-1, ensure however thermomechanical compatibility with common solid electrolytes. Reduction in inert atmosphere induces oxygen vacancy ordering accompanied by a contraction of the Lattice and a decrease of its symmetry to orthorhombic. Nd2-xSrxNiO4-delta ceramics exhibit a p-type metallic-Like electrical conductivity at 500-1000 degrees C under oxidizing conditions, with the highest conductivity (290 S cm(-1) at 900 degrees C in air) observed for x = 1.2. The high Lev& of oxygen deficiency in Sr-rich Nd2-xSrxNiO4 impLies enhanced mixed ionic-electronic transport favorable for electrode applications.

  • 30.
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England.
    Roberts, Matthew
    Noréus, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lagerqvist, Ulrika
    Smith, Ronald I.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Norberg, Stefan T.
    Eriksson, Sten G.
    Hull, Stephen
    In situ investigation of commercial Ni(OH)(2) and LaNi5-based electrodes by neutron powder diffraction2015In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 407-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical reactions at both positive and negative electrodes in a nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery during charge have been investigated by in situ neutron powder diffraction. Commercially available beta-Ni(OH)(2) and LaNi5-based powders were used in this experiment as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. Exchange of hydrogen by deuterium for the beta-Ni(OH)(2) electrode was achieved by ex situ cycling of the cell prior to in situ measurements. Neutron diffraction data collected in situ show that the largest amount of deuterium contained at the positive electrode is de-intercalated from the electrode with no phase transformation involved up to similar to 100 mA h/g and, in addition, the 110 peak width for the positive electrode increases on charge. The negative electrode of composition MmNi(3.6)Al(0.4)Mn(0.3)Co(0.7), where Mm = Mischmetal, exhibits a phase transformation to an intermediate hydride gamma phase first and then to the beta phase on charge. Unit cell dimensions and phase fractions have been investigated by Rietveld refinement of the crystal structure.

  • 31.
    Konar, Sumit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Häusserman, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Intercalation Compounds from LiH and Graphite: Relative Stability of Metastable Stages and Thermodynamic Stability of Dilute Stage I-d2015In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 2566-2575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intercalation of lithium into graphite was studied at temperatures between 400 and 550 degrees C by heating mixtures of LiH and graphite powders with molar ratios 4:1, 1:1, and 1:6 under dynamic vacuum for periods between 1 and 72 h. These conditions probe the formation and thermal stability of metastable staged Ligraphite intercalation compounds (Li-GICs) close to the competing formation of the thermodynamically stable carbide Li(2)C2. Li-GICs of stages I (LiC6, A alpha), IIa (Li0.5C6, A alpha A), IIb (Li similar to C-0.33(6), A alpha AB beta B), III (Li similar to C-0.22(6), A alpha AB), IV (Li similar to C-0.167(6)), and dilute stage lithium Id have been identified and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The rate and extent of intercalation (i.e., the achieved stage of Li-GIC) depends on LiH activity and temperature. Stage I was only observed for temperatures above 500 degrees C. At 400 degrees C, the highest intercalation corresponded to stage IIb, which was obtained after 2 and 24 h for 4:1 and 1:1 reaction mixtures, respectively. Lower-staged Li-GICs attained at temperatures below 500 degrees C deintercalate upon prolonged dwelling with the exception of stage IIa, which can be maintained for very long periods (several days) in the presence of LiH. At temperatures above 500 degrees C, the kinetically controlled formation of Li-GICs is followed by Li2C2 carbide formation. It is shown that the Li-GIC I-d coexists with Li2C2 at temperatures up to 800 degrees C and that the Li content of I-d (solubility of Li in graphite) increases between 550 and 800 degrees C. Consequently, I-d with a temperature-dependent homogeneity range should be added as a stable phase in the Li-C phase diagram. A sketch of a revised Li-C phase diagram is provided.

  • 32. Efthimiopoulos, Ilias
    et al.
    Benson, Daryn E.
    Konar, Sumit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nylén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Liebig, Stefan
    Ruschewitz, Uwe
    Vazhenin, Grigory V.
    Loa, Ingo
    Hanfland, Michael
    Syassen, Karl
    Structural transformations of Li2C2 at high pressures2015In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, no 6, article id 064111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural changes of Li2C2 under pressure were studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvilcell under hydrostatic conditions and by using evolutionary search methodology for crystal structure prediction.We show that the high-pressure polymorph of Li2C2, which forms from the Immm ground-state structure (Z = 2)at around 15 GPa, adopts an orthorhombic Pnma structure with Z = 4. Acetylide C2 dumbbells characteristic ofImmm Li2C2 are retained in Pnma Li2C2. The structure of Pnma Li2C2 relates closely to the anticotunnite-typestructure. C2 dumbbell units are coordinated by nine Li atoms, as compared to eight in the antifluorite structureof Immm Li2C2. First-principles calculations predict a transition of Pnma Li2C2 at 32 GPa to a topologicallyidentical phase with a higher Cmcm symmetry. The coordination of C2 dumbbell units by Li atoms is increasedto 11. The structure of Cmcm Li2C2 relates closely to the Ni2 In-type structure. It is calculated that Cmcm Li2C2becomes metallic at pressures above 40 GPa. In experiments, however, Pnma Li2C2 is susceptible to irreversibleamorphization.

  • 33.
    Konar, Sumit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Structure and Phase Stability of CaC2 Polymorphs, Li2C2 and Lithium Intercalated Graphite: A Revisit with High Pressure Experiments and Metal Hydride–Graphite Reactions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali (A) and alkaline earth (AE) metals can form carbides and intercalated graphites with carbon. The carbides mostly represent acetylides which are salt-like compounds composed of C22− dumbbell anions and metal cations. Both the acetylide carbides and intercalated graphites are technologically important. Superconductivity has been observed in several intercalated graphites such as KC8 and CaC6. Li intercalated graphites are a major ingredient in Li ion batteries. CaC2 is an important commodity for producing acetylene and the fertilizer CaCN2.

    In spite of the extensive research on A–C and AE–C compounds, phase diagrams are largely unknown. The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of both carbides and intercalalated graphites are discussed controversially. Recent computational studies indicated that well-known carbides, like CaC2 and BaC2, are thermodynamically unstable. Additionally, computational studies predicted that acetylide carbides will generally form novel polymeric carbides (polycarbides) at high pressures. This thesis is intended to check the validity of theoretical predictions and to shed light on the complicated phase diagrams of the Li–C and the Ca–C systems.

    The Li–C and the Ca–C systems were investigated using well-controllable metal hydride–graphite reactions. Concerning the Li–C system, relative stabilities of the metastable lithium graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GICs) of stages I, IIa, IIb, III, IV and Id were studied close to the competing formation of the thermodynamically stable Li2C2. The stage IIa showed distinguished thermal stability. The phase Id showed thermodynamic stability and hence, was included in the Li–C phase diagram. In the Ca–C system, results from CaH2–graphite reactions indicate compositional variations between polymorphs I, II and III. The formation of CaC2  I was favored  only  at  1100  ◦C or  higher  temperature  and  with  excess calcium, which speculates phase I as carbon deficient CaC2−δ .

    To explore the potential existence of polycarbides, the acetylide carbides Li2C2 and CaC2 were investigated under various pressure and temperature conditions, employing diamond anvil cells for in situ studies and multi anvil techniques for large volume synthesis. The products were characterized by a combination of diffraction and spectroscopy techniques. For both Li2C2 and CaC2, a pressure induced structural transformation was observed at relatively low pressures (10–15 GPa), which was followed by an irreversible amorphization at higher pressures (25–30 GPa). For Li2C2 the structure of the high pressure phase prior to amorphization could be elucidated. The ground state with an antifluorite Immm structure (coordination number (CN) for C22− dumbbells = 8) transforms to a phase with an anticotunnite Pnma structure (CN for C22− dumbbells = 9). Polycarbides, as predicted from theory, could not be obtained.

  • 34. Istomin, S. Ya.
    et al.
    Antipov, E. V.
    Fedotov, Yu. S.
    Bredikhin, S. I.
    Lyskov, N. V.
    Shafeie, S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Liu, Y.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Crystal structure and high-temperature electrical conductivity of novel perovskite-related gallium and indium oxides2014In: Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, ISSN 1432-8488, E-ISSN 1433-0768, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1415-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel complex oxides Sr2Ga1+x In1-x O-5, x = 0.0-0.2 with brownmillerite-type structure were prepared in air at T = 1,273 K, 24 h. Study of the crystal structure of Sr2Ga1.1In0.9O5 refined using X-ray powder diffraction data (S.G. Icmm, a = 5.9694(1) , b = 15.2091(3) , c = 5.7122(1) , chi (2) = 2.48, R (F) (2) (=) 0.0504, R (p) = 0.0458) revealed ordering of Ga3+ and In3+ cations over tetrahedral and octahedral positions, respectively. A partial replacement of Sr2+ by La3+ according to formula Sr1-y La (y) Ga0.5In0.5O2.5+y/2, leads to the formation of a cubic perovskite (a = 4.0291(5) ) for y = 0.3. No ordering of oxygen vacancies or cations was observed in Sr0.7La0.3Ga0.5In0.5O2.65 as revealed by electron diffraction study. The trace diffusion coefficient (D (T)) of oxygen for cubic perovskite Sr0.7La0.3Ga0.5In0.5O2.65 is in the range 2.0 Au 10(-9)-6.3 Au 10(-8) cm(2)/s with activation energy 1.4(1) eV as determined by isotopic exchange depth profile technique using secondary ion mass spectrometry at 973-1,223 K. These values are close to those reported for Ca-doped ZrO2. High-temperature electrical conductivity of Sr0.7La0.3Ga0.5In0.5O2.65 studied by AC impedance was found to be nearly independent on oxygen partial pressure. Calculated values of activation energy at T < 1,073 K for hole and oxide-ion conductivities are 0.96 and 1.10 eV, respectively.

  • 35. Mazo, G. N.
    et al.
    Kazakov, S. M.
    Kolchina, L. M.
    Istomin, S. Ya.
    Antipov, E. V.
    Lyskov, N. V.
    Galin, M. Z.
    Leonova, L. S.
    Fedotov, Yu. S.
    Bredikhin, S. I.
    Liu, Yi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Influence of structural arrangement of R2O2 slabs of layered cuprates on high-temperature properties important for application in IT-SOFC2014In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 257, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered cuprates Pr2 - xSrxCuO4-delta with T* (x = 0.3, 0.4) and T (x = 1.0, 13) structures were prepared in air at 1273-1373 K. Oxygen content (4 - delta) of the as-prepared phases decreases from 3.96 (x = 03) and 3.98 (x = 0.4) to 3.69 (x = 1.0) and 3.49 (x = 1.3), respectively, as determined by chemical titration. Dilatometry measurements revealed non-linear expansion with low- and high-temperature regions occurring due to thermogravimetrically detected oxygen loss. Different expansion behaviors in low- and high-temperature regions of T- and T*-phases are attributed to various distributions of oxygen vacancies in their crystal structures. Both x = 0.4 and 1.0 ceramic samples exhibit lower conductivity values at high temperatures in comparison with undoped Pr2CuO4. The temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity at variable oxygen partial pressure (Po-2 = 10(-4)-0.21 atm) reveal different mechanisms of the holes generation in x = 0.4 and 1.0 compounds. The tracer diffusion coefficient of oxygen (D-T) in Pr1.6Sr0.4CuO3.98 determined by isotopic exchange depth profile (IEDP) technique using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is in the range 6.7 x 10(-10)-5.7 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s at 973-1223 K. Obtained values are in between those for La2CuO4 and Pr2CuO4 with pure rock-salt and fluorite slabs in the crystal structure, respectively. This shows the importance of rock-salt slabs for high oxygen conductivity in R2MO4 oxides.

  • 36.
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England.
    Roberts, Matthew
    Offer, Colin
    Noréus, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Widenkvist, Erika
    Smith, Ronald I.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Edström, Kristina
    Norberg, Stefan T.
    Eriksson, Sten G.
    Hull, Stephen
    New in-situ neutron diffraction cell for electrode materials2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 248, p. 900-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel neutron diffraction cell has been constructed to allow in-situ studies of the structural changes in materials of relevance to battery applications during charge/discharge cycling. The new design is based on the coin cell geometry, but has larger dimensions compared to typical commercial batteries in order to maximize the amount of electrode material and thus, collect diffraction data of good statistical quality within the shortest possible time. An important aspect of the design is its modular nature, allowing flexibility in both the materials studied and the battery configuration. This paper reports electrochemical tests using a Nickel-metal-hydride battery (Ni-MH), which show that the cell is able to deliver 90% of its theoretical capacity when using deuterated components. Neutron diffraction studies performed on the Polaris diffractometer using nickel metal and a hydrogen-absorbing alloy (MH) clearly show observable changes in the neutron diffraction patterns as a function of the discharge state. Due to the high quality of the diffraction patterns collected in-situ (i.e. good peak-to-background ratio), phase analysis and peak indexing can be performed successfully using data collected in around 30 min. In addition to this, structural parameters for the beta-phase (charged) MH electrode obtained by Rietveld refinement are presented.

  • 37.
    Tran, Dung
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    TEM-based pair distribution function study of bimetallic nanoparticles2014In: XV International Conference on Electron Microscopy, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Tran, Dung-Trung
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    TEM-based total scattering method for studying disorder of nanoparticles2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39. Roberts, Matthew
    et al.
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hull, Stephen
    Beran, Premysl
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Edström, Kristina
    Design of a new lithium ion battery test cell for in-situ neutron diffraction measurements2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 226, p. 249-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new cell design for the construction of lithium ion batteries with conventional electrochemical performance whilst allowing in situ neutron diffraction measurement. A cell comprising of a wound cathode, electrolyte and anode stack has been prepared. The conventional hydrogen-containing components of the cell have been replaced by hydrogen-free equivalents. The electrodes are fabricated using a PTFE binder, the electrolyte consists of deuterated solvents which are supported in a quartz glass fibre separator. Typical battery performance is reported using the hydrogen-free components with a specific capacity of 140 mA h g(-1) being observed for LiFePO4 at a rate of 0.2 C. Neutron diffraction patterns of full cells were recorded with phase change reactions monitored. When aluminium packaging was used a better signal to noise ratio was obtained. The obtained atomic positions and lattice parameters for all cells investigated were found to be consistent with parameters refined from the diffraction pattern of a powder of the pure electrode material. This paper highlights the pertinent points in designing cells for these measurements and addresses some of the problems.

  • 40. Benson, Daryn
    et al.
    Li, Yanling
    Luo, Wei
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lithium and Calcium Carbides with Polymeric Carbon Structures2013In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 6402-6406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the binary carbide systems Li2C2 and CaC2 at high pressure using an evolutionary and ab initio random structure search methodology for crystal structure prediction. At ambient pressure Li2C2 and CaC2 represent salt-like acetylides consisting of C-2(2-) dumbbell anions. The systems develop into semimetals (P (3) over bar m1-Li2C2) and metals (Cmcm-Li2C2, Cmcm-CaC2, and Immm-CaC2) with polymeric anions (chains, layers, strands) at moderate pressures (below 20 GPa). Cmcm-CaC2 is energetically closely competing with the ground, state structure. Polyanionic forms of carbon 4 stabilized by electrostatic interactions with surrounding cations add a new feature to carbon chemistry. SemimetallicP (3) over bar m1-Li2C2 displays an electronic structure close to that of graphene. The pi* band, however, is hybridized with Li-sp states and changed into a bonding valence band. Metallic forms are predicted to be superconductors. Calculated critical temperatures may exceed 10 K for equilibrium volume structures.

  • 41.
    Shafeie, Samrand
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Properties in New Complex Perovskite-Related Materials, a Matter of Composition and Structure2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis presents investigations of perovskite-related compounds in systems of interest for applications in components in solid oxide fuel cells. The compound compositions derive from substitutions in the parent compounds LaCoO3, LaCrO3 and SrFeO3.

    Novel phases La2Co1+z(MgxTi1-x)1-zO6 were synthesized and investigated with regard to structure, thermal expansion, electronic and magnetic properties. The study focused on the composition lines La2Co(MgxTi1-x)O6 (z=0), where the oxidation state of Co nominally changes from +2 (x=0.0) to +3 (x=0.5), and La2Co1+z(Mg0.5Ti0.5)1-zO6, with a varying fraction of Co3+ ions. XANES data show that the Co ions in the system have discrete oxidation states of +2 and +3. The TEC increases with increasing x due to an increasing contribution from spin state transitions of the Co3+ ions. Novel compounds La2Cr(M2/3Nb1/3)O6 with M=Mg, Ni, Cu were synthesized and characterized with respect to structure and magnetic properties. XRPD and NPD data indicate Pbnm symmetry; however, SAED patterns and HREM images indicate a P21/n symmetry for M=Mg, and Cu. The magnetic measurements results were rationalized using the Goodenough-Kanamori rules.

    Oxygen-deficient phases with x≥0.63 in SrxY1-xFeO3-δ and Sr0.75Y0.25Fe1-yMyO3-δ (M=Cr, Mn, Ni and y=0.2, 0.33, 0.5), were synthesized and characterized with respect to structure, oxygen content, thermogravimetry, TEC, conductivity and magnetic properties. Powder patterns of phases agree with cubic  perovskite structures. NPD data for x=0.75 reveal anisotropic displacement for the O atom, related to local effects from Fe3+/Fe4+ ions. SAED patterns for x=0.75 reveal the presence of an incommensurate modulation. The compounds start to lose oxygen in air at ~ 400°C. The TEC up to ~400°C for x=0.75 is ~10.5 ppm/K and increase to ~17.5 ppm/K at higher temperatures. The conductivity for x=0.91 is 164 S/cm at 400°C. Partial substitution of Fe by Cr, Mn or Ni does not increase the conductivity or decrease TEC.

  • 42.
    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England.
    Shafeie, Samrand
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Frenck, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Pierre & Marie Curie University, France.
    Gavrilova, Daria
    Böhme, Solveigh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Bettanini, A. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Universita Ca Foscari Venezia, Italy.
    Svedlindh, Peter
    Hull, Steve
    Zhe, Zhao
    Istomin, S. Y.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Synthesis and characterisation of perovskite SrxY1-xFeO3-d (=.63≤x<1) and Sr0.75Y0.25Fe1-yMyO3-d (M=Cr, Mn, Ni) (y= 0.2, 0.33, 0.5)2013In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 200, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen-deficient ferrates with the cubic perovskite structure SrxY1-xFeO3-d were prepared in air (0.71 ≤ x ≤ 0.91) as well as in N2 (x=0.75 and 0.79) at 1573K. The oxygen content of the compounds prepared in air increases with increasing strontium content from 3-δ=2.79(2) for x=0.75 to 3-δ=2.83(2) for x=0.91. Refinement of the crystal structure of Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79 using TOF neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data shows high anisotropic atomic displacement parameter (ADP) for the oxygen atom resulting from a substantial cation and anion disorder. Electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies of Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79 reveal a modulation along <100>p with G± ~0.4<100>p indicating a local ordering of oxygen vacancies. Magnetic susceptibility measurements at 5-390K show spin-glass behaviour with dominating antiferromagnetic coupling between the magnetic moments of Fe cations. Among the studied compositions, Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79 shows the lowest thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of 10.5 ppm K-1 in air at 298-673K. At 773-1173K TEC increases up to 17.2 ppm K-1 due to substantial reduction of oxygen content. The latter also results in a dramatic decrease of the electrical conductivity in air above 673K. Partial substitution of Fe by Cr, Mn and Ni according to the formula Sr0.75Y0.25Fe1-yMyO3-δ (y=0.2, 0.33, 0.5) leads to cubic perovskites for all substituents with y=0.2. Their TECs are higher in comparison with un-doped Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79. Only M=Ni has increased electrical conductivity compared to un-doped Sr0.75Y0.25FeO2.79.

  • 43. Chernov, Sergey V.
    et al.
    Dobrovolsky, Yuri A.
    Istomin, Sergey Y.
    Antipov, Evgeny V.
    Grins, Jekabs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tarakina, Nadezhda V.
    Abakumov, Artem M.
    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf
    Eriksson, Sten G.
    Rahman, Seikh M. H.
    Sr2GaScO5, Sr10Ga6Sc4O25, and SrGa0.75Sc0.25O2.5: a Play in the Octahedra to Tetrahedra Ratio in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskites2012In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 1094-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different perovskite-related phases were isolated in the SrGa1-xScxO2.5 system: Sr2GaScO5, Sr10Ga6Sc4O25, and SrGa0.75Sc0.25O2.5, Sr2GaScO5 (x = 0.5) crystallizes in a brownrnillerite-type structure [space group (S.G.) Icmm, a = 5.91048(5) angstrom, b = 15.1594(1) angstrom, and c = 5.70926(4) angstrom] with complete ordering of Sc3+ and Ga3+ over octahedral and tetrahedral positions, respectively. The crystal structure of Sr10Ga6Sc4O25 (x = 0.4) was determined by the Monte Carlo method and refined using a combination of X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction data [S.G. I4(1)/a, a = 17.517(1) angstrom, c = 32.830(3) angstrom]. It represents a novel type of ordering of the B cations and oxygen vacancies in perovskites. The crystal structure of Sr10Ga6Sc4O25 can be described as a stacking of eight perovskite layers along the c axis ...[-(Sc/Ga)O-1.6-SrO0.8-(Sc/Ga)O-1.8-SrO0.8-](2 center dot center dot center dot) Similar to Sr2GaScO5, this structure features a complete ordering of the Sc3+ and Ga3+ cations over octahedral and tetrahedral positions, respectively, within each layer. A specific feature of the crystal structure of Sr10Ga6Sc4O25 is that one-third of the tetrahedra have one vertex not connected with other Sc/Ga cations. Further partial replacement of Sc3+ by Ga3+ leads to the formation of the cubic perovskite phase SrGa0.75Sc0.25O2.5 (x = 0.25) with a = 3.9817(4) angstrom. This compound incorporates water molecules in the structure forming SrGa0.75Sc0.25O2.5 center dot xH(2)O hydrate, which exhibits a proton conductivity of similar to 2.0 x 10(-6) S/cm at 673 K.

  • 44. Napolsky, Ph S.
    et al.
    Drozhzhin, O. A.
    Istomin, S. Ya
    Kazakov, S. M.
    Antipov, E. V.
    Galeeva, A. V.
    Gippius, A. A.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Abakumov, A. M.
    Van Tendeloo, G.
    Structure and high-temperature properties of the (Sr,Ca,Y)(Co, Mn)O3-y perovskites - perspective cathode materials for IT-SOFC2012In: Journal of Solid State Chemistry, ISSN 0022-4596, E-ISSN 1095-726X, Vol. 192, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen deficient perovskites Sr0.75Y0.25Co1-xMnxO3-y, x=0.5 and 0.75, were prepared by using the citrate route at 1373-1573 K for 48 h. The cubic Pm-3m perovskite structure for x=0.5 was confirmed by electron diffraction study and refined using neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. For x=0.75, the superstructure corresponding to a=root 2 x a(per), b=2 x a(per), c=root 2 x a(per) (a(0)b(-)b(-) tilt system, space group Imma) was revealed by electron diffraction. The solid solution Sr0.75-xCaxY0.25Co0.25Mn0.75O3-y, 0.1 <= x <= 0.6 and compound Ca0.75Y0.25Mn0.85Co0.15O2.92 were prepared in air at 1573 K for 48 h. The crystal structure of Ca0.75Y0.25Mn0.85Co0.15O2.92 was refined using NPD data (S.G. Pnma, a=5.36595(4), b=7.5091(6), c=5.2992(4) angstrom, R-p=0.057, R-wp=0.056, chi(2)=4.26). High-temperature thermal expansion properties of the prepared compounds were studied in air using both dilatometry and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction data (HTXRPD). They expanding non-linearly at 298-1073 K due to the loss of oxygen at high temperatures. Calculated average thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) for Sr0.75Y0.25Co1-xMnxO3-y, x=0.5, 0.75 and Ca0.75Y0.25Mn0.85Co0.15O2.92(1) are 15.5, 15.1, and 13.8 ppm K-1, respectively. Anisotropy of the thermal expansion along different unit cell axes was observed for Sr0.15Ca0.6Y0.25Co0.25Mn0.75O3-y, and Ca0.75Y0.25Mn0.85Co0.15O2.92. Conductivity of Sr0.75Y0.25Co1-xMnxO3-y, x=0.5 and 0.75 increases with the temperature reaching 110 S/cm for x=0.5 and 44 S/cm for x=0.75 at 1173 K. Samples of Sr0.75-xCaxY0.25Co0.25Mn0.75O3-y, 0.1 <= y <= 0.6 were found to be n-type conductors at room temperature with the similar temperature dependence of the conductivity and demonstrated the increase of the sigma value from similar to 1 to similar to 50 S/cm as the temperature increases from 300 to 1173 K. Their conductivity is described in terms of the small polaron charge transport with the activation energy (E-p) increasing from 340 to 430 meV with an increase of the calcium content from x=0 to x=0.6.

  • 45.
    Svensson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).