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  • 1.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Rothman, Jason
    Being a Participant Matters: Event-Related Potentials Show That Markedness Modulates Person Agreement in Spanish2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses event-related potentials to examine subject-verb person agreement in Spanish, with a focus on how markedness with respect to the speech participant status of the subject modulates processing. Morphological theory proposes a markedness distinction between first and second person, on the one hand, and third person on the other. The claim is that both the first and second persons are participants in the speech act, since they play the speaker and addressee roles, respectively. In contrast, third person refers to whomever is neither the speaker nor the addressee (i.e., it is unmarked for person). We manipulated speech participant by probing person agreement with both first-person singular subjects (e.g., yo...lloro *I...cry-1ST PERSON-SG") and third-person singular ones (e.g., la viuda...llora "the widow...cry-3RD PERSON-SG"). We also manipulated agreement by crossing first-person singular subjects with third-person singular verbs (e.g., yo...*llora "I...cry-(3RD PERSON-SG)") and vice versa (e.g., la viuda...*lloro "the widow...cry-1ST PERSON-SG"). Results from 28 native speakers of Spanish revealed robust positivities for both types of person violations, relative to their grammatical counterparts between 500 and 1000 ms, an effect that shows a central-posterior distribution, with a right hemisphere bias. This positivity is consistent with the P600, a component associated with a number of morphosyntactic operations (and reanalysis processes more generally). No negativities emerged before the P600 (between 250 and 450 ms), although both error types yielded an anterior negativity in the P600 time window, an effect that has been argued to reflect the memory costs associated with keeping the errors in working memory to provide a sentence-final judgment. Crucially, person violations with a marked subject (e.g., yo...*llora*I...cry-3RD PERSON SG") yielded a larger P600 than the opposite error type between 700 and 900 ms. This effect is consistent with the possibility that, upon encountering a subject with marked features, feature activation allows the parser to generate a stronger prediction regarding the upcoming verb. The larger P600 for person violations with a marked subject might index the reanalysis process that the parser initiates when there is a conflict between a highly expected verbal form (i.e., more so than in the conditions with an unmarked subject) and the form that is actually encountered.

  • 2.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, The Netherlands.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Changing expectations mediate adaptation in L2 production2019In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Native language (L1) processing draws on implicit expectations. An open question is whether non-native learners of a second language (L2) similarly draw on expectations, and whether these expectations are based on learners’ L1 or L2 knowledge. We approach this question by studying inverse preference effects on lexical encoding. L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish described motion events, while they were either primed to express path, manner, or neither. In line with other work, we find that L1 speakers adapted more strongly after primes that are unexpected in their L1. For L2 speakers, adaptation depended on their L2 proficiency: The least proficient speakers exhibited the inverse preference effect on adaptation based on what was unexpected in their L1; but the more proficient speakers were, the more they exhibited inverse preference effects based on what was unexpected in the L2. We discuss implications for L1 transfer and L2 acquisition.

  • 3. Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Language background affects online word order processing in a second language but not offline2019In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 802-825, article id PII S1366728918000573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible crosslinguistic influence on basic word order processing in a second language (L2). Targeting Swedish V2 word order we investigate adult German learners (+V2 in the L1) and English learners (-V2 in the L1) of Swedish who are matched for proficiency. We report results from two offline behavioural tasks (written production, metalinguistic judgements), and online processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). All groups showed sensitivity to word order violations behaviourally and neurocognitively. Behaviourally, the learners differed from the native speakers only on judgements. Crucially, they did not differ from each other. Neurocognitively, all groups showed a similar increased centro-parietal P600 ERP-effect, but German learners (+V2) displayed more nativelike anterior ERP-effects than English learners (-V2). The results suggest crosslinguistic influence in that the presence of a similar word order in the L1 can facilitate online processing in an L2 - even if no offline behavioural effects are discerned.

  • 4. Palm, Clara
    et al.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Language use and investment among children and adolescents of Somali heritage in Sweden2019In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 64-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores language use and investment among Somali-speaking children and adolescents in Sweden, through group interviews and survey data. Our findings indicate that there are incentives to invest in Somali language learning considering the reported language use patterns and the expressed positive attitudes towards Somali mother tongue instruction. The Somali language was perceived to be ‘naturally’ linked to Somali identity and to being able to claim ‘Somaliness’, not only by the adolescents but also by the surroundings. Thus, advanced Somali language proficiency was perceived as necessary for being able to pass as ‘culturally authentic’ (Jaffe, A. [2012]. “Multilingual Citizenship and Minority Languages.” In The Routledge Handbook of Multilingualism, edited by M. Martin-Jones, A. Blackledge, and A. Creese, 83–99. London: Routledge). Furthermore, being perceived as unproficient in Somali or unable to transmit the language to future generations was experienced as guilt-provoking. Nevertheless, the adolescents articulated a compliance with the dominant linguistic order in Sweden, and their school’s assimilatory language rules (‘Swedish-only’). This compliance was associated with good manners and moral behaviour, thus reflecting the potentially harmful and pervasive nature of assimilatory language ideology and policy for individual students. The findings exemplify in many ways the struggles it entails to maintain and develop a minoritised language in a majority language context and the complex ‘ideological enterprise’ of language learning with its educational and ethical dilemmas.

  • 5.
    Freunberger, Dominik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Breit, Simone
    Lexikalische Kompetenzen von Kindern der Grundstufe I2019In: Fokus Grundschule Band 1: Forschungsperspektiven und Entwicklungslinien / [ed] Andrea Holzinger, Silvia Kopp-Sixt, Silke Luttenberger, David Wohlhart, Muenster: Waxmann Verlag, 2019, p. 209-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6. Bokander, Lars
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Probing the Internal Validity of the LLAMA Language Aptitude Tests2019In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the LLAMA language aptitude test battery has come to play an increasingly important role as an instrument in research on individual differences in language development. However, a potentially serious problem that has been pointed out by several scholars is that the LLAMA has not yet been carefully validated. We addressed this issue by examining the internal validity of this test battery. We collected LLAMA data from 350 participants and assessed these data using classical item analysis, Rasch analysis, and principal component analysis within a framework of best practices in educational and psychological test validation. The results show that only one out of the four subtests (LLAMA B) produced scores that fit a latent trait model with sufficient accuracy. This suggests that researchers using the LLAMA battery must treat their results with appropriate carefulness and also that there is potential for refining the LLAMA further.

  • 7.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    “Put a meeting in my calendar!” The literacy practice of the digital calendar in workplaces2019In: Sakprosa, ISSN 1502-6000, E-ISSN 1891-5108, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern work life includes many digital tools, of which the shared digital calendar has attracted little attention in applied linguistics. The framework for this study is mediated discourse analysis applied to ethnographic data from one workplace and eight contextual interviews from eight other workplaces. The data were analyzed 1) qualitatively, using Wertsch’s (1998) concepts for agency, and 2) quantitatively, through an SFG (Systemic Functional Grammar) analysis of the interviews. The quantitative analysis reveals a high degree of agency. The qualitative analysis shows that discourses of managerialism, globalization, democratization and “flat organizations” can be mapped to the digital calendar. The calendar is also related to other text media such as whiteboards and time report systems, where squares with colors and writing constitute the discursive shapes that are common to the digital calendar. The ability to search and book meetings in the calendars of others is an affordance, although regulated through digital or verbal access. In this and other ways, the individual is strongly connected to the digital tool. The boundary between private and public has been challenged by digital tools. Social actors can resist, e.g., by non-compliance in using the digital calendar, thus increasing their sense of agency. Additional features include the ability to combine different media and develop practices that are not directly offered by the design of the tool. The digital tool both widens the agency of the actors, e.g., in keeping a great deal of information connected to one meeting, and delimits it, e.g., in sometimes rendering individuals helpless to what they see in their own calendars.

  • 8.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Norrman, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Revisiting the bilingual lexical deficit: The impact of age of acquisition2019In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 182, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the cognitive advantages brought about by bilingualism have recently been called into question, the so-called ‘lexical deficit’ in bilinguals is still largely taken for granted. Here, we argue that, in analogy with cognitive advantages, the lexical deficit does not apply across the board of bilinguals, but varies as a function of acquisition trajectory. To test this, we implement a novel methodological design, where the variables of bilingualism and first/second language status have been fully crossed in four different groups. While the results confirm effects of bilingualism on lexical proficiency and processing, they show more robust effects of age of acquisition. We conclude that the traditional view of the linguistic costs of bilingualism need to give way to a new understanding of lexical development in which age of acquisition is seen as a major determinant.

  • 9.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The Impact of Mother Tongue Instruction on the Development of Biliteracy: Evidence from Somali-Swedish Bilinguals2019In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 108-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if participation in mother tongue instruction (henceforth MTI) impacts the biliteracy proficiency of young bilinguals, drawing on examples from Somali–Swedish bilinguals and Somali MTI in a Swedish school context. In the study, biliteracy was operationalized as reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge in two languages, which was tested with measures of word decoding, reading comprehension, and vocabulary breadth and depth. The study was designed to allow for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-linguistic analyses of data. Overall, the results showed that participation in MTI contributed positively to participants’ results on Somali reading comprehension, beyond the influence of chronological age, age of arrival, and reported home language and literacy use. Furthermore, higher results in Somali were associated with higher results on the same measures in Swedish, in particular for the reading measures. In sum, the results indicate that MTI has an impact on some aspects of literacy proficiency in the mother tongue, despite the restricted time allocated for it (<1 h/week). They also indicate that MTI, albeit indirectly, may benefit the stated proficiencies in the language of schooling.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age effects on language acquisition, retention and loss. Key hypotheses and findings2018In: High-Level Language Proficiency in Second Language and Multilingual Contexts / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 16-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Karlander, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Backjumps: writing, watching, erasing train graffiti2018In: Social Semiotics, ISSN 1035-0330, E-ISSN 1470-1219, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 41-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with mobile semiotics. First and foremost, it discusses mobility as a semiotic device. The analysis engages with backjumps, a genre of train graffiti that draws inventively on various forms of movement. The term backjump refers to any fairly elaborate graffiti piece painted on trains in traffic, notably during the trains’ extended stops at terminal stations. The examples focus on the Stockholm metro, where a rigorous anti-graffiti policy has been firmly in place: graffiti is quickly cleaned off trains and a range of strategies is implemented to keep graffiti writing under wraps. By slyly inserting graffiti into the metro system, the mobility-driven backjump practice allows graffiti writers to temporarily subvert this semiotic regime. Furthermore, the forms of semiotic mobility at play are not limited to the movement of the trains. As the present study shows, mobile backjumps are entangled in other patterns of mobility, which jointly underwrite a number of interlinked semiotic processes.

  • 12.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    But do I really have anything to say? Conferences and the PhD student2018In: The Nordic PhD: Surviving and succeeding / [ed] Christopher McMaster, Caterina Murphy, Jakob Rosenkrantz de Lasson, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2018, p. 59-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    But first, let's think again!2018In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 906-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of their review of studies, Mayberry and Kluender (2017) propose that the human language learning ability becomes severely compromised if it is not developed in tandem with brain development in early childhood, but that it functions more or less flawlessly, even in adulthood, if language acquisition had at one time proceeded according to the maturational timetable. Mayberry and Kluender therefore suggest that the critical period hypothesis (CPH) for language is unambiguously tied to the timing of L1 acquisition, but that its relevance to L2 acquisition is less clear, the implication being that the well-documented AoA effects in the SLA literature are due to non-maturational (i.e., psychological, experiential, cross-linguistic, etc.) causes.

  • 14. Bock, Zannie
    et al.
    Dalwai, Nausheena
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Cool mobilities: Youth style and mobile telephony in contemporary South Africa2018In: Multilingual Youth Practices in Computer Mediated Communication / [ed] Cecelia Cutler, Unn Røyneland, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 51-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15. Heugh, Kathleen
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Diversities, affinities and diasporas: a southern lens and methodology for understanding multilingualisms2018In: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We frame multilingualisms through a growing interest in a linguistics and sociology of the 'south' and acknowledge earlier contributions of linguists in Africa, the Americas and Asia who have engaged with human mobility, linguistic contact and consequential ecologies that alter over time and space. Recently, conversations of multilingualism have drifted in two directions. Southern conversations have become intertwined with 'de-colonial theory', and with 'southern' theory, thinking and epistemologies. In these, 'southern' is regarded as a metaphor for marginality, coloniality and entanglements of the geopolitical north and south. Northern debates that receive traction appear to focus on recent 're-awakenings' in Europe and North America that mis-remember southern experiences of linguistic diversity. We provide a contextual backdrop for articles in this issue that illustrate intelligences of multilingualisms and the linguistic citizenship of southern people. In these, southern multilingualisms are revealed as phenomena, rather than as a phenomenon defined usually in English. The intention is to suggest a third direction of mutual advantage in rethinking the social imaginary in relation to communality, entanglements and interconnectivities of both South and North.

  • 16.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 27-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Förord2018In: Translanguaging: Flerspråkighet som resurs i lärandet, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bartning, IngeStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.Fant, LarsStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    High-Level Language Proficiency in Second Language and Multilingual Contexts2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Guissemo, Manuel Armando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hip Hop Activism: Dynamic Tension between the Global and Local in Mozambique2018In: Journal of World Popular Music, ISSN 2052-4900, E-ISSN 2052-4919, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 50-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From its inception in the late 1980s to the present day, hip hop culture in Mozambique underwent several stages in which the process of “keeping it real” was in constant negotiation with the association of the Global Hip Hop Nation (GHHN), and its local cultural and linguistic elements. This article, using tropes of temporality as the main framework, discusses how relocalization of the GHHN is constructed in Mozambican hip hop. There is a progressive connection between the past, present and future which is highlighted by local rappers. The article argues that Mozambican hip hop activism is built through acts of engagement in political tropes, in which local rappers are acting as spokesmen of the marginalized population through lyrics that claim citizenship. The political discourses produced during the Frelimo’s socialist governance era are rescued to challenge the liberal politics developed in the present democratic period, which, in large part, is contested by the population at the margin of the development. Therefore, local rappers’ lyrics address popular complaints related to some political decisions that negatively affect the population at the margins and lead to general societal malfunction. The local African languages that were ideologically marginalized since the colonial regime are now being rescued by local rappers as a way to contextualize them into contemporary, metropolitan and transnational languages. This linguistic relocalization indexes a new present and an aspiration for a different future, where these languages will be inserted together with Portuguese to allow communication in urban spaces. This engagement by rappers can be perceived as acts of linguistic citizenship.

  • 20.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Hur bra har den svenska integrationskontexten varit på att främja balanserad tvåspråkighet?2018In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 107-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how good the Swedish integration context has been at promoting balanced bilingualism among adult children of Turkish immigrants. Balanced bilingualism has been one of the goals of Sweden’s multicultural language policy. An extensive comparison with corresponding groups in Rotterdam and Berlin is also presented. The data come from 430 participants in the project The Integration of the European Second Generation, of whom 133 resided in Stockholm. Balanced bilingualism is defined on the basis of the participants’ self-assessed speaking and writing skills in Turkish and their respective second languages. The results show that only a minority of the second-generation Turks were balanced bilinguals in Stockholm, which constituted the lowest rate among the cities. At the same time, the Stockholm group displayed the highest skill levels in the second language among the three cities. The analysis points out that the inclusive multi-ethnic context in Stockholm had a positive effect on second-language skills, while the Turkish group’s relatively small size and concentration coupled with the deficient implementation of mother-tongue instruction had a negative effect on Turkish skills. The other cities’ more segregated and enclavelike integration contexts seem instead to better promote Turkish skills and thereby to lead to a higher occurrence of balanced bilingualism. 

  • 21.
    Samuel, Steven
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of Essex, UK.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Cooper, Rachel
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Illuminating ATOM: Taking time across the colour category border2018In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 185, p. 116-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walsh's A Theory Of Magnitude (ATOM) contends that we represent magnitudes such as number, space, time and luminance on a shared metric, such that more of one leads to the perception of more of the other (e.g. Walsh, 2003). In support of ATOM, participants have been shown to judge intervals between stimuli that are more discrepant in luminance as having a longer duration than intervals between stimuli whose luminance differs by a smaller degree (Xuan, Zhang, He, & Chen, 2007). We tested the potential limits to the ability of luminance to influence duration perception by investigating the possibility that the luminance-duration relationship might be interrupted by a concurrent change in the colour of that luminance. We showed native Greek and native English speakers sequences of stimuli that could be either light or dark versions of green or blue. Whereas for both groups a shift in green luminance does not comprise a categorical shift in colour, for Greek speakers shifts between light and dark blue cross a colour category boundary (ghalazio and ble respectively). We found that duration judgements were neither interrupted nor inflated by a shift in colour category. These results represent the first evidence that the influence of luminance change on duration perception is resistant to interference from discrete changes within the same perceptual input.

  • 22.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bartning, Inge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Introduction: High-level proficiency and the concept of nativelikeness in second language and multilingual research practice2018In: High-Level Language Proficiency in Second Language and Multilingual Contexts / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Introduction: Language Rights and Linguistic Citizenship2018In: The Multilingual Citizen: Towards a politics of language for agency and change / [ed] Lisa Lim, Christopher Stroud, Lionel Wee, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2018, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Wedin, Åsa
    Introduktion2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 11-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Linguistic Citizenship2018In: The Multilingual Citizen: Towards a politics of language for agency and change / [ed] Lisa Lim, Christopher Stroud, Lionel Wee, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2018, p. 17-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Kerfoot, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Making and Shaping Participatory Spaces: Resemiotization and Citizenship Agency in South Africa2018In: The Multilingual Citizen: Towards a Politics of Language for Agency and Change / [ed] Lisa Lim, Christopher Stroud, Lionel Wee, Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2018, p. 263-288Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In South Africa, democratic consolidation involves not only building a new state but also new interfaces between state and society. In order to strengthen the agency of citizens at these interfaces, recent approaches to development stress the notion of ‘participatory citizenship’ which recasts citizenship as practised rather than given. The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between such practices of participatory citizenship and possibilities for literacy and language education in state adult learning centres. It draws on an impact study of a capacity building programme for educators of adults in the Northern Cape Province and uses interviews and document analysis to explore the ways in which meaning-making unfolded in new participatory spaces. It argues that such processes can be seen as  a form of ‘linguistic citizenship’ in which individuals and groups re-shaped the multilingual representational resources available to them to validate the authority of subaltern actors and mobilise collective agency. It uses the concept of resemiotisation (Iedema 1999) to investigate how the choice of different semiotic complexes enabled or constrained participation and to offer a set of principles for reconceptualising the provision of adult basic education.

  • 27. Peck, Amiena
    et al.
    Stroud, ChristopherStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.Williams, Quentin
    Making sense of people and place in linguistic landscapes2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Botsis, Hannah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Bradbury, Jill
    Metaphorical sense-making: Visual-narrative language portraits of South African students2018In: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, E-ISSN 1478-0895, Vol. 15, no 2-3, p. 412-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects on a creative visual-narrative approach to understanding South African students' lived experiences of languages. Data were collected in two interviews: the first entailing a biographical history and the drawing of a linguistic portrait on a simple body outline and the second a narrative interview utilising the portrait generated in the first as a basis for talking about language and identity. Framing the research process in this creative visual mode shifts the focus of narrative talk, simultaneously grounding it in affective, embodied experience, and enabling a reflexive position from which to analyse the taken-for-granted role of language in the minutiae of everyday life. The theoretical lenses of identity and subjectivity are invigorated through these metaphorical representations, and new creative possibilities are released for analysing the role of language in mediating shifting power dynamics in post-apartheid and postcolonial South African life.

  • 29.
    Karlander, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mobile semiosis and mutable metro spaces: Train graffiti in Stockholm's public transport system2018In: Making Sense of People and Place in Linguistic Landscapes / [ed] Amiena Peck, Christopher Stroud, Quentin Williams., London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Modersmålsundervisning, läsförståelse och betyg – modersmålsundervisningens roll för elevers skolresultat2018In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 4-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the relationship between participation in mother tongue instruction (MTI), students’ reading comprehension, and their overall school results. The study expands on the results of an earlier study, which found that Somali–Swedish speaking students who had attended Somali MTI for several years, performed better on reading comprehension in Somali, than Somali–Swedish speaking students of the same ages, who had not taken Somali MTI (Ganuza & Hedman 2017a). The present study revisits the results of 36 participants in the earlier study, and explores the relationship between their scores on reading comprehension and their grades at the end of 6th or 7th grade; in MTI, Swedish as a second language, Mathematics, and overall grade points. Most importantly, the results show consistent positive correlations between participants’ reading comprehension in Somali and their school results. This correlation is also stronger and more comprehensive than the one found between their reading comprehension in Swedish and their school results. In the paper, we argue that these results indirectly point to a positive relationship between MTI and students’ school results, which, if confirmed by future studies, is quite remarkable considering the limited teaching time allotted to MTI and its’ marginalized position in the Swedish school system.

  • 31.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Modersmålsundervisning: möjligheter och utmaningar2018In: En god fortsättning: nyanländas fortsatta väg i skola och samhälle / [ed] Tore Otterup, Gilda Kästen-Ebeling, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 163-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Salö, Linus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Karrebæk, Martha Sif
    Mother tongue instruction in Sweden and Denmark: Language policy, cross-field effects, and linguistic exchange rates2018In: Language Policy, ISSN 1568-4555, E-ISSN 1573-1863, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 591-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates mother tongue instruction (MTI) in Sweden and Denmark in a historical, comparative perspective, with a view to accounting for key differences in language policy enacted in educational fields. Whereas in Sweden, MTI is offered to linguistic minority children irrespective of their linguistic and ethnic backgrounds, in Denmark the right to state-sponsored MTI has been abolished for children of non-European descent. Moreover, while the policies of both states devalue skills in mother tongues other than the legitimate language of each society, this position is more pronounced in the Danish context. The article explores the two state’s position on MTI, as expressed in policy as well as in discourse produced in the political and academic field of each state. It subscribes to Pierre Bourdieu’s framework, within which state policy is conceived as the product of historical struggle and cross-field effects. The analysis shows that the national differences in MTI exist because of the differing ways in which agents from the academic vis-à-vis the political field have succeeded in imposing their visions in the bureaucratic field from which policies are produced. Ultimately, this circumstance explains why the Swedish discussion on MTI may be characterized as having been academically founded, while the Danish discussion has remained a matter of political consideration. In the latter case, we argue, it is particularly tangible that MTI is a politicized object of struggle, where agents seek to control the exchange rate of linguistic resources and, in effect, the social worth of different speakers.

  • 33.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mångfald, möten och mejl: En forskningsöversikt och tre fallstudier om arbetslivskommunikation2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här antologin beskrivs människor, redskap och situationer som många känner igen från dagens komplexa och rörliga arbetsliv:

    • En mellanchef vars arbetsdagar i hög grad styrs av de många möten som andra lagt in i hennes kalender.
    • En whiteboardtavla som kopplar samman olika delar av en verksamhet, och även kopplar möten till andra aktiviteter.
    • Flera samverkande organisationer som gör det svårt att skilja internkommunikation från annan kommunikation, och som både ökar behovet av kommunikation och försvårar den.

    Dessa skildras i tre uppsatser av Angie Gravett, Emma Legaard och Sofia Johansson. I en forskningsöversikt sammanfattar forskarna Mona Blåsjö och Carla Jonsson sociolingvistisk forskning om arbetslivskommunikation, med fokus på skrivbordsyrken. Översikten visar ur ett individperspektiv hur enskilda anställda förhåller sig till språk i sin vardag på arbetsplatsen, och ur ett organisatoriskt perspektiv diskuteras hur flera språk kan användas på en och samma arbetsplats. De studier som presenteras bygger på olika metoder (kvalitativa, kvantitativa, etnografiska osv.) och ger därigenom en bild av hur man kan gå tillväga för att analysera arbetslivskommunikation. Översikten fokuserar på tre teman: mångfald, dvs. olika aspekter av flerspråkighet på arbetsplatser, möten och annan muntlig kommunikation samt mejl eller snarare mejlande: textprocesser och digitala redskap i arbetslivet.

    Antologin är lämplig för studenter på grundnivå och forskarnivå, men kan även läsas av alla som är intresserade av hur moderna organisationer arbetar med sin kommunikation.

  • 34.
    Karlander, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Nya vägar i språkbytesforskningen? Utkast till ett program2018Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Of Monkeys, Shacks and Loos: Changing times, changing places2018In: Making sense of People and Place in Linguistic Landscapes / [ed] Amiena Peck, Christopher Stroud, Quentin Williams, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, p. 180-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Guissemo, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Orders of (in)visibility: Colonial and postcolonial chronotopes in linguistic landscapes of memorization in Maputo2018In: Making Sense of People, Place and Linguistic Landscapes / [ed] Amiena Peck, Christopher Stroud, Quentin Williams, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Polyglotism: A synergy of abilities and predispositions2018In: High-level language proficiency in second language and multilingual contexts / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 170-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Second language ultimate attainment: Effects of maturation, exercise, and social/psychological factors2018In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 921-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mayberry and Kluender (2017) offer a rich review of empirical research that contributes to the understanding of age-related effects on first and second language acquisition. Their keynote article compiles current, primarily linguistic and neurolinguistic, research on the notion of a critical period for language (CPL). The authors conclude “that the putative CPL applies to L1 learning, and that L2 effects are a consequence of this prior learning” (Mayberry & Kluender, 2017: p. 6). As they propose a clear role for CPL in L1 learning, and because their exact position on its role in L2 learning is, to my mind, not as clearly articulated, I will take the opportunity to argue the following: If a CPL exists at all, it should have identifiable implications for all kinds of language acquisition (cf. Gleitman & Newport, 1995). In the case of L2 acquisition what needs to be identified is how maturational constraints (implicated by a CPL) interact with other conditions that are at hand when the second language comes onto the scene.

  • 39.
    Salö, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Seeing the point from which you see what you see: An essay on epistemic reflexivity in language research2018In: Multilingual Margins, ISSN 2221-4216, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 24-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with epistemic issues in language research, focusing particularly on the field of language planning and policy (LPP). It outlines Pierre Bourdieu’s principle of epistemic reflexivity as a device for understanding what the view of the research object owes to the researcher’s past and present position in social space. I hold that developing such an understanding is particularly vital for LPP scholars, by virtue of the ways in which the objects investigated here tend to linger in the borderlands between science and politics. Accordingly, the essay unearths the philosophical roots of epistemic reflexivity and highlights some of its implications in the research practice with examples from Swedish LPP research. It also examines the value of a reflexive stance in interviews as a way of pinpointing the relevance of epistemic reflexivity in every moment of the scholarly investigation. In conclusion, the argument is that since epistemic reflexivity is a useful device for any critical researcher who wishes to grasp the knowledge he or she produces, it is so also for language researchers, and particularly so in relation to the ideologically normative practices of LPP scholarship. Therefore, a reflexive gaze is a pivotal driver for yielding better language research.

  • 40. Heugh, Kathleen
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Scarino, Angela
    Spaces of exception: southern multilingualisms as resource and risk2018In: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 100-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we draw attention to people who journey from one temporal and spatial setting towards another in the 'South', who aspire to a reconfigured sense of belonging, prosperity and wellbeing, and their multilinguality and multilingualisms. Through three vignettes of journeys we illustrate how in changing of place that linguistic diversities are encountered and mediated. During moments of North-South and South-South entanglement and exception we argue that multilingualisms re-ecologise along horizontal axes of conviviality, and / or re-index along vertical axes of exclusion. We suggest that 'rooting' and 'rerouting' multilingualisms are not only multidimensional, but they are also multifaceted as people who choose or are obliged to experience dis-placement, undertake journeys of anticipation of replacement into regulated or unregulated situations. Multilingualisms in the memories, dreams, complex selves, materiality and complicities of coping have yet to receive sufficient attention from linguists. We attempt to capture these aspects and suggest that southern multilingualisms have much to offer and entice northern multilingualisms. We illustrate how closely integrated are multilingual repertoires with mobilities and temporalities of dislocation and change; with loss, nostalgia and the anticipation of new beginnings; and with multi-scaled complicities between individuals as they re-calibrate lives in turbulent and changing circumstances.

  • 41.
    Eliaso Magnusson, Josefina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Språk, makt och "Den Andre": Erfarenheter av underordning och/eller "möjliggörande" i Sverige2018In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 16, p. 46-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att visa hur språket och kroppen används som gränsmarkörer för att skapa och skilja ut det svenska genom vardaglig språkanvändning. Detta görs med hänvisning till idén om intersektionen av indexikaliteter av "Den Andre". Därmed bidrar artikeln till att göra utbildningsaktörer medvetna om hur olika maktrelationer vävs ihop och omformar olika koncept av svenska samt betydelsen av vad det innebär att kunna svenska. Studiens resultat kan användas för att nå ökad förståelse för språkets roll och de möjligheter och begränsningar som följer av ett visst sätt att tala.

  • 42.
    Karlander, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    State categories, state vision and vernacular woes in Sweden’s language politics2018In: Language Policy, ISSN 1568-4555, E-ISSN 1573-1863, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 343-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the politics of classification in contemporary Sweden. It analyses the language political dispute that has developed over the language political regulation of Övdalsk, a non-standard form of Scandinavian spoken in Älvdalen in northern central Sweden. The analysis focuses on the ways in which a discursive exchange over metalinguistic categories contributes to the efficacy of a state vision of linguistic divisions. In the wake of Sweden’s ratification of the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (ECRML), and the language political reforms in which the ratification was embedded, Övdalsk has emerged as a contentious issue. Over three decades (1990s–2010s), the question of what Övdalsk ‘is’—a ‘language’, a ‘dialect’ or something else—has surged repeatedly in political, public and scholarly deliberations (i.e. in expert reports, in policy documents and in scientific publications). Nevertheless, the interests placed in this muddled taxonomic issue have not yet been subjected to any sociolinguistic analysis. Drawing on Bourdieu’s work on the state, the article attends to the ways in which the exchange over Övdalsk has paid tribute to an increasingly entrenched symbolic order. Commenting on Sweden’s commitment to the ECRML more generally, the article accounts for how and why an officialised vision of linguistic division has been rendered symbolically effective. Accordingly, the article argues that a sensitisation to the forms of tacit agreement that underwrite contention is a suitable lens for grasping the maintenance of a political order as legitimate and effective.

  • 43.
    Botsis, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Subjectivity, Language and the Postcolonial: Beyond Bourdieu in South Africa2018Book (Refereed)
  • 44. Lim, Lisa
    et al.
    Stroud, ChristopherStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.Wee, Lionel
    The Multilingual Citizen: Towards a politics of language for agency and change2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Salö, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thinking about language with Bourdieu: Pointers for social theory in the language sciences2018In: Sociolinguistic Studies, ISSN 1750-8649, E-ISSN 1750-8657, Vol. 12, no 3-4, p. 523-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents Pierre Bourdieu's sociological gaze, agenda and toolkit to scholars of language, so as to offer a social theoretical framework within which sociolinguistic questions can be fruitfully investigated. It outlines Bourdieu's dual conception of social life and presents the key thinking tools - field and habitus - with which this dualism can be explored empirically. In addition, it locates work produced at the nexus of sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology where Bourdieusian insights have been productively employed. It also discusses Bourdieu's reputation as a macro theorist, and argues that this image must be supplemented with an understanding of his idea that social reality also has a mode of existence in people's bodies, habitus, and practices. The paper argues that Bourdieu's gaze and thinking tools import with them a solid social theoretical base of the comprehension of human practice, including linguistic practice, which therefore offers some purchase to account for the relationship between the market side of language and its embodied manifestations.

  • 46.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Rosén, JennyStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.Straszer, BoglárkaWedin, Åsa
    Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet transspråkande är användbart för att analysera språkande där en mångfald av språkliga resurser ingår. Transspråkande som pedagogik utmanar traditionella förhållningssätt och arbetssätt till förmån för sådana där elevernas språkliga repertoarer erkänns och används i lärprocesser. Transspråkande som praktik innebär därmed att man i den pedagogiska verksamheten utgår från flerspråkighet som norm för människors sätt att vara i och använda språk.

    Författarna i denna antologi utforskar transspråkande i svensk utbildningskontext från förskola till högre utbildning och i relation till svenska styrdokument och rådande pedagogiska villkor. Syftet är att studera och synliggöra språkideologiska, teoretiska och pedagogiska perspektiv på transspråkande, bland annat som resurs för elevers utveckling och lärande, i förhållande till digitala medier, som meningsskapande praktik, som norm och ideologi samt som rum för transspråkande.

    Boken aktualiserar på så sätt frågor som många lärare brukar ställa om hur en transspråkande undervisning kan se ut och vad teoretiska och ideologiska reflektioner kring den kan innebära för den dagliga praktiken. 

    Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang vänder sig främst till lärarstuderande, verksamma lärare och andra med intresse för flerspråkighet och lärande.

  • 47.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Transspråkande och språkliga ideologier bland lärare och elever2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] Bethanne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fiorentino, Robert
    Gabriele, Alison
    Using event-related potentials to track morphosyntactic development in second language learners: The processing of number and gender agreement in Spanish2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0200791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used event-related potentials to investigate morphosyntactic development in 78 adult English-speaking learners of Spanish as a second language (L2) across the proficiency spectrum. We examined how development is modulated by the similarity between the native language (L1) and the L2, by comparing number (a feature present in English) and gender agreement (novel feature). We also investigated how development is impacted by structural distance, manipulating the distance between the agreeing elements by probing both within-phrase (fruta muy jugosafruit(-FEM-SG) very juicy(-FEM-SG)) and across-phrase agreement (fresa es acida strawberry(-FEM-SG) is tart(-FEM-SG)). Regression analyses revealed that the learners' overall proficiency, as measured by a standardized test, predicted their accuracy with the target properties in the grammaticality judgment task (GJT), but did not predict P600 magnitude to the violations. However, a relationship emerged between immersion in Spanish-speaking countries and P600 magnitude for gender. Our results also revealed a correlation between accuracy in the GJT and P600 magnitude, suggesting that behavioral sensitivity to the target property predicts neurophysiological sensitivity. Subsequent group analyses revealed that the highest-proficiency learners showed equally robust P600 effects for number and gender. This group also elicited more positive waveforms for within- than across-phrase agreement overall, similar to the native controls. The lowest-proficiency learners showed a P600 for number overall, but no effects for gender. Unlike the highest-proficiency learners, they also showed no sensitivity to structural distance, suggesting that sensitivity to such linguistic factors develops over time. Overall, these results suggest an important role for proficiency in morphosyntactic development, although differences emerged between behavioral and electrophysiological measures. While L2 proficiency predicted behavioral sensitivity to agreement, development with respect to the neurocognitive mechanisms recruited in processing only emerged when comparing the two extremes of the proficiency spectrum. Importantly, while both L1-L2 similarity and hierarchical structure impact development, they do not constrain it.

  • 49.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    “We know the same languages and then we can mix them”: A child’s perspectives on everyday translanguaging in the family2018In: Translanguaging as Everyday Practic / [ed] Gerardo Mazzaferro, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 49-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50. Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    What’s the target? A folk linguistic study of young Stockholmers’ constructions of linguistic norm and variation2018In: High-Level Language Proficiency in Second Language and Multilingual Contexts / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 196-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 203
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