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  • 1.
    Svedberg, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Deeply Satisfying Lie?: Authorship, Performance, and Recognition in 21st Century American Novels2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a considerable amount of research done on questions of authorship over the past century or so, and the interest in the subject is still going strong today. This essay takes as its point of departure two seminal poststructuralist essays on authorship—Roland Barthes’s “The Death of the Author,” and Michel Foucault’s “What is an Author?”—as these texts have had a significant impact on the discourse. It examines how scholars like Seán Burke and Jane Gallop have explained this anti-authorial tendency and extended the connection between authors and death, and how their findings relate to a performative conception of authorship. The study will take as its central critical approach the study of authorship as cultural performance as formulated by Ingo Berensmeyer, Gert Buelens, and Marysa Demoor, and Sonja Longolius. It will utilize this approach to analyze four contemporary American novels—James Frey’s A Million Little Pieces (2003), Paul Auster’s Travels in the Scriptorium (2006), Ron Currie Jr.’s Flimsy Little Plastic Miracles (2013), and J.J. Abrams and Doug Dorst’s S. (2013)—and the different ways in which these novels problematize notions of authorial self-invention. The focus of the analysis will be on the author-reader relationship, moments of recognition, and developments in writing technology. These issues have been selected for their connection to current conceptions of the creation of author personae, which can in turn be viewed as reflecting performance as it takes place in daily life and therefore give indications as to the cultural climate in which the novels were produced. Ultimately, the aim is to have illustrated how these novels present the reader with textually traced author personae that are highly aware of their own performances. In addition, it is suggested that authors are dependent on their readers to recognize these personae for them to become felicitously legitimized.

  • 2.
    Al Ansari-Imad, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A quantitative study on the application and comprehension of English connectors by Swedish L2 learners of English in upper secondary schools2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on L2 learners of English in Swedish upper secondary schools and their ability to comprehend and use connectors in a multiple-choice cloze procedure. Connectors are used in text to signal the text structure and make explicit the relation between text segments. A study by Geva (1992) suggests that with an increased proficiency, learners also improve their ability to comprehend text relations and the use of connectors. The present study applies the suggestions of Geva’s results in a Swedish context. English in Swedish upper secondary schools, is taught at three levels (designated English 5, 6, 7) with increasing difficulty and proficiency level requirements. This study tests the ability to comprehend the context and use the correct connector on pupils in the two mandatory courses (English 5 & 6). Similar to previous studies, the aim is to investigate the relationship between levels of English and the ability to use connectors. This empirical survey investigates the English 5 & 6 pupils’ success in applying the appropriate connector in relation to the level of English they are placed in, in order to analyze whether there is any perceived development, as is presupposed by the English curriculum. Furthermore, the study also aims to analyze what type of connectors the pupils excel at or struggle with and any factors that might affect pupils’ performance. The test consisted of three categories: adversative (6 questions), additive (5 questions), and causal connectors (4 questions), a total of 15 questions, with one point being awarded for each correct response. The results of the two groups were similar and a subsequent t-test revealed that there was no statistical significance between the two groups in any of the categories. This suggests that in the sample which was tested there is no proficiency increase in terms of connectors and comprehending inter-/intrasentential relationships. Furthermore, the results indicate that the pupils are more likely to correctly select the appropriate adversative and causal connectors, but struggled in selecting the additive connectors.

    Keywords: connectors, comprehension, intrasentential & intersentential relationships, teaching, coherence, cohesion

  • 3.
    Özkan, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Academically Reading: University students’ reading habits and reported attitudes towards Academic English2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of English has increased greatly in the higher education system with universities across the world including English as part of their education programs. One of many consequences of this is that many students have to read and study in a second or foreign language, which has shown to be of difficulty for many students according to previous research. The purpose of this present study is to investigate the academic reading habits of students and explore their perceptions and attitudes towards reading academic English, and what experiences they have in relation to that. A total of 68 participants took part in this study, all recruited at Stockholm University. All participants responded to a questionnaire and interviews were conducted with four of the students. A relatively high degree of commitment was reported towards the assigned reading and a majority of the students did not perceive reading academic English as difficult and reported mostly positive attitudes about it. The results suggest that the personal interest and perception of the assigned reading is crucial and matter more for students than the target language.

  • 4.
    Molander, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Amiable Humor and Dual Address in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The humor of Mark Twain has long fascinated his readers. Critics such as Messent (2007), Budd (2005), Gerber (1988) and Camfield (2005) have all analyzed Mark Twain’s humor to reveal nuances and to help further the understanding of what makes Twain’s writing humorous. However, there is a distinct gap in the research so far conducted investigating Twain’s humor in relation to young readers, which this paper will begin to address. Twain’s novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (2007) poses a relevant subject for this research as Twain explicitly (in the preface to the novel) professes to write both for children and adults simultaneously. Writing in such a way can be categorized as either “double address” or “dual address”, understanding these terms according to the definitions of Barbara Wall (1991).

    In this paper I will argue that Mark Twain manages to create “dual address” in Tom Sawyer by using what Greg Camfield (2005) calls “amiable humor” and constructing scenes out of childhood in order to produce delight and nostalgia. By reading closely excerpts of the book and analyzing Twain’s specific use of humor through three prominent theories—superiority theory, relief theory and incongruity— it becomes possible to identify what the implied reader is meant to find humorous, and therefore if Twain manages to establish a “dual address”. An understanding of Twain’s humor from the perspective of both young and adult reader furthers our understanding of the novel by revealing Twain’s implementation of complex “dual address” narration and its implications.

  • 5.
    Fairless-Clarkson, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “An English which is not connected to Great Britain, the USA or any other geographical region.”: How is English presented in the Swedish educational television series Pick a colour?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    English is used worldwide as a native, second and foreign language and as a language of international communication. The uses and status of English in Sweden have been discussed in terms of its influence and ubiquity, with its presence in daily life leading some to consider English could be better described as a second, rather than foreign, language in the country. This study analyses how English is presented in the Swedish educational television series Pick a colour and considers how this can be related to the status of English as a global language and specifically the use of English in Sweden. This paper uses an approach drawing on nexus analysis, together with content analysis, to trace the key language ideologies surrounding English presented in Pick a colour and its surrounding texts, and to locate them within the context of the existing discourses in place. Analysis reveals that the series and related documents make attempts to move away from traditional native speaker British English and American English models of the language, and towards a “Global English” not linked to any specific geographical region and with a focus on communicative competence. However, as British English and American English and native-speaker models of the language are not directly challenged in the documents, and are given the greatest prominence in the series, it seems moving away from the status quo is still difficult in practice. The Swedish settings shown in the series, and emphases on the use of English in pupils’ daily lives allude to English being approached in a way more similar to a second, rather than foreign language in Sweden. 

  • 6.
    Stacey, Bibi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Can minority languages survive around English?: An investigation into family language policy in the UK2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Family language policy (FLP) focusses on how languages are dealt with within the home; typically how languages are used and how they are maintained or promoted by family members. The present study investigates families living in the UK, where one parent is a native English speaker, and the other a native speaker of another language, the minority language. By use of a mixed-methods design, utilising questionnaires, interviews and logs, this paper answers the questions: what are the reported language practices of children and parents in bi- or multilingual families, what ideologies about FLP do parents in these families possess and what strategies do families reportedly employ in their homes. Through a nexus analysis approach, the paper establishes connections between the historical bodies, the interaction orders and the DIP of the families in order to account for their language behaviours in the home. The nexus analysis suggests that although parents show positive attitudes towards minority language use, it is the macro-level societal factors that are most powerful in determining language use within the home. That is, space plays an important role in choice of language practices. This finding suggests that children need more minority language exposure outside the home, therefore this paper suggests that the UK government could promote and encourage minority language maintenance through the implementation of language policy. 

  • 7.
    ALGAN, SIBEL
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    CHANGES IN MEANING IN SPEECH ERRORS: AN ANALYSIS OF LEXICAL SPEECH ERRORS IN NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech Errors are the most widely recognized and discussed type of Language

    Processing Errors. They have been included as a research topic in many fields of study,

    e.g. cognitive linguistics, psychology and medicine. These studies have shown that

    speech errors are inevitable and very common: they can be observed in every kind of

    utterance, regardless of its formality or speakers’ age, socioeconomic background or

    environmental surroundings. Even though they are so ubiquitous, they are usually not

    paid attention to. Nevertheless, they might be representing a way of understanding how

    the human brain functions and why we dysfunction at times.

    In this paper, selected speech error examples from Fromkin’s Speech Error

    Database were analyzed in terms of the changes in meanings from target utterances into

    error utterances and the probable causes of the errors with the aim to discover any

    patterns of occurrence among erroneous speech. The focus of the examples has been

    lexical errors in nouns and adjectives.

    According to results of the analysis, contextual and environmental factors appear to

    contribute to the making of the errors in many different ways, along with the speakers’

    internal thoughts and representations of phenomena related to the utterances. These

    contributions could be accounted for various reasons. Along the keywords included in

    the search for patterns, distinctive features may only be observed in examples of

    opposite meaning. Thus, speech errors seem to have no typical ways of occurrence; still,

    some observable similarities among examples may be useful in further studies.

  • 8.
    Toll, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “Could that be diabolical, and really spotted with unseen evil, which was so spotless to the eye?”: Discipline and Homosexuality in Walter Pater's "Emerald Uthwart" and "Apollo in Picardy"2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Walter Pater’s work there are often mentions of discipline and ascesis in an explicitly positive way. But, in some of his work, discipline, although not ascesis, seem to be taking on a more negative form. Critics have nonetheless seemed satisfied with Pater’s explicit praise for discipline and the area is thus not very thoroughly researched. One area that is well researched is the homoerotic subtexts that are evident in a lot of Pater’s work, which critics have examined in a variety of different ways. I suggest analysing the imaginary portraits “Emerald Uthwart” and “Apollo in Picardy,” to argue that Pater contrasts the Ancient Greek notion of ascesis with the nineteenth century understanding of discipline in order to question the legal restrictions on homosexuality in late nineteenth century England. Due to the historical context of the 1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act, which criminalised homosexuality, and Pater’s regular use of—as well as his admiration for—Ancient Greece, I have found that there is a connection between discipline, ascesis, and homosexuality. In the essay I make use of some of Foucault’s theories, especially from The History of Sexuality Vol. 1 and Vol. 2., to argue that the juxtaposition between homosexuality and discipline and ascesis in the two portraits provides new insights to the intricacies of Pater’s work.

    Keywords: Walter Pater; discipline; ascesis; homosexuality; “Apollo in Picardy”; “Emerald Uthwart”; Imaginary Portraits

  • 9.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “[E]en strict offensive och defensive alliance” and “the danger this King and the 2 Queens were in”: News Reporting in Early Modern Swedish and English Diplomatic Correspondence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study of early cross-linguistic diplomatic epistolography was first introduced in Brownlees' (2012) comparative study of Italian and English personal newsletters. Given the field’s young age and the strong need for both further research and the retrieving of new, untranscribed and unanalysed data, the present study set out to help move this field forward by examining, at both a textual superstructure and semantic macrostructural level, two sets of unchartered diplomatic newsletters which representatives at foreign courts despatched back to their respective home countries. The first set of original manuscripts comprises periodical newsletters which Baron Christer Bonde, the Swedish ambassador-extraordinary to England, wrote to Charles X, King of Sweden, between 1655-6, whereas the second set consists of letters sent in 1680 by John Robinson, England’s chargé d’affaires in Sweden, to Sir Leoline Jenkins, Secretary of State for the Northern Department of England. The analysis has shown that whereas the textual superstructures of the two diplomats’ correspondences remain similarly robust, the instantiating semantic macrostructures display not only stylistic and compositional, but also narrative, variation.

  • 10.
    Hammad Magnusson, Joel Igor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    For the Journey is a Lonely One: Mourning and the Self in Jacob's Room and The Year of Magical Thinking2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virginia Woolf and Joan Didion challenge themselves as writers in their efforts to portray the emotional state of grief in their works Jacob’s Room (1922) and The Year of Magical Thinking (2005). Though they have their own styles of writing they both elaborate on the themes of self-experience and perception in ways that can be described as life-writing, and their works, both share similar features and at the same time belong in separate genres. Max Saunders’ work on life-writing serves as an applicable framework to discuss and show ways in which Woolf and Didion engage in life-writing. This essay explores the relationship between author and narrator from various layers of self-impression and into the subconscious of the bereaved. The rise of psychology, parallel with the modernist movement serves as an historical angle on the topic of self-impression and how the different domains such as literature, the arts and psychology share the same origin in philosophy. In the novels human emotion and the process of healing belong in medicine as well as in literary figuration. As critics have noted, there are forces of creativity in mourning and violent emotions can trigger creative states. Writing is a craftsmanship of many creative styles and Woolf and Didion explore their self-experience in their authorship.

  • 11.
    Ahlström, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    How do influencers portray companies on Instagram?: A multimodal discourse analysis on sponsored updates on the social media network Instagram2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis approaches the newly developed phenomenon of Influencer Marketing, with the aim to investigate the structure of influencer’s sponsored posts on the social media network Instagram. As people continuously express their opinions and feelings on social networking sites, this thesis analyses the textual and multimodal aspects of 18 posts from six influencers of two companies, namely Daniel Wellington and Na-kd, from the perspective of stance to distinguish similarities, differences and patterns concerning the structure of the posts and what these might imply regarding how a sponsored update marketing a product is structured. The results indicate that a common structure of how sponsored updates are generally constructed exists, but that the way they structure their posts does not depend on which company they are presenting, but rather how influencers structure their posts in general. Hence, there are similarities that conform to the influencers marketing both companies, for instance that the texts have roughly the same length and similar composition- both regarding the textual and the multimodal aspects. In addition, one important finding was the need of pragmatic competence to fully interpret how the influencer expresses stance, evaluation and positioning in the sponsored updates. To conclude, as Influencer Marketing provide a new way of communicating, I hope that other researchers continue to investigate Influencer Marketing on social media to contribute to the field of linguistics further. 

  • 12.
    Cronholm, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “I don’t approve of you dating in your condition”: Constraint and Confusion in Jason Reitman's Juno and Non Pratt's Trouble2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the popular indie-film Juno came out in 2007, it has received massive attention including both praise and harsh critique. Some have celebrated the protagonist Juno’s strong personality and her initial sexual liberty, but the majority have questioned what they see as the film’s anti-abortion message. In contrast, the more recent work Trouble, a young adult (YA) fiction novel from 2014 by Non Pratt, has received very little attention from scholars despite treating the same sensitive subject of teenage pregnancy. Therefore, this essay involves a comparative analysis of the two texts, which examines how the protagonists experience their pregnancies by looking at aspects such as the pregnant body, sexuality, maturation, identity and existential questions. The essay also takes into consideration some of the critique that previously has been voiced regarding the messages that Juno and other YA fiction send. The aim is to contribute to the same discussion by analyzing the film from a slightly different angle and by introducing an analysis of Trouble. In accordance with previous research, the essay concludes that these two works reveal traditional values and perspectives on teenage pregnancy that limit the protagonists’ sexual agency and leave them feeling isolated and confused.

  • 13.
    Untracht Forsberg, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Identity Buliding in Social Media: The role of mediated language in the online fitness industry2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of social media and social network sites is a comparatively new and extensive phenomenon in today’s society. Since their introduction, social network sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter have attracted millions of users and are distinguished as an element of immense time consumption in many people’s lives. This thesis investigates the use of Instagram, a social network site where users are able to share pictures, videos and texts with the community. The main focus of the study is the analysis of the relationship between language, gender, and identity building in this social network. Previous research has tackled many different aspects of social media related to gender and identity. However, the focus has mainly been on the general area of images and language devoid of finding specific connections between the authors behind the analyzed materials. Therefore, this study adds to previous studies by also integrating the focus of a specific field in the analyses, that of fitness as a lifestyle. To collect the data, a number of well-known English-speaking fitness bloggers were selected from different countries including Venezuela, Colombia, Germany, France, Australia, Puerto Rico and the USA. In order to analyze the data, multimodal discourse analysis is incorporated using the theory of systemic functional linguistics, developed by Halliday (1994), including ideational, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions. Conclusively, although certain posts appear to be ‘more masculine’ than others, there are many similarities in the use of language by both men and women. The language used in men and women’s posts does not differ vastly contingent on the gender of the bloggers.

  • 14.
    Berglund Nilsson, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Let your imagination go: A study on memory effects in free recall, from a dual-code theory perspective, with focus on imagery in nouns2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the experiment of this study, the participating subjects had to memorize words which belonged to two different word characteristics groups, one group with a high imagery and low concreteness factor and another group with low factors in both characteristics. The aim of this study was to corroborate the already existing findings supporting the Dual-code theory by targeting one of the subsystems which makes up half of the dual-coding sensory input and by showing that the effect imagery level in words has on recalling is prominent even within free recall. The results of this study suggest that recalling abstract words with a high imagery factor is easier than recalling words which are completely abstract. With the support of other research, this reinforces the Dual-code theory, as opposed to its rival theory, the Relational-Distinctiveness Processing theory. To put it more clearly, abstract/low concreteness words with a high imagery factor were more frequent in the group’s overall answers than the abstract words with a low imagery factor, which says that the non-verbal system in our dual-coding system, which deals with memory, allows people to recall words with a high imagery factor more easily than words which are only coded as a verbal code. These results could aid the development of more practice based experiments in a language learning setting.

  • 15.
    Rosén, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Multilingualism and Translanguaging in Swedish Upper Secondary school: An exploration of English teacher candidates’ attitudes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This ethnographically informed, qualitative study aims to investigate English teacher candidates’ attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging in English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms and in the school environment. More specifically, the study intends to identify potential contributing factors to the formation of said attitudes, such as the influence of policy documents and of the teacher training program on the perception of the future working environment. The data was collected with semi-structured interviews; the participants were four teacher candidates, two females and two males, enrolled in the teacher education program in a Swedish university. In addition, at the time of data collection, all participants had completed most of the teacher education program, an aspect that increased the relevance of their responses, since they would soon be active teachers in the Swedish school system. Overall, the participants expressed positive attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging in a school environment. However, some hesitation in their answers was detected when they are asked how they would work with multilingual students in their future practice. These findings suggest that, if teacher candidates receive adequate education to approach their future working environment with confidence they would be better equipped to provide adequate pedagogical support to students whose L1 is other than Swedish. This would foster positive attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging and would, consequently, lead to an improvement in the academic results of multilingual students. The teacher candidates’ increased awareness of the benefits and challenges of multilingualism and their ability to put into practice the general principles they learn at university would benefit from changes in the teacher training program, in the curriculum compiled by the National Agency of Education, and in the national pedagogical approach to language learning.

  • 16.
    Moreno, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Native American Identity, Locality, and Memory in N. Scott Momaday’s Poetry2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I examine the poetic constructions of cultural identity in the work of N.

    Scott Momaday, while I seek to show how locality and identity invigorate the poet’s

    work in its emphasis on heritage and history. In Momaday’s poetry there is an attempt

    to give shelter to and register Native American history, traditions, and cultural identity,

    which also indicates an attitude of artistic resistance to external political and historical

    pressures on Native American culture such as colonialism. In this thesis I discuss the

    way in which Momaday’s poetic use of locality functions in relation to questions of

    belonging and identity, both communal and individual. In this discussion of locality and

    identity, I also show how the poet uses abstractions interrelated to locality and identity

    such as memory, oral tradition, and history to further explore the cultural identity and

    community in the Native American context. I will argue that the link between identity,

    locality, memory and history provides the poet a tool for creating a space for his artistic

    resistance. Ultimately, I will show how even though previous criticism mostly focused

    on Momaday’s fiction, an analysis of his poetry gives additional insight into the poet’s

    constructions of cultural identity and his use of the Native American heritage.

  • 17.
    Visnjar, Mojca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Negotiating Identity: A sociolinguistic analysis of adult English speaking immigrants in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased transnational migration and globalisation, English has come to have a high status in Sweden, and is used in daily communication. The purpose of this research is to investigate how immigrants with English as their first language, negotiate their identity in Sweden, how they construct the need to (not) speak Swedish, and, finally, how their linguistic trajectories inform us about their linguistic ideologies and reported practices. Identity, constantly performed on the border between the self and the other, is greatly dependent on the language. Recent research in the field has focused mainly on immigrants moving to English speaking countries, while migrants with English as their first language have been somewhat neglected. This study investigates identity negotiation based on linguistic repertoire, Spracherleben, and linguistic ideologies, based on data collected through interviews. The results indicate that the fact that all informants prefer to, and mostly do use English, has a meaning beyond the language. It is namely in the language choice itself that the participants negotiate and demonstrate their identity. Language, therefore, is not the main issue the informants find problematic. Instead, it is the sense of alienation and the inability to convey their message in the way they feel would best represent who they are. 

  • 18.
    Johansson Moberg, John Leo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “Now is the winter of our discontent”: The Uncanny History of Richard III2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will use Sigmund Freud’s essay “The Uncanny” to analyse William Shakespeare’s play Richard III. It will be argued that, although the play predates the ideas of Freud, it makes use of several elements of the uncanny to set the scene or to enhance imagery. With the goal to reveal such aspects of the play, a number of specific topics and ideas will be discussed and examined. The dreams of the play will be interpreted; Richard III is noteworthy for its reliance on dreams to replace the supernatural elements often used by Shakespeare, but the very nature of the dreams calls that into question—as they seem prophetic.

    The roles of women, and Richard’s own “femininity”, will be examined. While the men dream, women speak curses that, eventually, appear to come true. The doubling of characters, historical events and devices like dreams and curses will also be looked into—all to find the uncanny core of the play’s narrative.

    A large part of that narrative involves political manoeuvring, and the psychology of Richard as he goes about achieving his goals before conscience causes his downfall. Both will be analysed with the help of close readings, psychological research and comparisons to Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideas. In the end, the full extent of the uncanny impact on the play should be revealed with an explanation of how the individual aspects of the play come together, and how the reversals of Richard makes him seem uncanny both to fellow characters and audiences.

    Keywords: Richard III; William Shakespeare; history; the uncanny; Sigmund Freud.

  • 19.
    Johansson Moberg, John Leo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "Now is the winter of our discontent": The Uncanny History of Richard III2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will use Sigmund Freud’s essay “The Uncanny” to analyse William Shakespeare’s play Richard III. It will be argued that, although the play predates the ideas of Freud, it makes use of several elements of the uncanny to set the scene or to enhance imagery. With the goal to reveal such aspects of the play, a number of specific topics and ideas will be discussed and examined. The dreams of the play will be interpreted; Richard III is noteworthy for its reliance on dreams to replace the supernatural elements often used by Shakespeare, but the very nature of the dreams calls that into question—as they seem prophetic.  

    The roles of women, and Richard’s own “femininity”, will be examined. While the men dream, women speak curses that, eventually, appear to come true. The doubling of characters, historical events and devices like dreams and curses will also be looked into—all to find the uncanny core of the play’s narrative.

    A large part of that narrative involves political manoeuvring, and the psychology of Richard as he goes about achieving his goals before conscience causes his downfall. Both will be analysed with the help of close readings, psychological research and comparisons to Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideas. In the end, the full extent of the uncanny impact on the play should be revealed with an explanation of how the individual aspects of the play come together, and how the reversals of Richard makes him seem uncanny both to fellow characters and audiences.  

  • 20.
    Fernandez Almlöf, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Peloton versus Pack & Bunch: A study of French lexical borrowing in live English cycling commentary2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sport of cycling is an ever expanding global phenomenon, drawing crowds in their thousands to watch the races unfold. Its community has a distinct vocabulary, with many terms borrowed from several other languages, principally French. This study investigates the presence of French loanwords in the language of English cycling commentators, and to what extent these loanwords are used in comparison to their English equivalents. It also examines extra-linguistic factors that could affect the commentator’s choice of vocabulary, mainly the location of the race. The study investigated the language of English commentators from live broadcast of 6 different races: 2 located in English speaking countries, 2 in France, and 2 countries where neither French nor English was the native language. All utterances of French loanwords and their English counterparts were noted and collected for analysis. The findings demonstrated a clear presence of French loanwords in the language of the commentators, with a varying degree of frequency. Some loanwords were preferred over their English equivalents, whilst others were not. The location did not seem to have a significant impact on the choice of vocabulary, with the exception of the only race held outside of Europe, where the commentators demonstrated a clear preference for English terminology over French loanwords. The analysis concluded that many different extra-linguistic factors may play a role in the commentator’s choice of vocabulary.

  • 21.
    Lindblom Carlsson, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Polite conversational implicature in male and female language2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality is a greatly debated topic in modern society, with the linguistic discipline of language and gender being a substantial part of it. Based on the research on female language by Lakoff (1975), as well as the Gricean co-operative principle and its maxims (Grice 1975), this research investigates the relationship between conversational implicature, politeness and gender. In conversational implicature it is possible to imply more than what is expressed and thereby violate/flout the maxims of the co-operative principle. A reason for an utterance to imply more than what is being said may stem from an intention to be polite. Historically, politeness has been seen as more common in female language (Lakoff 1975). In order to investigate if that claim is true in modern and more gender equality-driven society, an empirical study was conducted in London, United Kingdom, on 12 native English speakers who were born after the publication of Lakoff’s findings on female language. The participants were divided into 2 female-female, 2 male-male and 2 female-male groups. The findings were diverse. Some male participants displayed instances of indirect, polite language, while some female participants used rough, impolite language, both flouting the co-operative principle. Both genders adhered to the co-operative principle, as well as flouted it. In conclusion, the recordings show that there is no strict adherence to female and male language for any of the genders. 

  • 22.
    Davidsson, Carl-Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Robert Louis Stevenson’s Romantic Sensibility: Nature and Human Emotion in An Inland Voyage and Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the latter half of the 19th century, Robert Louis Stevenson set off on two journeys through Belgium and France, two travels that were to become the subject of his early travelogues An Inland Voyage and Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes. In these two travelogues Stevenson elaborates extensively on depictions of nature, and through these depictions, Stevenson suggests that there exists a special relationship between natural beauty and human emotion. In fact, this portrayal of human emotion as bound with nature can be considered as significantly Romantic. Consequently, this study investigates Stevenson’s depictions of natural beauty from the Romantic conceptualizations, the beautiful, the sublime, and the picturesque. However, these Romantic theories are subject to various definitions and perceptions by different aesthetes and intellectuals. Therefore, in this study a few important Romantic philosophers have been given special consideration, those are, Edmund Burke, William Gilpin, William Wordsworth, and John Ruskin. The analysis of Stevenson’s depictions is conducted by way of discussing excerpts and quotations from Stevenson’s writing in relation to these Romantic perspectives. Although these travelogues are misplaced as Romantic in terms of period of time, I argue that Robert Louis Stevenson’s depictions of natural beauty and human emotion in An Inland Voyage and Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes reveal an interesting Romantic sensibility, which is founded on a combination of the aesthetic and philosophical ideas of the picturesque, the beautiful and the sublime.

  • 23.
    Henriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Self-regulation and the motivation to achieve: A quantitative study on the effects of self-regulation strategies and motivation on learning English at an upper secondary school in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Agency for Education recently begun explicitly promoting teaching through self-regulation strategies in national steering documents intended for teachers, following a number of other countries world wide (Skolverket, 2012; LGY 11; Dalland & Klette, 2016). The goal of self-regulation strategies is for the students to take control of their own learning process, and though there is research on the benefits of self-regulation strategies and motivation, these ideas are based on abstract concepts and biological processes in the brain, that are very difficult to measure (Zimmerman, 1990; Hattie, 2012; Simpson & Balsam, 2016; Schumann, 2004). As such, more research on these strategies is warranted, and little has been done to evaluate their effects on Swedish upper secondary school students. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to attempt to operationalize the theoretical concepts of self-regulation strategies in order to calculate the correlation between students perceived usage of self-regulation strategies, and English performance, with a special focus on motivation. This was done by operationalizing motivation and self-regulation strategies into six variables based on previous research, and then surveying 40 English 05 (year one) students at Enskilda Gymnasiet upper secondary school in Stockholm, and then running correlation tests with their grades from a grammar test the week after the survey, as well as with their overall grade from the previous year. The results showed almost no statistically significant correlations between the students´ grades, and the students self-reported usage of self-regulation strategies. The exception was a statistically significant positive correlation between high levels of intrinsic motivation and good grades. The causes of these results are not specified within the parameters of this research project, however, it could be that there simply were no correlations between the perceived usage of self-regulation strategies and performance due to the strategies not having an effect on performance, or because the strategies were not being used properly. However, it could also be that the operationalizing of the variables in the questionnaire did not generate accurate levels of usage of these strategies. Either way, the results of this essay stress the need for further research that evaluates the effect of self-regulation strategies and motivation on learning English. 

  • 24.
    Vranjes, Ljubica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Spelling errors in Swedish university students’ English essays2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The English writing system is highly irregular due to the deficiency of correspondences between sounds and letters (Cook & Bassetti 2005). Nevertheless, English has over the last hundred years become a global language that is used as a first, second, or foreign language by an estimated 1.5 billion people (Crystal 2000). In second language acquisition (SLA), vocabulary learning is, together with syntax, central to language development and Ringbom (2007) argues that learning is based on formerly acquired knowledge. As the Swedish and English languages both originate from Germanic languages, they are said to be closely related. Learners of languages with many phonetically and orthographically similar words, e.g. Swedish learners of English, may perceive that the learning burden is relatively small. But, although the similarities may facilitate the learning process, they can also prove to be an obstacle. To ease the learning process for second language learners, it is crucial to make error analyses in order to identify the difficulties. 

    This study investigates misspellings in written production made by Swedish university students learning English as a second language. The goal was to find out what kinds of spelling errors Swedish learners make and whether the errors can be a result from negative transfer from their first language. In order to perform the study, I used the Uppsala Student English Corpus (USE), a collection of essays from the Department of English, Uppsala University, spanning the years 1999–2001. The corpus consists of 1,489 essays written by 440 Swedish university students of English at three different levels.

    The assumption was that Swedish learners make few spelling errors and that the errors are mainly found in longer, rarely used words and words with great similarity to Swedish words. The results show that the main part of the incorrect spellings consisted of space inaccuracies, such as any one - anyone or atleast - at least, confusion between some words spelled with double or single vowel, such as too - to and choose – chose, as well as words spelled with a capital first letter as english - English.

    The limitations of the study are that the corpus is rather small for a thorough investigation and that the essays were written with access to dictionaries, which, needless to say, reduced the number of misspelled words. Also, when producing the texts, the students had the opportunity to use words and expressions they are familiar with, in comparison to regular vocabulary tests. On the other hand, the findings could indicate that students estimate their knowledge as higher than it is and consequently neglect to consult a dictionary.

  • 25.
    Sahlén, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Stoner and Holland: Depiction of Success and Happiness in Educational Narratives2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been many teachers featured in fiction over the decades, with some of them being portrayed as successful and some of them not. This essay focuses on two of these teachers, namely William Stoner in John William’s 1965 novel Stoner and Glenn Holland in Stephen Herek’s film Mr. Holland’s Opus from 1995. The aim is to see how their two different approaches to their roles as teachers affect how their sense of, as well as experience of, success and happiness is depicted. Through a close reading of the book and a close viewing of the film the essay presents an analysis of the two characters and their approaches to the teaching profession. A lot of research on the topic of success and happiness have been done and the characters are analysed through notions of personal development, duty and unlearning as described in three articles with previous research. By comparing the previous studies on personal development, duty and unlearning with the narratives of the two characters, the results presented shows both similarities and differences in the character’s approaches to their professional roles as well as their notion of success and happiness. While Stoner finds his happiness through personal development, Holland does so by realising his duty towards his students. What the two characters have in common is that they reach success through unlearning what they thought it meant to be a teacher.

  • 26.
    Alp, Efrim Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Swedish Upper-secondary school students’ exposure to and acquisition of the English language2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this sociolinguistic essay was to investigate differences and similarities between how the English language is encountered and used in a suburban school compared to an inner-city school. Moreover, the primary material was collected with the use of a questionnaire, answered by 22 and 26 students between the ages of 16-19 years old from two upper-secondary schools. The results obtained from this study highlight that the students irrespective of their social backgrounds encountered and used the English language in similar ways. However, in relation to the acquisition of the language, the results highlighted that the students who came from a high socio-economic background had an advantage compared to their peers who shared an immigrant or migrant background in the sense that they to a higher extent came from an academic household which can be beneficial regarding language exposure and acquisition. Nevertheless, the differentiating factors behind that advantage were reduced to some extent by the role of social media.

  • 27.
    Rebecka, Lundqvist
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Teachers' perceptions of feedback on writing in English: A qualitative study at two upper secondary schools in Stockholm2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Feedback is a well-researched topic, with some empirical research focusing on students’ own perceptions of feedback. However, teachers’own perceptions of feedback remain to be an area not covered by much research. This study, therefore, attempts to shed light on this by interviewing six teachers at two upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The teachers were asked about their perceptions on giving feedback on students’ writing, as well as the constraints in feedback practice. A qualitative method was applied, with structured interviews supported by an analysis of written feedback samples collected from the same participants. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions of feedback on writing in English. The findings suggest that there is a chasm between the actual and ideal feedback practice. This gap exists due to a range of constraints. The interviews and the samples indicate that one of the most important constraints is the lack of education on feedback. In order to enhance the actual feedback practice, these constraints need to be taken seriously. Decreasing the gap between the actual and the ideal feedback practice can be solved by expanding the field of school-and classroom-based research.  

  • 28.
    Staaf, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Construction of Leadership in written Corporate Communication: How is a company’s vision visible in top management communication?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership is a complex area studied in both organisational and business management theories. When performing leadership, the discourse is the core of the process and accordingly an area to be studied also within linguistics. Leadership in communication is done by giving employees a professional identity and a desired behaviour in line with the company’s vision, mission and corporate values. The Chairman’s Statement of an annual report illustrates how the top management leadership style can be visible in written communication, an area less studied than leadership in oral communication which can give a further insight into leadership discourse. In this qualitative study, it is shown that leadership is performed quite differently in four companies from three industry sectors. The vision and mission is clearly guiding all leaders in the study in their performance of their respective leadership as it is harmonised with the corporate identity of each company. Hence, the professional identity given to the employees differs from case to case. The discourse is largely affected on the specific situation for each company which emphasizes the need of analysing discourse in context of its professional practice and culture to understand it properly.

  • 29.
    Kairis, Petros
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Rest of the Family Is or Are?: A quantitative analysis of collective nouns that are pre-modified by quantifying noun expressions in British and American English2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collective nouns are a category of nouns that refer to a group of people or things. This group of nouns has the special characteristic that when in singular form, they can be followed by either a singular or a plural verb. This feature of collective nouns has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers and traditional grammarians, who in the last few decades have tried to explain this phenomenon by investigating different perspectives on it, thereby taking into consideration morphological, syntactic and semantic, as well as variational and discourse-specific differences (Biber et al, 1999; Levin, 2001; Depraetere, 2003). One of the main assumptions that has been suggested in the literature is that collective nouns have specific concord preferences, allowing for either a singular or a plural verb or both. Another assumption that has also been invoked is that when collective nouns are part of a complex noun phrase, as for instance in the phrase the rest of (the) society, in which the collective is part of the of-phrase, the plural tends to be used.

    Based on these two assumptions, the aim of this thesis is to further investigate, firstly whether a singular or a plural verb is used after expressions where a collective noun is being modified by a quantifying noun expression (e.g. the rest of, part of), secondly whether the concord preferences the collective nouns have an influence on the verbal concord and finally if there is any difference between the two main varieties of English, namely British and American English. Since this is a topic of actual language use, the methods used in corpus linguistic research are also employed in the thesis. More specifically, by looking at the instances of quantifying noun expressions modifying collective nouns as well as the frequency with which such constructions occur in two different corpora, the enTenTen13 and the GloWbE (Corpus of Global Web-Based English), the thesis seeks to answer the aforementioned questions.

    From the analysis of the data it was concluded that in some cases the concord preferences of the collective nouns influenced the verb form following the complex noun phrases, whereas in others these preferences did not determine the selection of the verb form. Syntactic, semantic as well as contextual factors seem to also influence the selection of the verb form. Furthermore, variational differences occurred, since in British English the plural was more often used with collective nouns that prefer the plural concord over the singular one or that are more variable in their concord patterns, whereas in American English the singular was the preferred choice in all cases.

  • 30.
    Lindgren, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Struggle to be Honest in a Corrupt World: Narration and Relations in The Great Gatsby2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although many attempts have been made on determining the trustworthiness of the

    narrator in The Great Gatsby, I would like to argue that there is more to say on that

    matter. Critics like Gary Scrimegeour and Colin Cass claim that the narrator Nick

    Carraway is hypocrisy embodied. They argue that his statements do not coincide with

    his actions, and that the author Fitzgerald was clumsy and made Nick a hypocrite by

    mistake. On the contrary, I would like to argue that Fitzgerald very much knew what

    he was doing when he portrayed the character of Nick. In Nick, Fitzgerald succeeds to

    depict a person with human faults but his heart in the right place, who struggles to be

    honest in a corrupt world. His hypocrisy in the narrative should rather be viewed as

    turning points in his moral growth, as he seeks to understand the new ways of the

    west. By investigating Nick’s different relationships in the novel and analysing them

    one by one, I collect proof to strengthen my claim. Beginning with the smaller

    characters of Daisy, Tom, and Jordan, I then continue to analyse Gatsby and finally

    the relationship between Nick and the reader. One of my main points in this essay is

    that the paths of Nick and Gatsby are closely linked and that Nick shadows much of

    what Gatsby does. Therefore Nick’s statement about Gatsby, “[Gatsby] believed in

    you as you would like to believe in yourself” (53) is essential in understanding Nick’s

    actions. Nick thinks he was given the promise of the impossible and therefore took a

    leap at life, although everything he had ever known was against it. When Nick

    eventually realizes that Gatsby’s dream would fail, he still shows tribute to the man

    whom this narrative is ultimately written for, so the sacrifice for the dead Gatsby must

    be seen as an action of an honest man.

    Keywords: Narration, honesty, dishonesty, reliability, morality, moral journey,

    ambivalence, moral growth

  • 31.
    Wysocka, Patrycja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The study abroad experience: Self-reflecting on the development of intercultural competence and identity after one semester abroad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Study abroad programmes have become popular among students around the world nowadays. Thanks to the participation in the exchange, students are able to improve their intercultural skills, which may be beneficial for them in their future careers. This study investigates students’ development of intercultural competence and identity after spending one semester at the university in Hong Kong. Its main focus is to analyse how study abroad programmes impact students’ abilities in intercultural communication by analysing their self-reflections towards their re-invented identities as well as the overall experience of living and studying in a different country. The whole study is also based on the concept of linguistic repertoire, which is here being updated in the context of globalisation. In order to collect the data, four participants from the Netherlands, Germany and Canada were asked to fill in initial contact forms by providing information about one specific intercultural encounter that they have experienced during the study abroad period. This information then acted as the background knowledge used in the following interviews with each participant, where their opinions have been further developed in more detail. The results show that the participants further developed their skills in intercultural competence as well as enhanced their already interculturally-oriented identities. As for the impact on their linguistic repertoires, the interesting finding shows that the linguistic repertoires of the participants with English as a second language might have been affected slightly more than those of the native speakers. In the end, these results agree with the previous research on the development of intercultural skills after the study abroad period and highlight the importance of participating in study abroad programmes as students become prepared for their future careers in the highly globalised world.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Use of English Prepositions in Swedish Schools: A survey study on language transfer effects on Swedish EFL learners in a Swedish upper secondary school2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study investigates how English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in Swedish upper secondary schools succeed in their use of English prepositions. EFL learners in Sweden today represent a multitude of nationalities and ethnic groups with many different first languages (L1); therefore, English teaching could be subject to change in order to adapt to the new situation. The study is based on an online survey given to pupils taking “English 7” at upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The study aims to find patterns in how pupils with Swedish as their L1 handle English prepositions and use a control group consisting of pupils with another L1 in a comparative analysis based on language transfer. A teacher of English at the respondents’ school was interviewed to elicit teaching methodology and how they use the language diversity in the classroom when teaching prepositions. Even though it was hypothesised that negative language transfer was a factor, the analysis of the focus group shows that negative language transfer from Swedish did not inhibit the focus group’s ability to choose prepositions compared to the control group in the given context. In contrast, positive transfer from Swedish as an L1 contributed to a substantial increase in success rate. However, no clear connection could be made to teaching methodology as the interviewed teacher did not have any specific method for dealing with prepositions and mainly treated teaching prepositions implicitly. Furthermore, the interviewed teacher did not use language diversity in classroom as a tool for learning.

  • 33.
    Booy-falk, Olivia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Voice of the Narrator in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the extensive use of narratology in literary studies there has been scarcely any application of this methodology on Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, which seems to provide a fertile ground for such an analysis. Attempting to address this gap, this essay specifically examines the voice of the narrator to show how the narrator affects the narrative. The relevance in such research lies in the fact that the narrator asserts control over the story and deeper awareness of a narrator’s influence exposes certain forms of emotional and political manipulation. 

    Using concepts such as external and character-bound narration and focalization, as well as other frameworks established by prominent narratologists such as Mike Bal and Uri Margolin, I argue that the narrator in Alice is an unreliable one which injects opinionated comments into the narrative and thereby attempts to steer the story in a certain direction. More specifically this essay looks at how the narrator describes the main character Alice, her behaviour and personality, with clear personal views that colour the narrative enormously.

  • 34.
    Ekelund, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Turkish-Swedish Bilingual Third Language English High-Front Vowel Category Formation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the possibilities of phonetic category formation in early bilingual Turkish-Swedish learners of English. Specifically, the high-front unrounded vowels across the three languages Turkish, Swedish and English are investigated. The bilinguals are compared to L2 learners of English with Turkish and Swedish as their first language, respectively, to aim to see if the English vowel categories /i/ and /ɪ/ would be harder to establish, since the bilinguals already have three similar categories across two languages. It is hypothesized that if the bilinguals have managed to keep the Turkish and Swedish categories separate, it will have made it more difficult to establish new categories for English, since having a larger phonological inventory is thought to increase the likelihood of equivalence classification in subsequent learning. The results reveal that all three groups of speakers produced English /ɪ/ similarly to one another, but the L1 Swedish speakers made the most consistent distinction of English /ɪ/ compared to the other vowels. Furthermore, the bilinguals produced the Swedish long allophone [iː] markedly differently than the monolingual Swedish speakers. The bilinguals’ categories for Turkish /i/, English /i/ and Swedish [ɪ] had merged except in one speaker, who produced Turkish /i/ slightly further back than the Swedish short allophone. This speaker had not established a new category for English /ɪ/, but since several of the bilinguals who had merged categories had not established a new category for English /ɪ/ either, the hypothesis is not directly supported. In other words, since L2 Swedish [ɪ] had merged with L1 Turkish /i/ for almost all bilinguals, this study does not provide evidence that bilinguals’ increased number of phonetic categories across two languages makes it easier or more difficult to establish new categories for an L3.

  • 35.
    Kabous, Mariam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Who is called a terrrorist?: An investigation of the use of the term terrorist2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of the words terrorist and terrorismhave changed from before 9/11 until today, and how it is being used presently, and finally ifthe use of the word is different depending on the ethnicity of the person who commits the act.The data for this study was gathered through articles published in The Guardian and SVTNyheter, and also through Google Ngram corpus and academic discourse. Google Ngramviewer is an online search engine that collects data about all the printed sources searched forbetween the years of 1500 and 2008.The study adopts a comparative approach which meansthat the articles with the most similar content, and only difference of ethnicity of the attackers,are being compared. The results suggest that there has indeed been a change in the use of theterm. Terrorism is today being used more frequently and as has been shown, commonly todescribe a person of Middle Eastern origin.

  • 36.
    Wu, Junyu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Corpus-Based Contrastive Study of Adverb-Verb Collocations in Chinese Learner English and Native Speaker English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the use of adverb-verb/verb-adverb collocations such as widely use, strongly believe, generally agree, and see clearly in Native Speaker English and Chinese Learner English. The aim of the present study was to investigate the variation in the usages of adverb-verb / verb-adverb collocations in Chinese learners’ English as well as the role of L1 influence in Chinese learners’ use of such collocations.

    The study involved a Chinese learner corpus the Spoken and Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners (SWECCL 1.0 and 2.0) as well as two corpora of Native Speaker English: the British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus, and the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers (MICUSP). Fifteen most frequently used adverb-verb /verb-adverb collocations in the learner corpus were selected for the study: their frequencies, their semantic preference or semantic prosody and the placement of adverbs were examined and compared in the learner corpus and NS corpora. The role of L 1 influence will also be discussed to reveal the potential reasons why the learners produce such collocations differently from the native speakers.

    The results of the investigation showed that the use of amplifier collocations such as develop quickly, widely use and abolish completely was highly frequent in Chinese Learner English. Also, Chinese learners clearly favoured speech-like adverb-verb / verb-adverb collocations such as just need and reflect only. In relation to the placement of adverbs, it became clear that the Adv-V-O sequence often appeared in Chinese Learner English. Some particular patterns such as see clearly, reflect only, use () properly, and play () properly, where native English speakers preferred the Adv-V-O and S-V-Adv sequences, occurred in V-Adv-O and V-O-Adv sequences in Chinese Learner English. With respect to semantic preference or prosody, in Chinese Learner English some patterns such as see clearly/clearly see and widely accept were often used to describe visual objects, while in NS English such patterns had a particularly strong semantic preference for mental objects such as thoughts or ideas. What is more, in Chinese Learner English, the pattern widely spread co-occurred with negative collocates. It could also be noticed that semantic preference and prosody interacted with syntactic patterning, genre and grammatical tense. Some potential reasons will be given to explain why the learners use such collocations differently from native English speakers. These included the influence of knowledge of collocations and lexical competence in L1, lexical transfer, syntactic transfer, and interlanguage development.

  • 37.
    Torres Mondaca, Nykhita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “A Man After God’s Own Heart”: Biblical, Hegemonic and Toxic Masculinities in As Meat Loves Salt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maria McCann paints a dark picture of masculinity and its effects in her novel As Meat Loves Salt (2001). The violent Jacob Cullen struggles with his masculinity as he faces the intricacies of religion, sexuality and politics in the midst of the English Civil War where he falls in love with fellow soldier Christopher Ferris. By using R.W. Connell and James Messerschmidt’s framework for the hierarchy of masculinities, I explore masculinities on local, regional and global levels and emphasized femininity in a close reading of McCann’s novel. My aim is not only to analyse the masculinities of the novel but also to use the framework to redefine toxic masculinity in order to make it a useable concept when analysing masculinities in literature. I redefine toxic masculinity because it lacks a clear definition anchored in an established framework used to study masculinity that does not see masculinity as inherently toxic. I believe that anchoring it to Connell and Messerschmidt’s framework will make it a useable concept. Due to the novel’s relationship to the Bible, I will use masculinity studies done on David and Jesus from the Bible to compare and reveal similarities with the masculinities in the novel, how they appear on the local, regional and global levels in the novel and its effects. I draw parallels between the love story in As Meat Loves Salt to the love story of David and Jonathan in the Bible by using queer readings of David and Jonathan in order to explore how masculinity affects the relationships and how the novel uses these two love stories as a study of toxic masculinity and how it relates it to hegemonic masculinity.

  • 38.
    Jonsson, Minerva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Pedagogical Perspective on Race and Identity in Nella Larsen's Quicksand2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Since Sweden has become one of the most diverse and multicultural societies in Europe, there has been an increasing demand for understanding and respect for different cultural identities, in public spheres, in the workplace and even in the classrooms. 

           This study aims to show that incorporating literatures that confront multi-cultural issues, in teaching English 5, 6 and 7 in Swedish upper secondary schools, is both academically and ethically constructive.  This study claims that using interracially relevant literatures, such as Nella Larsen’s Quicksand, in teaching English, does not only develop language knowledge and competence, but also instils intercultural awareness among the students. Through literature and literary study, students acquire valuable insights and understanding of human diversity and complexity, which can help students develop a positive self-identity.

           The argumentation in this essay leans heavily on the steering documents governing the Swedish education system, particularly the curriculum for teaching English in upper secondary schools.  This study also refers to relevant scholarly research and theoretical studies on language teaching and literary studies.

    Keywords: race, identity, literature, teaching

  • 39.
    Legge, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Survey of The Linguistic Landscape of Stockholm University2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great prevalence of English in Swedish society, education as well as the research community. Recently, Stockholm University has revised its language policy in order to promote parallel use of Swedish and English. With this background, the current thesis aims to survey the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University in order to find out if there are any patterns that can be observed within it. Some inspiration was drawn from previous research into linguistic landscapes. The main discussion points of the current thesis are the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University, the relation between top-down and bottom-up signs as well as the relation between language use and language policy in light of the data gathered. In order to analyse and discuss this, data was gathered on two separate occasions in the form of signs placed into different categories. The first set of data was gathered in February and March of 2013 and the second set of data was gathered in October of 2015. There are visible patterns in the data, especially when making comparisons over time.

    Generally, Swedish is the most prevalent language in the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University, the lowest instance being just over 70%, but this prevalence shows a small decrease along with an increase in English and mixed language items going from 2013 to 2015. Also, mixed and English items are more common in bottom-up signs than they are in top-down signs. These English and mixed signs also increase or decrease locally from 2013 to 2015. There was also a local anomaly in that there was one area with a majority of bottom-up signs when the other areas had a majority of top-down signs. Given that this survey was explorative in its nature, it is difficult to draw many firm conclusions based upon the discussion points. However, it appears that there is a difference between language practices and the language policy documents at Stockholm University. The communications policy appears more close to reality however. Swedish also appears to be the language associated with power at said university.

  • 40.
    Skog, Viktor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "A Totalitarian Vision of Paradise": Transnationalism, Individuailty, and Totalitarianism in The Cantos by Ezra Pound2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Ljungholm, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    African American Education and Progression in Raplh Ellison's Invisible Man2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

                                      Abstract

    Literary portraits of African Americans’ struggles in the United States for a more equal society have provided valuable insights into the pain and hardship they had to endure for a large portion of the United States’ existence. Ralph Ellison’s famous novel Invisible Man is one of those novels and is the primary source for this study. In this novel the unnamed African American protagonist tries to find a place of his own within a segregated society and has to succumb to the white man’s will to be part of American society. Despite the segregation and subjugation, the protagonist believes that he can progress in American society through education, but his development is constantly thwarted because of his skin colour. Ellison utilizes features from the bildungsroman to highlight how differently education works for African Americans and white people, since the traditional progression of the bildungsroman is not possible for the protagonist despite his trying to follow its traditional pattern. The thwarted progression instead seems to move the plot into another type of progression, namely a spiritual progression. I will therefore conclude that education in Invisible Man creates segregation and subjugation and that the protagonist’s progression is subverted into a spiritual progression. How the protagonist’s journey can be subverted is related to how power structures and discourses influence people’s actions and beliefs. I will use Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish and The Archaeology of Knowledge to explain how power structures and discourses enable segregation, subjugation and a spiritual progression. Furthermore, the result will reveal that, because of surrounding power structures and discourses, the protagonist cannot do anything in this American society other than conform to prevailing power structures or hide himself until he knows how to battle these structures.

    Keywords: Education; Segregation; Bildungsroman; Michel Foucault; African American.

  • 42.
    Melanson, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Allegory, It Happens: A Multi-Perspective Case Study of The Lord of the Rings2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Allegory is not obsolete as Samuel Coleridge and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe have claimed. It is alive and well and has transformed from a restrictive concept to a concept that is flexible and can form to meet the needs of the author or reader. The most efficient way to evidence this is by making a case study of it with a suitable work that will allow us to perceive its plasticity. This essay uses J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings as a multi-perspective case study of the concept of allegory; the size and complexity of the narrative make it a suitable choice. My aim is to illustrate the plasticity of allegory as a concept and illuminate some of the possibilities and pitfalls of allegory and allegoresis. As to whether The Lord of the Rings can be treated as an allegory, it will be examined from three different perspectives: as a purely writerly process, a middle ground of writer and reader and as a purely readerly process. The Lord of the Rings will then be compared to a series of concepts of allegorical theory such as Plato’s classical “The Ring of Gyges”, William Langland’s classic The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman and contemporary allegories of racism and homoeroticism to demonstrate just how adaptable this concept is. The position of this essay is that the concept of allegory has changed over time since its conception and become more malleable. This poses certain dangers as allegory has become an all-round tool for anyone to do anything that has few limitations and has lost its early rigid form and now favours an almost anything goes approach.

  • 43.
    Leander, Mia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    An Analysis of Readability of Standard Measurements in English Textbooks by Swedish Publishers from the 90’s to 20162016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers employ traditional readability measurements to estimate text difficulty when assigning textbooks to meet the students’ current proficiency level. The purpose of this study was to see if modern textbooks published by five major publishing companies in Sweden were more difficult to read according to traditional readability formula compared to textbooks published in the 90’s. This study also aims to investigate whether readability in textbooks was similar among the five publishers. The readability formula Flesch Reading Ease in Coh-Metrix was utilized to calculate text difficulty in textbooks intended for Swedish grade 7. The primary material used for this study consisted of 70 texts selected from textbooks from three different time periods and five different publishers. The results from the formula indicated that the modern textbooks, published in between 2012-2016, were more difficult to read compared with the older ones. In addition, the results indicated that readability was similar among the different publishers. However, the study showed that modern textbooks published by Liber were easier to read in comparison with the older ones of this particular publisher. That modern textbooks have longer sentence structures and more complex syntax suggests increased expectations of 7th graders’ reading abilities.

  • 44.
    Chiorean, Victor Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Attitudes toward English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and its position in contemporary English language curricula in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of various historical, political, economic and sociocultural factors, English today witnesses a unique situation as its non-native speakers represent a clear majority in the world. This has implications for the ownership of the English language as such, the linguistic rights of its speakers and the points of departure for English Language Teaching (ELT) worldwide. The study of the use of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) challenges nativespeakerist norms through research in a wide range of linguistic fields such as lexicogrammar, phonology and pragmatics, suggesting various pedagogical alterations. Although ELF is now a prolific area of research, studies in Swedish upper secondary language education from an ELF perspective, remain a scarcity in the literature. The present paper engages in surveying teaching attitudes toward ELF in Swedish upper secondary education among Swedish and Anglophone International Baccalaureate (IB) teachers and in two contemporary syllabi, namely Swedish (ELT) and IB syllabi. The questionnaire given to the two aforementioned groups of teachers suggest that ELF-friendly teaching descriptions best suit their students even though both groups believe that teaching descriptions based on native speaker norms and varieties represent the most appropriate approach. The critical discourse analysis of the two syllabi suggests that ELF is approached in different ways in the two systems: the Swedish ELT curricula may be perceived as rather ELF-friendly because native speaker norms, deviations and errors, grammaticality and idiomaticity are almost non-existent, whereas the IB revolves around linguistic prescriptivism and native speaker norms to a larger extent. The present study argues that English language curricula in Sweden should be informed by research on ELF.

  • 45.
    Jonsson, Signe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Automaticity in L2 learning: Correlation between vocabulary proficiency and response time in word recognition2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automaticity (in this essay defined as short response time) and fluency in language use are closely connected to each other and some research has been conducted regarding some of the aspects involved. In fact, the notion of automaticity is still debated and many definitions and opinions on what automaticity is have been suggested (Andersson,1987, 1992, 1993, Logan, 1988, Segalowitz, 2010). One aspect that still needs more research is the correlation between vocabulary proficiency (a person’s knowledge about words and ability to use them correctly) and response time in word recognition. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to investigate this correlation using two different tests; one vocabulary size test (Paul Nation) and one lexical decision task (SuperLab) that measures both response time and accuracy. 23 Swedish students partaking in the English 7 course in upper secondary Swedish school were tested. The data were analyzed using a quantitative method where the average values and correlations from the test were used to compare the results. The correlations were calculated using Pearson’s Coefficient Correlations Calculator. The empirical study indicates that vocabulary proficiency is not strongly correlated with shorter response times in word recognition. Rather, the data indicate that L2 learners instead are sensitive to the frequency levels of the vocabulary. The accuracy (number of correct recognized words) and response times correlate with the frequency level of the tested words. This indicates that factors other than vocabulary proficiency are important for the ability to recognize words quickly.

  • 46.
    Bradstreet, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Blind Injustice: J. M. Coetzee and the Misapprehension of the Ecological Object2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to develop a concept of 'ecological misapprehension' by means of an object-oriented ecocritical analysis of several works by J. M. Coetzee. Noting Coetzee's profound, often overlooked interest in nonhuman, nonanimal ecological existents (on the one hand), and his neomodernist propensity to interrogate the viability of signification (on the other), I argue that his works repeatedly gesture towards an ontological reality of ecological objects that is necessarily extratextual. I further argue that if human ‘readers’—both of and within Coetzee’s fiction—are inextricably entangled within modes of discourse by which meaning is made of those objects, the encounter between human subject and ecological object always takes place across a discursive threshold best understood in terms of the ‘irreducible gap’ that object-oriented ontology identifies between an object’s being and its perception. This gap problematises our apprehension of the ecological object as such, thus rendering ecological misapprehension inevitable—and, by extension, demanding that we remain attuned to the character, density, or degree of our propensity to misapprehend. Variants of this dynamic—and its troubling ramifications—are illuminated by means of close readings of a range of Coetzee’s texts, with particular attention paid to Disgrace, Life & Times of Michael K, and the short story ‘Nietverloren’, and are subsequently compared with examples of misapprehension in the world beyond the page. By developing this concept and identifying examples of it both within and without Coetzee’s works, the thesis aims to illuminate a fundamental obstacle to productive modes of environmental thinking in the Anthropocene, to suggest the activist potential of metafiction and the postmodernist reading practices it encourages, and to reaffirm the potential social utility of literary scholarship when it is conducted with an awareness of its own tendency to misapprehend.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Body Remains a Difference: Representation of Gender in Four Newspapers' Reporting on the 2016 Olympic Games2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how male and female athletes competing in the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro were portrayed in two British and two American newspapers (The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, Los Angeles Times and The Washington Post). It also examines how the total amount of coverage was distributed between athletes of each gender. Previous studies have shown that female athletes are not given as much space as male athletes (Jones, 2004, Caple, Greenwood, & Lumby, 2011, Godoy-Pressland 2014) and that when they are reported on, not portrayed in the same way as male athletes (Eagleman, 2015). This can have negative effects for athletes and their sport (Knight & Giuliano, 2011). For this essay, a corpus was created out of articles from the four newspapers, which were subsequently analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings showed a greater equality in the amount of coverage provided by newspapers than had been shown by previous studies, but with such a small sample, results could not be generalised widely. For the qualitative analysis, articles from two specific events were analysed and determined to not contain any major differences between males and females, with only one exception, which was Los Angeles Times’ article on the women’s artistic gymnastics team all-around event.

  • 48.
    Chiarito, Joanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Calormenes or “Coloured Men”?: An Orientalist Reading of C.S. Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that C.S. Lewis was both British and a devout Christian, it is not surprising that his seven-volume Chronicles of Narnia is often claimed to be framed by Western ideologies. The books are well-known for containing British references and Christian allusions; however, Oriental references are also frequently made by the author. For example, Calormen, a neighbouring country to Narnia, is argued to resemble a stereotypical Arab-Oriental society regarding both the physical appearances of the people and their values. However, in comparison to the good and Westernised Narnian culture, Calormen is depicted as thoroughly evil. Lewis has therefore been criticised for using a negative portrayal of the Orient in the Chronicles. According to Edward Said, founder of the theory Orientalism, the portrayal of the West as superior to the Orient was common during the time period when the Chronicles were written and published. By applying Said’s theory Orientalism, I therefore investigate the contrast made between Calormen and Narnia regarding: physical attributes, cultural values, and religion. In addition, I argue that Calormen is consistently depicted as inferior to Narnia in these respects, and also discuss some of the effects the contrast made in the books entails.

  • 49.
    Wretman Lundgren, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Century-Travelling, Gender-Bending Artists:: A Comparison of the Artists in Woolf's Orlando and Smith's How to Be Both2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay primarily looks at the relationship between gender and art through history,

    by comparing the two main characters of Virginia Woolf's Orlando (1928) and Ali

    Smith's How to Be Both (2014), and their shared qualities of being gender-bending,

    century-travelling artists. The theoretical background to this comparison is Angeliki

    Spiropoulou's (2010) theory on the shared opinion of Walter Benjamin and Virginia

    Woolf, on how art history is a constructed narrative, which, as Woolf has illustrated by

    her use of Orlando in Orlando, has favoured male artists over women artists and their

    work. My analysis of Woolf’s Orlando, and the subsequent analysis of the artist

    Fransescho del Cossa's role in How to Be Both shows that Smith's similar use of

    century-travelling and gender-bending in her character reinforces Woolf's point that

    artistry has been unfairly gendered throughout history, and that this has slowly changed

    towards a larger acceptance of women artists. Furthermore, How to Be Both especially

    highlights the importance of understanding historical accounts as constructed

    narratives, by making the reader question who the narrator behind Fransescho's story

    is.

    Each novel also shows the importance which clothes have in marking a person's

    gender, and therefore the characters are directly affected in their artistry depending on

    the clothes they wear. Moreover, this essay shows that both novels have a similar

    perspective on the creativity process, with both of their characters detaching themselves

    from their own gender identity when creating art through painting and writing.

  • 50.
    Melin, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Det här makes no sense!: An explorative study about a group of native Swedish speaker’s attitudes towards code switching2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of Sociolinguistics, this study investigates a group of native Swedish speaker’s attitudes towards code switching. The data were gathered by using an online questionnaire inspired by Dewaele & Wei’s (2014) survey investigating attitudes towards code switching. The data sample consists of responses from 34 participants in total from two generations and 204 answers were given. In addition to the questionnaire, interviews with four participants were conducted. The findings from the questionnaire reveal that code switching is generally accepted by the participants, but also that the younger generation has a more positive attitude towards code switching. However, the interviews reveal some differences in contrast to the questionnaire. Further, the results imply that a change might be undergoing in attitude towards code switching in the older generation. The findings are important for further research.

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