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  • 1.
    Bissinger, Frederik H.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska.
    Family Language Policies and Immigrant Language Maintenance: Lithuanian in Sweden2021Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates family language policies of Lithuanian families in Sweden and strives to shed some light on the maintenance of Lithuanian as a heritage language. The aims of the study are to understand how Lithuanian families in Sweden construct, negotiate and implement their family language policies, and to identify challenges regarding the maintenance of Lithuanian which Lithuanian families in Sweden encounter.

    Applying an ethnographic sociolinguistic approach, the study analyses data that was collected over a time span of three years (2016-2019), including observations, interviews and recordings of ten participating families. Despite a supportive language policy in Sweden which encourages the use and development of heritage languages, the analysis shows that families make not solely including but also excluding experiences regarding the status of their heritage language in Sweden.

    Most parents are aware of their children’s limited access to Lithuanian which motivates different language management strategies: They try to establish and maintain Lithuanian language practices in their families, and they try to support their children’s Lithuanian language development, correcting their children’s Lithuanian language use. The analysis shows that explicit management of children’s language practices is more successful than implicit language management, as children often do not understand implicit language management. Furthermore, not only parents manage language practices, but children can take the role of a language manager and influence the family language policy, either in supportive or counteracting ways.

    Parents do also rely on additional Lithuanian language activities to support their children’s Lithuanian language development and to foster their Lithuanian language practices. Lithuanian social networks are, however, seldomly capitalised, as some children rather speak the majority language with peers, and contacts are not maintained outside of the activities. Parents reveal thus context based beliefs regarding their ability to manage their children’s language practices.

    Finally, the study illustrates how aspects of family language policies contribute to either harmonious or frustrative and conflictive development of the Lithuanian heritage language within the family. It exemplifies some challenges which families face and underlines the need to foster children’s identification with their heritage language, to include them in decision-making processes, and to resolve language-related problems jointly.

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    Family Language Policies and Immigrant Language Maintenance
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    Omslagsframsida
  • 2.
    Kalniņš, Aigars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska.
    Studies in Latvian Comparative Dialectology: —with special focus on word-final *–āj(s)/*–ēj(s) and *–āji(s)/*–ēji(s)2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of four interconnected studies of various topics in the fields of Latvian dialectology and historical linguistics: (1) apocope and shortening; (2) loss of the present 2nd singular endings *i and *ɨ; (3) the development of the participle desinences *–ājis *ējis; (4) the ā and ēstem locative singular endings. A recurrent theme is a potential loss of *j in the phonological sequences *āji(s) *ēji(s), which were subsequently contracted to *āj(s) *ēj(s). In this regard, the first study provides the necessary East Baltic context, while studies 2, 3 and 4 investigate the relevant evidence in the Latvian dialects. At the same time, however, each of the topics is also studied on its own terms.

    In the first study, an improved account of apocope and shortening is formulated. It is argued that the primary apocope affected all unaccented short vowels, including *u, but that it took place before the accent retraction. Endings that were only affected in immobile paradigms were restored on the model of their counterparts in mobile paradigms. The secondary apocope in second posttonic syllables, which traditionally accounts for the occasional loss of inherited long vowels and diphthongs, is dated after accent retraction but restricted to *i. This implies that a series of endings such as d.sg. am, d.pl. Vms, ill.sg. Vn, 1.pl. Vm a.o. contained short vowels when the primary apocope set in. Unless Leskien’s Law operated in Latvian, the evidence suggests that the final vowels in these endings were short. If Lithuanian excludes Leskien’s Law in a given case, then the Latvian evidence is compelling, e.g., PEB d.sg.m. *amu or *ami rather than *amọ̄(i̯).

    The second study investigates present 2nd singular forms with and without a distinct ending in the Latvian dialects. The most archaic distribution seems to be the one found in Blīdene106, where only the derived presents are endingless in the indicative. Studies 2, 3 and 4 also give a comprehensive overview of the development of word-final *āj(s) *ēj(s) and *āji(s) *ēji(s). Both *āj *ēj and *āji *ēji yielded ā ē in Low Latvian, while High Latvian might have a contrast between accented āi̯ ēi̯ and unaccented ā ē. High Latvian reflects *ājs *ējs and *ājis *ējis as ājs ējs, but the Low Latvian developments are unclear. Accented *ājs *ējs yield āš ēš but in unaccented position there may be up to three phonologically regular reflexes: āš ēš, aiš eiš and ais eis. In Vidzeme and Zemgale, *ājis *ējis must have merged with *ājs *ējs, but in Courland *ājis *ējis were possibly apocopated only after *ājs *ējs had become āš ēš.

    Accordingly, only Low Latvian â ê can be reflexes of the old inessive. Low Latvian ai ei cannot be cognate with â ê but might continue the old adessive. If Low Latvian ã2 2 reflect the illative, then the three pairs, along with dialectal adverbs in uop, represent all four East Baltic local cases, which therefore must have existed at least as syntactic constructions in ProtoEast Baltic. The enigmatic High Latvian āstem locative singular ending â is identified with Low Latvian ai rather than â, which explains its remarkable lack of labialisation but implies a development *ˌaî > ˌâ.

    The utility of the proposed phonetic loss of *j is limited to disyllabic forms like l.sg. *tâji ‘that’ prs.2.sg. *smeji ‘laugh’ ptc. *gãjis ‘go,’ all of which might also be analogical, and it seems best to reject it.

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    Studies in Latvian Comparative Dialectology: —with special focus on word-final *–āj(s)/*–ēj(s) and *–āji(s)/*–ēji(s)
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    Omslagsframsida
  • 3.
    Bukelskytė-Čepelė, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska.
    Nominal Compounds in Old Latvian Texts in the 16th and 17th Centuries2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the system of compounding attested in the earliest written Latvian texts of the 16th and 17th centuries. The philological analysis presented in this work is the first systematic attempt to extensively treat compounds in Old Latvian. The purpose of this thesis is to thoroughly describe the system of compounding of the earliest period of written Latvian. One of the main aims of the analysis provided in this work is to determine whether the Old Latvian compounds were distinguished in terms of their meaning and form. This is why another important aim of this study is to discern the most characteristic formal properties of each category of compounds in Old Latvian. This study also addresses the morphological variation of the components of compounds and seeks to explain why one finds different tendencies of compounding in the texts of this period.   

    Firstly, it is shown in this thesis that compounds in Old Latvian were clearly distinguished in terms of their meaning. The main semantic types of Old Latvian compounds, which were analyzed in this study, are the determinative compounds, the possessive compounds, the verbal governing compounds, and the copulative compounds. Secondly, it is argued that the aforementioned types of compounds were clearly differentiated in terms of the formal properties of their components. A large number of possessive compounds and verbal governing compounds had the compositional suffix -is (m.)/-e (f.). By contrast, only a handful of determinative compounds had this suffix. In view of the distribution of the suffix found in the Old Latvian compounds, it is suggested that the suffix was originally restricted to adjectival compounds. Furthermore, the different types of compounds in Old Latvian were also distinguished in terms of the first component. In the majority of cases, both the possessive compounds and the verbal governing compounds were coined without linking elements, while the determinative compounds had linking elements to a larger extent. Thirdly, it is proposed in this thesis that a part of linking elements used in the determinative compounds in Old Latvian originated from the original stem vowels of the first components. Thus, it is argued that stem compounds were still attested in the Old Latvian texts, although this Baltic model of coining compounds is no longer visible in Modern Latvian. Lastly, it is suggested that the tendencies of compounding found in the texts under discussion represent dialectal differences.

    Another contribution of this study is that the Old Latvian compounds are not treated in isolation, but analyzed in drawing parallels with compounds in the other Baltic languages, Lithuanian in particular. Hence, by analyzing common features and similarities between the compounding systems, the Old Latvian compounds are positioned within the context of the Baltic system of compounding.  

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    Nominal Compounds in Old Latvian Texts in the 16th and 17th Centuries
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    errata
  • 4.
    Yamazaki, Yoko
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska.
    Monosyllabic Circumflexion in Lithuanian2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis examines a phenomenon known as Monosyllabic Circumflexion (MC, hereafter) from a historical linguistics / phonological point of view. MC denotes a Lithuanian or Balto-Slavic phenomenon according to which long vowels and diphthongs in monosyllabic words exhibit a circumflex tone instead of the expected acute tone.  It is observed in the following four categories:

    I. 3rd person future forms of monosyllabic stems (e.g., šõksšókti `to jump;' vy͂svýti `to drive')

    II. reflexes of PIE root nouns (e.g., Latv. gùovs `cow;' Lith. šuõ `dog')

    III. prepositions/adverbs (e.g., nuõ `from' ~  nùotaka `bride;' vė͂l `again' ~ Latv. vêl `still, yet,' tė͂ (permissive particle) < *teh1)

    IV. pronominal forms (e.g., tuõ ~ gerúoju `the good (m.~sg.~instr.),' tie͂ ~ tíeji `id. (pl.nom)').

    The unexpected circumflex tone in these categories is problematic and important for the solution of a Balto-Slavic accentological question on the etymological background of acute and non-acute tones. The aim of this thesis is to partially contribute to the solution of this problem by establishing the existence of MC and its relative chronology.

    The first category, the 3rd person future forms, provides a substantial number of examples and counterexamples. The examination of them has revealed the fact that the counterexamples constitute a morpho-semantic group of verbs whose future stems underwent considerable morphological changes in the prehistory, hence not exhibiting MC. This shows that the regular tonal reflex of the 3rd person future forms of monosyllabic acute stem must be circumflex, allowing for the establishment of MC as a regular phonological process, although this category does not provide much information on the relative chronology of MC. The second category, the reflexes of Proto-Indo-European root nouns, gives an important clue as to where MC is located in the relative chronology of Balto-Slavic sound changes. Next, there is a discussion of whether the results of the examinations of the first two categories can be maintained for the data of the third and fourth categories, which show an irregular distribution of the acute and circumflex tones in monosyllabic forms. It is shown that various morphological factors, such as homonymic clashes within the paradigms for pronouns, can explain why some monosyllabic forms have acute tone. Also, the linguistic feature of West Aukštaitian dialects of Lithuanian that tend to preserve the results of MC is revealed. These dialects are known to have played an important role in the formation of standard Lithuanian.

    In this way, the monosyllabic forms with unexpected circumflex tone in Lithuanian are explained as a combination of MC in the Proto-Balto-Slavic time and the dialectal tendency of West Aukštaitian dialects of Lithuanian.

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    Monosyllabic Circumflexion in Lithuanian
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    Omslagsframsida
  • 5.
    Zalkalns, Lilita
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Back to the Motherland: Repatriation and Latvian Émigrés 1955-19582014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling behandlar de lettiska flyktingarna från andra världskriget och deras erfarenheter av ofrivilliga kontakter med Sovjetlettland vid mitten av 1950-talet, då flyktingarna blev måltavla för en sovjetisk repatrieringskampanj. Målet för denna kampanj var repatriering, dvs att få flyktingarna att återvända till hemlandet, det av Sovjet ockuperade Lettland. Ett annat mål var att splittra flyktingarnas sammanhållning.

    Avhandlingen beskriver och analyserar den sovjetiska repatrieringskampanjen och de lettiska flyktingarnas reaktioner. Studien bygger på källmaterial från kampanjverkamheten Committee For Return to the Motherland, som hade sin bas i Östberlin, samt från artiklar i den lettiskspråkiga tidskriften Par atgriešanos Dzimtenē (For Return to the Motherland) som riktade sig till de lettiska flyktingarna. Flyktingarnas reaktioner studeras genom en rad lettiska tidningar som utgavs i Väst. Min avhandling visar hur väl utvecklade strategier användes i syfte att framkalla önskade reaktioner från flyktingarna, samt vilka motåtgärder flyktingar själva utvecklade mot repatrieringskampanjen. Mer specifikt analyseras standardberättelser i Par atgriešanos Dzimtenē som var avsedda för flyktingarnas självidentifiering och igenkännande.

    Avhandlingen pekar på att den sovjetiska repatrieringskampanjen var en mycket komplex propagandaverksamhet. Utöver det offentligt tillkännagivna kampanjmålet fanns flera parallella målsättningar och avsikter som omfattade en stor mängd skiftande aktiviteter. En strategi som användes aktivt var vilseledning, bl a för att dölja verksamheter riktade mot flyktingarna, och för att förvilla statsledningar och myndigheter i de nationer där flyktingarna vistades. Avhandlingens slutsats är att trots den sovjetiska överlägsenheten i organisation och resurser kunde en liten oförsvarad och inom sig splittrad lettisk gemenskap motstå de samordnade ansträngningar från den sovjetiska propagandan.

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    fulltext
  • 6.
    Bjarnadóttir, Valgerður
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Non-canonical case-marking on core arguments in Lithuanian: A historical and contrastive perspective2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a description and analysis of non-canonical case-marking of core arguments in Lithuanian. It consists of an introduction and six articles, providing historical and/or contrastive perspective to this issue. More specifically, using data from Lithuanian dialects, Old Lithuanian and other languages such as Icelandic, Latin and Finnic for comparison, the thesis examines the development and current state of non-canonical case-marking of core arguments in Lithuanian The present work draws on empirical findings and theoretical considerations to investigate non-canonical case-marking, language variation and historical linguistics.

    Special attention is paid to the variation in the case-marking of body parts in pain verb constructions, where an accusative-marked body part is used in Standard Lithuanian, and alongside, a nominative-marked body part in Lithuanian dialects. A common objective of the first three articles is to clarify and to seek a better understanding for the reasons for this case variation. The research provides evidence that nominative is the original case-marking of body parts in pain specific construction, i.e. with verbs, with the original meaning of pain, like skaudėti and sopėti ‘hurt, feel pain’. On the contrary, in derived pain constructions, i.e. with verbs like gelti with the original meaning of ‘sting, bite’ and diegti with the original meaning ‘plant’, accusative is the original case-marking of body parts. This accusative is explained by means of an oblique anticausative and it is argued furthermore that it is extended into the pain specific construction. The three last articles focus on the comparative and contrastive perspective. Their main results include the following: Lithuanian and Icelandic differ considerably in the frequency of using accusative vs. dative marking on the highest ranked argument. Accusative is more frequently used in Lithuanian while dative is dominant in Icelandic. The semantic fields of the dative subject construction have remained very stable, suggesting that the dative subject construction is inherited. It has, however, become productive in the history of Germanic, Baltic and Slavic. The similarities in Finnic and Baltic partiality-based object and subject-marking systems are due to Baltic influence.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Reinsch-Campbell, Anette
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Tradition and Modernity: Images of Jews in Latvian Novels 1934 – 19442008Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Jews have been represented in Latvian literature for centuries. This dissertation investigates the images of Jews in a comprehensive selection of Latvian novels published between 1934–1944 in order to establish whether, and to what extent, the traditional images are subject to change under the pressure of modernity, nationalism and a rapidly changing political situation.

    Since most representations of, and references to, Jews in this literature are very brief, it is necessary to initially deprive the individual works of their titles and authors and let them form an authorless entity, a Corpus, however diverse, yet representative of Latvian society at the time.

    Through this approach the centres of attention are put aside, and the scattered images of Jews are brought into focus. With the help of a Matrix designed for this purpose, all ‘Jews’ are sorted and analysed. The Matrix, including also linguistic references, illustrates how Jews in the discourse are made to represent the ‘other’ through the provision of certain pieces of information and the omission others. The Jews in the Corpus, with very few exceptions, are thus systematically and consistently reduced to blank images and stereotypes. Through this process they are also subject to ‘othering’ and dehumanisation, albeit not necessarily articulated as such.

    The social distance between Latvians and Jews becomes more pronounced in the Corpus compared to in the Latvian literary tradition, and there are several examples of negative attitudes and anti-Semitism. Yet, with regard to the extreme political situation, especially under Soviet and Nazi occupations, these examples are fewer than expected: the investigated literature follows its own traditions and, with hardly any exceptions, does not reflect societal and political changes immediately.

  • 8.
    Carlemalm, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Mellan dröm och verklighet: Skildringar av tid, trauma och sexualitet i Antanas Škėmas novellistiska prosa2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this dissertation is the representation of temporality, trauma and sexuality in Antanas Škėma’s fiction. The chapter “Temporal structures” examines temporal order in the writer’s novella “Isaac” according to Genettes narratology. The analysis reveals deliberately inserted mechanisms in the construction of the text, which disrupt the narrative investigation. A survey of temporal structures exposes invented events in the text and the definitions of “factual reality” and “imaginary reality” are introduced.

    The narrative analysis results in a hypothesis that Škėma’s text has been constructed as an imitation of human memory and as a representation of the factual reality outside the text. The chapters “Representation of trauma” and “Representation of sexual perversion” use Freud’s trauma theory and sexual theory as a method. Trauma appears to constitute the construction of the narrator and his urge to distort temporal links between the narrative and the story. When the narrator in Škėma’s “Isaac” focuses on the depiction of sexually perverted consciousness, the text affects the reader by forcing him to break off his horizons of expectation. The depiction of rape in Škėma’s fiction links the themes of sexuality and power and of sexuality and trauma. The writer detaches the representation of sexuality from the definition of love: sexuality, portrayed in the analyzed texts, appears to create its own norms. This is one of many ways to transform the depiction of sexual perversion into a social norm in Škėma’s narrative.

    The chapter “Škėma’s Autobiography and literary critics” provides a re-reading of the writer’s autobiography and his journalistic texts. The chapter ”Publication and reception of Škėma’s fiction” provides a compiled reading of earlier research and a survey of the writer’s books published in exile.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Rozītis, Juris
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Displaced Literature: Images of Time and Space in Latvian Novels Depicting the First Years of the Latvian Postwar Exile2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the years immediately following the Second World War, the main part of Latvian literature was produced by writers living outside Latvia. To this day Latvian literature continues to be written outside Latvia, albeit to a much smaller extent.

    This study examines those Latvian novels, written outside Latvia after the Second World War, which depict the realities of the early years of exile. The aim of the study is to describe the image of the world of exile as depicted in these novels. Borrowing from Bakhtin's concept of the chronotope, images relating to time and space in these novels are examined in order to discern a mental topography of exile common to all these novels - a chronotope of exile.

    The novels are read as part of a collective narrative, produced by a particular social group in unordinary historical circumstances. The novels are regarded as this social group’s common perception of its own experience of this historical reality.

    The early years of exile fall into two distinct periods: first, the period of flight from Latvia and life in and around the Displaced Persons camps of postwar Germany; second, the early years of settling in a new country of residence after emigration from Germany.

    A model of the perceived world is constructed in order to compare these two periods, as well as their divergence from a standard perception of oneself in the world. This model consists of various time-spaces radiating concentrically out from the individual – ranging from the physically and psychologically near-lying time-spaces of one’s personal and intimate life, through everyday social time-spaces, as well as formal societal time-spaces, to the more distant abstract and conceptual perceptions of one’s place in the universe.

    Basic human concepts such as home, family, work, intimate relationships, social administration, and most notably the homeland – Latvia – are plotted at various points within these models. Divergences between the models describing the perception of time and space in the two early periods of exile thus become apparent.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Kļava, Konstance
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Die Sprache der lettischen juristischen Dokumente vom Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts: ein Beitrag zur lettischen Sprachgeschichte1989Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Janelsiņa-Priedīte, Aija
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Als die Bäume sprechen konnten: zur Funktion des Bildes in Kārlis Skalbes Märchen : ein Beitrag zum europäischen Kunstmärchen1987Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Dunkele, Irēna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Zur Struktur der lettischen Volkslieder "Pūt, Vējiņi": ein Lied in Tradition und Expansion seit 18001984Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Eiche, Aleksandra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Latvian declinable and indeclinable participles: their syntactic function, frequency and modality : a synchronic study based on Latvian fiction of the 1960s and 1970s1983Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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