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  • 1.
    Vuorsola, Lasse
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska.
    “Speak your own language”: On tensions regarding Finnish in Sweden2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this compilation dissertation I examine social tensions that relate to the Sweden Finnish minority and the Finnish language in Sweden. The dissertation is based on critical applied linguistics and I employ various related theoretical notions in the included articles. For the overarching analysis, I employ a conceptualization of language consisting of two levels, namely language as a noun and language as a verb. I examine these levels with the help of Bakhtin’s notions of centrifugal and centripetal forces (1981).

    In article I I use Richard Ruiz’s orientations (1984) to language policy to compare the policy formulations on the supranational and national levels with the enacted policy on the local level. The analysis indicates that the policy formulations on the supranational level and national level relate mostly to the language as a right orientation in Ruiz’s framework, while the enacted policies in Sweden Finnish bilingual independent schools and in municipal mother tongue instruction lead to differing results.

    Article II is a linguistic landscape study in which I analyse how a group of activists use different resources to encourage the Sweden Finnish minority to ‘speak their own language’. The data consist of social media posts, media reporting in Sweden and Finland as well as excerpts from forum and comment sections. The social media posts feature stickers with minority specific iconography and Finnish translations of everyday objects in the Swedish linguistic landscape. With the stickers the activists create a moral positioning (Harré & Langehove 1991) which the majority speakers in Sweden and Finland seek to deny by counter-positioning the activists’ efforts.

    In article III I examine how Sweden Finnish pupils alter their behaviour according to the assumed language proficiency in Finnish of the co-interlocutor. Theoretically the article is based on Canagrajah’s spatial orientation (2018) and appraisal theory (Martin & White 2005). With the help of the theoretical framework, I identify three different peer interaction practises. The findings show that the pupils are aware of each others’ linguistic proficiencies in Finnish and only comment a pupils’ linguistic production negatively if they are deemed proficient. If they are not proficient, they are encouraged.

    Finally in article IV I examine how and to what extent a group of 6th graders attending a Sweden Finnish bilingual school use so-called shortened infinitives, which is a spoken Finnish feature from the Helsinki region. The pupils use shortened infinitives more often than the standard Finnish forms and mostly as they are used in Helsinki. There are some signs that pupils might be acquiring the shortened form in the group through accommodation. Article IV suggests that the development of spoken Finnish in Finland and Sweden is interconnected.

    In the overarching analysis I implement the notions of centripetal and centrifugal forces to the results of the articles. The language policies in article I act as a centripetal force that seeks to homogenise and centralise language, while the activists in article II seek do the opposite. Article III shows that proficiency differences in Finnish and linguistic heterogeneity is commonplace and is an example of the centrifugal force. However, some of the pupils in the same group have adopted a spoken Finnish feature that is most prominent in the Helsinki region in Finland, which is an example of the centripetal force.

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    “Speak your own language”: On tensions regarding Finnish in Sweden
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  • 2.
    Muhonen, Anu
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Error error lataa patteri: From language alternation to global multilingual repertoires in Finnish youth radio programs in Finland and Sweden2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD study explores multilingualism in Finnish language youth radio broadcasting, with interactional and ethnographic data from Sweden Finnish and Finnish youth radio broadcasting. The interactional data consist of audio recordings from radio programs, while the ethnographic data consist of observations, logbook notes and interviews. The data were recorded and collected during the summer of 2005 from Radio Sweden’s (SR) Finnish language radio station Sisuradio and its youth program Klubi-Klubben, and simultaneously from Finnish YleX, from its X-Ryhmä and YleX Tänään programs.

    Multilingualism within radio broadcasting is investigated from a qualitative and sociolinguistic viewpoint. The study consists of four independent empirical research articles, each tackling the research topic from a slightly different perspective (e.g., language alternation, humor, repertoires, rap flows). This approach is what I call revealing the small pictures of this study. Further, this study investigates some overarching implications and pinpoints general threads and themes of a more holistic big picture of what multilingualism sounds like in the youth radio programs. The focus of the analysis is interactional and functional.

    The study shows that there are many different kinds of multilingualisms: multilingualism in the late modern world differs from scene to scene. However, speakers and groups have varied kinds of multilingual repertoires at their disposal in different scenes. In addition, different multilingual repertoires are used for various functions and genres, such as entertainment, humor and the expressions of different identities, including expressing music expertise or being a rapper. English is used as resourse in all of these repertoires. The study makes visible multilingual life worlds where global and local features intertwine and where objects and discourse practices are constantly on the move.

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  • 3.
    Ehrnebo, Paula
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Heter Vägverket Tielaitos eller Tievirasto på finska?: Benämningar på svenska samhällsfenomen i sverigefinska tidningar2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how names for phenomena in Swedish society are expressed in Finnish language newspaper texts in Sweden. As part of the thesis the question of whether the newspapers use Finnish or Swedish names is investigated. Additional questions taken up in the thesis include the extent to which the Finnish names concur with the recommendations of The Finnish Language Council in Sweden, and the bases for the Council’s recommendations.

    The primary material consists of volumes 1983, 1990 and 1997 of the newspaper Viikkoviesti and issues 6-50/2003 of the daily newspaper Ruotsin Sanomat. A total of 591 phenomena and 1277 names are investigated.

    The results show that 95% of the names used are Finnish although there is some variation among different types of names. Approximately 78% of the Finnish names found in the material follow the recommendations of The Finnish Language Council in Sweden.

    Most of the Finnish names that are established in Sweden are translation loans, common to Standard Finnish or modified according to a Standard Finnish model. It is sometimes difficult to decide whether a name is part of Standard Finnish or if it is only a translation loan, since both alternatives often seem equally plausible.

    The results of the study show that the Sweden-Finnish newspapers investigated have accepted and employed the recommendations of The Finnish Language Council to a great extent. The recommendations of the Council can thus be considered normative. This implies that The Finnish Language Council has developed realistic and prudent principles for the composition of their recommendations.

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  • 4.
    De Smit, Merlijn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Language contact and structural change: An Old Finnish case study2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study is to shed new light on both the influence exerted on Finnish by the Swedish language, and on the mechanisms by which language contact in structural domains takes place. It is argued that syntactic borrowing should be regarded as a subtype of reanalysis and extension rather than as an independent mechanism. Also, the need to regard linguistic structural change as teleologically motivated rather than deterministically caused is stressed. Possibilities to apply a framework based on A.N. Whitehead’s process philosophy to language change are explored.

    The corpus consists of six legal translations from the 1580s to 1759. The areas studied, all relating to Finnish object and subject marking, are those of the Finnish passive, which under foreign influence has shown tendencies to change from a typically non-promotional passive to a promotional passive; Finnish necessitive constructions, which form an active-stative subsystem within Finnish with marked active subjects and unmarked objects/non-active subjects but have shown tendencies to develop a nominative-accusative system in dialects influenced by Swedish; and the Finnish relative word "kuin", which has been taken to be a Swedish calque modelled on "som".

    The result is a complex interplay of reanalyses and extensions with foreign model patterns involved to a varying degree. Development of a promotional passive seems to involve both internal semantic factors and Swedish models. Necessitive subjects appear to be marked or unmarked on the basis of a merger between constructions involving active subjects and passive objects, possibly modelled on Swedish. And the relative word "kuin" has been integrated into Old Finnish in a way at odds with the usage of the model pattern. This vindicates abandoning the dichotomy between “internal” and “external” changes, and regarding language contact as a background factor rather than as an independent cause.

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  • 5.
    Herner, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för finska.
    Svenska recensenter läser finska böcker: en studie i receptionen av finsk prosa, översatt på 1960-talet1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Janulf, Pirjo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Kommer finskan i Sverige att fortleva?: en studie av språkkunskaper och språkanvändning hos andragenerationens sverigefinnar i Botkyrka och hos finlandssvenskar i Åbo1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is the result of studies concerning the prerequisites for Finnish to survive in contemporary Sweden. When the Sweden Finnish parents want instruction in Finnish for their children the only choice available in Swedish municipal schools is between two language programs: one giving instruction in Swedish classes with 1-2 hours of home language training in Finnish per week, and the other giving instruction in and of Finnish in Finnish classes. In a four part study I investigate whether Sweden Finnish pupils who take part in these programs use and have a command of both languages. The focus of the dissertation is nonetheless on Finnish and the possibilities for Sweden Finns to preserve and develop their language and culture.

    A total of 560 second generation Sweden Finns from Botkyrka participated in the studies and are divided by language programs into Finnish classes (273) and Swedish classes (287). The introduction of the dissertation gives a picture of the composition of the Sweden Finnish group, cultural aspirations and education possibilities. It also discusses the official position of the Swedish authorities as well as their efforts in relation to the Sweden Finnish aspirations. For comparison 411 Finland Swedish pupils from Turku as well as monolingual control groups in Finland and Sweden are also investigated. Questionnaires, tests, and essays were collected on two occasions, in 1980 and 1995. Command of reading and writing skills in Finnish and Swedish are compared among the Sweden Finnish, the Finland Swedish, and the monolingual pupils. The most bilingual were the Finland Swedish pupils. This group achieved better results on the Swedish tests than the other groups. On the Finnish tests they were better than the Sweden Finnish pupils in the Swedish classes. Compared to the Sweden Finnish pupils in Finnish classes, the Finland Swedish pupils read just as well or better but wrote less well. In the studies the Sweden Finnish pupils' language use in school and at home and the changes which had taken place during the fifteen years which had passed between the times of data collection were scrutinized.

    Compared to the Sweden Finnish pupils in Swedish classes in 1980 the Sweden Finnish pupils use much more Swedish today (1995) while the Sweden Finnish pupils in Finnish classes nowadays use both languages more often than those who took part in the same language program in 1980. In one study 41 former Sweden Finnish informants with an average age of 27 were re-visited. Those who had been in the Swedish classes tended to let Swedish take over at home while those who had been in the Finnish classes used both languages. Sixteen of the former informants had children of their own. The language chosen to use when speaking to their children correlated with their own language skills and the language of their partner. None of those who had been in the Swedish classes spoke Finnish with their children. Among those who were in Finnish classes various combinations of languages were applied: 40% spoke Finnish, 25% spoke both languages and 33% spoke Swedish. Nearly 90% of those who had been in Finnish classes wanted their children to learn Finnish in school while not quite 60% of those who took part in home language training wanted their children to learn Finnish in school. Judging from the results of the study, attendance in Finnish classes was of great significance for the preservation of Finnish in Sweden because only this program seemed to guarantee many-sided language skills in Finnish. The number of pupils in Finnish classes has decreased sharply since 1980, and nowadays such classes exist only in a few places in Sweden. Swedish school political practices have contributed strongly to the difficulties Finnish is having and will have surviving beyond the coming two or three generations.

  • 7.
    Vosthenko, Tuula
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Det tänkande landskapet: landskapsskildringarna i Olavi Paavolainens Synkkä yksinpuhelu (Finlandia i moll)1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the distinctive character and variations in the landscape portraits in Synkkä yksinpuhelu, by the Finnish author Olavi Paavolainen, as well as investigate the significance of the landscape portraits for the work as a whole. Paavolainen calls his work a war diary. It comprises the years 1939-1944 when Finland suffered first the Winter War (Russo-Finnish War) and then the Continuation War with the Soviet Union.

    The author served at the front during the first year of the Continuation War and then afterwards at general staff headquaters. In the first part of the work the author focuses on describing the Karelian landscape which had become the battlefield. The latter part brings out the war time political events in Finland and in other parts of the warring world.

    As a form, the diary gives the author possibilities to use texts with various styles and content. In general, Synkkä yksinpuhelu can be said to contain history, autobiography, political and cultural essays, landscape portraits and travel sketches.

    The landscape portraits assume a central position in the book because of the scope, about a third of the total pages. In these portraits a few of the main themes of the work are developed. At the same time these themes build an antithetical relationship: nature creates and preserves life while war annihilates it.

    A number of the portraits, for exemple, descriptions of the moon and burial places, are a recurrent motif, giving the text structure and strengthening the theme of impermanence.

    In an exteded sense, Paavolainen's own concept of the thinking landscape can be used to characterize his portraits because the surrounding landscapes communicate his own moods and thoughts. This manner of describing nature ties together schools of art, such as romanticism, symbolism, expressionism and surrealism, where it is characteristic to allow the outer world to reflect the inner state of the soul.

    Paavolainen makes numerous references to works, authors and artists from the 19th and 20th centuries in his portraits. Using means such as irony and antithesis and with a sprinkling of ambivalence, the intertextual and interartistic relations illuminate the author's attitudes towards prevailing conditions. They also accentuate his thoughts about the purpose of existence.

  • 8.
    Weckström, Marja
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hur tvinnas Manillarepet?: en fenomenologisk strukturstudie av Veijo Meris roman1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Virtala, Irene
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Narkissos i inre exil: en studie i begärets paradoxer i L. Onervas roman Mirdja1994Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Lundgren, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Predikativadverbialet och dess numeruskongruens i finskan: [The predicative adverbial and its number agreement in Finnish]1992Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Winsa, Birger
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Östligt eller västligt?: det äldsta ordförrådet i gällivarefinskan och tornedalsfinskan1991Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Almqvist, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Om objektsmarkering vid negation i finskan1987Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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