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  • 1. Abdelnour, Carla
    et al.
    Ferreira, Daniel
    van de Beek, Marleen
    Cedres, Nira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Oppedal, Ketil
    Cavallin, Lena
    Blanc, Frédéric
    Bousiges, Olivier
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Pilotto, Andrea
    Padovani, Alessandro
    Boada, Mercè
    Pagonabarraga, Javier
    Kulisevsky, Jaime
    Aarsland, Dag
    Lemstra, Afina W.
    Westman, Eric
    Parsing heterogeneity within dementia with Lewy bodies using clustering of biological, clinical, and demographic data2022Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1758-9193, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) includes various core clinical features that result in different phenotypes. In addition, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular pathologies are common in DLB. All this increases the heterogeneity within DLB and hampers clinical diagnosis. We addressed this heterogeneity by investigating subgroups of patients with similar biological, clinical, and demographic features.

    Methods: We studied 107 extensively phenotyped DLB patients from the European DLB consortium. Factorial analysis of mixed data (FAMD) was used to identify dimensions in the data, based on sex, age, years of education, disease duration, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of AD biomarkers, core features of DLB, and regional brain atrophy. Subsequently, hierarchical clustering analysis was used to subgroup individuals based on the FAMD dimensions.

    Results: We identified 3 dimensions using FAMD that explained 38% of the variance. Subsequent hierarchical clustering identified 4 clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by amyloid-beta and cerebrovascular pathologies, medial temporal atrophy, and cognitive fluctuations. Cluster 2 had posterior atrophy and showed the lowest frequency of visual hallucinations and cognitive fluctuations and the worst cognitive performance. Cluster 3 had the highest frequency of tau pathology, showed posterior atrophy, and had a low frequency of parkinsonism. Cluster 4 had virtually normal AD biomarkers, the least regional brain atrophy and cerebrovascular pathology, and the highest MMSE scores.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there are subgroups of DLB patients with different biological, clinical, and demographic characteristics. These findings may have implications in the diagnosis and prognosis of DLB, as well as in the treatment response in clinical trials.

  • 2. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg Selma
    et al.
    Weihe, Pál
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Debes, Fróði
    Impact of work exposure on cognitive performance in Faroese deep-sea fishers: a field study2022Ingår i: International Maritime Health, ISSN 1641-9251, E-ISSN 2081-3252, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 150-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines the impact of work-related exposure on the cognitive performance of Faroese deep-sea fishers. Faroese fishing crews work long hours in demanding and noisy environments amidst highly uncertain and challenging weather conditions. These factors, together with compromised patterns of rest and sleep, are known to increase fatigue. Our aim was to study if changes could be measured in fishers’ cognitive performance at the end of the trip when compared with the baseline measure at the beginning.

    Materials and methods: Data was collected over 15 months (May 2017 to July 2018) from 157 fishers on 18 fishing trips which involved 202 investigative days on board. Questionnaires and six computerised cognitive tests: Simple Reaction Time, Numeric Working Memory, Corsi Blocks, Rapid Visual Information Processing, Digit Vigilance, and Card Sorting Test were used for data collection at the beginning and end of the trip. Differences between the outcomes on the two test points were analysed with one-way ANOVA comparing the performances at the beginning and end of the voyage, and two-way ANOVA to examine the interactive effect of chronotype and test occasions on the outcomes. Mixed models were used to test for the effects of predictor variables.

    Results: Significant declines in cognitive performance were observed from the beginning to the end of the trip, with decreases in visuospatial memory and reaction times, and increases in cognitive lapses. Furthermore, slowing in response times was observed in the second half of the Digit Vigilance test when comparing the halves.

    Conclusions: Declines in performance were observed from the start to the end of the trip. Furthermore, fishers performed significantly worse in the second half of some parted tests, and evening types seem less influenced by irregular work hours. These findings call for improving the safety of the vessels and their crew.

  • 3. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg
    et al.
    Weihe, Pál
    Debes, Fróði
    van Leeuwen, Wessel MA.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sleep, Sleepiness, and Fatigue on Board Faroese Fishing Vessels2022Ingår i: Nature and Science of Sleep, ISSN 1179-1608, Vol. 14, s. 347-362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Faroese fishers have four times more accidents than workers on land. The aim was to understand fishers’ fatigue better and how their work and sleep patterns influenced their sleepiness levels and cognitive performance.

    Materials and Methods: A total of 157 Faroese fishers wore wrist-worn actigraphs at sea and one week on land and filled in sleep and sleepiness diaries during the trip. Furthermore, a 3-minute simple reaction time (SRT) test was completed at the beginning and end of the trip. The ship’s movement and noise were also logged. The actiwatch results were analysed with mixed methods repeated measures. The sleepiness registrations and performance on the SRT-test were analysed with paired t-test. The ship movements (Pitch and roll) were divided into approximately three same-sized groups (lowest 1/3, medium 1/3, and highest 1/3) and compared against the Karolinska Sleepiness Scores (KSS ranging from 1– 9) ≥ 7 and physical tiredness (ranging from 1– 9) scores ≥ 7. Chi-square tests were used to determine the significance of these differences. Mean sleepiness scores at sea, and the proportion of sleepiness scores ≥ 7 were calculated, as well as sleepiness scores as a function of the time of day.

    Results: While at sea, fishers had more split sleep, slept less, and had lower sleep efficiency than onshore. Sleepiness was higher at the end of the trip, and cognitive decline was found. The number of major lapses was higher at the end of the trip, but with no significant difference between the median reaction times.

    Conclusion: The crew on-board the freezer longliner, who worked 8– 8 shifts, slept the most, had the longest continuous sleep periods, the highest sleep efficiency, the lowest sleepiness levels, and the highest noise exposure during their time off.

  • 4. Aghakhani, Nader
    et al.
    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Turku, Finland.
    El Boghdady, Michael
    Patient’s Preferred Type of Music: A Non-pharmacologic Postoperative Pain Relief2022Ingår i: Indian Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0972-2068, E-ISSN 0973-9793, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 587-588Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Jansson, Herman
    Finér, Svitlana
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Real-Time Adaptation of Driving Time and Rest Periods in Automated Long-Haul Trucking: Development of a System Based on Biomathematical Modelling, Fatigue and Relaxation Monitoring2022Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 4758-4766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hours of service regulations govern the working hours of commercial motor vehicle drivers, but these regulations may become more flexible as highly automated vehicles have the potential to afford periods of in-cab rest or even sleep while the vehicle is moving. A prerequisite is robust continuous monitoring of when the driver is resting (to account for reduced time on task) or sleeping (to account for the reduced physiological drive to sleep). The overall aims of this paper are to raise a discussion of whether it is possible to obtain successful rest during automated driving, and to present initial work on a hypothetical data driven algorithm aimed to estimate if it is possible to gain driving time after resting under fully automated driving. The presented algorithm consists of four central components, a heart rate-based relaxation detection algorithm, a camera-based sleep detection algorithm, a fatigue modelling component taking time awake, time of day and time on task into account, and a component that estimates gained driving time. Real-time assessment of driver fitness is complicated, especially when it comes to the recuperative value of in-cab sleep and rest, as it depends on sleep quality, time of day, homeostatic sleep pressure and on the activities that are carried out while resting. The monotony that characterizes for long-haul truck driving is clearly interrupted for a while, but the long-term consequences of extended driving times, including user acceptance of the key stakeholders, requires further research.

  • 6.
    Ahlström, Katrin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Von Below, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Forsström, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Therapeutic encounters at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: psychodynamic therapists' experiences of transition to remote psychotherapy2022Ingår i: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, ISSN 0266-8734, E-ISSN 1474-9734, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 256-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic crippled many parts of society as it spread throughout the world beginning in early 2020. Overnight, whole societies were forced to change their way of life, because of social distancing and lockdowns. For therapists, the pandemic meant that in-person sessions were no longer possible and many switched to different forms of synchronous remote communication by telephone, online audio or video link. The aim of this study was to explore psychodynamic therapists’ experiences over time of forced transitions to telepsychotherapy. Five therapists were interviewed at the beginning of the pandemic and at a one-year follow-up. The data were analysed by applying thematic analysis with a phenomenological approach. Initially, the therapists struggled with technical and safety issues. The loss of the therapy room and of access to non-verbal nuances contributed to impaired contact with the patients and more superficial conversations. The therapists experienced that the very nature of psychodynamic psychotherapy was affected, even if telepsychotherapy could give some new opportunities. One year later many of the difficulties remained, but the therapists developed better coping strategies and were back to the therapy focus. One implication of this study is that telepsychotherapy needs to be integrated into psychotherapy training and supervision.

  • 7. Aljeaidi, Muhamad S.
    et al.
    Tan, Edwin C. K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. The University of Sydney, Australia; Monash University, Australia .
    The association between polypharmacy and cognitive ability in older adults: A national cohort study2022Ingår i: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, ISSN 1551-7411, E-ISSN 1934-8150, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 2505-2509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Polypharmacy, the use of multiple medications by one individual, may be associated with adverse health outcomes including poor cognition. However, it remains unclear whether a longitudinal relationship exists.

    Objectives: To investigate the association between polypharmacy and 3-year cognitive ability in older adults.

    Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of older adults 65 years and older, residing in the community, who participated in waves 12 (2012), 13 (2013) and 16 (2016) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics (HILDA) Survey was conducted. Polypharmacy was defined as the regular use of 5 or more prescription medications. Cognitive ability was assessed using backwards digit span test (BDS), 25-item version of the National Adult Reading Test (NART-25) and symbol-digit modalities test (SDM). Linear regression was used to test the longitudinal association between polypharmacy and cognitive test scores at 3 years. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, and baseline cognitive test scores.

    Results: A total of 2141 participants (mean age 72.9 years, 54.4% female) were included in the study sample. Polypharmacy was present in 27.3%. After adjusting for potential confounders, polypharmacy was negatively associated with cognitive ability at 3 years: BDS: −0.067 (95% CI = −0.353 to −0.051), NART-25: −0.071 (95% CI = −1.428 to −0.294), SDM: −0.073 (95% CI = −2.960 to −0.696).

    Conclusion: Polypharmacy was associated with poorer cognitive ability at 3 years, even after adjusting for comorbidities and other confounders. Future research should consider the long-term impact of polypharmacy on cognitive ability, and identify strategies to optimise medication use and cognition in older adults.

  • 8.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Graff, Caroline
    Practice effects in cognitive assessments three years later in non-carriers but not in symptom-free mutation carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: Exemplifying procedural learning and memory?2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 14, artikel-id 905329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Practice effects (PEs) defined as an improvement of performance in cognition due to repeated assessments between sessions are well known in unimpaired individuals, while less is known about impaired cognition and particularly in latent brain disease as autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease. The purpose was to evaluate the general (across tests/domains) and domain-specific PE calculated as the annual rate of change (ARC) in relation to years to the estimated disease onset (YECO) and in four groups of AD: asymptomatic mutation carriers (aAD, n = 19), prodromal, i.e., symptomatic mutation carriers, criteria for AD diagnosis not fulfilled (pAD, n = 4) and mutation carriers diagnosed with AD (dAD, n = 6) as well as mutation non-carriers from the AD families serving as a healthy comparison group (HC, n = 35). Cognition was assessed at baseline and follow-up about 3 years later by 12 tests covering six domains. The aAD and HC groups were comparable at baseline in demographic characteristics (age, gender, and education), when they were in their early forties, while the pAD and dAD groups were older and cognitively impaired. The results on mean ARC for the four groups were significantly different, small, positive, and age-insensitive in the HC group, while ARC was negative and declined with time/disease advancement in AD. The differences between HC and aAD groups in mean ARC and domain-specific ARC were not significant, indicating a subtle PE in aAD in the early preclinical stage of AD. In the symptomatic stages of AD, there was no PE probably due to cognitive disease-related progression. PEs were the largest in the verbal domain in both the HC and aAD groups, indicating a relationship with cognitive vulnerability. The group-related difference in mean ARC was predominant in timekeeping tests. To conclude, the practice effect in over 3 years was suggested to be linked to procedural learning and memory.

  • 9. Andersson, Christina
    et al.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Einhorn, Stefan
    Bergsten, Katja Lindert
    Stenström, Emma
    Osika, Walter
    Cultivating Compassion and Reducing Stress and Mental Ill-Health in Employees: A Randomized Controlled Study2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, artikel-id 748140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and mental ill-health carry considerable costs for both individuals and organizations. Although interventions targeting compassion and self-compassion have been shown to reduce stress and benefit mental health, related research in organizational settings is limited. We investigated the effects of a 6-week psychological intervention utilizing compassion training on stress, mental health, and self-compassion. Forty-nine employees of two organizations were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 25) or a physical exercise control condition (n = 24). Multilevel growth models showed that stress (p = 0.04) and mental ill-health (p = 0.02) decreased over 3 months in both groups (pre-intervention to follow-up: Cohen’s d = −0.46 and d = 0.33, respectively), while self-compassion only increased in the intervention group (p = 0.03, between group d = 0.53). There were no significant effects on life satisfaction in any of the groups (p > 0.53). The findings show promising results regarding the ability of compassion training within organizations to decrease stress and mental ill-health and increase self-compassion. 

  • 10. Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Molander, Olof
    Granlund, Lilian
    Topooco, Naira
    Engström, Karin
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts in association to self-reported symptoms, mental health and study capacity in Swedish university students2022Ingår i: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study investigates if symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts (cohabitants, family, acquaintances, and others) are associated with university students' own self-reported symptoms of COVID-19 contagion, mental health, and study capacity. This was investigated by a cross-sectional survey administrated in Sweden during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, at the time when universities were locked down to limit viral spread and contagion.

    Results: Mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 in cohabitants and family members were associated with student’s self-reported symptoms of contagion, while no associations could be seen in relation to mental health and study capacity. Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in acquaintances and others were not associated with students’ self-reported symptoms, nor with their mental health and study capacity.

    To conclude, during the initial lockdown of universities students’ self-reported symptoms of contagion were mainly associated with cohabitants and family members, while symptoms of contagion in different social contexts were not associated with mental health and study capacity. Findings suggest that lockdown of universities may have contributed to limiting infection pathways, while still allowing students to focus on their studies despite significant contagion among others known to the student.

  • 11. Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Molander, Olof
    Lindner, Philip
    Granlund, Lilian
    Topooco, Naira
    Engström, Karin
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Berman, Anne H. H.
    Academic self-efficacy: Associations with self-reported COVID-19 symptoms, mental health, and trust in universities' management of the pandemic-induced university lockdown2022Ingår i: Journal of American College Health, ISSN 0744-8481, E-ISSN 1940-3208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate perceived changes in academic self-efficacy associated with self-reported symptoms of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and trust in universities’ management of the pandemic and transition to remote education during lockdown of Swedish universities in the spring of 2020. Methods: 4495 participated and 3638 responded to self-efficacy questions. Associations were investigated using multinomial regression. Results: Most students reported self-experienced effects on self-efficacy. Lowered self-efficacy was associated with symptoms of contagion, perceived worsening of mental health and low trust in universities’ capacity to successfully manage the lockdown and transition to emergency remote education. Increased self-efficacy was associated with better perceived mental health and high trust in universities. Conclusion: The initial phase of the pandemic was associated with a larger proportion of students reporting self-experienced negative effects on academic self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy is a predictor of academic performance, it is likely that students’ academic performance will be adversely affected.

  • 12. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet Interventions in Clinical Psychology2022Ingår i: Comprehensive Clinical Psychology: Volume 6: Case Conceptualization and Treatment: Adults / [ed] Gordon J. G. Asmundson; volume editor Gerhard Andersson, Elsevier, 2022, 2, s. 194-205Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The internet and modern information technology have influenced society and also the practice of clinical psychology. In this chapter, we describe how internet-delivered psychological assessment and treatment procedures work and provide an updated review of the evidence. Therapist-supported internet interventions, mainly derived from cognitive behavior therapy treatment protocols, have been developed and tested in a large number of controlled trials and also for a range of psychiatric and somatic problems and conditions. There are clear indications that internet interventions can be as effective as seeing a therapist face-to-face, that long-term effects can be obtained, and that it has been possible to transfer internet interventions to more regular service provision (e.g., effectiveness trials).

  • 13. Andersson Konke, Linn
    et al.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson-Jobs, Elisabeth
    Nyström, Pär
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Brocki, Karin
    How Does Temperament in Toddlers at Elevated Likelihood for Autism Relate to Symptoms of Autism and ADHD at Three Years of Age?2022Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 52, s. 995-1006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated longitudinal associations between parent-rated temperament, observed exuberance and accelerometer activity level at 18-months and symptoms of ASD and ADHD at 36-months in a sample of 54 children at elevated likelihood for ASD. For the specific parent-rated temperament scales, most observed significant associations appeared to be specific for either ASD or ADHD symptoms. Indeed, by controlling for overlapping symptoms a different pattern of associations emerged. These results illustrate how temperamental measures may signal risk for later ASD versus ADHD symptomatology in infants at elevated likelihood for ASD. In addition, they indicate the potential of adopting a broader view on neurodevelopmental disorders by investigating not only ASD traits, but also co-occurring disorders such as ADHD in samples of elevated likelihood for ASD.

  • 14. Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Newcomers Taking Different Paths: Proximal Socialization Outcome Profiles among Police Officers2022Ingår i: 15th EAOHP Conference 2022. Supporting knowledge comparison to promote good practice in occupational health psychology: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Kevin Teoh; Fiona Frost; Jasmeet Singh; Maria Charalampous; Miguel Muños, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2022, s. 532-533, artikel-id P37Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify the complexity of organizational socialization, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Organizational socialization concerns the learning and adjustment process enabling newcomers to adapt to an organizational role. Proximal outcomes (or adjustment indicators) are assumed to reflect how well individuals adjust on their way to become organizational insiders, while distal outcomes reflect the ultimate organizational socialization outcomes. Thus, proximal outcomes precede distal outcomes, mediating effects of various organizational and individual socialization factors (known as antecedents) that foster the socialization process.

    Method: In this study, a person-centered analytic approach was used to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430), from three time points (T0 = Application process [spring 2008], T1 = Near end of field training [end of 2010], and T2 = Near end of first work year [end of 2011]), were analyzed. First, latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to identify proximal outcomes profiles. Then, the identified profiles were validated by a complementary analysis, which examined differences in antecedents and distal socialization outcomes among officers with different profiles.

    Results: Among the new police officers, three proximal outcome profiles were identified – a vulnerable (35%), a troublesome (11%), and a successful (54%) – with profiles exhibiting distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents (e.g., personality and psychosocial working conditions) and distal outcomes (e.g., organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and work-related anxiety), thus emphasizing the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions in organizational socialization.

    Implications: The study showed that proximal socialization outcome indicators may form profiles that characterize subgroups of newcomers following different socialization paths. Depicting how the socialization process may differ among subgroups is a significant theoretical contribution that adds nuance to traditional stage models. Findings also emphasize that both psychosocial working conditions and personality are important antecedents, which support viewing organizational socialization as an interactive process including both the individual and the environment. Accordingly, the study suggests the person-centered approach as promising for gaining new insights regarding organizational socialization processes. Further, this study indicates that the socialization process was successful for most new police officers. Still, for a fairly large proportion (i.e., the Vulnerable and Troublesome groups), the proximal outcome profiles indicated a less favourable adjustment. The differences in proximal outcome profiles suggest that the Troublesome and the Vulnerable groups struggled with somewhat different adjustment challenges, which may yield organizational challenges. From an applied perspective, the findings suggest that targeting the challenges and needs that characterize different groups of newcomers may help organizations to tailor actions facilitating learning and adjustment among newcomers. Moreover, to facilitate newcomers’ socialization, organizations may also benefit from monitoring newcomers’ experiences of their working climate as well as their personality.

  • 15.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    On the same path? Profiles of proximal socialization outcomes among new police officers2022Ingår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 74, nr 4, s. 301-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify complex relationships among organizational socialization variables, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. This approach is novel to organizational socialization research, contrasting the variable-centered approach dominating the field. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430) were analyzed using latent profile analysis (LPA). Three proximal outcome profiles – a vulnerable (n = 151), a troublesome (n = 47), and a successful (n = 232) – were identified, with distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents and distal outcomes, which emphasized the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions. Thus, the findings show that proximal socialization outcome indicators may yield profiles characteristic of subgroups of newcomers who follow different socialization paths. Importantly, the findings show that a person-centered approach can add nuance to the understanding of how socialization processes differ among newcomers. While these results are promising, their generalizability to other professions and organizations remains to be investigated, which calls for continued person-centered research of organizational socialization processes. 

  • 16.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; Rehabilitation Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Threats and violence towards urban bus drivers in Sweden: Drivers experiences and general recommendations to prevent violence and threats2022Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 1279-1287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of Swedish urban bus drivers report having been exposed to threats or violence. As 50% of drivers have voiced concerns about the occurrences, threats and violence also represent contributing factors to driver stress and fatigue. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore bus drivers' experience of threats and violence; how threats and violence manifests and how the problem is handled by drivers. Gaining understanding of the circumstances is important to reduce the number of threats and violent incidents to provide healthy and attractive working conditions for drivers. METHODS: This study is based on in-depth interviews with 12 urban bus drivers in the City of Malmö in Sweden. RESULTS: Urban bus drivers experience threats daily from passengers, although physical violence occurs less often. The most common situations resulting in threats involve asking passengers to show valid tickets, denying child carriages onboard and running late to a bus stop. The drivers have not received clear guidelines as to strategic handling of the invalid ticket situation. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations include a clear policy and consensus with regard to handling invalid tickets, providing drivers with guidelines for appropriate procedures for passengers refusing to pay, improving reporting routines and establishing a strategy for the Public Transportation provider and operator to follow with regard to reports, in-vehicle surveillance cameras including informing passengers that they are being video recorded as well as harmonizing the location of alarm buttons on buses. 

  • 17. Aries, M. B. C.
    et al.
    Fischl, G.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Beute, F.
    The relationship of light exposure to sleep outcomes among office workers. Part 1: Working in the office versus at home before and during the COVID-pandemic2022Ingår i: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between everyday light exposure and sleep was studied for office workers. The study was conducted during the upswing of the COVID-19 pandemic, enabling a comparison between Office and Home Workdays. Fifteen full-time office employees were monitored for a period of 4–6 weeks. They wore a light-tracking device on their clothes and had a sleep tracker at home. Compared to an Office Workday, light exposure was lower in the afternoon and total sleep time was almost 5 minutes longer on a Home Workday. Sleep efficiency was the same on both workday types. A higher median illuminance level in the afternoon was significantly related to later sleep onset on an Office Workday. Higher median illuminance levels in the morning were related to earlier awakening. Counter to expectations, higher light levels in the evening were also related to earlier awakening. Everyday light exposure matters for sleep quality but may affect circadian functioning differently than the often more extreme light interventions employed in laboratory experiments. Moreover, differences in outcomes between Office and Home Workdays signal the need for further investigation to provide supportive light levels during workhours.

  • 18.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Att ha kontroll över sitt arbetsliv: Om inlåsning, utlåsning och anställningsformer förr, nu och i framtiden2022Ingår i: Framtidens arbetsliv: arbetsvillkor och arbetsmiljö / [ed] Kristina Palm; Lars Ivarsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, s. 243-265Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I beskrivningar av arbetslivet talas det ofta om det nya men inte sällan är det nygamla frågor som uppenbarar sig i en ny kontext. Det finns en kontinuitet till tidigare förhållanden som är värd att uppmärksamma inte minst i fråga om makt, sociala relationer och mänskliga behov. Digitala infrastrukturer genomsyrar nu arbetslivet och dessa kan ses som en ny produktionsform i relation till tidigare agrara och industriella former. I kapitlet undersöks och jämförs anställningsvillkor och anställningssystem i dessa tre produktionsformer. Gemensamt är grundkonflikten mellan den enskilda individens behov av kontroll, trygghet, mening och förutsägbarheti livet och företags och organisationers intresse av snabbar anpassningar till omvärldsförändringar. Konflikten formar konstruktionenav anställnings- och anknytningsformer både i kvalitativ och i kvantitativ mening. Kapitlet har i grunden ett psykologiskt perspektiv med fokus på arbetsvillkor och hälsa i två grupper av anställda -inlåsta och utlåsta - med stor diskrepans mellan sin aktuella och sin önskvärda arbets- och livssitutation

     

  • 19.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Distansarbete: översikt av internationella forskningen om arbetsmiljö och hälsa, balans i livet och produktivitet före och under covid-19 pandemin med särskilt beaktande av kvinnors och mäns villkor2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under covid-19-pandemins första våg, tidigt våren 2020, valde de flesta länder, inklusive Sverige, att rekommendera eller kräva att de anställda som kunde skulle arbeta på distans från bostaden för att minska smittspridningen på arbetsplatser och under resor till och från dessa arbetsplatser. Att arbeta på distans skiljer sig i många avseenden från att arbeta i arbetsgivarens lokaler.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna översikt, som består av tre delar, har varit att sammanställa och öka den forskningsbaserade kunskapen om distansarbete i hemmet.

    Översikten omfattar forskningslitteratur inom tre områden:

    • arbetsmiljö och hälsa
    • balans mellan arbetsliv och privatliv
    • produktivitet.

    I analyserna har vi därtill särskilt fokuserat på likheter och skillnader i mäns och kvinnors villkor vid lönearbete i hemmet. Ytterligare syften har varit att undersöka och dra slutsatser om distansarbete i hemmet under tiden före respektive under pandemin.

  • 20.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When did you stop speaking to yourself? Age-related differences in adolescents’ world knowledge-based audience design2022Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id 220305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adapt utterances to the world knowledge of one’s addressee is undeniably ubiquitous in human social cognition, but its development and association with other cognitive mechanisms during adolescence have not been studied. In an online production task, we measured the ability of children entering adolescence (ages 11–12, M= 11.8, 𝑁=29,17girlsN=29, 17 girls) and adolescents (ages 15–16, M = 15.9, 𝑁=29,17girlsN=29, 17 girls) to tailor referential expressions in accordance with the inferred world knowledge of their addressee—an ability we refer to as world knowledge-based audience design (AD). A post-test survey showed that both age groups held similar assumptions about the addressees’ knowledge of referents, but the younger age group did not consistently adapt their utterances in accordance with these assumptions during online production, resulting in a significantly improved AD behaviour across age groups. We also investigated the reliance of AD on executive functions (EF). Executive functioning (as reflected by performance on the Wisconsin card sorting task) increased significantly with age, but did not explain the age-related increase in AD performance. We thus provide evidence in support of an adolescent development of world knowledge-based AD over and above development of EF.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Andersson, Marit
    Sömnsmart: hur du sover dig till bättre hälsa / med professor John Axelsson och Marit Andersson2022Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    En praktisk och lättillgänglig bok om ett av våra största orosmoment och hälsoproblem idag, nämligen sömnen. John Axelsson, välkänd sömnforskare och professor, vill bidra till att minska vår oro kring sömnen men också ge handfasta verktyg kring hur man kan tänka och hantera perioder med lite sömn.

    Här finns råd för småbarnsföräldern, skolbarn, tonåringen eller dig som har en neuropsykiatrisk diagnos. Boken baseras på såväl John Axelssons egen forskning som andra sömnforskares. Den går på ett pedagogiskt sätt igenom olika aspekter av sömn, så att du kan fatta bättre beslut kring din egen sömn. Till exempel hur du kan beta av en sömnskuld eller få förståelse för hur du kan hjälpa din hjärna att fungera bättre i vardagen. Dygnsrytmer, sömnmyter och spännande rön om drömmar tas förstås också upp.

  • 22.
    Azad, Azadé
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Carlsson, Johanna
    ‘When you told us what had happened to you, I started to shiver’ – what children and teenagers immediately express and comprehend after listening to testimonies of Holocaust survivors2022Ingår i: Holocaust Studies, ISSN 1750-4902Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated how young people comprehend stories of trauma through their immediate expressions after listening to personal testimonies of Holocaust survivors. The material included 747 drawings and 182 texts by 10–16-year-old Swedish pupils from 14 schools. Qualitative analyses and cross-tabulations showed that the testimonies elicited complex patterns of emotions and cognitive processing. Personal testimonies can thus be a powerful way of teaching about historical trauma, although complex cognitive meaning making might often require additional time and adult-facilitated conversation. Also, as the testimonies aroused strong emotions, they should be used in a well-informed way.

  • 23. Backman, Linda
    et al.
    Möller, Marika C.
    Thelin, Eric P.
    Dahlgren, Daniel
    Deboussard, Catharina
    Östlund, Gunilla
    Lindau, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Monthlong Intubated Patient with Life-Threatening COVID-19 and Cerebral Microbleeds Suffers Only Mild Cognitive Sequelae at 8-Month Follow-up: A Case Report2022Ingår i: Archives of clinical neuropsychology, ISSN 0887-6177, E-ISSN 1873-5843, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 531-543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To elaborate on possible cognitive sequelae related to COVID-19, associated cerebrovascular injuries as well as the general consequences from intensive care. COVID-19 is known to have several, serious CNS-related consequences, but neuropsychological studies of severe COVID-19 are still rare.

    Methods: M., a 45-year-old man, who survived a severe COVID-19 disease course including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), cerebral microbleeds, and 35 days of mechanical ventilation, is described. We elaborate on M’s recovery and rehabilitation process from onset to the 8-month follow-up. The cognitive functions were evaluated with a comprehensive screening battery at 4 weeks after extubation and at the 8-month follow-up.

    Results: Following extubation, M. was delirious, reported visual hallucinations, and had severe sleeping difficulties. At about 3 months after COVID-19 onset, M. showed mild to moderate deficits on tests measuring processing speed, working memory, and attention. At assessments at 8 months, M. performed better, with results above average on tests measuring learning, memory, word fluency, and visuospatial functions. Minor deficits were still found regarding logical reasoning, attention, executive functioning, and processing speed. There were no lingering psychiatric symptoms. While M. had returned to a part-time job, he was not able to resume previous work-tasks.

    Conclusion: This case-study demonstrates possible cognitive deficits after severe COVID-19 and emphasizes the need of a neuropsychological follow-up, with tests sensitive to minor deficits. The main findings of this report provide some support that the long-term prognosis for cognition in severe COVID-19 may be hopeful.

  • 24. Bakker, Bram
    et al.
    Zabłocki, Bartosz
    Baker, Angela
    Riethmeister, Vanessa
    Marx, Bernd
    Iyer, Girish
    Anund, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer
    A Multi-Stage, Multi-Feature Machine Learning Approach to Detect Driver Sleepiness in Naturalistic Road Driving Conditions2022Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 4791-4800Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue is a contributing factor in about 20% of all fatal road crashes worldwide. Countermeasures are urgently needed and one of the most promising and currently available approaches for that are in-vehicle systems for driver fatigue detection. The main objective of this paper is to present a video-based driver sleepiness detection system set up as a two-stage model with (1) a generic deep feature extraction module combined with (2) a personalised sleepiness detection module. The approach was designed and evaluated using data from 13 drivers, collected during naturalistic driving conditions on a motorway in Sweden. Each driver performed one 90-minute driving session during daytime (low sleepiness condition) and one session during night-time (high sleepiness condition). The sleepiness detection model outputs a continuous output representing the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scale from 1-9 or a binary decision as alert (defined as KSS 1-6) or sleepy (defined as KSS 7-9). Continuous output modelling resulted in a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.54 KSS units. Binary classification of alert or sleepy showed an accuracy of 92% (sensitivity = 91.7%, specificity = 92.3%, F1 score = 90.4%). Without personalisation, the corresponding accuracy was 72%, while a standard fatigue detection PERCLOS-based baseline method reached an accuracy of 68% on the same dataset. The developed real-time sleepiness detection model can be used in the management of sleepiness/fatigue by detecting precursors of severe fatigue, and ultimately reduce sleepiness-related road crashes by alerting drivers before high levels of fatigue are reached.

  • 25.
    Balter, Leonie J. T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Matheson, Granville J.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sterzer, Philipp
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Experimental Sleep Deprivation Results in Diminished Perceptual Stability Independently of Psychosis Proneness2022Ingår i: Brain Sciences, ISSN 2076-3425, E-ISSN 2076-3425, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikel-id 1338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotic disorders as well as psychosis proneness in the general population have been associated with perceptual instability, suggesting weakened predictive processing. Sleep disturbances play a prominent role in psychosis and schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether perceptual stability diminishes with sleep deprivation, and whether the effects of sleep deprivation differ as a function of psychosis proneness. In the current study, we aimed to clarify this matter. In this preregistered study, 146 participants successfully completed an intermittent version of the random dot kinematogram (RDK) task and the 21-item Peters Delusion Inventory (PDI-21) to assess perceptual stability and psychosis proneness, respectively. Participants were randomized to sleep either as normal (8 to 9 h in bed) (n = 72; Mage = 24.7, SD = 6.2, 41 women) or to stay awake through the night (n = 74; Mage = 24.8, SD = 5.1, 44 women). Sleep deprivation resulted in diminished perceptual stability, as well as in decreases in perceptual stability over the course of the task. However, we did not observe any association between perceptual stability and PDI-21 scores, nor a tendency for individuals with higher PDI-21 scores to be more vulnerable to sleep-deprivation-induced decreases in perceptual stability. The present study suggests a compromised predictive processing system in the brain after sleep deprivation, but variation in psychosis trait is not related to greater vulnerability to sleep deprivation in our dataset. Further studies in risk groups and patients with psychosis are needed to evaluate whether sleep loss plays a role in the occurrence of objectively measured perceptual-related clinical symptoms.

  • 26.
    Balter, Leonie J. T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden;Stress Research Institute and Department of Psychology Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden;Stress Research Institute and Department of Psychology Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Holding, Benjamin C.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden;Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden;Center for Cognitive and Computational Neuropsychiatry Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden;Stress Research Institute and Department of Psychology Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden;Center for Cognitive and Computational Neuropsychiatry Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.
    Intelligence predicts better cognitive performance after normal sleep but larger vulnerability to sleep deprivation2022Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, artikel-id e13815Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Baraldi, Erika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Löwing, Kristina
    Westrup, Björn
    Ådén, Ulrika
    Insights Gained from Stockholm Preterm Interaction-Based Intervention - A Critical View2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SPIBI is a strength-based early intervention targeting parent-child interaction amongst extremely preterm born infants, currently tested in an RCT in Sweden. Of 130 infants, 72% have reached 12 months of age. Based on interviews with 17 parents’ and 6 intervention providers we identified SPIBI strengths and shortcomings. SPIBI seems feasible, is possible to integrate it into home-visiting practice and is appreciated by parents. Identified challenges are geographical distance; recruitment obstacles including Covid-19, leading to longer-term implementation; service-provider fatigue; and social adversities amongst some eligible participants requiring ethical considerations. Future improvements include: reconsidering inclusion criteria, increasing use of e-health, and exploring the possibility of a tiered approach.

  • 28. Barck-Holst, P.
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Å.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Hellgren, C.
    Reduced working hours and work-life balance2022Ingår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 450-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how reduced working hours affects the work-life balance of staff in the Swedish social services, or their recovery off-work in terms of specific everyday choices. Staff at a Swedish social work agency participating in a longitudinal trial of work-time reduction in the public services were interviewed about their experiences of work and private life after their work hours were reduced (n = 12). All the interviewees described feeling more positive anticipatory emotions when going to work, several felt that their relationships with colleagues had improved, and most felt their relationships with clients had improved. Several worried less over work, and most perceived the risk for exhaustion syndrome to be lower. Most experienced more positive anticipatory emotions when returning home from work, most of those with children felt that their relationships with their children improved, and those with partners felt their romantic relationships also improved. Several devoted more time to parents and siblings. Most devoted more time to friendship, and all described having more time for recovery activities. Several worried less over their private life. A process that established and maintained a positive work-life balance is suggested by the interviews as a whole, related to increased control over private life, a larger capacity to meet private demands, improved recovery in terms of both quantity and quality, and having access to more sources of formal and informal social support. 

  • 29.
    Bendtz, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Ericsson, Sarah
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Schneider, Josephine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Borg, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bašnáková, Jana
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Individual Differences in Indirect Speech Act Processing Found Outside the Language Network2022Ingår i: Neurobiology of Language, E-ISSN 2641-4368, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 287-317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Face-to-face communication requires skills that go beyond core language abilities. In dialogue, we routinely make inferences beyond the literal meaning of utterances and distinguish between different speech acts based on, e.g., contextual cues. It is, however, not known whether such communicative skills potentially overlap with core language skills or other capacities, such as theory of mind (ToM). In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigate these questions by capitalizing on individual variation in pragmatic skills in the general population. Based on behavioral data from 199 participants, we selected participants with higher vs. lower pragmatic skills for the fMRI study (N = 57). In the scanner, participants listened to dialogues including a direct or an indirect target utterance. The paradigm allowed participants at the whole group level to (passively) distinguish indirect from direct speech acts, as evidenced by a robust activity difference between these speech acts in an extended language network including ToM areas. Individual differences in pragmatic skills modulated activation in two additional regions outside the core language regions (one cluster in the left lateral parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus and one in the precuneus). The behavioral results indicate segregation of pragmatic skill from core language and ToM. In conclusion, contextualized and multimodal communication requires a set of interrelated pragmatic processes that are neurocognitively segregated: (1) from core language and (2) partly from ToM.

  • 30.
    Berg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hovne, Vera
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Oscarsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Mechler, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Topooco, Naira
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    “Good job!”: Therapists' encouragement, affirmation, and personal address in internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with depression2022Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 30, artikel-id 100592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered interventions are generally effective for psychological problems. While the presence of a clinician guiding the client via text messages typically leads to better outcomes, the characteristics of what constitutes high-quality communication are less well investigated. This study aimed to identify how an internet therapist most effectively communicates with clients in internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT). Using data from a treatment study of depressed adolescents with a focus on participants who had a positive outcome, messages from therapists were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study focused on the therapist's 1) encouragement and 2) affirmation, and how the therapists used 3) personal address. The analysis resulted in a total of twelve themes (Persistence Wins, You Are a Superhero, You Make Your Luck, You Understand, Hard Times, You Are Like Others, My View on the Matter, Time for a Change, Welcome In, Let Me Help You, You Affect Me, and I Am Human). Overall, the themes form patterns where treatment is described as hard work that requires a motivated client who is encouraged by the therapist. The findings are discussed based on the cognitive behavioral theoretical foundation of the treatment, prior research on therapist behaviors, and the fact that the treatment is provided over the internet.

  • 31. Berg, Noora
    et al.
    Nummi, Tapio
    Bean, Christopher G.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Hammarström, Anne
    Risk factors in adolescence as predictors of trajectories of somatic symptoms over 27 years2022Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 696-702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatic symptoms among adolescents are common, yet little is known about long-term trajectories of somatic symptoms and the factors in adolescence that shape them. We examined individual, family and schoolbased factors at age 16 as predictors of trajectories of somatic symptoms over 27 years. Methods: Participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n ¼ 1001) responded to questions about individual factors (e.g. health behaviours), family factors (e.g. contact with parents, social and material adversity) and school satisfaction at age 16; as well as 10 somatic symptoms at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 43. Teacher assessments at age 16 included overall ability at school and peer relations. Age 16 predictors of somatic symptom trajectory group membership were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Poor contact with mother and poor school satisfaction were significant predictors of adverse symptom trajectories among both men and women. Low birth weight and low parental academic involvement were contributing factors for women, while smoking and social adversity were more relevant factors for men. Conclusions: Our findings emphasize the importance of a holistic approach that considers the unique contributions of individual, family and school-based factors in the development of trajectories of somatic symptoms from adolescence to middle age.

  • 32.
    Bergman, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    Well-being of high skilled workers: Disentangling person and tasks effects2022Ingår i: 15th EAOHP Conference 2022. Supporting knowledge comparison to promote good practice in occupational health psychology: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Kevin Teoh; Fiona Frost; Jasmeet Singh; Maria Charalampous; Miguel Muños, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2022, s. 564-565, artikel-id P75Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research goals and why the work was worth doing: Research of well-being and positive affect of workers have previous mainly been focused on a general level. These previous studies have not yet disentangled whether positive affect can be linked to task-by-task experience at work, or whether it mainly varies between different people with different types of work. The purpose of this study was to differentiate between the general level, task level, and type of employment in self-determination, meaningfulness of work and positive affect, thus contributing to the understanding of how to best assess well-being. The novelty and contribution of this study lies in the analysis strategy that allows for disentangling the effect that specific work tasks may have on workers' positive affect. Specifically, the use of multi-level modelling on the data gathered with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) allows us to describe relationships between positive affect, self-determination, and meaningfulness of work at both person and task level. Multilevel studies assessing the intrapersonal variability of experienced well-being on not only a day-level, but also a task level, are rare and much needed to better understand the dynamics of well-being during a workday.

    Theoretical background: Researchers have connected positive affect – which represents momentary well-being experiences such as happiness, engagement, and inspiration – to high levels of general well-being and better health. High levels of positive affect is often attributed to higher levels of self-determination, and meaningfulness of work. Workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work should experience more positive affect, and tasks experienced as more self-determined and meaningful should lead to more positive affect. Additionally, self-employed workers are suggested to have a more self-determined career choice in itself, and thus higher levels of positive affect.

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: In this study we tested whether H1) workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work report higher levels of positive affect, H2) tasks experienced as more self-determined and meaningful are related to more positive affect, and H3) self-employed workers experience stronger relationships of task level self-determination and meaningfulness with positive affect than employed workers. We used a sample of 175 high skilled self-employed and employed workers, who reported self-determination, meaningfulness of work and positive affect for a total of 560 tasks during a workday by the DRM. DRM facilitates access to momentary experiences stored in memory, providing reliable estimates of intensity and variations of affect during the day. First, we tested two separate multilevel multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) models for momentary positive affect (outcome side of the model), as well as self-determination and meaningfulness of tasks (predictor side of the model), and then tested the models for measurement invariance. Since tasks were nested within individuals we fitted a bayesian structural equation model with random slopes with self-determination and meaningfulness of work and employment type as predictors and positive affect as an outcome variable.

    Results obtained: Results indicated that workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work reported more positive affect, that tasks experienced as more self-determined also elicited higher levels of positive affect, and that there was a small positive effect of self employment on positive affect. The self-determination and meaningfulness of tasks seem to be more important to positive affect than employment type. The relationship between self employment on positive affect have been assumed by earlier research, but our study is the first to test and show that this indeed may be the case. However, other factors such as self-determination might be more important to task level positive affect.

    Limitations: We studied high-skilled worker, choosing this population facilitated comparison of groups of workers, as many background variables were similar, however, this does affect the generalizability of the results. As consequence, one limitation is that a fairly small sample. Further, we used DRM and a drawback of this method is that it is not in the moment assessment, but rather recorded after the tasks of the day. However, DRM still have practical benefits as it might elevate the response rate in contrast to in the moment reports, because it is difficult for the respondent to make pauses during their workday.

    Research/Practical Implications: These findings may inform researchers on how to best assess well-being, and organizations on how to design work of workers to elevate positive affect and thus, well-being, and health. We have empirically confirmed the assumptions of a positive relationship between self employment and positive affect of previous studies, and that this relationship might be less important than other factors such as self-determination.

    Originality/Value: The originality of this research lies in the multi-level structure of the method and analysis, as well as the comparison of groups of workers.

  • 33. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Molander, Olof
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Granlund, Lilian
    Topooco, Naira
    Engström, Karin
    Andersson, Claes
    Compliance with recommendations limiting COVID-19 contagion among university students in Sweden: associations with self-reported symptoms, mental health and academic self-efficacy2022Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 70-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The COVID-19 containment strategy in Sweden uses public health recommendations relying on personal responsibility for compliance. Universities were one of few public institutions subject to strict closure, meaning that students had to adapt overnight to online teaching. This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported recommendation compliance and associations with self-reported symptoms of contagion, self-experienced effects on mental health and academic self-efficacy among university students in Sweden in May–June 2020.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional 23 question online survey in which data were analysed by multinomial regression, taking a Bayesian analysis approach complemented by null hypothesis testing.

    Results: A total of 4495 students consented to respond. Recommendation compliance ranged between 70% and 96%. Women and older students reported higher compliance than did men and younger students. Mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms were reported by 30%, severe symptoms by fewer than 2%; 15% reported being uncertain and half of the participants reported no symptoms. Mental health effects were reported by over 80%, and changes in academic self-efficacy were reported by over 85%; in both these areas negative effects predominated. Self-reported symptoms and uncertainty about contagion were associated with non-compliance, negative mental health effects, and impaired academic self-efficacy.

    Conclusions: Students generally followed public health recommendations during strict closure of universities, but many reported considerable negative consequences related to mental health and academic self-efficacy. Digital interventions should be developed and evaluated to boost coping skills, build resilience and alleviate student suffering during the pandemic and future similar crises.

  • 34. Beute, F.
    et al.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Aries, M. B. C.
    The relationship of light exposure to sleep outcomes among office workers. Part 2: Comparison of days with and without social constraints2022Ingår i: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social constraints posed by work schedules influence sleep duration and timing. Everyday light exposure can help (or hinder) sleep outcomes. This study investigated the differences in the relationship between light exposure and sleep outcomes on days with and without social constraints using ambulatory assessment for 4–6 weeks for 15 office employees. The effects of light on sleep were investigated for both clock time and wake time (related to individual sleep times). Participants were exposed to more light during the morning and afternoon on workdays, and sleep times were later on days without social constraints. The relationship between light exposure and sleep was more pronounced, or sometimes even only present, for days without social constraints. In addition, no differences were found between clock time and wake time, which underlines the complexity of the relationship between everyday light exposure and sleep. Despite increased light exposure during workdays, the effects of light on sleep were more pronounced on days without social constraints. It may signal that office workers need a more substantial circadian stimulus (i.e. higher light exposure) for light to influence sleep outcomes on days with social constraints.

  • 35. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
    Sickness absence due to common mental disorders in young employees in Sweden: Are there differences in occupational class and employment sector?2022Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 57, s. 1097-1106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A large proportion of sickness absence (SA) in young adults is due to common mental disorders (CMDs). Still studies on CMD-related SA in young workers are lacking, especially studies for those employed in the private sector. The current study investigated the associations between sector of employment, occupational class and SA due to CMDs. In addition, associations between type of employment branch and SA due CMDs within each sector were examined.

    Methods This population-based longitudinal cohort study included 663,583 employees, 19-29 years, residing in Sweden in 2009. Employment sector (i.e., private/public) and occupational class (non-manual/manual workers) were measured in 2009. Risk estimates of SA due to CMDs, between 2010 and 2016, were calculated as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using Cox regression analysis.

    Results Sector of employment was associated with SA due to CMDs, such that public sector workers had an elevated risk when compared with private sector employees (adjusted HR: 1.31 (95% CI 1.29-1.33). Moreover, manual workers had a slightly elevated risk for SA due to CMDs compared to non-manual workers. Within the private sector, in both manual and non-manual workers, those employed in education and health and social services evidenced the highest rates and risks of SA due to CMDs.

    Conclusion Sector of employment and occupational class play a role in SA due to CMDs in young employees. These findings should be considered when identifying high-risk groups for SA in the young working population.

  • 36. Blindow, Katrina Julia
    et al.
    Paulin, Johan
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Nyberg, Anna
    Sexual and gender harassment and use of psychotropic medication among Swedish workers: a prospective cohort study2022Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 79, nr 8, s. 507-513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prospective association between the exposure to three types of gender-based violence and harassment (GBVH) and psychotropic medication.

    METHODS: Information on three measures of workplace GBVH-sexual harassment (1) from superiors or colleagues, (2) from others (eg, clients) and (3) gender harassment from superiors or colleagues-were retrieved from the biannual Swedish Work Environment Survey 2007-2013 (N=23 449), a representative sample of working 16-64 years old registered in Sweden. The survey answers were merged with data on antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives and anxiolytics from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Cox proportional hazards analyses with days to purchase as time scale and first instance of medicine purchase as failure event were fitted, adjusted for demographic and workplace factors.

    RESULTS: Workers who reported exposure to gender harassment only (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.36), to sexual but not gender harassment (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.40), or to gender and sexual harassment (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.60) had an excess risk of psychotropics use in comparison to workers who reported neither of the exposures in the past 12 months. We found no interaction between the exposures and gender in the association with psychotropics use.

    CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to sexual or gender harassment at the workplace may contribute to the development of mental disorders. 

  • 37.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Intimate relationships and olfaction: Body odors, adult attachment, and romance2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Odors influence several aspects of life, such as thoughts, memories, decisions, and emotions. Numerous studies have shown that human behavior can be affected by odors in different contexts. One such context is social relationships, in which body odors play a role. For example, previous studies have shown that close family members can identify each other’s body odors and prefer these compared to the body odors of non-family members. However, further research is needed to establish how body odors and olfactory functioning affect interpersonal behaviors and intimate relationships. In this thesis, I have conducted three studies highlighting the interplay between intimate relationships and olfaction. The overall purpose of this thesis was to investigate if and how olfaction is related to behaviors in intimate relationships.

    Study I tested if a romantic partner’s body odors have stress-altering effects and whether such effects differ depending on individual differences in romantic attachment security. As the practice of smelling a partner’s worn garment has been reported as a self-treatment against stress, my colleagues and I carried out an experiment to determine whether exposure to a partner’s body odor attenuates adult individuals’ subjective discomfort and psychophysiological responses. To induce discomfort and stress responses, participants were exposed to weak electric shocks while smelling their partner’s body odor (experimental condition) and three control odors (control conditions). The results showed that partner body odor had an attenuating effect on subjective discomfort during stress. Additionally, highly attachment-secure participants exhibited attenuated skin conductance specifically when exposed to their partner’s body odor. Thus, study I concluded that partner body odor is a scent of security, especially for relatively attachment-secure adults.

    Next, to determine whether olfaction is linked to sexual outcomes in intimate relationships, study II explored associations between self-reported olfactory functioning, on the one hand, and infidelity and sexual well-being, on the other, using a survey design. Our exploratory analyses found that self-reported olfactory function predicted sexual well-being positively and infidelity negatively, while controlling for other relevant socio-demographic variables. These results are discussed from a relationship science perspective, in which one’s intimate partner signifies sexual bonding in addition to caregiving and attachment. Thus, study II suggests that a partner’s body odor might be a scent of monogamy.

    Study III summarized the literature on populations with an impaired or total absence of a sense of smell. The interplay between olfaction and intimate relationship variables was examined by reviewing research reports and empirical studies concerning individuals with an impaired sense of smell. My colleague and I provided an overview of how olfactory impairment can impact three types of close social relationships: family relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships. For romantic relationships, which are the main focus of this thesis, three categories were defined in which olfactory impairment can impact close social relationships: eating, social support, and sexuality. Thus, study III concludes that olfactory ability is related to various romantic, intimate relationship behaviors.

    In sum, all three studies reported findings highlighting that olfaction (body odors and olfactory functioning) is related to intimate relationships. The results from the three studies are discussed via theoretical frameworks concerning the sense of smell, romantic relationships, and attachment. The thesis concludes that olfactory functioning and the experience of body odors are meaningful for intimate relationships and, as such, also for various behaviors in these relationships.

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  • 38.
    Blomkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Izzo, Giulia
    Vaccaro, Maria Grazia
    La Vignera, Sandra
    Brunetti, Antonio
    Aversa, Antonio
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    The scent of monogamy: self-reported olfactory function predicts sexual well-being and infidelity in an Italian population2022Ingår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 2879-2889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that olfactory function plays an essential role in the bonding of a romantic relationship. Body odors, in particular, seem involved in both mate choices and other intimate behaviors. Our sense of smell is also crucial to detect possible pathogen threats, by activating a suitable disgust reaction. Previous studies have shown that disgust sensitivity is negatively related to sociosexuality, and disgust generally inhibits our sexual drive. In the present study, we explored the possible relation between olfactory function, pathogen disgust sensitivity, sociosexuality, sexual well-being, and infidelity through a web survey. Our exploratory analyses found that, in a large Italian sample (N = 1107), among those in a stable relationship, self-reported olfactory function predicted sexual well-being (p < .05) and negatively predicted infidelity (p < .05) when controlling for other relevant sociodemographics variables. Moreover, the relation between self-reported olfactory function and sexual well-being was mediated by pathogen disgust sensitivity. Although significant, these results must be interpreted with caution, because the effect sizes were small.

  • 39.
    Blomqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    LaMontagne, Anthony D.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Perceived job insecurity and risk of suicide and suicide attempts: a study of men and women in the Swedish working population2022Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 293-301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Whether perceived job insecurity increases the risk of suicidal behaviors is unclear. Improved understanding in this area could inform efforts to reduce suicide risk among those experiencing elevated job insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as post-pandemic. We aimed to investigate if perceived job insecurity predicted increased risk of suicide mortality and suicide attempts.

    Method Employees (N=65 571), representative of the Swedish working population who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Survey in 1991–2003, were followed up through 2016 in the National Inpatient and Death Registers. Suicide deaths and suicide attempts were defined according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 and ICD-8/9 codes of underlying cause of death and in-/outpatient care. Job insecurity and subsequent risk of suicide and suicide attempt were investigated with marginal structural Cox regression analyses and inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding.

    Results Perceived job insecurity was associated with an elevated risk of suicide [hazard ratio (HR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–2.20], but not with incident suicide attempts (HR 1.03, CI 0.86–1.24). Estimates remained similar after considering prevalent/previous poor mental health, other work factors, and when restricting the follow up time to ten years.

    Conclusion The study suggests that job insecurity is associated with an increased risk of suicide mortality. Concerns about elevated job insecurity and suicide levels in the wake of the current pandemic could thus be considered in strategies to reduce the population health impact job insecurity both during and following the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • 40. Bohman, Tony
    et al.
    Holm, Lena W.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Skillgate, Eva
    Influence of work ability and smoking on the prognosis of long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain: a cohort study of a Swedish working population2022Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, nr 4, artikel-id e054512Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain is common, but the knowledge of what work and lifestyle factors that influence the prognosis is sparse. The objective was therefore to evaluate if two factors, good self-perceived work ability and no daily smoking, are associated with a favourable prognosis of long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain in a working population, and if these exposures have a synergistic prognostic effect.

    Design A prospective cohort study based on three subsamples from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort.

    Settings A working population in Stockholm County, Sweden.

    Participants Individuals, 18–61 years old, reporting long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain the previous 6 months at baseline in 2010 (n=5177).

    Measures The exposures were: self-perceived work ability (categorised into good, moderate and poor) and daily smoking (no/yes). The outcome in 2014 was ‘absence of long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain’ the previous 6 months representing a favourable prognosis of reported problems at baseline in 2010. Risk ratios (RRs) and risk differences (RDs) with 95% CI was estimated by general linear regressions, and the synergistic effect was estimated by the synergy index (SI) with 95% CI.

    Results Participants with moderate or good work ability, respectively, had an adjusted RR for a favourable prognosis of 1.37 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.69), and 1.80 (1.49 to 2.17) in comparison with participants with poor work ability. The corresponding adjusted RD were 0.07 (0.02 to 0.11) and 0.17 (0.12 to 0.22). Participants not smoking on daily basis had an adjusted RR of 1.21 (1.02 to 1.42), and an adjusted RD of 0.05 (0.01 to 0.10) for a favourable outcome compared with daily smokers. The adjusted SI was 0.92 (0.60 to 1.43).

    Conclusion For participants with long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain, moderate or good self-perceived work ability and not being a daily smoker were associated with a favourable prognosis but having both exposures seemed to have no synergistic prognostic effect.

  • 41. Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Korošec, Kaja
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Royal College of Music, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Can Dance and Music Make the Transition to a Sustainable Society More Feasible?2022Ingår i: Behavioral Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-328X, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition to sustainability is a process that requires change on all levels of society from the physical to the psychological. This review takes an interdisciplinary view of the landscapes of research that contribute to the development of pro-social behaviors that align with sustainability goals, or what we call ‘inner sustainability’. Engaging in musical and dance activities can make people feel trust and connectedness, promote prosocial behavior within a group, and also reduce prejudices between groups. Sustained engagement in these art forms brings change in a matter of seconds (such as hormonal changes and associated stress relief), months (such as improved emotional wellbeing and learning outcomes), and decades (such as structural changes to the brains of musicians and dancers and superior skills in expressing and understanding emotion). In this review, we bridge the often-separate domains of the arts and sciences by presenting evidence that suggests music and dance promote self-awareness, learning, care for others and wellbeing at individual and group levels. In doing so, we argue that artistic practices have a key role to play in leading the transformations necessary for a sustainable society. We require a movement of action that provides dance and music within a constructive framework for stimulating social sustainability.

  • 42. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Stordal, Eystein
    Nordahl, Hans M.
    Myklebust, Tor Å.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Processing speed and working memory are predicted by components of successful aging: a HUNT study2022Ingår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has demonstrated that cognitive heterogeneity occurs with aging both within and between individuals. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the cognitive heterogeneity in aging was related to the subgroups of successful and usual aging.

    Method: Participants were a representative sample of normal older adults (n = 65, age range 70–89 years). All subjects had participated in the third phase of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT3) and completed all subtests in the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III). Successful aging was defined in four ways in the study: as (1) absence of disease, (2) high functioning, (3) active engagement with life, or (4) all three components combined. Five domains of memory and intelligence functions were investigated using linear regression analysis, with group membership (successful versus usual aging) as predictors and age, sex and education as correlates.

    Results: Processing speed performance was correlated with the successful aging component absence of disease, younger age and being of the female sex, while working memory performance was correlated with the successful aging component absence of disease and more years of education. Performance in other domains (verbal, visuospatial, and episodic memory) were not related to any successful aging definition. Age had a consistent negative effect on the processing speed domain for all successful aging definitions. Education was positively linked to cognitive performance on the verbal and working memory domains. Being female was positively linked to processing speed and episodic memory.

    Conclusions: Processing speed and working memory were linked to successful aging when it was defined as absence of disease, but not by other components of successful aging, i.e. domain-specific. In contrast, other cognitive domains were not related to any components of successful aging.

  • 43.
    Bracco, Sofia Elena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Sczesny, Sabine
    How trans and gender non-conforming people are represented in online news media.2022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Trans and gender non conforming (TGNC) people represent one of the most marginalized groups in society and their unemployment rates are three times higher than cisgender people’s average. Cisgender people tend to derive stereotypes and mental representations of TGNC individuals from the media since they lack direct contact with them. Media coverage can therefore work as parasocial contact and improve or worsen people’s attitudes towards minorities. This study analyzes the way TGNC people are represented in online news media across 3 countries that vary in their ranking on LGTBT rights: the UK (11/49 European states for achieved LGBTI rights, Sweden (9/49), and Italy (35/49).