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  • 1.
    Berlin, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    von Grieff, Ninive
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    The relationbetween out-of-home care, early school failure, and prematuremortality: A 30-year follow-up of people treated for substancemisuse in Sweden2020Ingår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence from Swedish and international studies show that a high proportionof children from out-of-home care (OHC) have poor school performanceand that this is strongly associated with their substantial risk ofadverse development in future life. However, risk factors for poor schoolperformance and adverse development are difficult to disentangle sincethey are often interrelated and enforce each other over the life course.This study examines premature mortality in relation to early school failure(drop-out from compulsory school) and OHC experience in childhood(0–17 years of age) among clients who were in treatment for substancemisuse in the early 1980s (N = 1,036). The analyses were based on recordlinkages between interview data collected during treatment and nationalregister data covering approximately 30 years of follow-up, from exit fromtreatment until 2013. Our results showed that 54 per cent had beenplaced in OHC as children, half before their teens and half as teenagers.The OHC population had a higher prevalence of school failure comparedwith clients who had not been exposed to childhood OHC. OHC wasassociated with an excess mortality, although this was only significantfor females who had entered OHC before their teens. Adjusting results forschool failure reduced their excess mortality by half, and additional lifecourse factors associated with mortality among people with substancemisuse adjusted for most of the remaining excess mortality. School failurewas strongly associated with the excess mortality of females, but not withthe excess mortality of males.

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  • 2.
    Björk, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Mot en situerad standardisering inom socialtjänsten2017Ingår i: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 24, nr 3-4, s. 303-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The past two decades have witnessed an increased demand for standardized documentation within the social services field. This have resulted in the proliferation, translation and attempt to use various kinds of standardized instruments to document clients’ needs and outcomes of interventions. Reviewing the social work literature on standardized instruments and providing empirical examples, this article identifies a widespread unsystematic use in everyday practice. This seriously undermines the ability to use gathered information to make reliable quantitative analyses of clients’ outcomes. Based on the concept of ‘situated standardization’ the article argues for a new direction in the attempts to standardize documentation within the social services. Rather than developing standardized instruments outside the social services context, as in current efforts, situated standardization points to the need to develop instruments from within this context. This would arguably produce instruments better suited for the preconditions of social services’ work, and therefore easier to use systematically. Thus, rather than a ‘light’ standardization, this can be described as a different kind of standardization situated in the actual work of the social services. An important implication is that standardized instruments need to be developed together with a close empirical examination of the setting in which it is supposed to be used.

  • 3.
    Björk, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Reconsidering critical appraisal in social work: choice, care and organization in real-time treatment decisions2019Ingår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 42-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to provide an empirically grounded discussion of the critical appraisal model of Evidence-based practice (EBP) in social work practice. Studying real-time treatment decisions, the paper looks ethnographically at an attempt to implement critical appraisal in everyday social work practice, and problematizes some of the assumptions underlying this idea. Whereas critical appraisal tends to view treatment decisions as clear-cut events emanating from autonomous social workers, participant observation shows that decisions emerge over time and are ‘organizational’ rather than individual. Drawing on the notion of ‘logic of care’ and findings from studies of organizational decision-making, a more practice oriented understanding of treatment decision-making is outlined.

  • 4.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    EU citizens begging and sleeping rough in Swedish Urban Areas: social work perspectives on problems and target groups2020Ingår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 186-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    EU citizens from Central and Eastern Europe travelling to cities in other countries to make a better living have become an issue of major political concern across Europe. This study explores how professionals from Swedish municipal social service organizations in urban areas construct the phenomenon of poor visiting EU citizens. The impact of social constructions on the practice and design of policies makes it important to analyse how target groups, such as poor visiting EU citizens, are characterized and what normative assumptions are made about them. The study is theoretically based on Schneider and Ingram’s work on ‘Social Constructions of Target Populations’. Interviews with social workers in the three largest cities in Sweden were conducted. The results suggest a clear ambivalence among interviewees regarding how to conceptualize EU citizens. They were careful not to highlight any subgroups, instead defining the group as consisting of different individuals with varying needs. While the interviewees constructed members of the target group in a way similar to what Schneider and Ingram describe as dependents, they also attributed them with some agency. We conclude that this may be a reflection of the political and organizational setting in which social work with poor visiting EU citizens is conducted in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Logics of Legitimation in Swedish Treatment for Youth Cannabis Use: The Problem Representations of Social Workers in a Prohibitionist Policy Context2018Ingår i: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 244-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Liberal views on cannabis use are widespread in many Western countries, but prohibitionism remains strong in Sweden. According to Swedish drug policy, comprehensive prevention and treatment interventions are necessary because young people are considered particularly vulnerable to cannabis-related harm. In this article, we examine how staff at Swedish outpatient treatment centers for young substance users (called “MiniMaria”) use different logics when legitimizing their work in youth treatment. We also analyze how this legitimizing process contributes to both justifying solutions and constituting the cannabis “problem” that MiniMaria centers are established to handle. This will shed light on what “drug reality” the staff make up through their articulations. Eighteen interviews with social workers from six MiniMaria centers in the Stockholm region were analyzed. To illustrate how staff made sense of their work, we used the concepts of “problem representation”, “legitimation”, and “logics”. We identified four logics: A scientific and a structural logic linked to knowledge claims, policy goals, and organizational setting, and a professional and a procedural logic linked to work experience, client interaction, and therapeutic methods. Participants used logics to emphasize that the character of the cannabis problem demands wide-ranging interventions and to explain how they made youth cannabis users realize they need treatment. The structural logic of drug prohibitionism was only mentioned as a last resort when other logics were not applicable, for example, when a young person refused to engage in treatment and quit using cannabis. The strategic use of logics provided MiniMaria with a moral legitimacy that represented youth cannabis use as a high-profile problem and young people as in need of protection and control. This legitimizes prevention of youth cannabis use in a national setting where cannabis prevalence and harm remains relatively low.

  • 6.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Cannabis i Sverige - en komplex substans, en enkelspårig drogpolitik?2020Ingår i: Socionomens forskningssupplement, nr 47, s. 16-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige är cannabis, särskilt ungdomars bruk av substansen, kontroversiella ämnen som uppmärksammas såväl i media och politik som bland myndigheter och allmänhet. I denna artikel presenterar vi ett forskningsprojekt som belyser det svenska cannabisbruket, med fokus på vilka som gör det, deras åsikter och motiv, samt hur det kan gå till när de möter preventionsinsatser. Våra resultat pekar mot att cannabisbruk kan ha många olika betydelser och funktioner i människors liv, samt att den svenska förbudspolitiken sätter ramarna för hur användare förstår sina handlingar och hur de bemöts av omgivningen. Yttre inflytande från en drogliberal omvärld har dock inneburit att det knappast längre går att identifiera en allenarådande ”berättelse” om vad cannabis är, vilka effekter substansen har och vad som kännetecknar användarna. Vårt projekt understryker vikten av en mer nyanserad politik och praktik i förhållande till cannabisbruk i Sverige.

  • 7.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Cannabis use under prohibitionism – the interplay between motives, contexts and subjects2019Ingår i: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question in drugs research is why people use psychoactive substances. Diverse motives such as boredom, habit, and pain relief have served as explanations, but little is known about how adult cannabis users motivate their use in prohibitionist policy contexts, like Sweden. The aim is to explore what motives a sample of adult Swedish cannabis users refer to when they give meaning to their use. We ask: what aspects of cannabis use (e.g. drug effects, individual characteristics and social contexts) are emphasized in their accounts, and how are such aspects combined to describe motives and justify use? In this study, motives are perceived as culturally situated action, and our analysis is based on online text messages (n = 238) and interviews (n = 12). Participants emphasized either the characteristics of the use situation (motives such as party, relaxation and social function) or of him-/herself as an individual (motives such as mindfulness, identity marker and somatic function). They often mentioned medical and recreational motives in the same account, and carefully presented themselves as rational individuals. The motives reflect that the drugs discourse is increasingly medicalized, that responsibility is highly esteemed in contemporary societies, and that cannabis use is still stigmatized in Sweden.

  • 8.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Risk and responsibilization: resistance and compliance in Swedish treatment for youth cannabis use2020Ingår i: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 60-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of research on how youth make sense of substance abuse treatment. The aim of this article was to explore how young people in Stockholm, Sweden, perceive outpatient treatment for cannabis use, position themselves as subjects in relation to it, and how they respond to staff’s appeals to rationality and responsible action. The data, consisting of 18 interviews with clients recruited from six treatment centers, were explored using narrative and thematic analysis. Results show that the young clients understood their histories in a responsibilized way where the risk information about cannabis they received was considered crucial. Those who resisted treatment rejected cannabis problematizations by staff, did not value interventions and felt that they had control over their use. Those who complied with treatment said that cannabis problematizations helped them acknowledge their own difficulties, handle substance dependence and mature. We conclude that treatment resistance among young cannabis users would perhaps be prevented if the adult world acknowledged that some believe it is rational and responsible to use cannabis. While the criminal offense of substance use is often expiated through ‘treatment’ in Sweden, young clients establishing a substance use identity could possibly be avoided if cannabis was not equated with risk.

  • 9. Fraser, Suzanne
    et al.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    “Getting Better”: The Politics of Comparison in Addiction Treatment and Research2018Ingår i: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 87-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The alcohol and other drug field is characterized by great diversity in kinds of treatment and treatmentphilosophies. Even the kinds of problems treatment is expected to address vary significantly, althoughagreement seems to exist that the general purpose is to help people “get better.” This article considersthis diversity, drawing on a qualitative project conducted in three countries: Australia, Canada, andSweden. Inspired by the project’s multisite approach and the questions it raises about comparativeresearch, the article critically engages with the notion of “comparison” to think through what is atstake in making comparisons. Analyzing 80 interviews conducted with policy makers, service provi-ders, and peer advocates, the article maps key ways treatment is conceptualized, identifying in them acentral role for comparison. Participants in all sites invoked the need to consider addiction a multi-faceted problem requiring a mix of responses tailored to individual differences. Related notions of“holism” were also commonly invoked, as was the need to concentrate on overall improvements inwell-being rather than narrow changes in consumption patterns. In conducting this analysis, this articleposes a series of critical questions. What kinds of comparisons about quality of life, the self, and well-being do treatments for addiction put into play? What categories and criteria of comparison arenaturalized in these processes? What kinds of insights might these categories and criteria authorize,and what might they rule out? In short, what does it mean to understand alcohol and other drug useand our responses to it as intimately intertwined with the need to “get better,” and what happenswhen we scrutinize the politics of comparison at work in getting better through addiction treatment?We conclude by arguing for the need to find new, fairer, ways of constituting the problems we pre-sently ascribe to drugs and addiction.

  • 10. Fraser, Suzanne
    et al.
    Valentine, Kylie
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Drugs, Brains and Other Subalterns: Public Debate and the New Materialist Politics of Addiction2018Ingår i: Body & Society, ISSN 1357-034X, E-ISSN 1460-3632, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 58-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades feminists, science and technology studies scholars and others have grappled with how to take materiality into account in understanding social practices, subjectivity and events. One key area for these debates has been drug use and addiction. At the same time, neuroscientific accounts of drug use and addiction have also arisen. This development has attracted criticism as simplistically reinstating material determinism. In this article we draw on 80 interviews with health professionals directly involved in drug-related public policy and service provision in three countries to identify the main ways the neuroscience of addiction (and thus the agency of the brain) is understood. We analyse these understandings using contemporary posthumanist theory to develop new options for conceptualizing matter in public responses to addiction. We close by calling for a new approach to addiction and the brain based on a process model of materiality and public debate.

  • 11.
    Heimdahl, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Balancing Between Hope and Realism: Exploring Professional Accounts of the Transition Into Parenthood of Pregnant Women Who Use2018Ingår i: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 382-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy for women who use substances has sometimes been referred to as a “window of opportunity” for lifestyle change. In this article, the aim is to analyze professional accounts of the transition of substance-using pregnant women into parenthood. Focus groups were carried out with professionals working at specialized maternity care units in Sweden. The analysis is guided by the discursive psychological concept of “ideological dilemma” and focuses on contradictory elements of commonsense-making in the participants’ discussions. The results suggest that professionals articulate two, partly contradictory, ideals: on the one hand, “believing in the patient” and, on the other, “being realistic.” In their descriptions of their work with patients, professionals emphasize the significance of adjusting the self-image of the patients and increasing their awareness of their “abuse” problems in order to prevent future clashes between high expectations and reality. At the same time, they also underline that interacting with and treating those patients with the most serious problems as individuals with unforeseen strengths and resources is a matter of professional duty.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Lundström, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Effects of psychosocial interventions on behavioural problems in youth: A close look at Cochrane and Campbell reviews2017Ingår i: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 177-187Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that a number of psychosocial interventions are effective for reducing behavioural problems in youth. These interventions are now often included on best practice lists aiming to facilitate informed treatment choices among practitioners. However, analyses in neighbouring research areas have highlighted serious shortcomings in how primary studies are analysed and how studies are synthesised in research reviews. This study took a closer look at the evidence of efficacy for psychosocial interventions that aim to reduce behavioural problems in youth, as shown in systematic research reviews by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations (n = 8). The findings suggest a bias towards overemphasising the efficacy of the interventions in several reviews, an over-confidence in the validity of the findings in some reviews and, overall, a somewhat uncertain evidence base for the efficacy of the interventions. Systematic reviews are crucial for summarising research but more attention to methodological issues may be needed in this area.

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  • 13.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Gripe, Isabella
    Raninen, Jonas
    Individual and school-class correlates of youth cannabis use in Sweden: A multilevel study2018Ingår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 131-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The school-class context is a crucial social environment for young people but substance use researchers have largely overlooked potential influences operating at this level. This study explores associations between school-class and individual-level factors and cannabis use in Swedish youth.

    Data and methods: Data comprised four waves (2012–2015) of the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs’ (CAN) nationally representative school surveys among individuals in 9th and 11th grade. For the present analyses, we had data on totally 28,729 individuals from 2377 unique school classes. Multilevel logistic regressions predicted lifetime and 10+ times use of cannabis from both individual-level predictors and school-class-level measures derived from the individual-level variables.

    Results: There were individual-level associations between most predictor variables and cannabis use. An early debut of tobacco use and binge drinking as well as low cannabis related risk perceptions had strong associations with cannabis use. Conversely, several school-class-level variables had aggregate relationships with cannabis use, most notably the overall level of risk perceptions in the school class. Some of the school-class factors predicted cannabis use over and above the individual-level covariates, suggesting the presence of contextual effects. Surprisingly, while female gender was negatively related with cannabis use at the individual level, a higher proportion of females in the classroom increased the odds for lifetime cannabis use even after controlling for individual and other contextual-level covariates.

    Conclusions: Youth cannabis use is related to various factors at both the individual and school-class level in Sweden. Truancy and perceived risk related to cannabis use had contextual associations with cannabis use. The positive contextual association between a higher proportion of females in the classroom and lifetime use should be explored further.

  • 14.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Has illicit drug use become normalised in groups of Swedish youth? A latent class analysis of school survey data from 2012 to 20152019Ingår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 21-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    It is often assumed that illicit drug use has become normalised in the Western world, as evidenced for example by increased prevalence rates and drug-liberal notions in both socially advantaged and disadvantaged youth populations. There is accumulating research on the characteristics of young illicit drug users from high-prevalence countries, but less is known about the users in countries where use is less common. There is reason to assume that drug users in low-prevalence countries may be more disadvantaged than their counterparts in high-prevalence countries, and that the normalisation thesis perhaps does not apply to the former context.

    Aim:

    This article aims to explore to what extent such assertions hold true by studying the characteristics of young illicit drug users in Sweden, where prevalence is low and drug policy centres on zero tolerance.

    Material and Method:

    We draw on a subsample (n = 3374) of lifetime users of illicit drugs from four waves of a nationally representative sample of students in 9th and 11th grade (2012–2015). Latent class analysis (LCA) on ten indicators pertaining to illicit drug use identified four classes which we termed “Marijuana testers”, “Marijuana users”, “Cannabinoid users” and “Polydrug users”.

    Findings:

    Indications of social advantage/disadvantage such as peer drug use, early substance-use debut and truancy varied across groups, particularly between “Marijuana testers” (low scores) and “Polydrug users” (high scores).

    Conclusions:

    Our findings corroborate the idea that the majority of those who have used illicit drugs in the Swedish youth population have tried marijuana a few times only. We discuss whether or not the comparably large share of socially advantaged “Marijuana testers” in a comparably small sample of lifetime users can be interpreted as a sort of normalisation in a prohibitionist drug policy context.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Lundström, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    ADHD and social work with children and adolescents2019Ingår i: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    ADHD och socialt arbete med barn och ungdomar

    Trots att förekomsten av ADHD-diagnoser och ADHD-medicin är mycket hög inom den sociala barnavården har forskare inom socialt arbete i stor utsträckning lyst med sin frånvaro i akademiska diskussioner kring ”ADHD-epidemin”. Denna artikel syftar till att uppmuntra forskare och praktiker inom socialt arbete att bidra till forskningen och debatten om hur vi ska förstå ADHD bland barn i allmänhet och samhällsplacerade barn i synnerhet. Socialt arbete som profession kan bidra med viktig förståelse av ett fenomen som är vanligt bland barn och ungdomar som är i kontakt med socialtjänsten, som ofta förekommer tillsammans med andra tillstånd och som är sammanlänkat med social utsatthet. Vi menar att forskning kring ADHD inom den sociala barnavården bör prioriteras högt och pekar på viktiga frågor som behöver adresseras av såväl forskare som praktiker.

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  • 16.
    Larsson, Sam
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. Högskolan i Gävle, Sverige; Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Domeij, Helena
    Hellberg, Christel
    Fahlström, Gunilla
    Kärrman Fredriksson, Maja
    Jungner, Caroline
    Stenman, Jenny
    Ahlberg, Maria
    Missbruk och beroende av alkohol och narkotika: Kunskapsläget för utredningar och insatser inom socialtjänsten: En kartläggning av systematiska översikter2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17. Loy, Johanna K.
    et al.
    Grüne, Bettina
    Braun, Barbara
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; Eötvös-Loránd-Universität, Hungary.
    Help-seeking behaviour of problem gamblers: a narrative review2018Ingår i: SUCHT, ISSN 0939-5911, E-ISSN 1664-2856, Vol. 64, nr 5-6, s. 259-272Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is evidence for low rates of help-seeking among problem gamblers. Identifying reasons for and barriers to seeking help is essential for improving help supply and gamblers’ treatment utilisation. The present study examines treatment utilisation of problem or pathological gamblers and reviews the evidence related to motives for and barriers to seeking help. Methods: The databases Medline, PsycInfo, and PubMed were searched for English-, Swedish- and German-language studies published between 2000 and 2017. Furthermore relevant references of included studies were analysed. Results: After exclusion of non-relevant publications 34 journal articles and seven reports covering the prevalence of help-seeking among gamblers or self-reported reasons for/barriers to help-seeking were maintained. The proportion of problem gamblers seeking help was less than 10 % in most studies. Problem severity was found positively associated with treatment attendance. Financial issues, negative emotions and crises were identified as main motives for seeking treatment. Main barriers to seeking treatment were shame, problem denial and lack of treatment availability. The results were similar across the examined studies. Conclusion: Low rates of treatment utilisation by problem gamblers strongly indicate that treatment providers and the society should strive to eliminate structural barriers that hinder gamblers to seek help. To better match problem gamblers´ needs, low-threshold early intervention, increasing knowledge of treatment options and efforts to reduce stigmatisation are important strategies to enhance access to help offers.

  • 18.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Cannabis discourses in contemporary Sweden: Continuity and change2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study how cannabis is constructed in contemporary Sweden, which policy responses are promoted as rational, and how international cannabis trends are received in this context. The four papers are the result of analyzing empirical material from three different sub-studies: 1) a qualitative study of online discussions about cannabis and drug policy, 2) a qualitative and comparative study of print media articles from 2002 and 2012, and 3) a qualitative study of oral presentations from cannabis information symposia. All papers are based on a social constructionist approach.

    A point of departure is that attitudes and regulations on cannabis have changed in large parts of the Western world. In Sweden, however, strict prohibition of cannabis is still central in the national drug laws. Some of the main findings can thus be gathered in discussions on continuity and change. In Swedish online discussions, there seems to be a strong desire to change the national cannabis policy in line with international developments. This discussion propagates alternative views on cannabis, in which comparisons to alcohol become vital and more liberal cannabis policies become logical. These discussions are also characterized by continuity, as many arguments for liberal cannabis policies seem to be based on traditional social democratic values and prohibitionist “scaremongering” arguments. Continuity is also what seems to characterize traditional print media, where cannabis is generally portrayed as a potent and illegal drug producing social problems. However, this arena also shows signs of change, as the material from 2012 includes stories on cannabis as an economic asset as well as a recreational substance. Both traditional print media and cannabis information symposia focus on youth consumers, who are seen as particularly vulnerable to cannabis effects. Such constructions seem important for protecting prohibition from international influences and for a continuous discourse centered on the dangers of cannabis.

    It is concluded that cannabis appears to be able to represent almost anything. As such it can be “used” for any purpose to promote a whole set of ideas related to policy often based on what is considered as scientific evidence. Depending on the context, it thus seems possible that cannabis is medicinal, recreational, harmful, and addictive. If so, and if all of these constructions are in some way “real,” then it is suggested that cannabis necessitates a much more tailored and nuanced response than that which prohibition can offer.

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  • 19. Raitasalo, Kirsimarja
    et al.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Bye, Elin K.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Tigerstedt, Christoffer
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Similar countries, similar factors? Studying the decline of heavy episodic drinking in adolescents in Finland, Norway and Sweden2020Ingår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To (1) examine several factors associated with trends in heavy episodic drinking (HED) in Finland, Norway and Sweden, (2) investigate similarities in these associations across the countries and (3) analyse the contribution of these factors to the trend in HED and the differences across the countries.

    Design and Setting

    Observational study using five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) from Finland, Norway and Sweden between 1999 and 2015.

    Participants

    A total of 18,128 male and 19,121 female 15‐ to 16‐year‐old students.

    Measurements

    Monthly HED, perceived access to alcohol, truancy, parental control, leisure time activities and daily smoking. The Cochran–Armitage test was used to examine linear time trends in HED. Logit regression models using the Karlson–Holm–Breen (KHB) method were fitted for each country separately, including all the independent variables together with time and adjusted for family status, parental education and gender.

    Findings

    In Finland, Norway and Sweden, perceived access to alcohol, truancy and daily smoking decreased significantly between 1999 and 2015 while risk perceptions, parental control and participation in sports increased in the same period. The confounding percentage of all the independent variables related to the trend in HED was 48.8%, 68.9% and 36.7% for Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. Decline in daily smoking (p<.001) and perceived access to alcohol (p<.001) were positively and increase in parental control (p<.001) negatively associated with the decline in HED in all three countries. Changes in truancy, going out with friends, and engaging in sports and other hobbies had little or no impact on the decline in HED or displayed no consistent results across the countries.

    Conclusions

    The decline in adolescent heavy episodic drinking in Finland, Norway and Sweden between 1999 and 2015 appears to be associated with a decline in adolescent daily smoking and perceived access to alcohol and an increase in parental control.

  • 20. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Guttormsson, Ulf
    Svensson, Johan
    Larm, Peter
    One explanation to rule them all? Identifying sub‐groups of non‐drinking Swedish ninth graders2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr S1, s. S42-S48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Researchers in a number of countries have recently identified major changes in adolescent alcohol consumption since the early 2000s, with the prevalence of teenage drinking more than halving in some countries. The major aims of the current study are to examine if there are sub‐groups among non‐drinking Swedish ninth graders and to describe how the prevalence of these groups has changed during the period 1999 to 2015.

    Design and Methods

    Data from five waves of the Swedish European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs study was used. The data covered 16 years and the total sample comprised 14 976 students. Latent class analysis was used to identify sub‐groups of non‐drinkers (n = 4267) based on parental approval towards drinking, parental monitoring, leisure time activities, school performance and use of other substances.

    Results

    Five latent classes were found: computer gamers (8.3%), strict parents (36.5%), liberal parents (27.0%), controlling but liberal parents (16.6%) and sports (11.6%). In the non‐drinking sub‐group the strict parents group increased most between 1999 and 2015.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    The results imply that there is notable within‐group diversity in non‐drinking youth. Several mechanisms and explanations are thus likely to be behind the decline in drinking participation among Swedish adolescents.

  • 21.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Kristina, Sundqvist
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Det svårfångade problemspelandet – spelares subjektiva tolkningar av Swelogs bedömningsinstrument2019Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Överdrivet spelande om pengar kan få ekonomiska, känslomässiga och sociala konsekvenser i olika grad. Hur spelare själva upplever bekymren är centralt för huruvida de kommer att försöka förändra sina spelvanor. Men vad är det egentligen vi fångar när vi mäter problemspelande i befolkningen? Vi har undersökt hur spelare som tidigare bedömts ha ett problemspelande tolkar frågorna som användes vid just denna bedömning.

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  • 22.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Gamblers’ (mis-)interpretations of Problem Gambling Severity Index items: Ambiguities in qualitative accounts from the Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study2019Ingår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 140-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) is a screening instrument frequently used to identify risk and problem gambling. Even though the PGSI has good psychometric properties, it still produces a large proportion of misclassifications. Aims: To explore possible reasons for misclassifications in problem gambling level by analysing previously classified moderate-risk gamblers’ answers to the PGSI items, in relation to their own current and past gambling behaviours. Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 19 participants reporting no negative consequences from gambling. They were asked the PGSI questions within an eight-year time frame (2008 to 2016). Ambiguous answers to PGSI items were subject to content analysis. Results: Several answers to the PGSI items contained ambiguities and misinterpretations, making it difficult to assess to what extent their answers actually indicated any problematic gambling over time. The item about feelings of guilt generated accounts rather reflecting self-recrimination over wasting money or regretting gambling as a meaningless or immoral activity. The item concerning critique involved mild interpretations such as being ridiculed for buying lottery tickets or getting comments for being boring. Similar accounts were given by the participants irrespective of initial endorsement of the items. Other possible reasons for misclassifications were related to recall bias, language difficulties, selective memory, and a tendency to answer one part of the question without taking the whole question into account. Conclusions: Answers to the PGSI can contain a variety of meanings based on the respondents’ subjective interpretations. Reports of lower levels of harm in the population should thus be interpreted with caution. In clinical settings it is important to combine use of screening instruments with interviews, to be able to better understand gamblers’ perceptions of the gambling behaviour and its negative consequences.

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  • 23.
    Silvén Hagström, Anneli
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Childhood narratives about the experience of growing up with alcoholic parents2019Ingår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 299-301Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 24.
    Silvén Hagström, Anneli
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Forinder, Ulla
    'If I whistled in her ear she'd wake up': Children's narration about their experiences of growing up in alcoholic families2019Ingår i: Journal of Family Studies, ISSN 1322-9400, E-ISSN 1839-3543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to investigate what it means to grow up in an alcoholic family environment. Nineteen children aged 6–11 who participated in a psycho-educational programme in the 1990s for children living with parents who misuse alcohol were interviewed about their experiences in a longitudinal study. A narrative analysis of their life stories demonstrates how, on the one hand, they positioned themselves as ‘vulnerable victims’ exposed to their parent’s alcoholism and to situations of severe neglect, domestic violence and sexual abuse. This position was characterized by a sense of powerlessness and lack of resources for coping with emotional distress and risk, as well as an urgent need for protection and care. On the other hand, the children positioned themselves as ‘competent agents’ who had developed purposeful strategies for managing their life situation, such as trying to reduce their parent’s drinking and undertaking the role of a ‘young carer’. The children primarily tried to normalize themselves in their social circle in a position of ‘silenced and invisible victims’. However, the alcoholism was usually exposed and the children occasionally also found themselves in the position of ‘help-seeking victims’ obliged to disclose the ‘family secret’. Remarkably, this rarely changed their situation very much. Instead, the children were commonly left in the position of ‘visible but unprotected victims’.

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  • 25.
    Skogens, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    A 30-year follow-up of substnace misusers in Sweden – differences and predictors of mortality between women and men2019Ingår i: Addiction Research and Theory, ISSN 1606-6359, E-ISSN 1476-7392, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 328-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Differing results on gender specific factors related to mortality risks among substance misusers highlights the need for further research. The present article is based on a 30-year follow-up study on substance misusers treated in residential care for drug problems in Sweden in 1982-1983 aiming to identify and compare gender differences in predictors of mortality.

    Method: Original data consists of personal interviews with 1163 substance misusers treated in inpatient units in Sweden during 1982-1983. The outcome variable is death retrieved from the National Cause of Death Register held by the National Board of Health and Welfare. Gender differences and similarities regarding predictors of mortality was estimated in univariate and multivariate models, using Cox proportional hazards models.

    Results: School failure, imprisonment and being a parent without custody of the child seem to constitute risk factors for mortality among women, but not among men. A social network of friends seemed to be more important for men. Treatment-dropout was a significant risk factor for premature death among men, but not among women. Both gender reporting alcohol as their self-reported most dominant substance misuse showed higher mortality risks compared with those with stimulants as dominant substance misuse.

    Conclusions: Imprisonment was highly predictive of mortality for the women, suggesting that this group is important to pay particular attention to. Suggested differences in the importance of social factors need to be investigated more thoroughly. The substantial hazard revealed for women with polydrug misuse including alcohol calls for attention to this in treatment for substance misuse.

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  • 26.
    Skogens, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Esch-Ekström, Jasmine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Positiva förändringsprocesser bland unga vuxna i öppenvård2017Ingår i: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 39-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive processes of change among young adults in out-patient care

    In contemporary society, the transition phase from adolescence to adulthood  is often described as a period of moving back and forth between youthful dependency  and independent adulthood in what is called ‘yo-yo-transitions’. However, studies of young people in need of out-of-home care, or other child welfare, for psychosocial problems, points out that this vulnerable group have limited possibilities to do these transition movements. The present study investigates positive change processes during this particular part of life in out-patient care clients. The research questions are: 1) How do young adult clients describe important factors for a positive process of change and 2) How are important factors related to the treatment described by clients and by treatment staff. Data consists of seven personnel interviews and twenty interviews with young adults that have completed out-patient care. The results suggest that the relation between an individual treatment staff and the young adult is central for the positive change process. In the discussion it is suggested that the preconditions for this relation are: 1) A genuine engagement and dedication from the professional. 2) With this first point as a foundation, the mastering of a spectrum of professional methods and the ability to choose when to use them are necessary means for positive change processes to come about. 3) A supportive organisation and leadership are crucial for setting the frames that makes the first two points possible to establish.

  • 27.
    Skogens, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Topor, Alain
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Initiating and maintaining a recovery process - experiences of persons with dual diagnosis2018Ingår i: Advances in Dual Diagnosis, ISSN 1757-0972, E-ISSN 2042-8324, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 101-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the internal and social factors that persons with experience from severe mental illness and alcohol and other drugs problems, and who have received treatment for these problems, describe as important for initiating and maintaining a recovery process.

    Design/methodology/approach - In total, 40 persons were interviewed and asked to describe factors they perceived as important for initiating and maintaining recovery. The software Nvivo was used to categorise data in internal and social factors with subcategories.

    Findings - There is significant variation in how recovery emerged but involved in general having a proper social situation and finding meaning in life. Initially, the majority had a marginalised situation with need of assistance with housing, employment, financial and social support.

    Research limitations/implications - The change process in the investigated group is interpreted as related to individual resources rather than belonging to a group defined as having double trouble.

    Practical implications - The study implies that in addition to professional help to handle diagnosed problems, the group in focus also need support and interventions that address individual complex needs.

    Social implications - Supporting activities/peer support seem to be important for those lacking support from family. At the same time, it is important to recognise the risk of being forced into a recovery identity which might lead to worsening the situation for those who do not fit into this.

    Originality/value - By using the same design as in previous studies, comparisons with other groups are possible while still keeping the qualitative meaning of the investigated factors.

  • 28.
    Stranz, Hugo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Wiklund, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    The wide-meshed safety net: Decision-making on social assistance eligibility in Sweden2017Ingår i: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 711-723Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores and analyses, with the help of both client and social worker data on 423 applications for social assistance in Sweden, (i) the extent to which social assistance benefits and labour market strengthening measures are granted and (ii) factors concerning clients as well as social workers that are associated with the granting of benefits. Considering (i), the results show that social assistance is granted in about 74% of cases while only 6% of applicants are granted additional labour market strengthening measures. With regard to (ii), the results indicate that the granting of benefits seems to depend on abroad spectrum of factors at both the client and the social worker levels. For example, more experienced social workers are less willing to grant social assistance while chances increase when an applicant is already registered at the local public employment service and/or social insurance office. Moreover, the granting of benefits also co-varies withmore or less invariable factors at the client level: social workers are in general more generous towards women and people born outside Sweden, but rather less generous vis-à-vis single parents. The findings are discussed in terms of workfare and professionalization among social workers.

  • 29. Thor, Siri
    et al.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Landberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Social Inequalities in Harmful Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Swedish Adolescents2019Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 532-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The study aims to examine how socio-economic status (SES) among youth is related to binge-drinking and alcohol-related problems using three SES indicators: (i) SES of origin (parental education level), (ii) SES of the school environment (average parental education level at student’s school) and (iii) SES of destination (academic orientation).

    Methods

    Cross-sectional data on upper secondary students (n= 4448) in Sweden. Multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression were used to estimate the relationship between each SES indicator and binge-drinking and alcohol-related problems, respectively.

    Results

    Only SES of destination was significantly associated with binge-drinking, with higher odds for students in vocational programmes (OR= 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13–1.80). For the second outcome, SES of destination (rr=1.25; 95%CI=1.08–1.45) and SES of the school environment (rr=1.19, 95% CI=1.02–1.39) indicated more alcohol-related problems in vocational programmes and in schools with lower-educated parents. After adjustment for drinking patterns, the relationship remained for SES of the school environment, but became non-significant for SES of destination.

    Conclusion

    Our results suggest that the SES gradient among youth is stronger for alcohol-related problems than for harmful drinking. By only focusing on SES differences in harmful alcohol use, researchers may underestimate the social inequalities in adverse alcohol-related outcomes among young people. Our findings also support the notion that the environment young people find themselves in matters for social inequalities in alcohol-related harm.

  • 30.
    Topor, Alain
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Building trust and recovery capital: the professionals' helpful practice2018Ingår i: Advances in Dual Diagnosis, ISSN 1757-0972, E-ISSN 2042-8324, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 76-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The possibility of recovery for persons with co-occurring addiction and mental health problems has been contested. Though, recent studies show that recovery might happen, but without connection to specific treatment interventions. The purpose of this paper is to analyse professionals' perceptions of their contribution to improvement.

    Design/methodology/approach - In all, 15 experienced professionals were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.

    Findings - Recovery processes were dependent of the persons' access to different forms of recovery capital (RC). Lack of RC was often associated with lack of trust in one's self and others (identity and personal capital). Professionals had to be accepted as trustful agents through co-creating changes in the person's life. Trusting a professional might be a basis for trusting one's self as an agent in one's recovery process and develop a social network (identity and relationship capital). Other aspects stressed by the professionals were to manage their own fragmentized organisations and societal shortcomings (economic capital).

    Practical implications - Recovery has been described as a profoundly individual journey. However, it is also deeply social, involving other persons and contextual factors. Focusing on just one level might counteract the complex work behind double recovery.

    Originality/value - Improvement was described as dependent on the presence of personal, inter-personal, organisational and societal factors. The findings give a deep and concrete understanding of the process constituting the development of a working alliance and its dependence on factors outside the direct relation between the staff member and the person.

  • 31.
    Topor, Alain
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. University of Agder, Norway.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Micro-affirmations and Recovery for Persons with Mental Health and Alcohol and Drug Problems: User and Professional Experience-Based Practice and Knowledge2019Ingår i: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent factors contributing to a recovery process from co-occurring mental health and addiction problems mentioned by users and professionals have been analyzed as part of working alliances and helpful relationships. Still, we lack knowledge about how helpful relationships are developed in daily practice. In this article, we focus on the concrete construction of professional helpful relationships. Forty persons in recovery and fifteen professionals were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed according to thematic analysis, resulting in three themes presented as paradoxes (1) My own decision, but with the help of others; (2) The need for structures and going beyond them; and (3) Small trivial things of great importance. Micro-affirmations have a central role in creating helpful relationships by confirming the individuals involved as more than solely users or professionals. More attention and appreciation should be paid to practices involving micro-affirmations.

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  • 32.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Roumeliotis, Filip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT, Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Why are young people drinking less than earlier? Identifying and specifying social mechanisms with a pragmatist approach2019Ingår i: International Journal of Drug Policy, ISSN 0955-3959, Vol. 64, s. 13-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent surveys have found a strong decrease in alcohol consumption among young people and this trend has been identified in European countries, Australia and North America. Previous research suggests that the decline in alcohol consumption may be explained by changes in parenting style, increased use of social media, changes in gender identities or a health and fitness trend. We use qualitative interviews with drinking and non-drinking young people from Sweden (N = 49) to explore in what way and in what kinds of contexts these explanations may hold true and how they alone or together may explain declining alcohol consumption among young people. By using the pragmatist approach, we pay attention to what kinds of concerns, habits, practices, situations and meanings our interviewees relate to adolescents' low alcohol consumption or decline in drinking. By analyzing these matters, we aim to specify the social mechanisms that have reduced adolescents' drinking. Our paper discovers social mechanisms similar to previous studies but also a few that have previously been overlooked. We propose that the cultural position of drinking may have changed among young people so that drinking has lost its unquestioned symbolic power as a rite of passage into adulthood. There is less peer pressure to drink and more room for competing activities. This opening of a homogeneous drinking culture to the acceptance of differences may function as a social mechanism that increases the success of other social mechanisms to reduce adolescents' drinking. Furthermore, the results of the paper suggest a hypothesis of the early maturation of young people as more individualized, responsible, reflective, and adult-like actors than in earlier generations. Overall, the paper provides hypotheses for future quantitative studies to examine the prevalence and distribution of the identified social mechanisms, as well as recommends directions for developing effective interventions to support young people's healthy lifestyle choices.

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  • 33.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Roumeliotis, Filip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung München, Germany; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, Hungary.
    How do social media-related attachments and assemblages encourage or reduce drinking among young people?2020Ingår i: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that young people’s online practices have become a continuous, seamless and routine part of their physical and social worlds. Studies report contradictory findings on whether social media promotes intoxication-driven drinking cultures among young people or diminishes their alcohol consumption. By applying actor-network theory, our starting point is that the effects of social media depend on what kinds of concerns mediate its use. Social media alone cannot make young people drink more or less but influences their drinking in relation to specific attachments that we call here ‘assemblages’. The data consist of individual interviews among girls (n = 32) and boys (n = 24) between 15 and 19 years old from Sweden, covering topics such as alcohol use, social media habits and leisure time activities. The paper maps the variety of assemblages that mediate young people’s online practices and analyzes how young people’s drinking-related social media assemblages increase, decrease or exclude their alcohol consumption. The analysis shows that social media-related attachments seem to reduce our interviewees’ use of alcohol by providing competing activities, by transforming their drinking under the public eye, by reorganizing their party rituals to be less oriented towards drinking and by facilitating parents’ monitoring of their drinking situations.

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  • 34.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Abstinence or controlled drinking - a five-year follow-up on Swedish clients reporting positive change after treatment for substance use disorders2020Ingår i: Drugs and alcohol today, ISSN 1745-9265, E-ISSN 2042-8359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how clients - five years after completing treatment interventions endorsing abstinence - view abstinence and the role of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in their recovery process.

    Design/methodology/approach - Interviews with 40 clients were conducted shortly after them finishing treatment and five years later. All the interviewees had attended treatment programmes based on the 12-step philosophy, and they all described abstinence as crucial to their recovery process in an initial interview.

    Findings - At follow-up, the majority remained abstinent. For many, attending AA meetings was still important - some described attending as a routine, whereas others stressed that the meetings were crucial for remaining abstinent. For those who reported controlled drinking (CD), this was described either as a natural step in their recovery process or as associated with worries and self-doubts.

    Research limitations/implications - The results suggest the importance of offering interventions with various treatment goals and that clients choosing CD as part of their sustained recovery would benefit fromsupport in this process, both from peers and professionals.

    Originality/value - There are heterogeneous views on the possibilities of CD after recovery from substance use disorder both in research and in treatment systems. This study on client views on abstinence versus CD after treatment advocating total abstinence can contribute with perspectives on this ongoing discussion.

  • 35.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Positive processes of change among male and female clients treated for alcohol and/or drug problems2017Ingår i: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 186-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)