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  • 1.
    Schumann, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    becoming things, becoming-world: On Cosmopolitanism, Reification and Education2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    What if education were not about becoming something, making something of yourself, becoming some thing? What if we were to consider education as becoming-world? These questions are posed against the background of the current populist nationalist backlash against the consequences of globalization, along with growing anti-intellectualism and anti-democratic sentiment. How can education contribute locally and globally to fostering and safeguarding the very possibility of democratic practices against the neoliberal consecration of reified social relations? Becoming Things, Becoming-world contributes to contemporary discussions in philosophy of education by developing a vision of a critical educational cosmopolitanism founded upon a renewed critique of reification.

    While cosmopolitan education has often been articulated in terms of an ethical and political response to globalization, this thesis proposes a different outlook. I argue that the idea of cosmopolitan education predates the onset of what we now term globalization, and that it provides a meaningful conception of education beyond the present socio-political condition. Moreover, I propose to rethink cosmopolitan education as a critique of reification, i.e. a critique of social relations taking on the character of mere things. The critique of reification helps to foreground aspects that have previously been neglected and marginalized in educational cosmopolitanism, such as its economic-material dimensions. At the same time, a critical cosmopolitan perspective is needed for a timely de-centering of critical social theory.

    Re-assessing the Cynic tradition and drawing on critical theorists such as Gerard Delanty and Axel Honneth as well as on New Wittgensteinian philosophers as Alice Crary, I advance a post-universalist understanding of cosmopolitanism. This is based on dynamic social relations and a broad understanding of rationality which includes imaginary aspects as well as the education of our sensitivities. Cosmopolitanism is understood as a lived practice which critically challenges reified social and cultural relations, including the strictures of particular socio-economic structures. The notion of reification is distinguished from other forms of alienation, objectification and instrumentalization and is deployed to characterize lasting distortions of our relations to each other, to the world and to ourselves. Against any idealizing take on communicative practice, I show that language, knowledge, and education do not necessarily counter-act reifying tendencies. Indeed, they themselves can become sources for enhancing processes of reification.

    A fresh look at the critique of reification allows us adequately to describe and understand the interrelation between contemporary capitalism, the forms of subjectivity it produces and the possibilities of democratic education and education towards democracy. Such an understanding is needed in face of the apparent impossibility of imagining a society, and envisioning an education, beyond the conditions formulated by contemporary neoliberal policies. Education as becoming-world maintains a hopeful outlook on the possibilities of our globalizing and pluralizing social reality as well as a keen focus on the tensions and challenges that this poses for contemporary educational endeavors on individual as well as structural levels.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Eric
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Innerstadsgymnasierna: En studie av tre elitpräglade gymnasieskolor i Stockholm och deras positionering på utbildningsmarknaden2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 1990s Sweden underwent extensive educational reforms. Vouchers, freedom of choice, establishment of so-called “free-schools” together with far-reaching decentralization took the place of a highly centralized educational system, with few private schools and a very low degree of differentiation. A stated intention of these reforms was that freedom of choice as well as a greater number of educational options would level the playing field. It was believed that existing regulations hampered socially disadvantaged students and, by extension, opportunities for social and geographical mobility. Educational marketization has advanced and intensified since the 1990s, particularly in metropolitan areas and medium-sized cities. This is evident both in the increasing number of schools and in students commuting to inner city schools, and additionally in the continuous development of marketing strategies. Consequently, marketization has become an institutionalized part of Swedish education, and students and schools must equally adjust to the prevailing competitive conditions. Much of the research in the field has focused on the effects and extension of marketization and how free-schools and school choice affect socially vulnerable areas. However, instead of focusing on schools in socially vulnerable areas, I am interested in the schools at the top of the hierarchy and the elite segment of upper secondary schools in Stockholm. More precisely, the focus of this dissertation has been on how three sought-after and prestigious upper secondary schools position themselves in the educational market, but also how they are affected by and adjust to it. A further aim has been to analyse students’ educational strategies and the socialization processes that arise in their encounter with the schools as institutions. 

    This thesis has been guided by a theoretically inspired ethnography. The ethnographical data were primarily collected during a single academic year and within three separate elite upper secondary schools. The data set consists of observations in classrooms and other school-related spaces (meeting rooms, corridors etc.), interviews and data from official statistics. It also contains a wide array of documents, web sites, school magazines, anniversary books and photographs.  

    Using a Bourdieusian perspective, the analysis shows how both schools and students deploy strategies to cope with and adapt to the hierarchies and struggles of the contemporary educational market. The schools rely on accumulated institutionalized assets such as history, alumni, transfers to prestigious universities and their geographical locations. At the same time, they also need to provide an up-to-date educational setting to stay ahead, and moreover, to be able to collaborate and compete with the other elite schools. The analysis also illustrates why students choose these socially and academically selective schools and how they adjust to the school environment. It is illuminated that these schools are more than formal educational settings, they are places where students negotiate, debate, explore and develop soft skills. Nevertheless, they are also competitive school environments and while some students thrive, others struggle. This becomes apparent when they encounter and act in relation to the different social, symbolic and academic boundaries that exist in each school.

  • 3.
    Benyamine, Isak
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Konstnärliga undervisningspraktiker: Genealogier, diskurser och makt2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about art teaching practices at upper secondary schools with a focus on theatre and at university arts programmes with a focus on film. More specifically, it addresses the factors that have contributed to current teaching practices in art education today and how students and teachers in interaction with each other shape, become part of and identify with the norms and values that emerge through these practices.

    The overarching question concerns how norms and values emerge as power/knowledge processes in the teaching process. The genealogical study presented examines how art education is constructed at a policy level. The study discusses how, in past eras, investigators, researchers and educators described what students needed to do during their education to develop into professional artists, how teaching practices were designed and justified, and how art was distinct from other activities and forms of knowledge in education. The interaction study presented examines the act of teaching. It discusses how, the participants shape each other and establish norms and values in relation to notions of what art “is” and can be.

    The conditions of possibilities in art teaching practices has been identified in three discourses. The discourse of conversation governs the format and organisation of the teaching practice. It is assumed that through conversation the students can develop their artistic ability. The discourse of freedom identifies how students submit to the vague, flexible and ever-changing notions of what art signifies. The discourse of production describes how the artistic work in the teaching practice takes precedence over an acquisition of established knowledge.

    The importance of the participants’ own experiences and feelings, therapeutic conversations, the liberation from conventional education discourses, confession practices and the establishment of a production discourse all emerge as important techniques in art teaching practices. Core values and norms are expressed through these techniques.

    The study shows that participants in art teaching practices develop the skills of self-evaluation, self-analysis and self-governance. The notion of an individualised, exploratory educational experience clashes with a process that directs the students to align themselves with the shared norms and values of the art world, of its content and expression. Students perceive their artistic output as unique while the art produced can be understood as expression of a normalisation process that strives to maintain the values and norms in art teaching practices. In summery the dissertation shows that the participants’ learning process is of an exploratory nature. Rather than acquiring and assimilating established knowledge, the participants learn by finding their own paths in a knowledge-formation process in which they discover the artistic potential of their own experiences and insights.

  • 4.
    Jønland Højsgaard, Trine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Reframed Identity: Red Cross nurses' identity formation between 1945 and 19772019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim is to explore the construction of nurse identity at the Red Cross Nursing School (RCNS) in Sweden, between 1945 and 1977, when nursing became part of the system of higher education in Sweden. Occupational identity is understood as a construct both of social learning and of a self-image. The empirical data consist of documents from the Red Cross Archive concerning the training of nurses and of interviews with nurses trained during the studied period. A hermeneutical interpretative method has been used. The result showed that the period studied was divided into two different phases. The first phase between 1945 and the end of the 1960s, is called the post war phase. The following phase, from the 1960s until 1977, is called the reform friendly phase. RCNS was in the post war phase a kind of total institution, based on a particular belonging to a very special and highly respected social community, reinforced by the student nurses being dressed in the same uniform and living under the same strong authority in a quite homogeneous group. The training was an introduction to a life-long membership in the total Red Cross Nurse community. This community was in the reform friendly phase challenged by diverse external changes in society. Within a period of approximately ten years, much came to be questioned, and many previously important customs and habits were abandoned. The total community started to dilute, and the lives of students changed gradually passing to a social arrangement where they slept, lived and worked in different places with different people under different authorities. The total community was impossible to modernise, built as it was on pre-modern values and hierarchies. This led to a breakdown of the traditional Red Cross nurse identity based on honour, where they were first of all Red Cross sisters. While the uniform occupational identity was challenged, more and more nurses combined family and work. This meant that their self-identities became more multidimensional. The key to our understanding of the Red Cross nursing education and the shift that took place in the late 1960s is thus to be found in the transformation of the internal collective, where nurses no longer lived and 2 learnt the traditional Red Cross codes of honour and conduct. Gradually, nurse training was integrated into higher education. This was a major reframing of the occupational identity formation, from specially selected Red Cross nurse students being trained into a total community of experienced Red Cross nurses, to an academic education of professional nurses.

  • 5.
    Matta, Corrado
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    A Field of Veiled Continuities: Studies in the Methodology and Theory of Educational Research2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical educational research enjoys a methodological and theoretical debate that is characterized by a number of unresolved and lively debated controversies. This compilation thesis is an attempt to contribute to this debate using the toolbox of philosophy of science.

    The thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four essays. In the introductory chapter I identify three methodological and theoretical controversies that are discussed within the field of educational research. These are: 1) the controversy concerning the scientific status of educational research; 2) the controversy between cognitive and sociocultural theories of learning; and, 3) the controversy between realist and constructionist interpretations of theories of learning.

    I provide in the essays a critical assessment of the claims behind each of these controversies, and argue for an alternative reconstruction of these issues.

    In Essay I, I criticize a view about the interpretation of human action, labeled in the text as interpretivism. This view posits a sharp separation between the natural and social sciences, to the effect that the methods of the latter cannot be applied to the former. The first controversy seems to rest on this position. As I argue, the arguments in support of interpretivism are contradicted by actual research practice. I conclude that the interpretivistic claims lack support and that the general separation claim appears as problematic.

    A further debate has fueled the first controversy, that is, the supposed distinction between qualitative and quantitative methods. In Essay II, I argue against this distinction. More specifically, I discuss the concept of empirical support in the context of qualitative methods (for short, qualitative support). I provide arguments that although there are two specific and non-trivial properties of qualitative support, there is no methodological separation between quantitative and qualitative methods concerning empirical support.

    Considered together, the first two essays indicate two points of methodological continuity between educational research and other scientific practices (such as the natural sciences). I therefore conclude that the controversy concerning the scientific status of educational research rests in large part on unjustified claims.

    Essay III focuses on the second controversy. In this article I argue that Suárez’ inferential approach to the concept of scientific representation can be used as an account of scientific representation in learning, regardless of whether learning is understood as a cognitive or social phenomenon.

    The third controversy is discussed in Essay IV. Here, I discuss some ontological aspects of the framework of the actor-network theory. Reflecting on the use of this framework in the research field of Networked Learning, I argue that the assumption of an ontology of relations provides the solution for two puzzles about the ontology of networks. The relevance of my argument for the third controversy is that it suggests a point of connection between constructionist and realist interpretations of the ontology of learning.

    The last two essays suggest two points of continuities between theoretical frameworks that have been and still are argued to be incompatible.

  • 6.
    Carm, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Caught in Culture?: Cultural Transformation through HIV/AIDS Prevention Education in Zambia2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores the role and contribution of education in developing a localized and relevant HIV/AIDS prevention strategy through a multi-voiced approach, involving the educational institutions, as well as the traditional leaders, community-members, including parents. The study comprised all public schools in one Zambian province from 2002-2008.  The study explores, among other factors, the role of traditional culture in mitigating and exacerbating the spread of the disease.

    Zambia was one of the countries hardest hit by the HIV/AIDs epidemic, and one of the few countries in the region that, in 2002, had a clear policy on the role of education in fighting the epidemic. Through the process of developing and implementing a learner-centered interactive HIV/AIDS education program in the province. based upon MOE`s  HIV/AIDS policies and strategies, syllabi, and teachers guides, and at the same time emphasizing the broader community as a point of departure.

    The qualitative and interpretivist research was conducted within a constructivist grounded theoretical approach. The study applies comprehensive and multilayered perspectives while utilizing a broad range of methods.   Documentary analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews, in depth conversations with traditional and educational leaders, teachers, parents and pupils, were all carried out during the period of the study. Nvivo, a computer-supported data analysis tool was used to support the process of categorizing the qualitative data and the study applied Cultural- and Historical Activity Theory for analytic purposes.

    The study revealed the mismatch between the decentralized, national HIV/AIDS prevention education approach, as stated in the policy documents and the global UNAIDS, centralized and cross-sectoral strategies favored by the Zambian government. The uncoordinated efforts did not reach  the grassroots level, where professionals, at district and school level, perceived and applied policies in highly different ways, if at all reaching students and the communities.

    The main categories of drivers of the epidemic were of socio-cultural and economic character, e.g. polygamy, sexual cleansing, local healing, gender inequality and poverty,  sexual violence, multiple concurrent sexual partners and prostitution, but there were also variety of local drivers, depending upon context.

    When analyzing the participatory approaches of the HIV/AIDS prevention strategy, predominantly, at the school-community level, the findings revealed that the traditional leaders, being legitimate leaders in their kingdoms, and the custodians of culture and traditions, were found to be gate openers to promote behavioral change and cultural transformation in their villages.

    The traditional leaders worked hand in hand with the schools and the villagers. Their involvement legitimated that discourses and HIV/AIDS prevention actions were taken at school as well as within their own chiefdom. Utilizing their traditional leadership structures, the chiefs sustained their cultural rites, e.g. cleansing, in order to chase away the evil spirits, by turning the rites into practices that do no put people at risk for contracting HIV. Particularly at the global and state level, culture has been seen as drivers of the epidemic. The study revealed that the traditional leaders used their role as significant others, became gate-openers, using their legitimate role as custodians of culture to transform cultural rites and practices.

  • 7.
    Lagercrantz All, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Delaktighet- och lärprocesser i en yrkesutbildning: En studie av vuxna elevers erfarenheter av vård- och omsorgsutbildningen inom Komvux2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research on the development of knowledge and skills within health and social care has been undertaken; however, it can be argued that there is a need to understand the connection between inclusion and the development in knowledge and experience.  The purpose of this dissertation is to explore students’ experiences of the health and social care adult- education program, and participation and learning processes it represents.  The program is considered the formal route to acquire a position as a nursing assistant or health care assistant. Furthermore, the program can be seen as a combination of vocational training, and a measure to reduce unemployment.

    This empirical study is based on 15 in- depth interviews with students in the health and social care adult-education. These interviews are using a hermeneutic interpretation method, and draw on Lave and Wenger`s theory of learning. In addition to sociocultural theory according to Säljö.

    Findings indicate that the adult-education program in health and social care is not only a training process, but also a participation process. For the students, it is about gaining participation in the professional community, in Swedish society, and also about an existential safety in a social context. In order to gain participation, intellectual and physical artifacts, as well as personal qualities, are a prerequisite. Despite these requirements, and the challenges students face, the findings reveal that most students continue their studies. This finding leads to the idea that health and social care can be understood a discipline of inclusion.

    These findings assist the health and social care field in understanding the connection between said artifacts for inclusion in working life and society; in addition, that such programs should be understood from a wider perspective and viewed in relation to the tension between three educational projects: the students` individual project, the program organizer’s project and the national, societal education project.

  • 8.
    Waermö, Mimmi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Dialectics of Negotiagency: Micro Mechanisms in Children’s Negotiation in Play Activity2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the children in a fourth and fifth grade Swedish primary school class and their play during breaktimes. The study takes the theoretical point of departure in seeing children’s breaktime play as a cultural historical activity. The overarching research problem concerns breaktime play emphasising the phenomena of children’s negotiation, participation and agency. It concerns how breaktime play takes shape and which capacities children possess, who are breaktime play literate, to participate and to uphold play. What is the significance of children’s capacity to negotiate rules and roles? How do they use culturally, historically developed objects and motives to transform and expand established versions of play and games? The research problem foregrounds how the play activity emerges, is carried out and how participation is enabled through negotiation. The aim of the study is to explore the phenomena of children’s negotiation and agency in dialectical change processes in breaktime play activity. The questions explored are: 

    RQ: What are the mechanisms in dialectical processes of collectividual action and collective object transformation in children’s play activity? 

    • How does the play activity emerge?
    • How does the object of the play activity transform?

    The data consists of field notes from participant observations and of audio memos. Audio memos, short smartphone recordings of the children’s verbal reflections on aspects of their actions and experiences, were continuously produced to get the children’s verbal reflections in the immediacy of acting. Various documents and interviews form additional data. The findings show how the children negotiate involvement, rules, role set-up and the hierarchy of demands as a continuous elaboration of the conditions to establish and maintain boundaries of playfully accomplished activity. The notion of negotiagency is introduced, uncovering that breaktime play literacy does not occur in the children’s minds apart from social interaction but develops in and through negotiation. Negotiagency emerges and is realised when the children are engaged in a playfully accomplished activity. The dialectical processes of collectividual action and collective object transformation in playfully accomplished activity are enabled through negotiation. This whole mechanism is referred to as Dialectics of Negotiagency.

  • 9.
    Ignell, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Exploring changes of conceptions, values and beliefs concerning the environment: A longitudinal study of upper secondary school students in business and economics education2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines students’ understanding of economic aspects of global environmental problems. The first aim is to identify and characterise changes in business and economics students’ conceptions of negative environmental effects and pricing goods and services. The second aim is to identify and characterise changes in students’ values, beliefs and personal norms regarding effective solutions to climate change problems. Three studies were carried out with students in Swedish upper secondary schools. The first study used an open-ended questionnaire and is presented in Article I. The second and third studies drew on a longitudinal study, using both qualitative and quantitative research methods and results are presented in Article II and Article III.

    Article I shows that students’ awareness of environmental issues varies in relation to the type of good. Some goods are seen as more harmful to nature than others, for example, jeans were not perceived as environmentally negative while beef burgers and travel services were to some extent. This indicates that environmental references are often characterised through perceptible aspects of goods’ production i.e. being more expensive because of environmentally friendly production. Furthermore, some understanding of negative externalities was revealed. Interestingly, when value aspects of how prices should be set students more frequently refer to environmental impact.

    Article II describes changes in students’ price and environmental conceptions over the course of a year. It identifies the fragmentary nature of students’ every-day thinking in relation to productivity, consumer preference and negative externalities. Differences in conceptions of how prices are linked to negative impact is characterised in terms of basic, partial and complex understandings of productivity as well as basic and partial understandings of consumers’ influences. Partial conceptions are seen as students’ conceptions in a process of change towards a more scientific understanding of price and negative environmental impact. Most interestingly, the results show that more than one aspect of environmental impact and pricing are simultaneously relevant. This is highlighted by a change from views putting productivity at the centre for how prices are set to include consumers’ preferences when judgmentally describing how prices should be set. The results conclude that students show a broader content knowledge regarding pricing and the environment when including normative preferences.

    Article III explores changes in students’ value orientations, beliefs regarding efficient solutions to climate change and norms for pro-environmental actions. Small changes are observed regarding the three constructs. Value changes are reported in terms of a small average increase in importance of altruistic, biospheric and egoistic orientations while common individual changes are shown in shifts between weak and strong values. Beliefs regarding efficient climate change solutions are taxes and legislations while changes in market prices are perceived as being least effective. The findings show no direct relations between values and norms hence change in norms is associated with values through changes in beliefs.

  • 10.
    Odero, Jared O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    ICT-based Distance Education: A Study of University Students’ Views and Experiences in Early Post-Apartheid South Africa2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to investigate how the introduction of ICT into distance education at public institutions of higher learning in South Africa during the early post-apartheid period from 1994 to 2002, provided learning opportunities for students and facilitated the delivery of learning content. More explicitly, it examined and analyzed the views and experiences of students and course facilitators at selected higher education institutions, which provided ICT-based distance education. The study also examined and analyzed the views and experiences of students regarding the services of a private on-campus Internet café located in a South African technikon (a technological institution). The empirical part of the current study was conducted in 2002, when some public higher education institutions in the country were involved in the provision of distance education as a means of increasing student participation and generating income. However, the proliferation of private actors who collaborated with some of these institutions to provide ICT-based distance education caused concern to the government that questioned their quality of content delivery.

    A case study research design was applied to collect, analyze and interpret quantitative and qualitative data at four universities and one technikon. Two electronic surveys were administered by email and on the Web, to self-selected students at the five case institutions. The first survey examined the views and experiences of respondents (n = 605) who participated in ICT-based distance education, while the second one investigated the views and experiences of respondents (n = 274) who used a private campus-based Internet café. Non-participant observations were made at some learning centers to understand how classes were carried out, and at the Internet café, to understand the type of services offered. Unstructured interviews were held with selected students and course facilitators at one institution, whereas informal interviews were conducted with some students and the Internet café manager. Further, a literature review was undertaken to understand certain issues and trends in ICT-based distance education, within and beyond South Africa.

    The findings indicate that the majority of respondents chose ICT-based distance education because it was flexible. They were also comfortable with using the English language for instruction. However, some complained that the learning materials were irrelevant and were not delivered on time. The course facilitators were generally satisfied with their work, although they were disappointed for not having the opportunity to influence changes in the study guides. Many respondents used the Internet café because they did not have any other means of accessing the Internet. Moreover, it was affordable and they used it for socializing.

    The study concludes that the system of instructional design and content delivery to distance education students in South Africa should be improved to become efficient. Further studies are recommended to examine the ongoing development of ICT-based distance higher education in South Africa.

  • 11.
    Langström, Christer
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Lärande i professionellt samtalsstöd: Villkor för vuxna arbetssökandes karriärprocesser2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute knowledge to how professional conversations such as career guidance and coaching contribute to adults’ learning in their career development. Unemployment is a topic that has recently gained much attention in the political debate as well as in society. Career guidance and coaching have largely been used as a means for supporting the unemployed in their career development. This thesis takes the adult job seekers’ perspective for increasing our knowledge of the learning-process taking place in professional conversations. The study draws on theories of learning, recognition, career development, dialogue and relationships. The thesis focuses on the following research questions:How do participants experience professional conversations?

    What learning conditions emerge from the participants’ experiences?

    How does learning take place and what meaning does this have for the participants in their career development?

    The study was conducted in two municipal labor market projects. The empirical data is based on 22 qualitative interviews with 16 long-term unemployed, 16 initial interviews and six follow-up interviews one-and-a-half year after the first interview. The interviews were conducted as reflective conversations, about participants past experiences of professional conversations in order to benefit participants’ own stories.

    The results show that:

    Learning in professional conversations is influenced by the tensions between participants’ self-image, societal demands on the outcome of conversations and how the conversations are organized.

    The participants’ previous experiences of different forms of employment measures seem to affect their experiences of the professional conversations.

    Participants’ previous experiences of professional conversations affect the participants’ learning in different ways.

    How the professionals have treated the participants affects the participants’ confidence or skepticism towards the professional helper. It opens or closes for the relationship and work alliance between them.

    The participants’ emotional experiences in their encounter with professionals appear to be an important driving force in the learning process. Small nuances such as how the professional attitude is perceived are crucial to the learning process. The dissertation shows that emotional and relational aspects, largely, influence participants’ learning process in professional conversation. Three conditions for learning were identified: Pre-existing conditions, organizational conditions, and conversation related conditions. Four learning processes have also been identified: The positive, the turning, the adaptive and the negative. These learning processes seem to affect the continuing career process in different ways.

  • 12.
    Odhammar, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Möten i psykodynamisk barnpsykoterapi: Förväntningar, samspel och förändring2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to increase the knowledge of courses and processes of change prior to and during psychodynamic child psychotherapy with parallel parent contact. The dissertation examines parents’ and psychotherapists’ stated goals and expectations prior to the child’s psychotherapy, processes of change focusing on the psychotherapeutic encounter between child and psychotherapist, and outcome gauged by standardized measures compared to experienced change regarding the child’s problems. This dissertation also wants to examine different instruments for describing the psychotherapeutic process. Data was collected from systematic case studies, at different times during the course of psychotherapy, with material from different sources, such as child psychiatric assessment before and after conducted psychotherapy, questionnaires, and video taping of therapy sessions. By examining the therapeutic encounter from the perspectives of child, parent and psychotherapist, an image of psychotherapy, which illustrates the complexity of the psychotherapeutic process, was created. The thesis is based on three articles: Study I examines parents’ and psychotherapists’ goals and expectations prior to psychotherapy. Study II is a close study of a video-taped individual therapy, in which the interaction between child and therapist is examined with the rating instrument Child Psychotherapy Q-set (CPQ), the psychotherapist’s description of the psychotherapy’s process, and the self-rating instrument Feeling Word Checklist (FWC-24). Study III examines change in global functioning ability after child psychotherapy. By examining several psychotherapies in order to construct qualitative understanding of low and high change, respectively, in rated global functioning, limitations in the rating instrument Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) are analyzed. The results point to: 1. The need for a culture of cooperation between family and the one conducting the treatment, where goals are formulated together and in accordance with the family’s frame of reference and life experiences, which can increase the possibility of creating positive expectations, and of adapting treatment to the family in question. 2. Different methods of examining psychotherapy reflect and complete the image of the psychotherapy process. 3. The psychotherapy process’s complexity and the difficulty in describing the effect of therapy with simple measurements or remaining psychiatric symptoms. Positive change in several areas, such as the child experiencing increased independence, gets access to more positive affections, has improved self-esteem and a more optimistic idea of the future, could be described as psychological phenomena and can be difficult to encompass with narrow psychiatric terminology. 4. The intersubjectivity between child and psychotherapist appears essential. The therapist’s attitude and interventions are characterized by creating a steady therapeutic framework for exploring the child’s problems. 5.  The importance of the therapist’s meta-competence, i.e., overarching competencies that psychotherapists need to use to guide any intervention, what interventions to use, and when they are suitable. 

  • 13.
    Paul, Enni
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Skriftbruk som yrkeskunnande i gymnasial lärlingsutbildning: Vård- och omsorgselevers möte med det arbetsplatsförlagda lärandets skriftpraktiker2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and critically discuss the literacies apprentice-students in the Health and Social Care Programme in the upper secondary school in Sweden are given access to during the workplace-based learning part of the education. The study draws on sociocultural understandings of learning and knowing, and on perspectives developed in the field of new literacy studies of literacies as situated social practices. Ethnographically inspired methods consisting of participant observation, interviews and study of textual artefacts in both the work and school domain are used to generate data. Literacy events and literacy practices students are given the opportunity to participate in are explored as a part of tasks in the work or school domain. Additionally, the literacies students do not gain access in these workplaces but are crucial in health care and social work are explored. 

    The results indicate that literacies in the work domain are to a large degree embedded in other work tasks. This contributes to making a large part of the reading and writing invisible for the students and their supervisors. Access to literacies at the workplace is not discussed between teachers and supervisors. A major finding is that students’ access to digital literacies in the work domain depends on the local culture of each workplace and on individual supervisor’s decisions, bringing questions of equality in the apprentice-education to the forefront. The digital literacies support central activities in the workplaces; not getting access to these practices raises questions about what kind of working life the apprentice-students are being prepared for. Thus the meaning given to the term employability, which is central in policy-documents for the apprentice education, seems to be enacted as preparing the students for a job in one position, rather than offering broad competences for advancement or changes in working life. School tasks can function in a compensatory way by introducing central texts in Health and Social care work for students, but writing these kinds of texts in the school domain are part of different literacy practices than when writing them in the work domain. Furthermore the schools have no possibilities to offer students access to the kinds of digital systems that are used in the work domain.  

  • 14.
    Dutt, Khaleda Gani
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    The Role of Adult Literacy in Transforming the Lives of Women in Rural India: Overcoming Gender Inequalities: Comparative case studies in Bhilwara District Rajasthan & Howrah District West Bengal India2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Indian diaspora is woven around castes, languages, dialects, religions- a young nation boasting of an ancient civilization in which inequalities are deeply ingrained in its culture and traditions. Although vital government interventions have succeeded in increasing the literacy rate of women in both urban and rural areas general household characteristics such as income, caste, occupation and education attainments of parents still continue to determine access, attendance, completion and learning outcomes of girls and women from severely disadvantaged communities. The critical issue investigated in the comparative case study is why and how established hegemonic roles changed because of the catalytic role of adult literacy. The research was conducted in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan and Howrah District, West Bengal, India where literacy has played an intrinsic role in transforming the lives of the rural and marginalized women. In Indian society social norms often prevent women from exercising their free choice and from taking full and equal advantage of opportunities for individual development, contribution and reward. So assessing empowerment/transformation would mean identifying the constraints to empowerment, how women’s agency has developed and finally looking if ‘agency’ was able to address the constraints to women’s access to adult literacy. This would also entail seeking answers to questions such as ‘How is transformation represented in their narratives? What was the impact of literacy upon their lives?

  • 15.
    Tyson, Ruhi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    The Rough Ground: Narrative explorations of vocational Bildung and wisdom in practice2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation thesis, consisting of five articles, focuses on narrative explorations of vocational Bildung and wisdom in practice. It is an explicitly practical and empirical approach to what, for the most part, tends to be limited to philosophical discussions. This is motivated by the relative lack of systematic knowledge about how to enact wisdom in practice and afford vocational Bildung to those engaged in vocational education and training (VET). The absence of such knowledge makes it more difficult to develop VET practice and curricula and also leads to significant parts of the internal goods of practice to remain tacit, personal and local when they need to become articulated and shared. The aim of the five articles has been to explore how Bildung and practical wisdom can enrich our understanding of vocational practice and didactics on a theoretical, methodological and practical level. Conceptually the thesis draws extensively from narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly 1995, 2000), reflective practice (Schön 1983, 1987), Aristotelian philosophy regarding practical wisdom (Aristotle 2009, Nussbaum 1990), MacIntyre’s concept of a practice (2011) and the Bildung-tradition (Rittelmeyer 2012) to create a coherent framework for the inquiry termed vocational Bildung didactics (VBD). It is located in the phronetic social science paradigm articulated by Flyvbjerg (2001) where the main aim for research is to enrich practice rather than generate theory. The methodology for this kind of inquiry is the collection of narrative cases focusing on unusually rich/successful/wise cases of a practice, what Flyvbjerg (2001) terms extreme and paradigmatic cases. On a conceptual level the inquiry has resulted in the framework of VBD that provides the structure for engaging in this kind of research. It has also resulted in some further conceptualizations driven by the interpretation of cases, in particular a differentiation between vocational and cultural practices. On a methodological level it has resulted in a kind of double didactical method: the case narratives function as articulations of practical knowledge regarding vocational Bildung and practical wisdom but also as the didactical tools for teaching this. On a practical level the inquiry has resulted in suggestions for curriculum-development as well as ways in which the case narratives can be used to enrich the understanding of practitioners.

  • 16.
    Haglund, Liza
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Towards Epistemic and Interpretative Holism: A critique of methodological approaches in research on learning2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The central concern of this thesis is to discuss interpretations of learning in educational research. A point of departure is taken in core epistemological and ontological assumptions informing three major approaches to learning: behaviourism, cognitive constructivism and socioculturalism. It is argued that all three perspectives provide important insights into research on learning, but each alone runs the risk of reducing learning and interpretations of learning to single aspects. Specific attention is therefore given to Intentional Analysis, as it has been developed to account for sociocultural aspects that influence learning and individual cognition. It is argued that interpretations of learning processes face challenges, different kinds of holism, underdetermination and the complexity of intentionality, that need to be accounted for in order to make valid interpretations. Interpretation is therefore also discussed in light of philosopher Donald Davidson’s theories of knowledge and interpretation. It is suggested that his theories may provide aspects of an ontological and epistemological stance that can form the basis for interpretations of learning in educational research. A first brief sketch, referred to as ‘epistemic holism’, is thus drawn. The thesis also exemplifies how such a stance can inform empirical research. It provides a first formulation of research strategies – a so-called ‘interpretative holism’. The thesis discusses what such a stance may imply with regard to the nature and location of knowledge and the status of the learning situation. Ascribing meaning to observed behaviour, as it is described in this thesis, implies that an action is always an action under a specific description. Different descriptions may not be contradictory, but if we do not know the learner’s language use, we cannot know whether there is a difference in language or in beliefs. It is argued that the principle of charity and reference to saliency, that is, what appears as the figure for the learner, may help us decide. However, saliency does not only appear as a phenomenon in relation to physical objects and events, but also in the symbolic world, thus requires that the analysis extend beyond the mere transcription of an interview or the description of an observation. Hence, a conclusion to be drawn from this thesis is that the very question of what counts as data in the interpretation of complex learning processes is up for discussion.

  • 17.
    Bendixen, Christine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Voices for Change: Hopes and costs for empowerment - a study on women's claims in the Egyptian revolution2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates women’s possibilities to actively participate in societal change in Egypt. It aims at enhancing the understanding of structural conditions for women’s agency and how these enables and/or restrains women’s participation in the aspiration for societal change as well as their aspiration to live a ‘full life’. Egypt was chosen as a field for studying women’s understanding of their opportunities of participation and empowerment before and during the revolution. The informants in the study are all consciously working for awareness and equality in society. Formal education in Egypt is criticized and the country suffers from a high illiteracy rate, making informal education an important way to attain knowledge that can assist women in their quest for societal change. The acknowledgment of participation as a human right is one of the issues women are fighting for in Egypt today. A specific interest in this study is what motivates some women to oppose social, cultural and political structures despite the often high personal cost, and how informal (educational) channels are being used in the quest for societal change. The theoretical construction in which the analysis is carried out is based on frictions between societal structures and agency, using the Capability Approach (Sen, 1999) which aims at understanding what agency women have in societal change. The concept of functionings is used to indicate what someone is able to do and be. By analyzing women’s valued functionings, their conditions and thus their sense of empowerment and their experienced opportunity costs emerge. Central to the analytically framed societal structures and how agency can be perceived within each structure are the social conversion factors, the norms that allow or hinder action. To frame the complexity of women’s conditions for active agency and the outcome of their actions, I use a theoretical framework that will comprise both goals and processes. Sen’s (1999) ideas on social choice along with Archer’s (1995) theory on social change, using her model of structural elaboration / reproduction, have proved useful when investigating women’s valued functionings and attained social changes. The results of the study show that when formal education is not adequate, knowledge is obtained outside the formal educational institutions. This is done through both non-formal and informal learning. However, to get access to informal learning, a number of valued functions have to be gained. These functionings are thus both conditions for change and an end in themselves. I try to show that the costs involved in transgressing the prevailing norms are high, but lack of hope, agency and empowerment are also experienced as a high cost for those who have, in fact, imagined another better life and are in opposition to the inhibitory societal structures. This is, however, a part of what motivates some women to continue to be involved in societal change in order to achieve a life they have reason to value.

  • 18.
    Hållander, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Det omöjliga vittnandet: Om vittnesmålets pedagogiska möjligheter2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great interest in testimonies, both in society at large and as a theoretical concept. Within educational research testimony is used to understand and develop epistemological, political or ethical thinking. In this thesis I investigate what testimonies and the act of witnessing can do in relation to education. More specifically, I investigate what kind of pedagogical possibilities there are in witnessing and testimony, in relation to teaching as well as outside schools. Focusing on three different aspects (of these phenomena), namely representation, subjectivity and emotion I discuss different examples of testimonies. These are Collateral Murder, The Living History Forum’s book Tell Ye Your Children…, Gruva by Sara Lidman and Odd Uhrbom, and pictures with Alan Kurdi from 2015 taken by Nilüfer Demir. I examine the pedagogical possibilities of testimony and witnessing based on the idea that such possibilities are situated in human imperfection and lack of ability, where the knowledge is placed in the impossibility, in our not-knowing. This dialectical understanding, drawing on Giorgio Agamben, implies a different formulation than previous research, by highlighting the impossibility of witnessing and of testimony, for example by how the testimony does not stand outside the political, and in Western society more specifically, the capitalist system. Through the analyses of the different aspects (representation, subjectivity, emotions) I show how testimonies can serve as a way to control the students' emotions and perceptions (drawing on Sara Ahmed), and influence the perception of the society in which the students live. I have also shown how the act of witnessing can be done at the witness’ own expense (by drawing on The Latina Feminist Group). It can mean that testimonies work as a way to reproduce various stereotypes of different people's suffering and thus consolidate existing power structures and identities. The conditions surrounding witnessing and testimonies make witnessing an act that can be perceived as a poetic testimony, as well as an exploitation or expropriation of already vulnerable people. With this said, I also argue for the value of bringing into teaching testimonies that testify of suffering. Testimonies stand between the past and the future and have important things to speak of. If testimonies are not heard in teaching, there is a possibility of silencing and forgetting the wounds in history. It is in teaching where the repetitive work of a literary reading (Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak) can take place. A literary reading that emphasizes the difficulties in testimonies and one’s own part of and relation to it. It is the effort of the repetitive work in teaching that can lead to pedagogical possibility, and through that, enter the future.

  • 19.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Experiences, networks and uncertainty: parenting a child who uses a cochlear implant2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation project is to describe the ways people experience parenting a deaf child who uses a cochlear implant. Within a framework of social science studies of disability this is done by combining approaches using ethnographic and netnographic methods of participant observation with an interview study. Interpretations are based on the first-person perspective of 19 parents against the background of their related networks of social encounters of everyday life. The netnographic study is presented in composite conversations building on exchanges in 10 social media groups, which investigates the parents’ meaning-making in interaction with other parents with similar living conditions. Ideas about language, technology, deafness, disability, and activism are explored. Lived parenting refers to the analysis of accounts of orientation and what 'gets done' in respect to these ideas in situations where people utilize the senses differently. In the results, dilemmas surrounding language, communication and cochlear implantation are identified and explored. The dilemmas extend from if and when to implant, to decisions about communication modes, intervention approaches, and schools. An important finding concerns the parents’ orientations within the dilemmas, where most parents come up against antagonistic conflicts. There are also examples found of a development process in parenting based on lived, in-depth experiences of disability and uncertainty which enables parents to transcend the conflictive atmosphere. This process is analyzed in terms of a social literacy of dis/ability.

  • 20.
    Bengtsson, Anki
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Governance of Career Guidance: an enquiry into European policy2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to enquire into and problematize the governance of career guidance and how individuals’ career management is constructed within EU policy. The empirical material consists of European policy documents produced during 2000-2015. The two central research questions explore (1) how European career guidance is made governable, and (2) how individuals’ career management is constructed and governed. The Foucauldian governmentality perspective and the analytic method of problematization is utilized. The analysis focuses on the compositions of normative forms of reason, discursive practices and techniques by which governing is exercised and knowledge is produced. The thesis is based on four articles, three of which concern career guidance and career management. The fourth article concerns education of citizenship. The analysis shows that the formation of a policy space for comparison of national systems of career guidance is significant for making European career guidance amenable to governance. It is mobilized by governing practices for involvement of institutional actors and the construction of standards of performance. This form of governance becomes effective on the condition that institutional actors use and produce knowledge and practices about what works in career guidance, and this implies self-control and constant monitoring. It is a complex process of producing self-regulation of career guidance adjustable to change and innovation in which both standardization and modulation are inbuilt. Moreover, this is dependent on the interplay of governance and self-government. Knowledge and practices shape career management as an individual competence, which each individual is assumed to achieve. The use of guidance techniques supporting this design and self-regulating practices contributes to responsibilizing individuals to achieve this competence. Knowledge of individuals’ management of their careers includes civic competence. This led me to extend my use of the theoretical framework to investigate how knowledge of civic competence is constructed in European policy documents concerning teacher education from 2000 to 2012. My analysis shows that presumptions of teaching civic competence support the production of the active and learning subject.

  • 21.
    Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Learning ecosystem complexity: A study on small-scale fishers’ ecological knowledge generation2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries are learning contexts of importance for generating, transferring, and updating ecological knowledge of natural environments through everyday work practices. The rich knowledge fishers have of local ecosystems is the result of the intimate relationship fishing communities have had with their natural environments across generations (see e.g. Urquhart and Acott 2013). This relationship develops strong emotional bonds to the physical and social place. For fishing communities and fishers – who depend directly on local ecosystems to maintain their livelihoods – fishing environments are natural places for living, working and defining themselves. Previous research on fishers’ ecological knowledge has mainly been descriptive, i.e., has focused on aspects such as reproduction, nutrition and spatial-temporal distribution and population dynamics, from a traditional view of knowledge that only recognises scientific knowledge as the true knowledge. By doing this, fishers’ ecological knowledge has been investigated separately from the learning contexts in which it is generated, ignoring the influence of social, cultural and historical aspects that characterise fishing communities, and the complex relationships between fishers and the natural environments they live and work in. This thesis investigates ecological knowledge among small-scale fishers living and working in the ecosystems of Lake Vättern and the Blekinge Archipelago (Baltic Sea) in Sweden and explores how ecological knowledge is generated with particular regard to the influences of work and nature on fishers’ knowledge of ecosystems. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of informal learning processes of ecosystem complexity among small-scale fishers. This knowledge further contributes to the research field of ecological knowledge and sustainable use and management of natural resources. It addresses the particular research questions of what ecological knowledge fishers generate, and how its generation is influenced by their fishing work practices and relationships to nature.

    The thesis consists of three articles. Article I focuses on the need to address the significant lack of theoretical and methodological frameworks for the investigation of the cognitive aspects involved in the generation of ecological knowledge. Article II deals with the need to develop theoretical, methodological and empirical frameworks that avoid romanticising and idealising users’ ecological knowledge in local (LEK), indigenous (IEK) and traditional (TEK) ecological knowledge research, by rethinking it as being generated through work practices. Article III addresses the lack of studies that explicitly explore theories linking complex relations and knowledge that humans form within and of ecosystems. It also addressed the lack of attention from environmental education researchers to theory and empirical studies of ‘sense of place’ research, with a particular focus on environmental learning. Research into the question of what ecological knowledge fishers generate shows differences in their ways of knowing ecosystem complexity. These differences are explained in terms of the influences of the species being fished, and the sociocultural contexts distinguishing fishers’ connection to the fishing profession (i.e., familial tradition or entrepreneurship) (Article I), but also by the fishing strategies used (Article II). Results answering the research question of how work practices influence fishers’ knowledge of ecosystem complexity show a way of rethinking their ecological knowledge as generated in a continuous process of work (Article II), thus, far from romantic views of knowledge. Results answering the research question of how fishers’ relationships to nature influence their knowledge of ecosystem complexity demonstrate the complex interconnections between psychological processes such as identity construction, proximity maintenance and attachment to natural environments (Article III). Finally, more similarities than differences between fishers’ knowledge were found, despite the variation in cases chosen, with regards to landscape, target species, regulations systems and management strategies, fishing environments scales, as well as cultural and social contexts.

  • 22.
    Terning, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Myter om gymnasieeleven: En diskursteoretisk studie av dominerande subjektspositioner i politiska texter 1990-20092016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For whom the educational system should be available, what it should contain and what it should lead to, are all questions but with different answers. In this dissertation, these answers are understood as products of relations including a power dimension. As these relations constantly changes, the discursive struggle of defining the educational system is constant. Said struggle also contains different constructions of the student subject; what she/he ought to be and should become. It is the struggle of defining the student subject that is the focus of this dissertation.

    As a starting point for the analysis, a political discourse theory is used, developed by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe (2001). The main aims of the dissertation are to analyze 1) How the student subject is defined and positioned in the analyzed policy texts 2) What kind of relations that are constituted among student subjects and in between student subject, working life and social life 3) How does the conditions of the discursive struggle make impact of the space for political subjectivity. The empirical material is Swedish Political documents written between the time periods 1990-2009.

    The analysis of the discursive political struggle shows three dominant subject positions structured in partly different discourses: The successful and free student, produced in the discourse of liberation (1990-1998), the individualized and solidary student, produced within the discourse of nostalgia (1997-2005) and the dutiful and adaptable student, which dominates the political struggle in 2006-2009, produced in the discourse of harmony. Although the subject positions are constituted within three different discourses, structured by partly different logics, they share an idea; the idea of an ongoing globalization. These articulations are not questioned and cannot be ignored in the discursive struggle. They are understood as disarticulations of an English/American neo-liberal discourse. To win a hegemonic position, the discourse of liberation, nostalgia and harmony, has to adopt signs from this neo-liberal discourse. They are also forced to rearticulate the intent of specific signs so they fit into each discourse’ inner logics. The disarticulations of the neo-liberal discourse which goes across the discursive borders are in this dissertation understood as a social fantasy.

  • 23.
    Gynther, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Möjligheter och begränsningar: Om lärares arbete med montessoripedagogiken i praktiken2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines processes connected to teacher’s transformation of the Montessori theory and it's described application to a daily practice.  The aim is to create knowledge about what constitutes possibilities and limitations for teachers in their daily work with Montessori education. This does not only refer to what constitutes opportunities and limitations in teachers'  everyday work with teaching, but also to what constitutes opportunities and limitations for teachers to learn at work. The theoretical framework is based on action theory and theories on adult learning and connects to a tradition called workplace-learning in which learning is considered to take place in, but also between, individuals. This approach indicates that the contextual conditions which the teachers were imbedded in are important to identify. The study was conducted in four different Montessori-environments and involved nine Montessori teachers. The methods used were participant observation, interviews, informal conversations and review of teacher produced material and documents.

    Possibilities and limitations in teachers work were related to if they had access to Montessori materials or not. In work with Montessori materials teachers identified the children's abilities to a greater extent than they did when other materials were in use. This identification directed their interventions. When the teachers did not have access to Montessori material their method often appeared to be the same as “individual work” with the provided material. Furthermore, interventions of the teacher were then significantly often procedural rather than content-related, although the teachers clearly expressed that they wanted to go into a dialogue with children about the treated subject area. The survey therefore contradicts with the opinion that Montessori-teachers withdraw in favor of Montessori materials that sometimes has been brought up by interpreters of the pedagogy. Rather, teachers stepped back when other materials were in use. The study also shows how a prerequisite for a collective development-oriented learning among the teachers was dependent on whether teachers made their own private understanding of the pedagogy available to each other. At times, however, teachers took the use of the materials for granted. Some of the teachers also deliberately refrained from making their personal understanding available to others due to the fact that they then could be seen as a less competent Montessori-teacher. This maintaining of a “false” collective understanding is seen as an expression of an institutionalization of teaching practice which was maintained by sanctions from the environment if the individual didn´t recognize the institutionalization in question. Since teacher’s “space for action” in this way was limited, the institution created conditions that prevented a possible development of the working methods in use. In those cases when conditions for a collective development-oriented learning were more favorable, it was clear that the teachers did not perceive Montessori education as a given method but rather saw it as a "model" for teaching in which the teachers had to interpret and define their own method from. The teachers thus came to take advantage of a potential “space for action” which was not noticed when the pedagogy was seen as a method.

  • 24.
    Gåfvels, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Skolad blick på blommor: Formandet av yrkeskunnande i floristutbildning2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article-based thesis focuses on the formation of vocational knowing within adult and upper secondary floristry education in Sweden. Three articles explore classroom interaction and assessment actions; a fourth considers changes in vocational subject matter during the period 1990–2015. While the first three articles draw on empirical data in the form of video and audio recordings in combination with participant observation, the fourth is based primarily on material-based interview data. All four articles share a sociocultural perspective on educational practice (Wertsch, 1998; Säljö, 2011, 2013) and a relational view of knowing (e.g., Carlgren, 2015; Molander, 1996), in combination with the use of conversation analysis (Goodwin & Heritage, 1990; Sahlström & Melander, 2010) as a tool to illuminate the formation of vocational knowing. The interaction between teacher, student, and floral arrangement is foregrounded to facilitate analysis of the formation of vocational knowing. The results contribute to our understanding of the schooling of the gaze (Goodwin, 1994; Grasseni, 2009, 2011) as appropriated by participants in the interaction. Floristry vocational knowing is shown to evolve in the temporal dimension, encompassing (a) financial and aesthetic values, (b) verbal and non–verbal communication, (c) botanical material and tools, and (d) making. The respective roles and interrelations of these four components of vocational knowing in floristry are discussed. The contribution of the thesis is twofold. First, these articles contribute to the understanding of vocational education through close appraisal of the formation of vocational knowing. Second, in exploring the previously under-researched field of Swedish floristry vocational education, the thesis bridges a gap in existing knowledge of the evolution of Swedish vocational education. As floristry education is little researched internationally, the thesis also contributes to the wider body of international research. 

  • 25.
    Sundelin, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Att skapa framtid: En analys av interaktionen i studie- och yrkesvägledande samtal med unga i migration2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an empirical study that aims to contribute to knowledge about the opportunities the career counselling conversation offers young migrants in shaping their future. Conversations play a central role in career counselling activities in Swedish schools; furthermore, the question of how the Swedish society promotes the inclusion of its immigrants has become an increasingly urgent issue. The study draws on a dialogical framework on interaction and meaning making and seeks to gain insight into how meaning about the future is formed in career counselling conversations. The following questions were formulated:

    • How is the interaction between migrant students and their counsellors formed in counselling conversations?
    • How can the interaction be understood in relation to the participants and their contexts?
    • What seems to enable or constrain students’ meaning making about the future in these conversations?

    The study was conducted in an introductory course for newly arrived immigrants at the upper secondary level. Researcher followed a series of two career counselling conversations between five students and five counsellors, respectively. The empirical material comprises three parts: audio-recordings of conversations, observations of these conversations and audio-recorded interviews with counsellors and students. The students, three men and two women, have a non-European background and had been in Sweden between one and three years. All except one can be considered a refugee. The material was transcribed, and the conversations were analysed with the concepts of communicative projects and strategies. The conversations are the primary empirical material.

    The results show that the counsellors’ and the students’ communicative projects primarily are complementary. Both the counsellor and the conversations appear as crucial for students learning about Swedish opportunity structures and meaning making about the future. The analysis also elucidated interactional patterns and interplay that seem to constrain the students’ possibilities to shape a future with their own conditions within the conversations. The conversations focused on Swedish career opportunities and lacked a transnational perspective. Furthermore, the students’ migrant background was not made relevant in the conversations; hence, the conversations risk contributing to students’ stigmatisation. The counsellors’ methods also seem at risk of individualising issues related to institutional preconditions and structural constraints. However, the analysis also displayed how the counsellor can counteract these constraining effects.

    The result implicates, in alignment with other studies, that the responsibility for the students’ career processes cannot be put on counselling conversations alone; more comprehensive and integrated activities for career learning in the schools are necessary to provide immigrant students with reasonable possibilities for shaping a future. Moreover, the conclusion is drawn that counsellor’s conversation skills are important for the students meaning making about the future but that counsellors also must have, among other things, the ability to comprehend migrants’ feelings and existential issues regarding the future and, not least, knowledge about the conditions of migrants and the ability to both comprehend and actively recognize injustices and different expressions of power. There are seldom others advocating for the rights of migrants.

  • 26.
    Garrote Jurado, Ramon
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik. Ramon.Garrote@hb.se.
    Educational Software in Engineering Education2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the quality of engineering education and the accessibility of education worldwide by promoting computer-enhanced teaching and learning. It uses the epistemology of John Dewey (1859-1952) and the action research methodology first advanced by Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). A mixed methods approach that combines qualitative case studies with quantitative research methods is used.

    In the first of three case studies engineering students working on their final degree projects participated. To elicit interaction, a learning management system (LMS) was used and the students were strongly encouraged to discuss various aspects of their work.

    The second case focused on the barriers to a wider utilization of educational software in engineering education. The case is delimited to lecturers at the School of Engineering at the University of Borås. The investigation focuses on the lecturers’ reluctance to use educational technology and the slow uptake of new pedagogical methods in engineering education.

    The third case study covers three subsets of participants. A course intended to improve lecturers handling skills and motivation to utilize educational software in a pedagogically sound manner was given in Cuba, Guatemala and Peru.

    The first case demonstrated that computer-enhanced collaborative learning can improve the learning experience and performance of engineering students. The second case showed that LMS tools that facilitate traditional methods are used routinely, whereas lecturers often refrain from using features intended to facilitate collaboration and the creation of communities of learners.

    The third case study investigated the use of a complete course package, with all course material and software contained on the same USB drive (LiveUSB Mediated Education, LUME). It is asserted that LUME can facilitate constructivist pedagogical methods and help overcome the reluctance of lecturers to utilize educational software in a pedagogical sound way.

  • 27.
    Mickwitz, Larissa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik. Södertörns högskola.
    En reformerad lärare: Konstruktionen av en professionell och betygssättande lärare i skolpolitik och skolpraktik2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis investigates the interrelatedness between school policy and practice. In the thesis, the construction of “the teacher” is analysed in school policy documents and teacher interviews. I am particularly interested in the relation between school policy and school practice in light of the two latest curriculum reforms 1994 and 2011 and the teacher accreditation registration reform of 2011. The analysis focuses on two topics: grading and the professional teacher. In fact, an analytic link is made between the emphasis on grading and the discursive construction of the teacher in Swedish education policy. The theoretical framework is positioned within institutional theory within which I combine curriculum theory and the sociological new institutionalism with discourse theory. The analyses of policy documents reveals three types of different discursive constructions of “the teacher”. In the period of deregulation and decentralization, a professional teacher is constructed and the need for an autonomous teacher for school quality is expressed. By the 1990s -2000s an unprofessional grading teacher is constructed. In the period signifying the teacher accreditation and registration reform, a quality assured teacher is constructed. It is a teacher who is formally authorized and in need of continuing evaluation. In the focus groups interviews teachers constructs two types of professionalism. One is in line with the professionalism articulated in the policy texts and is about control and formal regulation and the other is about autonomy. Furthermore, the teachers relate to grading and teachers' ability to act in accordance with their overall teaching assignment. Grading were often constructed opposed to teaching. Demands for documentation, quality reports or the requirement of teacher accreditation is described as institutional practices defined from above. These practices make it difficult for teachers to complete their teaching assignments. The study indicates that teachers' ability to operate in an increasingly regulatory schooling culture has, through the types of requirements for transparency in teachers’ work, resulted in the decline of autonomy in their professional practice.

  • 28.
    Höstfält, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Resultatinriktad individualisering i skolans inre arbete: En grundad teori om utvecklingssamtal, skriftliga omdömen och individuella utvecklingsplaner på grundskolans högstadium2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to generate a grounded theory that explains the content of teachers' and students' work with personal development dialogues and individual development plans using written assessments, all regulated in the national result-oriented curriculum for the Swedish compulsory school. Two secondary schools participated and data was collected on two occasions. Data consists of recorded personal development dialogues, which are informed by written assessments, and copies of the individual development plans written as a conclusion stating agreements between the teacher and student. All data was continuously compared and analyzed by using a grounded theory method. Underpinning the study are the premises of pragmatic philosophy and transactional theory that are assumed to shape the focus of the grounded theory approach and hence of teacher and student transactional strategies. It is argued that teachers' and students' primary concern is to establish result-oriented individualization. This is a means for cooperation in a mutual endeavor to establish improved results, guided by the phases of visible accountability and responsible awareness. By using strategies for planning, guiding, auditing and reflecting, new ways of managing individualization are developed. It is also suggested that a new professional approach has been developed, where teachers and students work in collaborative teams, continuously focusing on improving student results.

  • 29.
    Bonnevier, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Understanding learning and learning for understanding: Exploring medical students' personal understandings of learning tasks and experiences of learning and understanding in medicine2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The central concern of the thesis is to problematise the complexity of the relationship between student learning and the teaching-learning environment in medicine as experienced by students. The thesis argues that learning material presented to students offers only potential for learning. What students make of that potential is influenced by a number of different variables and as such this needs to be investigated empirically. High-quality learning is an important goal for all higher education and previous research together with the empirical findings presented in this thesis convey the importance for students to seek a holistic approach to learning. Such a learning approach encompasses not only learning of facts and theories but also includes exercising an ability to reflect and reason, to organise facts and theories into wholes, and to explore how they relate to each other. Most importantly, it involves the ability to understand the grounds on which facts and theories are chosen for specific purposes depending on context. The thesis explores these issues by drawing on findings from three studies of medical students’ experiences of learning and understanding and how students’ personal understandings of subject content in medicine come to the fore in their work on learning tasks. By applying a context-oriented methodological perspective on learning, focusing on what students actually do in a learning situation, the thesis enables an in-depth investigation of relationships between aspects of content, context and the individual. The results show that the learning environment in the medical programme to a large extent does not make sufficient room for students to express understanding of this dynamic character. In the thesis it is argued that to facilitate such an understanding it is necessary for both students and teachers to increase awareness of the context-dependency of subject content, facts and theories, and the different meanings content takes depending on context of use. 

  • 30.
    Åkerfeldt, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Didaktisk design med digitala resurser: En studie av kunskapsrepresentationer i en digitaliserad skola2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In digital-classroom practices, pupils design their learning processes in collaboration with their peers, employing different semiotic resources when representing signs of learning in a constant flow. There still remain differences, however, between learning practices and the way pupils are formally tested. During tests, knowledge is regularly represented individually and often by delimited resources in contrast to digital learning practices where technologies enable redesign with a broader mix of written text, images, colours, graphs etc.

    In this thesis I investigate the increased access to and the frequent use of digital resources in schools and how these challenges contribute to tensions between and among school practices. In addition I discuss how digitalised learning environments can be studied in educational research. The aim of my thesis is to add to the existing knowledge about how the use of digital resources shapes knowledge representations and also the pupils’ possibilities to represent their knowledge. Knowledge representations are seen partly as an expression of the pupils’ knowledge in school and partly as an expression of products that are designed to be used in education such as digital educational games, two of which I will study in this thesis.

    My theoretical understanding draws on a design-oriented multimodal perspective on learning. Findings are discussed in relation to didactic design and Learning Design Sequence model (LDS). A developed LDS model is presented that summarises and highlights my findings. In the thesis I also discuss some of the challenges for a researcher when studying learning in a digitalised school with a focus on interaction and communication and how multimodal data can be transcribed, analysed and presented in a publication.

  • 31.
    Ryther, Cathrine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Equality, Uniqueness, Renewal: Conversations to Reimagine Pedagogical Action, with Jacques Rancière and Adriana Cavarero2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sjöstrand (1970a) called the relation between equality and freedom a fundamental pedagogical problem because it shapes assumptions about how pedagogical action affects renewal—or, the issue of human becoming in an always already populated context. In this dissertation I reimagine Sjöstrand’s pedagogical problem, replacing the terms of equality and freedom with Rancière’s concept of equality and Cavarero’s concept of uniqueness, in order to consider the consequences for (a) the connection between pedagogical action and renewal, and (b) the image(s) of renewal that pedagogical action might prioritize.

    I proceed in four steps. I first outline the framework through which uniqueness and equality can be considered to underpin pedagogical action. Second, I develop a method of conversational juxtaposition to examine the relation between these two concepts without erasing their incommensurability. Third, I analyze a conversational juxtaposition to reimagine the connection between pedagogical action and its intent to affect renewal. Fourth, I analyze a second conversational juxtaposition to reimagine the image(s) of renewal that pedagogical action intends to affect.

    Through these steps I reimagine pedagogical action as functioning in the service of images of renewal but not as creating those images. Pedagogical action’s intent to affect renewal can be considered successful in terms of maintaining what is and fostering new persons into the world. But, it can be considered unsuccessful in regard to creatively transforming the world. Reimagined pedagogical action is fundamentally open to renewing and reimagining itself in the service of images of renewal, and is therefore quite flexible. At the same time, the task of pedagogical action is not all-encompassing, and creative questions of renewal must be addressed elsewhere—politically.

  • 32.
    Söderberg, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Grynnor och farleder i karriärvalsprocessen: Unga med rörelsehinder och deras handlingsutrymme2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the career choices of young adults (ages 18 through 40) with mobility impairments and the experiences they had throughout their career-selection process. The purpose of the study was: To find the inhibitory and furthering factors of the career choices of people with mobility impairments from their own perspective, with a special focus on how various factors affected the process over time. The method for collecting the results of this study was biographical interviews. The main theories of the study were Sense of Coherence, Self-efficacy, Learned Helplessness, Social Role Valorization and The Four Rooms of Change. The results show that mobility impairment affects career choices and that the effect is more often inhibitory than it is furthering. Structural factors, such as how the respondents are treated by other people, as well as rules and material barriers (stairs, mal-functioning elevators, etc.) are found to be more limiting than the body itself. Being over-protected is a main inhibitory factor which can contribute strongly to low self-efficacy and drainage of self-image for the respondents.  The goal of the respondents is to obtain independence and a job based on their own terms, and not a social care career. This goal was found to form a vital resistance resource versus adversity and obstacles. The respondents consider themselves to be overprotected by society (by parents, teachers, career counsellors, employment officers, etc.) in relation to their career choices, and they would like not to be. 

  • 33.
    Adami, Rebecca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Human Rights Learning: The Significance of Narratives, Relationality and Uniqueness2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas educational policy is mainly concerned with the content of Human Rights Education (HRE), philosophers of education have widely explored the subject and her social condition in terms of social justice education. This thesis draws on philosophers of education in exploring the subject rather than the content of HRE, focusing the study on ontological rather than epistemological aspects of learning. In this thesis learning is explored through narratives, as a relational process of becoming. The turn to narrative is taken against the dominant historical narrative of human rights as a Western project. This turn concerns how claims toward universalism of human rights exclude difference and equally concerns how notions of particularity overshadows the uniqueness in life stories. The concept of uniqueness serves to elucidate the complexity of the subject, not easily reduced into social categorizations, a concept drawn from Adriana Cavarero and Hannah Arendt.

  • 34.
    Murstedt, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Lärande, värderingar och statsvetenskap: Studenters tolkningar av genus- och nationsbegreppet2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociologists and feminist researchers have emphasized the prevalence of taken for granted notions about political concepts. Nation and gender are examples of concepts that are often perceived as non-political and “natural”. Researchers have understood these concepts as related to self-perception, and studies have demonstrated that students tend to perceive gender perspectives as pseudoscientific.

    From an educational perspective, this raises questions as to how values are involved in students’ learning processes. Over the last 20 years, an increasing number of researchers have characterized conceptual change as affective in nature. However, few empirical studies have put effort into investigating affective aspects of the conceptual change process. This thesis adds to this research discussion by offering an empirically rooted conceptualisation of the value-oriented dimension of the learning process. The thesis is based on three empirical studies that investigate how students interpret tasks challenging them to adopt a critical and structural perspective of ‘nation’ and ‘gender’. Drawing on qualitative analyses of tape-recorded group discussions and written home exams, the thesis argues that students bring in other ideas than those advocated in the specific teaching settings with regard to three topics. Firstly, students express values relating to power, meaning when and how it is legitimate to speak about power. Secondly, students express values that concern how science should be practised. Thirdly, students express values related to identity that revolve around how “I” relate (or not) to the concepts taught in the particular course setting. These results suggest that students enter the classroom with personal ideas and principles of what is “good” or “right” when practising political science, and that values can be seen as a key aspect in understanding the complexities of students’ learning processes in this particular subject area.

  • 35.
    Trostek, Jonas von Reybekiel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Normativa aspekter av individers begreppsbildning: Hur gymnasieelever och studenter skapar och förhåller sig till idéer om genus och nation2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The cognitive models that research on conceptual change has generated have been the subject of criticism, suggesting that these reflect an unrealistic view of learning as an overly “cold” and isolated process. Accordingly, representatives of this criticism suggest that research on conceptual change should investigate to what extent the cold cognition relates to “warm” affective constructs. In the present thesis, the warmth is not considered as prior to conceptual change, but is inferred from the very process of conceptual change itself. The aim is to investigate and describe how this warmth – in terms of normativity – is expressed in conceptual change and how individuals, in these processes, emerge as subjects in their interchange with the environment. This is done by exploring what students do when they make meaning of gender and nation in interviews and exam papers. The results show that the students mainly relate to two different norm-systems, including six normative aspects of conceptual change. The first system includes the goal to challenge or emancipate, the means to problematize, and engagement in the interviews or exams. Furthermore, it includes critical theory as an ideal, social structures and power as values, and me as a social being and actions as part of a tradition as what to make meaning of. The second system includes the goal to preserve, the means to claim how it “is”, and engagement in the interviews or exams. Furthermore, it includes psychological/biological reductionism as an ideal, essences and a natural order as values, and me as an individual and actions as an outcome of intentions as what to make meaning of. By understanding what the students do as interfering with these normative aspects, it becomes possible to understand them as negotiating norms that are brought to the fore. With this, “coldness” appears to be a misleading epithet of conceptual change. 

  • 36.
    Åsén Nordström, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Pedagogisk handledning i tanke och handling - en studie av handledares lärande2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to investigate how a number of pedagogical supervisors develope their supervisory competence. In order to meet this objective the following issues were important: What sort of learning takes place among the supervisors?  In what ways have different frameworks and conditions been important for guiding the talks? Can the patterns of conversation be discerned during the sessions and how do these patterns reflect their learning and skills?

    The thesis presents two studies of educational supervisors and tutor based learning which were carried out with about five years delay. The first study was conducted with twenty newly trained supervisors and a second follow-up study was conducted with ten of the same supervisors. 

    The analysis of the empirical material of study 1 shows, among others, in which direction the talks evolve during mentor sessions and to what extent they change character to deepen and lead the supervisors to develop new perspectives and ways of looking at their role.  The analysis of the empirical data in study 2 illuminate how each supervisor’s learning progresses by analyzing interviews, conversations and reflections. This study analyzes the supervisors’ levels of reflection, the traditions reflected in the supervisors’ way to lead session conversations, the conversation patterns that emerge and how the supervisors’ learning and supervisor competence developed.

  • 37.
    Broberg, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Utbildning på gränsen mellan skola och arbete: Pedagogisk förändring i svensk yrkesutbildning 1918-19712014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute knowledge about pedagogical change in Swedish vocational education and training (VET). The study focuses on vocational schools between 1918 and 1971, and discusses the educational practices that balanced on the border between school and work. The practices under study are probation periods, production work, and “diligence allowance”. By focusing on these practices, which ceased when the vocational training was integrated with upper secondary school in 1971, this study seeks to illustrate how shifts in work and school traditions in the VET discourse are relevant to pedagogical change in vocational training. The central questions of the thesis seek to pinpoint the ways in which the traditions manifested themselves and how the pedagogical content of the educational practices were renegotiated. The study is based on extensive empirical data consisting of public enquiry reports, an organisational journal, archive material, and memory books from vocational schools from the relevant period.

    The VET discourse has been analysed using Johan Asplund’s concept of “figures of thought”. The central figures of thought in vocational training – school and work – have been used to see how the practices’ pedagogical content and aims were renegotiated. This renegotiation made it possible to adapt to school structures in a way that made these practices problematic. Consequently, they could be removed when vocational training was integrated with upper secondary school. In the period leading up to the 1950s, the pedagogical foundations were largely inspired by work practices. Thereafter, it became increasingly common for tensions between the logics and structures embedded in work and school to arise in the VET discourse. This process led to a shift in emphasis in the discourse, from the “work” figure of thought to the “school” figure of thought.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    A structural view on conceptual change: Integration, differentiation, and contextualization as fundamental aspects of individual meaning making2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual development and conceptual change processes are described by a longitudinal study on preschool children’s conception of the earth. Conceptual change is often described as a causal process in which changes in an embraced system of beliefs result in a new system of beliefs. A normative line of research has been dominating the research field of conceptual change. There has been a search for specific conceptions that are missing in the learners’ reasoning or that prevent conceptual change from occur. Here, the learner’s capacity of reasoning is focused. The children’s reasoning is described in its own right (Driver & Easley, 1978). It is argued that conceptual change is to be understood as an intentional activity with regard to the learner, that is, what the learner is doing when trying to understand something.

    Children were interviewed annually from four to six years of age. There were 37 children participating, of which 29 were followed during all three years. The children were interviewed about their conceptions of the earth.

    The results directs the focus of conceptual change from specific conceptions to structural changes. The children processed a lot of conflicting information. However, there does not appear to be any specific conflict that causes the process of conceptual change to occur. Rather, conceptual change is about the reorganization of the sum total of beliefs and to find adequate contexts to which they relate. Conceptual change involves a simultaneous processing of information and complex conception as well as revisions and changes at a model level, and all of this processing is related to contexts for description and explanation. The result also indicates some core stability in reasoning over the course of the investigation.

  • 39.
    Westlund, Barbro
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Att bedöma elevers läsförståelse: En jämförelse mellan svenska och kanadensiska bedömningsdiskurser i grundskolans mellanår2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyze what assessment discourses of reading comprehension are more prominent by comparing five Swedish and five Canadian teachers in the province of BC in Canada. Based on a teacher perspective on how to develop and assess reading comprehension, the investigation concentrates on teacher discourses and their alignment with other discourses of reading comprehension within the two school systems.

    The method used is mainly based on classroom observations and transcriptions of tape-recorded interviews. The ten teachers in grade 4 were interviewed for 30 minutes almost every day in the afternoon during a school week. The analysis of the teachers answers were made in three steps: within each singe interview, within the Swedish and the Canadian teacher group respectively, and between the two compared teacher groups. The theoretical perspectives used to analyze the data were Critical Discourse Analysis, theories of feedback, and socio-cognitive theory.

    The answers within each teacher group showed a homogeneous pattern, but the comparison between the two groups showed considerable differences. The results demonstrated that the Swedish teachers seemed to be more of “instruction givers” and “assessment controllers”, while the Canadian teachers seemed to be more of “comprehension instructors” and “ongoing assessment controllers”. The teacher discourses in both groups were aligned with other assessment discourses in their respective school systems. The Canadian teacher group used a much more elaborated meta-language when talking about reading comprehension assessment. In their way of referring to feedback they also focused on their own teaching in a way that was not found within the Swedish teacher group.

  • 40.
    Dolk, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Bångstyriga barn: Makt, normer och delaktighet i förskolan2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, feminist research in education has put an increasing emphasis on the relationship between children and adults, mostly connected to a critique of gender pedagogy and other forms of so-called “fundamental values education” (värdegrundsarbete). This study looks at the power relations between children and adults in preschool in the context of educational activities intending to increase gender equity, social equality, and participation. The study’s aim is to examine the tensions and conflicts that occur in this context. How are the power relations between adults and children expressed and negotiated? Which possibilities do children have for participation, for resistance, and for creating something new? On a more general level, the study intends to examine democracy in the context of the educational work in question. It hopes to contribute to a discussion about the democratic implications of our understanding of “children” and “adults”, both in the preschool context and in society at large. This also concerns children’s and adults’ possibilities to step outside of preconceived frames and engage in processes of transformation.

    As a methodological approach I have followed fundamental values education in a selected preschool for one school year. I did an ethnographic field study, in which I observed the preschool’s regular activities. I also had separate meetings with the teachers, during which we discussed the children’s possibilities to participate in fundamental values education, drawing inspiration from action research. As a theoretical departure point, and in order to investigate the power relations between adults and children, I use poststructuralist and feminist theory, with a particular interest in power, norms, and participation. I put the focus on children’s resistance and on “unruly children”, who, I argue, challenge us to revisit and improve our educational aspirations in gender equity, social equality, and participation.

  • 41.
    Wermke, Wieland
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Development and Autonomy: Conceptualising teachers’ continuing professional development in different national contexts2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates teachers’ perceptions of continuing professional development (CPD) in Germany and Sweden with a questionnaire study comprising a total of 711 mainly lower secondary teachers. Three conceptual terms are elaborated and explained. Teachers act in a CPD marketplace that is constituted by several sources of knowledge which offer opportunities for teachers’ development. How teachers act in the marketplace is a key part of their CPD culture. The study reveals similarities in the two cases regarding the importance of colleagues as well as informal development activities, but there are also significant differences. One the one hand, German teachers can be described as more active in their CPD than their Swedish colleagues in relation to particular aspects of their profession such as assessment, and more suspicious of knowledge from elsewhere, on the other.

    In order to understand the differences, I argue for an extended focus on the impact of the national context, in terms of socially and historically significant structures and traditions of the teaching profession. The thesis focuses on a crucial aspect with a particular explanatory value for differing CPD tendencies in various national contexts: Autonomy from a governance perspective. This phenomenon, which does indeed change across time and space, is investigated from a socio-historical perspective in both contexts, building on Margaret Archer’s analytic dualism of structure and agency, and a dual pronged model of teacher autonomy. The latter distinguishes institutional autonomy, regarding legal or status issues, from service autonomy related to the practical issues in schools and classrooms. Since these dimensions can be either extended or restricted, different categories evolve which enable us to understand the differences between the two cases.

    Finally, by using the findings on the German and Swedish teaching profession, a theoretical framework is presented that relates the certain forms of teacher autonomy in particular national contexts to likely CPD cultures that teachers share.