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  • 1. Aaltonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Skardhamar, Torbjørn
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Højsgaard Andersen, Lars
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Danielsson, Petri
    Comparing Employment Trajectories before and after First Imprisonment in Four Nordic Countries2017In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 828-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment plays a crucial role in the re-entry process and in reducing recidivism among offenders released from prison. But at the same time, imprisonment is generally regarded as harmful to post-release employment prospects. Little is known, however, about whether or not offenders’ employment trajectories before and after imprisonment are similar across countries. As a first step towards filling this gap in research, this paper provides evidence on employment trajectories before and after imprisonment in four Nordic welfare states: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Using data gathered from administrative records on incarcerated offenders, the analysis focuses on individuals imprisoned for the first time and who served a prison sentence less than one year in length. Results show that although employment trajectories develop in mostly similar ways before and after imprisonment across these countries, important differences exist.

  • 2.
    Ahlénius, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    A Qualitative Analysis of the JudicialAspects of Child-Sex Tourism inThailand2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year Thailand is invaded by tourists seeking the sun and white beautiful beaches. Most of them come for the inexpensive travel and lodging, good food and kind inviting people. For some of them the purpose of visit is somewhat different: every year there are people travelling to Thailand with the purpose to sexually exploit children. The world wide globalisation has contributed to a massive growth in tourism which has brought an economical growth to the country. This in turn has had some negative effects, where the poor rural areas are largely affected by inequality and the dream of a better lifestyle. Economical disadvantage, lack of education and the absence of capable guardians affect children’s vulnerability and make them an easy target for child-sex tourism. I argue that potential child-sex tourists travel to Thailand due to a perception of the prevalence of easy targets affected by people in a society that is not always aware of what is happening around them as well as due to a common perception that Thailand has a weak legal system. Based on this assumption and with the theoretical basis of routine activity and rational choice I research if there is a reason to believe that the legal system is corrupt. I believe that a combination of the three elements provided routine activity as well as analysing a phenomenon through rational choice can open up to answers of why perpetrators chose Thailand as their child-sex vacation hot-spot. To address the aim of my study I conducted six semi-structured interviews with people working in Bangkok, Thailand. From these interviews I first explain the process leading to the prosecution of Swedish child-sex tourists in Thailand and, second, uncover and examine potential difficulties in this process. In the result of this study a few of the answers differ substantially from previous studies as well as some of the interviewees sharing controversial opinions. The results of the conducted interviews show three identifiable weaknesses that play a large part in the problems of the judicial process. These three are: education, bail and cooperation between authorities.

  • 3.
    Al Weswasi, Enes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Spending blood for oil in Nigeria: a frame analysis of Shell’s neutralisation of acts that led to corporate-initiated state crime2019In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 280-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of Shell Oil Company in Nigeria has resulted in large-scale protests. Despite their peaceful nature, these protests have been met with lethal violence by the Nigerian security forces. Accusations have been levelled against Shell for liability for human rights violations, but the company has denied responsibility. Previously confidential correspondence between Shell and Nigerian officials has come to show that the company has repeatedly persuaded security personnel to act against the protests. This article examines how Shell framed its desire for the Nigerian state to suppress the protests against the company. It does so by analysing the published documents, based on the theoretical framework provided by Stanley Cohen’s (1993) concepts regarding the neutralisation of criminal acts, and specifically, the neutralisation technique of appealing to higher loyalties. This is a technique adopted by companies when they use the greater good as a rationale for minimising their responsibility for harmful acts. The correspondence between Shell and Nigerian officials shows that Shell continuously urged the Nigerian officials to take action by referring to the company’s contribution to economic and social development in the region, even after their calls for action had been shown to have resulted in human rights abuses. In describing these rationales, the article highlights a case of corporate-initiated state crime, a form of crime that involves corporations inducing state actors to commit harmful acts.

  • 4.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Dreams meeting reality? A gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences in early adolescence and actual occupation in adulthood2015In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1077-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of longitudinal data from Sweden (n = 15,211), the article offers a gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences during early adolescence and actual occupations in adulthood. Theoretically the study is based on socialisation theory and devaluation theory. The analyses show that preferences for one's future occupation were stronger among those who came to make gender-typical choices, than among those who chose a gender-atypical occupation. However, a gender difference was also found in that girls who came to choose a male dominated occupation showed a stronger preference for their future occupation in adolescence, than boys who came to choose a female dominated occupation. Results also showed that at a general level, the occupations in adulthood were even more gender segregated than the preferences in adolescence. This was particularly true for girls, who in adolescence expressed a stronger preference to work in a male dominated occupations, than they would later actually do.

  • 5.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Drug abuse and life-chances—Do childhood conditions matter? Results from a Swedish life course study2017In: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 32, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people whose childhoods are characterized by various types of resource deficiencies are at significantly higher risk than others of developing serious drug-abuse. Having confirmed the existence of this correlation in the study's data set, this study asked whether the different childhood conditions experienced by individuals with serious drug-abuse problems continue to affect their life chances once these problems have become established, or whether the drug abuse appears to produce such radically new life conditions that childhood conditions no longer play a significant role. Analyses were based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort study which includes data on a cohort of individuals (n = 15,117) from birth to middle age, and in addition to measurements of social and economic problems during childhood, the analysis also included a measurement of the family's socio-economic status and a measurement of the individual's own childhood resources in the form of school performance. Drug abuse was measured using an indicator of whether the individual had been admitted for inpatient treatment with a drug-related diagnosis at least once at ages 16–30 (n = 229). On basis of Cox and OLS regression models, the most important conclusion from the study was that heavy drug-abuse seems to involve such a fundamental change to individuals' life situation that variations in childhood conditions lose a substantial amount of their power to explain subsequent life course outcomes. However, the study did find a tendency for SES of family of origin to be related to mortality risk up to age 56, in that those from less privileged homes died to a somewhat higher extent. Individuals from more privileged homes did not manage to recover to a higher extent though, but tended to remain in heavy abuse. The study found no relationship between childhood conditions and recovery from heavy abuse.

  • 6.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala: Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019In: Att odla kriminologi: Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet. En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Stockholm: Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, p. 293-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ungas framtidstro2014In: Den långa vägen till arbetsmarknaden: om unga utanför / [ed] Jonas Olofsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, p. 297-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 109-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 9.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 10.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sivertsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course: A prospective cohort study2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that poor family relations in childhood are associated with adverse mental health in adulthood. Yet, few studies have followed the offspring until late adulthood, and very few have had access to register-based data on hospitalisation due to psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relations in adolescence and the likelihood of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course up until age 55. Methods: Data were derived from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study, with information on 2638 individuals born in 1953. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on in-patient psychiatric treatment was derived from administrative registers from 1969 to 2008. Binary logistic regression was used. Results: Poor family relations in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of later in-patient treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis, even when adjusting for other adverse conditions in childhood. Further analyses showed that poor family relations in adolescence were a statistically significant predictor of in-patient psychiatric care up until age 36-45, but that the strength of the association attenuated over time. Conclusions: Poor family relationships during upbringing can have serious negative mental-health consequences that persist into mid-adulthood. However, the effect of poor family relations seems to abate with age. The findings point to the importance of effective interventions in families experiencing poor relationships.

  • 11.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?2015In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions show that gender composition is significantly related to openness to gender-atypical occupations at peer-group level only. As the causal direction of this relationship can be questioned, the result should be interpreted with caution. Concerning aspects of dominance, quite substantive effects on individual openness to gender-atypical occupations are found for girls, albeit not for boys. Thus, for girls, the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of the most central girl in the school class significantly affects the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of individual girls in that school class.

  • 12.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    When it rains, it pours: Housing evictions and criminal convictions in Sweden2020In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious housing and criminal behaviour are both important elements in processes of marginalization and cumulative disadvantage. It is well known that housing eviction primarily affects the weakest groups in society. In this article we ask if housing eviction has an independent effect on subsequent criminality and if the effect varies across different types of crime (utilitarian, violent and drug crime). Using propensity score matching on administrative register data covering all housing evictions in Sweden 2009, linked with crime registers and registers containing other relevant background information, we find that eviction increases the conviction rates for all analysed crime types, utilitarian crime in particular.

  • 13.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gavanas, Anna
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Perspektiv på utanförskap2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Susanne Alm, Olof Bäckman, Anna Gavanas och Anders Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, 1, p. 7-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Bäckman, OlofStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).Gavanas, AnnaInstitutet för framtidsstudier.Nilsson, AndersStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Utanförskap2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Future Prospects, Deprivation, and Criminality – A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study2018In: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1280-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective deprivation in early adolescence on the one hand, and criminal offending in adolescence and early adulthood on the other. Data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study (n = 15,117), containing information from surveys and registers are used. Bivariate analyses confirm a relationship between low socioeconomic status and both subjective and objective deprivation. Subjective deprivation alone is related to offending only for those from less privileged background. Subjective and objective deprivation in combination is associated with a higher risk of offending for all individuals, although the less privileged background, the higher the risk.

  • 16. Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Cause for concern or moral panic? The prospects of the Swedish mods in retrospect2011In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 777-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish mods of the 1960s frightened the parental generation like few other youth cultures. Was the concern justified – was the mod culture a hotbed of social maladjustment? Or would the mods come to live conventional lives to the same extent as their peers? We present analyses from a large longitudinal study allowing for a follow-up of individuals identifying with the Swedish mod culture in the late 1960s. Overall, the results point in the least dramatic direction: In mid-life, the vast majority of the former mods lived ordinary lives with work and family. When considering identification with the mod culture only, we do find an over-risk for becoming a social dropout. However, an elaborated analysis identifies the foundations of these problems already in early childhood, i.e. prior to the identification with the mod culture. Social problems in the family may have encouraged these youngsters to turn to a youth culture, but this identification in itself did not contribute to vulnerability. Although the results should be generalised with caution, they could serve as argument against moral panic over teenage identification with youth cultures, and instead shift focus to structures that give some children a disadvantaged start in life.

  • 17. Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Samhällets olycksbarn, kreatörer eller Svenssons? Modsens framtid i backspegeln2008In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Modsen var en ungdomskultur som på 1960-talet skrämde och oroade vuxenvärlden. I denna artikel följer vi dem som i ungdomen kallade sig mods upp i vuxen ålder. Hur gick det för dem? Fanns det fog för de vuxnas oro?

  • 18.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Palme, Joakim
    Westholm, Erik
    Att utforska framtiden: valda perspektiv2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Visst går det att utforska framtiden på vetenskaplig grund! I boken ges exempel på hur perspektiv från såväl humaniora som samhälls- och naturvetenskap kan berika studiet även av det forskningsobjekt som ännu inte finns.

  • 19.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roxell, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Your Own Personal Jesus? Doctrinal Beliefs versus Personal Spirituality Among Inmates Involved in the Monastery Route in Swedish Prisons2019In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 192-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies, mainly from the United States, have indicated that religious beliefs can help inmates to cope with imprisonment and to build hopes for the future. The purpose of this study was to examine if this is the case also in Sweden, which is usually considered to be one of the most secular countries in the world. The data consist of semistructured interviews with 14 prisoners participating in the so‐called Monastery Route activities within Swedish prisons. Although the activities are based on Christianity, the explicit aim is to invite individuals from all religions, as well as those with an open attitude toward spirituality. How do the inmates formulate their beliefs (if any) along the lines of doctrinal religiousness and personal spirituality, respectively? And, how does this orientation affect the ability to cope with imprisonment, as well as the views of the future? The results show that a small number of the participants defined themselves as Christian, but that the majority had instead developed a more personal form of spirituality. This provided them with a means of working with themselves and gave them a sense of inner calm. The study's findings are contrasted against conflicting results from the United States.

  • 20.
    Almolqi Svedberg, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Frontex, ett försvar mot immigrationen i EU?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva och analysera om inrättandet av Frontex har bidragit till att immigrationen i EU framställs som en utveckling vilket riskerar EU:s inre trygghet. Frontex samordnar verksamheten för EU medlemsländers gränskontrollmyndigheter. Det hävdas att EU:s yttre gränser står inför starka immigrationstryck vilket innebär att en effektivisering av gränsarbetet är nödvändig för att stärka säkerheten.

    Materialet analyseras utifrån säkerhetiseringsprocessen som innebär att en politisk fråga pekas ut som risk. Denna risk behöver inte nödvändigtvis existera utan enbart presenteras och argumenteras som sådan. Den frågeställning som besvaras görs så utifrån utvalda dokument publicerade om Frontex samt intervjuer. Frågeställningen lyder: Med vilka resonemang framställs immigrationen till EU och hur går dessa att tolkas ur ett säkerhetiseringsperspektiv?

    Som metod har en triangulering av kvalitativ innehållsanalys och kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts. Materialet som underbygger studien består av offentliga dokument publicerade av Frontex och EU Kommissionen. De kvalitativa intervjuerna genomfördes i syfte att stärka den analytiska förmågan hos mig som forskare och komplettera den kvalitativa innehållsanalysen.

    Resultatet som undersökningen kommer fram till är att det pågår ett kontinuerligt arbete i syfte att stärka de yttre gränserna. Immigranter delas upp i grupper och talas kring ur olika risknivåer. Det som önskas stoppas i högsta grad är kriminella nätverk, men även illegala immigranter som söker sig till EU i syfte att söka arbete. Immigranter vars syfte är att söka skydd talas om i termer som offer, dessa önskas inte ses stoppade. Det betonas att ett stödjande av ekonomisk tillväxt i tredjeland är önskvärt, för att underlätta levnadsförhållanden i tredjeland. En effektivisering av den verksamhet som Frontex koordinerar sker även, vilket innebär att resurser för akuta situationer som kan uppstå ska kunnas sättas in under snabba former. Dessa akuta situationer har ännu inte uppstått. Dock har villkoren för tredjelandsmedborgare inte förändrats och Frontex arbetar aktivt för att främja mänskliga rättigheter. Den diskussion som förs om immigrationen i EU hamnar inom det säkerhetspolitiska området. De motmedel som används görs så utan presenterade grunder och trots detta sker en kontinuerlig utvidgning av dessa motmedel.

  • 21.
    Alveryd, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Manlig styrka och kvinnlig avvikelse?: Fokusgruppsintervjuer med universitets- och högskolestudenter om deras föreställningar om offer och gärningspersoner i nära relationer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats bygger på tre, av mig och en annan student, genomförda fokusgruppsintervjuer. Sammanlagt intervjuades åtta personer som alla vid tidpunkten för intervjuerna var studerande vid universitet och högskolor i stockholmsområdet. Utgångspunkten är att ur ett genusteoretiskt perspektiv undersöka vilka attityder till och åsikter kring våld i heterosexuella nära relationer som framställs av intervjudeltagarna samt hur dessa i grupp, tillsammans konstruerar föreställningar om män och kvinnor som offer och gärningspersoner. Valet av fokusgruppsintervjuer som metod för kunskapssökande grundar sig i, en hos mig, konstruktivistisk syn på hur kunskap produceras. Detta innebär att jag ser på kunskap som något som skapas i interaktionen mellan människor i en viss socialt och kulturellt betingad kontext och där fokusgrupperna får anses representera en någorlunda verklighetsbaserad sådan. Meningen med intervjuerna är att deltagarna så fritt som möjligt skulle få resonera kring temat våld och genus även om vi som intervjuare hade vissa frågeställningar som vi ville att de skulle diskutera. Intervjuerna gick till så att fem fiktiva vinjetter av varierande längd delades ut. Vinjetterna beskrev händelser och handlingar som skulle kunna betraktas som våldshandlingar, där kön på offer och gärningspersoner varierade liksom om vinjetterna beskrev personer som hade en nära relation eller var för varandra okända.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Mått på brott: Självdeklaration som metod att mäta brottslighet2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring crime is one of criminology’s most central tasks. Self-report studies constitute one means of doing so. By asking people, primarily youths, about their experience of involvement in criminal acts, self-report studies are intended to provide knowledge on the extent and structure of crime and on crime trends over time, while also providing opportunities to study the causes of crime. The dissertation’s objective is to examine the use of self-reported crime as a research method. It problematises the use of self-report studies as an instrument for measuring both the extent and structure of youth crime, and also trends in youth crime over time. Problematising the method in this way both illustrates the significance of methodology and measurement instruments for the production/construction of criminological data and makes possible a more nuanced and aware approach to the use of such data.

    The dissertation comprises a discussion of the basic assumptions of the self-report method viewed from the perspective of theory of science, a review of Swedish self-report studies and a detailed study of the Swedish School Survey on Crime, Sweden’s nationally representative self-report study of youth in year nine (aged 15).

    The dissertation’s most important conclusions are that researchers, when designing a self-report study, should consider both how crime is viewed and what the study is intended to examine. It is also important, when using self-report data, to consider what the data represent. This is of significance in relation to both how questions might best be formulated and to what extent the mechanisms that affect the results will involve problems for the quality of the measures obtained.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Self-Reported Delinquency in Sweden2009In: Self-Reported Crime and Deviance Studies in Europe: Current State of Knowledge and Review of Use / [ed] Renée Zauberman, Brussels: VUB University Press , 2009, p. 221-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ring, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Sweden2010In: Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond: Results of the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study / [ed] I Junger-Tas, J.; Marshall, I.H.; Enzmann, D.; Killias, M.; Steketee, M.; Gruszczynska, B., New York: Springer , 2010, p. 173-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Andersson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Förtjänt att styra. Samhällets bästa och förtjänsttanken2007In: Brott i välfärden: Om brottslighet, utsatthet och kriminalpolitik. Festskrift till Henrik Tham, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen , 2007, p. 462-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Andersson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Kriminalpolitikens väsen2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Sabina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    The World Bank: A qualitative content analysis of anti-corruption strategies 1997 – 20062010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The World Bank is a large organization that has been an influential actor in world politics for decades. The foundation of the work in the World Bank was stipulated in the Articles of Agreement, negotiated in 1944, which concluded that the purpose of the Bank was to finance postwar reconstruction and investment in developing countries.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the problem of corruption is framed in the anti-corruption strategies produced by the World Bank, since corruption has received a growing interest from the World Bank, as well as the world in general during the last decade. This essay will analyze how the World Bank create and use their knowledge regarding corruption. This will be performed by studying how the anti-corruption strategies of the World Bank have evolved from the 1997 Publication “Helping Countries Combat Corruption: A World Bank Strategy” the revised governance strategy publication “Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance: A World Bank Strategy” from 2000, followed by the latest strategy paper “Strengthening World Bank Group Engagement on Governance and Anti-Corruption” published in the year of 2006.

    The hypothesis and theory that the analysis is built upon is of a social-constructive nature, and the policy documents will be analyzed through the theory and method of claims-making, which highlights how power asymmetries and collective identity claims is used to give certain claims validity. The study will also look for the possible existence of a political bias, which often willingly or unwillingly shapes the views of individuals as well as organization.

    The results showed that there has only been a small change in working methods within the anti-corruption unit at the World Bank during the last ten years, despite significant scholarly criticism against the suggested strategies and despite poor results. The aspects the strategies had been changed in did however indicate a possibility that it has followed a politicized general western/northern trend of liberalization which has become the norm for how economic reforms should be stipulated.

  • 28.
    Atak, Kivanc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Prevention, facilitation and the fortress of the transnational: Policing public demonstrations in Europe2016In: Juridikum (Wien), ISSN 1019-5394, E-ISSN 2309-7477, no 4, p. 484-493Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Atak, Kivanc
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bayram, Ismail Emre
    Protest Policing alla Turca: Threat, Insurgency, and the Repression of Pro-Kurdish Protests in Turkey2017In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 1667-1694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do certain protests prompt more intervention from the police? And why does the intensity of intervention vary over time? Drawing on analytical approaches in the protest policing literature, and on studies investigating the relationship between civil conflict, public opinion, and state repression, this study examines whether pro-Kurdish events in Turkey are treated more severely than others, and how the policing of these protests changes over time. Based on an original dataset, we analyze more than 10,000 protest events that took place in Turkey between 2000 and 2009. Our findings suggest that compared to others, pro-Kurdish events are more likely to encounter police action, one that particularly involves repressive strategies. We further show that repressive policing in pro-Kurdish events is more pronounced when the Kurdish armed insurgency against the state intensifies. Given that this is the first systematic quantitative study on protest policing in Turkey, it not only tests previously confirmed theories of protest policing, but also makes a theoretical contribution by providing a dynamic notion of threat beyond its situational forms, which builds on the conflict between the Turkish state and the PKK.

  • 30.
    Atak, Kivanc
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    della Porta, Donatella
    Popular uprisings in Turkey: Police culpability and constraints on dialogue-oriented policing in Gezi Park and beyond2016In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 610-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The policing of riots and uprisings poses severe challenges to the police. Yet the police are often culpable in the disturbances touched off by a precipitating incident of police violence or a crackdown on a peaceful protest. The Gezi Park uprisings in Turkey also broke out shortly after excessive force by the Istanbul police against a handful of peaceful activists in Taksim Square. In the aftermath of the mobilizations, however, a drift towards a ‘zero-tolerance’ approach has prevailed over protest control strategies. Drawing on field notes, interviews with activists, excerpts from the news media, protest event analysis and secondary literature, we argue that the chances of dialogue-oriented policing are hampered by two major predicaments in Turkey. The first pertains to the negative biases in police perceptions about protests and protesters that serve to justify and perpetuate a conflict-driven understanding of policing. The second is rooted in the institutional and policy realm and stems from the prevalence of a law-and-order approach to crowd control and public order.

  • 31.
    Atak, Kivanç
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Della Porta, Donatella
    Towards a Global Control? Policing and Protest in a New Century2016In: The SAGE Handbook of Global Policing / [ed] Ben Bradford, Beatrice Jauregui, Ian Loader, Jonny Steinberg, London: Sage Publications, 2016, p. 515-534Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Atak, Kıvanç
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Beyond the western crime drop: Violence, property offences, and the state in Turkey 1990–20162020In: International Journal of Law Crime and Justice, ISSN 1756-0616, E-ISSN 1876-763X, Vol. 60, article id 100373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal changes in crime have long attracted scholarly attention. Much research on the recent trajectory of crime rates is dominated by the crime drop thesis in western democracies, with only little input from other societal contexts. The present work offers the first explorative inquiry into a subset violent and property crimes in Turkey over the last quarter-century. Data collected from judicial records, police reports on offences, prison and causes of death statistics are read primarily through the lens of state response to crime, with the notable exception of homicide. Results reveal partial evidence for a declining behavioral trend in the case of homicide – a finding that furthers current debates about the crime drop thesis. Rather mixed evidence is documented for robbery, theft and assault, but a common marked increase in the number of offences, suspects and convicts received into prison. Implications are discussed by reference to the emergent punitive turn in the Turkish penal regime, and enhanced police capacity to control crime.

  • 33.
    Atak, Kıvanç
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    '‘Inappropriate but not crime?’ Policing racial hatred in Sweden2020In: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 32-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Racial bias afflicts police practices across the globe. Police discrimination against and mistreatment of racial and ethnic minorities is indeed difficult to underestimate. While much attention has been thus paid to racially biased policing, fewer studies examine the question from the reverse angle, namely how the police themselves combat racist offences. This article offers empirical insights into the policing of racial hatred in Sweden, a relevant yet relatively understudied case. Drawing on interviews with police officers and crime investigators, I discuss law enforcement perspectives, e.g. perceptions and reasoning in relation to the investigation of racist offences. Findings evince a rather narrow approach as regards the constructions of racist motive that involves a relatively restricted use of bias labelling in identifying hate incidents, especially when the boundaries of racial hostility are perceived as blurred. I argue that while such an approach may reflect a legitimate effort to demonstrate the existence of a motive behind an offence, it may also lead to an underestimation of more mundane forms of racism and their harms inflicted upon racialized individuals and communities. The results have implications for ‘recognition’ and ‘belonging’ as benchmarks of democratic policing, and ‘the promise of inclusion’ associated with combatting hate crimes.

  • 34.
    Atak, Kıvanç
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Zeynep Gönen, The Politics of Crime in Turkey: Neoliberalism, Police and the Urban Poor, I.B. Tauris, London & New York, 20162018In: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 648-650Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Augustsson, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Sjöström, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Det manliga brottsoffret: En studie om balansgången mellan den förväntade styrkan hos maskuliniteter och den ideala svagheten hos brottsoffret2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhället tycks det råda konsensus kring att alla brottsoffer ska känna samhällets stöd. I praktiken tycks dock samhällets definition av brottsoffer främst inkludera kvinnor och barn. Det som synliggörs är en brottsofferdiskurs där mannen inte tycks tillmätas samma offerstatus som kvinnan. I polisförhör kan det tänkas att maskuliniteten, såväl som brottsofferstatusen, sätts på spel. Detta ställer krav på mannen att balansera de motstående identiteterna för att på så sätt tillåtas att skapa ett manligt brottsoffer. Uppsatsen har till syfte att öka förståelsen för relationen mellan maskuliniteter och brottsofferskap samt hur dessa framställs i polisförhör. För att möjliggöra analysen användes en tematisk textanalys på sex förhör med män som har blivit utsatta för misshandel, där studien intresserar sig för hur männen förhandlar om sin brottsofferstatus. Studien tar avstamp i genusteori samt Christies idealtypiska bild av brottsoffret.

    Genom analysen identifierades tre återkommande teman: våldspotential, ett manligt brottsoffer och från offerskap till hjälteskap. Utifrån den genomförda studien kan slutsatsen dras att män modifierar sin brottsofferstatus i förhörssituationen genom uppvisande av styrka, mod och hjälteskap. Genom att uppvisa karaktärsdrag som utgör maskulinitetsmarkörer tillåts männen att modifiera sitt offerskap till ett socialt accepterat uttryck för maskulinitet. Det framkom även i studien att männen, i sina förhör, relaterar till en brottsofferdiskurs där kvinnor och barn definieras som äkta offer, varför de tycks behöva hävda sitt offerskap i stor utsträckning. Männen kan genom sina egna berättelser modifiera sin brottsofferstatus till ett manligt brottsoffer och kan på så sätt såväl behålla sin maskulinitet som erhålla ett offervärde. Studien har sammanfattningsvis i någon mån indikerat att Christies idealtypiska bild av brottsoffer tycks missgynna manliga brottsoffer.

  • 36.
    B. Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  • 37.
    Balvig, Flemming
    et al.
    Köbenhamns universitet, Det juridiske fakultet.
    Gunnlaugsson, Helgi
    University of Iceland.
    Jerre, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Olaussen, Leif Petter
    Oslo universitet, Institutt for kriminologi og rettssociologi.
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Den nordiske retsbevidsthedsundersögelse2010In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, ISSN 0029-1528, no 3, p. 232-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Balvig, Flemming
    et al.
    Gunnlaugsson, Helgi
    Jerre, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Kinnunen, Aarne
    The public sense of justice in Scandinavia: A study of attitudes towards punishments2015In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 342-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crime policy is increasingly legitimised by reference to the public sense of justice. A research project has therefore been conducted in all five Scandinavian countries in order to examine the public’s views on punishment. These views have been examined by means of simple questions in telephone interviews, by vignettes in postal questionnaires, and by focus groups having seen a film of a mock trial. The results show that when asked simple questions, the public want stiffer sentences. In their assessments of the vignette crimes, the public demands on average lower prison sentences than judges, and this tendency becomes stronger in the focus group study. The propensities towards punitiveness seem to diminish with more information and increasing proximity to the parties involved. 

  • 39. Balvig, Flemming
    et al.
    Gunnlaugsson, Helgi
    Tham, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Ikke kun strenghed - replik om de nordiske retsbevidsthedsundersögelser2011In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 228-238Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservations have been voiced against the project The general sense of justice in Scandinavia on methodological grounds. The first reservation concerns that the studies in Denmark, Island and Sweden have not used non custodial sanctions for the construction of punitivity scales thereby making the public look less punitive than it otherwise would have done. The answer to this is that the purpose of the project was to analyse the willingness to use imprisonment in relation do different crimes, not to construct a punitivity scale that requires much more research in order not to make it arbitrary. The second reservation concerns the way the filmed versions of trials shown to focus groups were constructed that also would have led to milder judgements than "in reality". Tha answer to this is that studies undertaken within the project do not support the allegation that the accused was presented in a too favourable way. Further research could of course be carried out manipulating the presentation of the accused and other variables but that is a matter of resources. Further metodolicial issues in the project are discussed.    

  • 40.
    Beck, Nishadi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Virtanen Janbakhsh, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Popular Descriptions of the Rape Victim in the Press: A quantitative content analysis comparing Swedish and Michigan articles2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Not all victims can relate to the concept of the ideal victim. Especially rape victims can have a hard time gaining status as a victim. Rape victims may have to deal with being questioned about the circumstances but that has taken a turn towards the right direction in the redefinition of the rape law. In past decades the focus shifted more towards the victim and instead of looking at the victim‟s behaviour as much, there is now a sharper focus on the acts of the offender.

    We compare Sweden and Michigan, two places with similar legal structures, to examine whether there are different media portrayals of the ideal victim.

    The theory of “the ideal victim” by Nils Christie refers to crime victims who easily achieve legitimate status as a victim in the eyes of the public. The different attributes of being an ideal victim are used to understand the description of a victim. Constructions of gender are used as a complement to the concept of the ideal victim.

    The previous studies show that there is a clear relationship between media and crime victims regarding recognition and visibility. This paper examines characteristics of the rape victim, presenting the most commonly portrayed descriptions in newspaper articles.

    A quantitative content analysis has been carried out to interpret themes in the material, which consisted of morning and evening newspapers from Sweden and Michigan from 2008 and 2009. The coding is a thematic analysis with nine themes and the results are illustrated in figures.

    The findings show that Sweden and Michigan have similar popular descriptions emphasizing the ideal victim. Their similar restrictive and redefined rape laws seem to be related to the amount of reported rapes in both jurisdictions.

  • 41.
    Beckley, Amber
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Foreign background and criminal offending among young males in Stockholm2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis considers how factors from the home country, the family, and the individual impact the risk for criminal offending among young males from a foreign background residing in Stockholm. I use Swedish register data to examine the risk for police registered suspicion of criminal offending. The introductory chapter presents an historical overview of immigration in Sweden, theories of criminal offending, and details about analysis of register data. It is followed by three empirical studies that consider unique risk factors for crime among children of immigrants while controlling for factors encountered within Sweden. The first study shows that young male children of immigrants do not seem to be inherently violent as a result of coming from a war-torn country. The second study indicates that it is not the age at immigration, but the family situation that seems to dictate criminal propensity. The final study suggests that threats of deportation and stricter immigration policies do not seem to deter criminality. The most interesting result was probably that high home country human development was a protective factor against crime. This is the first known work to uncover such a result. Future theoretical development may be best aimed at unpacking and empirically evaluating the human development index as a risk factor. Together, these three studies suggest that some previously unconsidered uniquely immigrant factors are related to risk for criminality. 

  • 42.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Age at immigration and crime in Stockholm using sibling comparisons2015In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 53, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past Swedish research has shown that immigrants arriving in the receiving country at an older age are less likely to commit crime than immigrants arriving at a younger age. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the family and neighborhood may be important factors affecting how age at immigration and crime are related to one another. This study used population-based register data on foreign-background males from Stockholm to test the effect of age at immigration on crime. Potential confounding from. the family and neighborhood was addressed using variables and modeling strategies. Initial results, using variables to control for confounding, showed that people who immigrated around age 4 were the most likely to be suspected of a crime. When controlling for unmeasured family characteristics, it seemed that a later age at immigration was tied to a lower likelihood of crime, which does not corroborate past research findings. The effect of age at immigration, however, was not statistically significant. The results imply that future research on entire families may be a worthwhile endeavor.

  • 43.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Correlates of War? Towards an understanding of nativity-based variation in immigrant offending2013In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 408-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses Swedish register data to assess the impact of war in the home country on the individual likelihood of registered violent crime among young male immigrants in Stockholm, Sweden. War in the home country during a migrant’s residence is significantly related to a higher likelihood of registration for a violent crime. However, these results were not sustained in a sensitivity analysis, which considered serious property crime. Analysis of the history of war in the home country produces effects opposite to those predicted, with more years of war reducing the likelihood of violent crime. These findings indicate that war is capturing other factors, within the home or the receiving country, that may be related to violent crime.

  • 44.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Deterrence Versus Marginalization: evidence From Immigrant Offending2015In: Race and Justice, E-ISSN 2153-3687, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 278-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration policies that attach citizenship and deportation consequences to crime may be aimed at deterring crime, but they also effectively marginalize immigrants and may promote crime. Evidence from Sweden and around the world indicates that, where citizenship is concerned, marginalization may have won out. This research used a population-based sample of approximately 20,000 Swedish males and more rigorous methods than past studies to test the effects of citizenship and region of origin on official police suspicion for a serious crime. The findings showed that a lack of citizenship is related to greater involvement in crime, indicating support for the marginalizing effects of immigration policies. Yet, the region of origin results presented a conflicting picture in which neither ideas on deterrence nor marginalization could be supported. In conclusion, neither the potential deterrent effects of immigration policy nor its marginalizing effects were strongly supported.

  • 45.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Lundholm, Lena
    Långström, Niklas
    Frisell, Thomas
    Association of height and violent criminality: results from a Swedish total population study2014In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 835-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Violent criminality is at least moderately heritable, but the mechanisms behind this remain largely unexplained. Height, a highly heritable trait, may be involved but no study has estimated the effect of height on crime while simultaneously accounting for important demographic, biological and other heritable confounders. Methods: We linked nationwide, longitudinal registers for 760 000 men who underwent mandatory military conscription from 1980 through 1992 in Sweden, to assess the association between height and being convicted of a violent crime. We used Cox proportional hazard modelling and controlled for three types of potential confounders: physical characteristics, childhood demographics and general cognitive ability (intelligence). Results: In unadjusted analyses, height had a moderate negative relationship to violent crime; the shortest of men were twice as likely to be convicted of a violent crime as the tallest. However, when simultaneously controlling for all measured confounders, height was weakly and positively related to violent crime. Intelligence had the individually strongest mitigating effect on the height-crime relationship. Conclusions: Although shorter stature was associated with increased risk of violent offending, our analyses strongly suggested that this relationship was explained by intelligence and other confounding factors. Hence, it is unlikely that height, a highly heritable physical characteristic, accounts for much of the unexplained heritability of violent criminality.

  • 46.
    Beigi Masihi, Sato
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Attityder till polisen hos pojkar i Rinkeby: En kvalitativ studie om hur attityderna kan förstås2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk forskning om ungdomars attityder till polisen är mycket begränsad. Detta examensarbete syftar därför till att studera vilka attityder till polisen som förekommer hos pojkar i Stockholmsförorten Rinkeby, hur dessa kan förstås och förbättras om dessa är negativa. Studien är baserad på åtta kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med pojkar i åldrarna 15-16 år. Följande frågeställningar har besvarats:

    - Vilka attityder förekommer mot polisen bland pojkar i åldrarna 15-16 år i Rinkeby?

    - Hur kan dessa attityder förstås?

    - Hur skulle attityderna till polisen kunna förbättras om dessa är negativa?

    Grounded theory har använts som analysmetod och två teoretiska perspektiv har kunnat utskiljas ur empirin, vilka sedan använts för att tolka och förklara attityderna. Dessa perspektiv beskriver dels marginalisering, det vill säga en territoriell stigmatisering av Rinkeby som såväl subkulturens betydelse för utvecklandet av attityder till polisen.

    Resultatet visade att det förekom relativt negativa attityder till polisen, vilka främst kunde förklaras utifrån kontakten med polisen som intervjupersonerna haft. De negativa attityderna kunde även förklaras utifrån att intervjupersonerna upplever en stigmatisering samt diskriminering av/som invånare i Rinkeby, samt att pojkarna socialiseras in i en subkultur där attityderna ärvs från de äldre i stadsdelen och att det förväntas av de att hysa negativa attityder till polisen eftersom de är uppvuxna i en förort. Subkulturen har även betydelse för hur de positiva attityderna uppstår.

    När det gäller attitydförändring så visade resultatet att det inte är omöjligt att en mer positiv attityd ska kunna uppstå. Liksom hur de negativa attityderna uppstår menar intervjupersonerna att det är den egna interaktionen med polisen som spelar en stor roll för att attityderna ska bli mer positiva, det vill säga att de förväntar sig ett bättre bemötande av polisen. Det framkom även att attitydförändring inte var möjligt på grund av att upplevelsen i samband med kontakten med polisen haft en för stor negativ inverkan.

  • 47.
    Benali, Karima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Den stulna värdigheten: En studie om fransk tortyr under det algeriska självständighetskriget 1954-19622011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tortyr brukar ofta förknippas med förhör och våld. Men finns det några andra sätt som tortyr kan förstås och förklaras på? Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka på vilka sätt tortyr kan definieras, förklaras och förstås. Den kontext som tortyr studeras i är det algeriska självständighetskriget år 1954-1962, där tortyr mot algerier användes i stor utsträckning av den franska armén.

    Undersökningen utgörs av en litteraturstudie där bl.a. böcker och artiklar har använts för att be-svara följande frågeställningar:

    Vad är tortyr?

    Hur har tortyr i det algeriska självständighetskriget förklarats i tidigare forskning?

    En kvalitativ innehållsanalys har tillämpats för att analysera det material som studien bygger på och sedan har Herbert C. Kelmans teori "Violence Without Moral Restraint: Reflections on the De-humanization of Victims and Victimizers" (som förklarar uppkomsten av massivt och brett vålds-utövande i bl.a. krigskontexter) applicerats som begreppsram för att besvara och analysera de ställda frågorna.

    Av resultatet framgår det att tortyr enligt fransmännen betraktades som ett conditio sine qua non, ett medel som kriget inte kunde vinnas utan, och därför blev tortyren ett krigsvapen som det algeri-ska folket i sin helhet bekämpades med. Det som blev avgörande för tortyrens användning var av-humaniseringen av algerierna. Dessa betraktades inte som människor, och därmed blev an-vändningen av tortyr legitim. Kombinerat med en auktorisering av tortyranvändningen och till följd därav en rutinisering hade en situation av systematisk tortyranvändning uppstått.

    Analysen visade sedan att tortyr inte bara kunde definieras som en våldsmetod eller en förhörs-metod, utan att den innebar förnedring och destruktivitet på många olika sätt. Det har sedan konsta-terats att det inte kan formuleras en allmängiltig (och djupgående) definition av tortyr eftersom be-greppet tenderar till att ändra karaktär beroende på vilken kontext det sätts i.

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    Börjesson, Mikael
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    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Klassamhället i den officiella statistiken2012In: Fronesis, ISSN 1404-2614, no 40-41, p. 136-157Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Gustavsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Hörnqvist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Att tänka klass på nytt med hjälp av klassiker2012In: Fronesis, ISSN 1404-2614, no 40-41, p. 22-32Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Conceptualising public health: An introduction2018In: Conceptualising Public Health: Historical and Contemporary Struggles over Key Concepts / [ed] Johannes Kananen, Sophy Bergenheim, Merle Wessel, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
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