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  • 1.
    Adler, Jeremy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Parmryd, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Plasma membrane topology and membrane models2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Adler, Jeremy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Shevchuk, A
    Novak, P
    Korchev, Y
    Parmryd, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Single Particle Tracking in 2D Produces Gibberish: A Solution2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andréasson, Claes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Rampelt, Heike
    Fiaux, Jocelyne
    Druffel-Augustin, Silke
    Bukau, Bernd
    The endoplasmic reticulum Grp170 acts as a nucleotide exchange factor of Hsp70 via a mechanism similar to that of the cytosolic Hsp112010In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 285, no 16, p. 12445-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grp170 and Hsp110 proteins constitute two evolutionary distinct branches of the Hsp70 family that share the ability to function as nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) for canonical Hsp70s. Although the NEF mechanism of the cytoplasmic Hsp110s is well understood, little is known regarding the mechanism used by Grp170s in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this study, we compare the yeast Grp170 Lhs1 with the yeast Hsp110 Sse1. We find that residues important for Sse1 NEF activity are conserved in Lhs1 and that mutations in these residues in Lhs1 compromise NEF activity. As previously reported for Sse1, Lhs1 requires ATP to trigger nucleotide exchange in its cognate Hsp70 partner Kar2. Using site-specific cross-linking, we show that the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of Lhs1 interacts with the NBD of Kar2 face to face, and that Lhs1 contacts the side of the Kar2 NBD via its protruding C-terminal alpha-helical domain. To directly address the mechanism of nucleotide exchange, we have compared the hydrogen-exchange characteristics of a yeast Hsp70 NBD (Ssa1) in complex with either Sse1 or Lhs1. We find that Lhs1 and Sse1 induce very similar changes in the conformational dynamics in the Hsp70. Thus, our findings demonstrate that despite some differences between Hsp110 and Grp170 proteins, they use a similar mechanism to trigger nucleotide exchange.

  • 4. Busayavalasa, Kiran
    et al.
    Chen, Xin
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Wagner, Nicole
    Sabri, Nafiseh
    The nup155 mediated organisation of inner nuclear membrane proteins is independent of nup155 anchoring to the metazoan nuclear pore complex2012In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 125, no 18, p. 4214-4218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nuclear envelope (NE), an important barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, is composed of three structures: the outer nuclear membrane, which is continuous with the ER, the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which interfaces with chromatin, and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are essential for the exchange of macromolecules between the two compartments. The NPC protein Nup155 has an evolutionarily conserved role in the metazoan NE formation; but the in vivo analysis of Nup155 has been severely hampered by the essential function of this protein in cell viability. Here, we take advantage of the hypomorphicity of RNAi systems and use a combination of protein binding and rescue assays to map the interaction sites of two neighbouring NPC proteins Nup93 and Nup53 on Nup155, and to define the requirements of these interactions in INM protein organization. We show that different parts of Drosophila Nup155 have distinct functions: the Nup155 beta-propeller anchors the protein to the NPC, whereas the alpha-solenoid part of Nup155 is essential for the correct localisation of INM proteins lamin-B receptor (LBR) and otefin. Using chromatin extracts from semisynchronized cells, we also provide evidence that the Nup155 alpha-solenoid has a chromatin-binding activity that is stronger at the end of mitosis. Our results argue that the role of Nup155 in INM protein localisation is not mediated through the NPC anchoring activity of the protein and suggest that regions other than Nup155 beta-propeller are necessary for the targeting of proteins to the INM.

  • 5.
    Davis, Monica M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Alvarez, Francisco J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Ryman, Kicki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Holm, Åsa A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Ljungdahl, Per O
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Engström, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster as a Model Host to Analyze Nitrogen Source Dependent Virulence of Candida albicans2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 11, p. e27434-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a common cause of opportunistic infections in humans. We report that wild-type Drosophila melanogaster (OrR) flies are susceptible to virulent C. albicans infections and have established experimental conditions that enable OrR flies to serve as model hosts for studying C. albicans virulence. After injection into the thorax, wild-type C. albicans cells disseminate and invade tissues throughout the fly, leading to lethality. Similar to results obtained monitoring systemic infections in mice, well-characterized cph1Δ efg1Δ and csh3Δ fungal mutants exhibit attenuated virulence in flies. Using the OrR fly host model, we assessed the virulence of C. albicans strains individually lacking functional components of the SPS sensing pathway. In response to extracellular amino acids, the plasma membrane localized SPS-sensor (Ssy1, Ptr3, and Ssy5) activates two transcription factors (Stp1 and Stp2) to differentially control two distinct modes of nitrogen acquisition (host protein catabolism and amino acid uptake, respectively). Our results indicate that a functional SPS-sensor and Stp1 controlled genes required for host protein catabolism and utilization, including the major secreted aspartyl protease SAP2, are required to establish virulent infections. By contrast, Stp2, which activates genes required for amino acid uptake, is dispensable for virulence. These results indicate that nutrient availability within infected hosts directly influences C. albicans virulence.

  • 6.
    Dinic, Jelena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Adler, Jeremy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Parmryd, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Plasma membrane order in T cell signalling2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma membrane nanodomains, referred to as lipid rafts, more ordered than the bulk membrane play an important role in T cell signalling by forming signalling platforms in activated T cells. However, the existence of lipid rafts in resting T cells is contentious. Using laurdan, a membrane probe whose peak emission wavelength depends on the lipid environment, evidence is presented for the existence of ordered nanodomains in resting T cells.

    T cell signalling can be initiated by stimulating the T cell receptor (TCR), crosslinking the lipid raft markers GM1 (sphingolipid) or glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins. The aggregation of lipid raft components induces the same response in Jurkat T cells as the ligation of an antigen to the TCR. Changes in membrane order linked with reorganization of the plasma membrane upon Jurkat T cell activation were followed at 37°C. Fluorescent images were analyzed for generalised polarisation values - a measure of the relative abundance of liquid ordered and liquid disordered domains. TCR patching does not increase the overall membrane order suggesting that membrane domains of high order are brought together in the patches. This supports the existence of small ordered membrane domains in resting T cells that aggregate upon activation. Patching of GM1, the GPI-anchored protein CD59 and the non lipid raft marker CD45 significantly increases the overall membrane order. So does general crosslinking of membrane components with Concanavalin A. Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton is an integral part of TCR signaling and T cell activation. Disrupting actin polymerization using latrunculin B decreases membrane order and stabilizing actin filaments with jasplakinolide increases membrane order. An increase in membrane order appears to be a general effect of plasma membrane component patching and is likely due to a global induction of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane.

  • 7. Grantham, Julie
    et al.
    Lassing, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Controlling the cortical actin motor2012In: Protoplasma, ISSN 0033-183X, E-ISSN 1615-6102, Vol. 249, no 4, p. 1001-1015Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actin is the essential force-generating component of the microfilament system, which powers numerous motile processes in eukaryotic cells and undergoes dynamic remodeling in response to different internal and external signaling. The ability of actin to polymerize into asymmetric filaments is the inherent property behind the site-directed force-generating capacity that operates during various intracellular movements and in surface protrusions. Not surprisingly, a broad variety of signaling pathways and components are involved in controlling and coordinating the activities of the actin microfilament system in a myriad of different interactions. The characterization of these processes has stimulated cell biologists for decades and has, as a consequence, resulted in a huge body of data. The purpose here is to present a cellular perspective on recent advances in our understanding of the microfilament system with respect to actin polymerization, filament structure and specific folding requirements.

  • 8.
    Grenklo, Staffan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Geese, Marcus
    Department of Cell Biology, Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung (GBF).
    Lindberg, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Department of Cell Biology.
    Wehland, Jürgen
    Department of Cell Biology, Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung (GBF).
    Karlsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Department of Cell Biology.
    Sechi, Antonio S
    Department of Cell Biology, Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung (GBF).
    A crucial role for profilin-actin in the intracellular motility of Listeria monocytogenes2003In: EMBO reports, ISSN 1469-221, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 523-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have examined the effect of covalently crosslinked profilin–actin (PxA), which closely matches the biochemical properties of ordinary profilin–actin and interferes with actin polymerization in vitro and in vivo, on Listeria monocytogenes motility. PxA caused a marked reduction in bacterial motility, which was accompanied by the detachment of bacterial tails. The effect of PxA was dependent on its binding to proline-rich sequences, as shown by the inability of PH133SxA, which cannot interact with such sequences, to impair Listeria motility. PxA did not alter the motility of a Listeria mutant that is unable to recruit Ena (Enabled)/VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein) proteins and profilin to its surface. Finally, PxA did not block the initiation of actin-tail formation, indicating that profilin–actin is only required for the elongation of actin filaments at the bacterial surface. Our findings provide further evidence that profilin–actin is important for actin-based processes, and show that it has a key function in Listeria motility.

  • 9.
    Johnsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Microtubule-dependent localization of profilin I mRNA to actin polymerization sites in serum-stimulated cells2010In: European Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0171-9335, E-ISSN 1618-1298, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 394-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific localization of messenger RNA (mRNA) appears to be a general mechanism to accumulate certain proteins to subcellular compartments for participation in local processes, thereby maintaining cell polarity under strict spatiotemporal control. Transportation of mRNA with associated protein components (RNP granules) by the actin microfilament or the microtubule systems is one important mechanism to achieve this locally distributed protein production. Here we provide evidence for a microtubule-dependent localization of mRNA encoding the actin regulatory protein profilin to sites in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which express enhanced actin polymerization.

  • 10.
    Johnsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Synaptotagmin 1 causes phosphatidyl inositol lipid-dependent actin remodeling in cultured non-neuronal and neuronal cells2012In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 318, no 2, p. 114-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate that a dramatic actin polymerizing activity caused by ectopic expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 that results in extensive filopodia formation is due to the presence of a lysine rich sequence motif immediately at the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane domain of the protein. This polybasic sequence interacts with anionic phospholipids in vitro, and, consequently, the actin remodeling caused by this sequence is interfered with by expression of a phosphatidyl inositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-targeted phosphatase, suggesting that it intervenes with the function of PIP2-binding actin control proteins. The activity drastically alters the behavior of a range of cultured cells including the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary cortical mouse neurons, and, since the sequence is conserved also in synaptotagmin 2, it may reflect an important fine-tuning role for these two proteins during synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release.

  • 11. Kis, Loránd L.
    et al.
    Gerasimcik, Natalija
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology. Vilnius University .
    Salamon, Daniel
    Persson, Emma K.
    Nagy, Noémi
    Klein, George
    Severinson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Klein, Eva
    The STAT6 signaling pathway activated by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 induces expression of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded protein LMP-1 in absence of EBNA-2: implications for the type II EBV latent gene expression in Hodgkin lymphoma2011In: Blood, ISSN 0006-4971, E-ISSN 1528-0020, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the B-lymphotropic nature of EBV, the virus is present in several types of B cell lymphomas. EBV expresses a different set of latent genes in the associated tumors, such as EBNA-1 and LMPs (type II latency) in the classical Hodgkin lymphomas (cHL). We have previously reported that exposure of the in vitro EBV-converted, HL-derived cell line KMH2-EBV to CD40-ligand and IL-4 induced the expression of LMP-1. Here we show that exposure to IL-4 or IL-13 alone induced LMP-1 in the absence of EBNA-2. The induction of LMP-1 by IL-4 and IL-13 was mediated by the signal transducer STAT6 and a newly defined high-affinity STAT6-binding site in the LMP-1 promoter. IL-4 induced LMP-1 also in Burkitt lymphoma-derived lines and in tonsillar B cells infected with the EBNA-2-deficient EBV strain P3HR-1. Furthermore, co-culture of EBV-carrying BL cells with activated CD4(+) T cells resulted in the induction of LMP-1 in the absence of EBNA-2. As the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg are known to secrete IL-13, to have constitutively activated STAT6, and to be closely surrounded by CD4+ T cells, these mechanisms may be involved in the expression of LMP-1 in the EBV-positive cHLs.

  • 12.
    Lassing, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Hillberg, Louise
    Karolinska institutet.
    Höglund, Anna-Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Karlsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Schutt, Clarence
    Princeton University.
    Lindberg, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Tropomyosin is a tetramer under physiological salt conditions.2010In: Cytoskeleton (Hoboken, N.J.), ISSN 1949-3592, Vol. 67, no 9, p. 599-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropomyosin (TM) is a coiled-coil dimer of alpha-helical peptides, which self associates in a head- to-tail fashion along actin polymers, conferring stability to the microfilaments and serving a regulatory function in acto-myosin driven force generation. While the major amount of TM is associated with filaments also in non-muscle cells, it was recently reported that there are isoform-specific pools of TM multimers (not associated with F-actin), which appear to be utilized during actin polymerization and reformed during depolymerization. To determine the size of these multimers, skeletal muscle TM was studied under different salt conditions using gel-filtration and sucrose gradient sedimentation, and compared with purified non-muscle TM 1 and 5, as well as with TM present in non-muscle cell extracts and skeletal muscle TM added to such extracts. Under physiological salt conditions TM appears as a single homogenous peak with the Stokes radius 8.2 nm and the molecular weight (mw) 130,000. The corresponding values for TM 5 are 7.7 nm and 104,000, respectively. This equals four peptides, implying that native TM is a tetramer in physiological salt. It is therefore concluded that the TM multimers are tetramers.

  • 13. Lisowska, Halina
    et al.
    Deperas-Kaminska, Marta
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Parmryd, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in human gammadelta and alphabeta T-lymphocytes analysed by the alkaline comet assay.2010In: Genome integrity, ISSN 2041-9414, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: It has been shown by a number of authors that the radiosensitivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is higher in cancer patients compared to healthy donors, which is interpreted as a sign of genomic instability. PBMC are composed of different cell subpopulations which are differently radiosensitive and the difference between cancer patients and healthy donors could also be due to different composition of their PBMC pools. Gamma-delta T-lymphocytes play an important role in immunosurveillance and are promising cells for immunotherapy. Their abundance is frequently reduced in cancer patients so should their sensitivity to radiation be lower than that of other T-lymphocytes, this could, at least partly explain the low radiosensitivity of PBMC from healthy individuals compared to cancer patients. The present investigation was carried out to test this. Using the alkaline comet assay we analysed the level of DNA damage and repair in isolated gammadelta T-lymphocytes, pan T-lymphocytes and in total PBMC exposed in vitro to gamma radiation. We found no difference in the level of DNA damage and the capacity of DNA repair between the T cell populations. This is the first study that addresses the question of sensitivity to radiation of gamma-delta T-cells.

  • 14.
    Mahammad, S
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Dinic, J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Adler, J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Parmryd, I
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Limited cholesterol depletion induces T cell activation and increases the plasma membrane fraction of higher order leading to clustering of signaling molecules2009In: The 49th Annual American Society of Cell Biology Meeting, San Diego, December 2009: Late abstracts, 2009, p. 2562/M-L20-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells contains nanodomains known as lipid rafts. Cholesterol depletion is a widely used technique for studying lipid rafts and their involvement in cellular processes. Cholesterol depletion has been reported to cause both increased and abolished T cell signaling. The abolished cell signaling upon cholesterol depletion is likely to be caused by substantial cell death as demonstrated by cell viability measurements. We have investigated how cholesterol depletion alters T cell activation by analyzing Jurkat T cells upon extraction of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of total cholesterol using methyl β cyclodextrin (MBCD), a protocol in which cholesterol depletion does not have any adverse effect on cell viability.Upon cholesterol depletion peripheral actin polymerization and aggregation of the lipid raft marker GM1 in the plasma membrane is observed. The aggregation of GM1 upon cholesterol depletion is dependent on signaling protein Lck. The aggregated GM1 domains colocalize with signaling proteins such as Lck and LAT. To confirm that the effects seen by cholesterol depletion using cyclodextrin are actually due to cholesterol depletion and not cyclodextrin treatment itself, control experiments having Jurkat T cells treated with MBCD-cholesterol complexes to keep the cellular cholesterol content at equilibrium. A larger fraction of ordered (lo) plasma membrane is observed upon cholesterol depletion, a study performed by using laurdan. A relative membrane order is given by normalized ratio of the two emission regions termed as general polarization (GP). GP is defined analogously to fluorescence polarization by measuring the intensities (I) between 385 and 470 nm and 480 and 508 nm. Change in the membrane order and increased peripheral actin polymerization indicates that actin polymerization is in correlation to the formation of liquid ordered (lo) domains in the plasma membrane upon cholesterol depletion. Our results conclude that limited cholesterol depletion leads to T cell activation and an increase in the amount of liquid ordered domains in the plasma membrane. This activation is followed by aggregation of GM1 enriched domains.

  • 15.
    Mahammad, S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Dinic, J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Adler, J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Parmryd, I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Limited cholesterol depletion induces T cell activation by increasing the plasma membrane fraction of higher order leading to clustering of signaling molecules2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Mahammad, Saleemulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Department of Cell Biology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Parmryd, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Department of Cell Biology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Cholesterol Delivery From the Plasma Membrane To the ER Is the Rate Limiting Factor of Acyl-Coenzyme A Acyltransferase Activity In Vivo Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracellular free cholesterol accumulation is toxic and has to be avoided. Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) clears cells of cholesterol by forming cholesteryl esters (CE). Upon cold stress of Jurkat T cells at 0°C, plasma membrane cholesterol is reduced and both CEs and lipid droplets accumulate rapidly, resembling cells acutely loaded with exogenous cholesterol. ACAT is responsible for the increase, determined using the ACAT inhibitor Sandoz 58035. Cold stress accumulation of CEs requires the redistribution of plasma membrane cholesterol, shown by acute methyl-beta-cyclodextrin mediated cholesterol depletion. Filipin staining revealed that ACAT inhibition resulted in increased plasma membrane cholesterol levels. The plasma membrane of both cold stressed and cholesterol-loaded cells contained a lower proportion of ordered domains than control cells, assessed by laurdan staining. In vivo ACAT is limited by ER cholesterol availability that can be increased by redistribution of endogenous cholesterol.

  • 17.
    Omnus, Deike J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Regulation of a Transcription Factor Activating Protease2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Omnus, Deike J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Pfirrmann, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Andréasson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Ljungdahl, Per O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    A phosphodegron controls nutrient-induced proteasomal activation of the signaling protease Ssy52011In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 22, no 15, p. 2754-2765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulated proteolysis serves as a mechanism to control cellular processes. The SPS (Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5) sensor in yeast responds to extracellular amino acids by endoproteolytically activating transcription factors Stp1 and Stp2 (Stp1/2). The processing endoprotease Ssy5 is regulated via proteasomal degradation of its noncovalently associated N-terminal prodomain. We find that degradation of the prodomain requires a conserved phosphodegron comprising phosphoacceptor sites and ubiquitin-accepting lysine residues. Upon amino acid induction, the phosphodegron is modified in a series of linked events by a set of general regulatory factors involved in diverse signaling pathways. First, an amino acid-induced conformational change triggers phosphodegron phosphorylation by the constitutively active plasma membrane-localized casein kinase I (Yck1/2). Next the prodomain becomes a substrate for polyubiquitylation by the Skp1/Cullin/Grr1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (SCF(Grr1)). Finally, the modified prodomain is concomitantly degraded by the 26S proteasome. These integrated events are requisite for unfettering the Ssy5 endoprotease, and thus Stp1/2 processing. The Ssy5 phosphoacceptor motif resembles the Yck1/2- and Grr1-dependent degrons of regulators in the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway. Our work defines a novel proteolytic activation cascade that regulates an intracellular signaling protease and illustrates how general signaling components are recruited to distinct pathways that achieve conditional and specific signaling outputs.

  • 19.
    Parmryd, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Otrygga villkor för forskare med STs förslag2009In: ST Press, ISSN 1652-3075, no 10 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Pfirrmann, Thorsten
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Heessen, Stijn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Omnus, Deike J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Andréasson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Ljungdahl, Per O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    The prodomain of Ssy5 protease controls receptor-activated proteolysis of transcription factor Stp12010In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 3299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular amino acids induce the yeast SPS sensor to endoproteolytically cleave transcription factors Stp1 and Stp2 in a process termed receptor-activated proteolysis (RAP). Ssy5, the activating endoprotease, is synthesized with a large N-terminal prodomain and a C-terminal chymotrypsin-like catalytic (Cat) domain. During biogenesis, Ssy5 cleaves itself and the prodomain and Cat domain remain associated, forming an inactive primed protease. Here we show that the prodomain is a potent inhibitor of Cat domain activity and that its inactivation is a requisite for RAP. Accordingly, amino acid-induced signals trigger proteasome-dependent degradation of the prodomain. A mutation that stabilizes the prodomain prevents Stp1 processing, whereas destabilizing mutations lead to constitutive RAP-independent Stp1 processing. We fused a conditional degron to the prodomain to synthetically reprogram the amino acid-responsive SPS signaling pathway, placing it under temperature control. Our results define a regulatory mechanism that is novel for eukaryotic proteases functioning within cells

  • 21.
    Sadeghifar, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Böhm, Stefanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Vintermist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    The B-WICH chromatin-remodelling complex facilitates the binding of c-Myc and histone acetyl transferases and regulates RNA pol III transcriptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcription of the 5S rRNA genes and 7SL genes by RNA polymerase III is necessary for cell growth and proliferation. The chromatin-remodelling complex B-WICH is associated with these genes, and siRNA-silencing of one component, the WSTF protein, reduces the level of transcription. However, the molecular mechanism is unclear. We show here that the role of B-WICH is to promote the binding of RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase III factors, TFIIIA, TFIIIB and TFIIIC. WSTF knock down by siRNA resulted in a decreased recruitment of these initiation factors and, consequently, RNA polymerase III, to promoters. In addition, B-WICH induced a local alteration of the chromatin structure around the 5S rRNA and 7SL RNA genes, leading to a reduced acetylation of histone H3, in particular H3K9-Ac. A reduction in the level of WSTF also caused a loss of c-myc binding to the genes. We propose a model in which B-WICH complex is required to maintain an open chromatin structure around these RNA polymerase III genes, a prerequisite for other factors to associate at the gene.

  • 22.
    Sadi, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Johnsson, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute .
    Profilin I and II are both influencing SRF-dependent signaling in B16 melanoma cells and loss of Profilin I interferes with cell migrationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Profilin is a central component of the microfilament system. Its involvement in controlling actin polymerization associated with transmembrane signaling through its interaction with phosphatidylinositol lipids and a plethora of protein components carrying proline-rich sequence motifs has inspired to a large number of studies. Despite these efforts, however, its function is still not well understood. Therefore we have initiated a study of cultured cells after down-regulation of profilin expression using siRNA. Here we report that depletion of the profilin I and II isoforms in B16 mouse melanoma cells interferes with MAL/SRF-dependent transcription and that loss of profilin reduces their speed of migration as well as their ability to fine-tune their control of the migratory apparatus.

  • 23. Sarshad, Aishe
    et al.
    Sadeghifar, Fatemeh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Louvet, Emilie
    Mori, Raffaele
    Böhm, Stefanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Al-Muzzaini, Bader
    Vintermist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Fomproix, Nathalie
    Östlund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Percipalle, Piergiorgio
    Nuclear Myosin 1c Facilitates the Chromatin Modifications Required to Activate rRNA Gene Transcription and Cell Cycle Progression2013In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 9, no 3, article id e1003397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actin and nuclear myosin 1c (NM1) cooperate in RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription. NM1 is also part of a multiprotein assembly, B-WICH, which is involved in transcription. This assembly contains the chromatin remodeling complex WICH with its subunits WSTF and SNF2h. We report here that NM1 binds SNF2h with enhanced affinity upon impairment of the actin-binding function. ChIP analysis revealed that NM1, SNF2h, and actin gene occupancies are cell cycle-dependent and require intact motor function. At the onset of cell division, when transcription is temporarily blocked, B-WICH is disassembled due to WSTF phosphorylation, to be reassembled on the active gene at exit from mitosis. NM1 gene knockdown and motor function inhibition, or stable expression of NM1 mutants that do not interact with actin or chromatin, overall repressed rRNA synthesis by stalling pol I at the gene promoter, led to chromatin alterations by changing the state of H3K9 acetylation at gene promoter, and delayed cell cycle progression. These results suggest a unique structural role for NM1 in which the interaction with SNF2h stabilizes B-WICH at the gene promoter and facilitates recruitment of the HAT PCAF. This leads to a permissive chromatin structure required for transcription activation.

  • 24.
    Severinson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    When T cells cannot help.2010In: Blood, ISSN 0006-4971, E-ISSN 1528-0020, Vol. 115, no 17, p. 3419-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Tyagi, Anu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    Ryme, Jessica
    Brodin, David
    Östlund Farrants, Ann Krristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Visa, Neus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics.
    SWI/SNF Associates with Nascent Pre-mRNPs and Regulates Alternative Pre mRNA Processing2009In: PLOS Genetics, Vol. 5, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes regulate the transcription of many genes by remodeling nucleosomes at promoter regions. In Drosophila, SWI/SNF plays an important role in ecdysone-dependent transcription regulation. Studies in human cells suggest that Brahma (Brm), the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, regulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing by modulating transcription elongation rates. We describe, here, experiments that study the association of Brm with transcribed genes in Chironomus tentans and Drosophila melanogaster, the purpose of which was to further elucidate the mechanisms by which Brm regulates pre-mRNA processing. We show that Brm becomes incorporated into nascent Balbiani ring pre-mRNPs co-transcriptionally and that the human Brm and Brg1 proteins are associated with RNPs. We have analyzed the expression profiles of D. melanogaster S2 cells in which the levels of individual SWI/SNF subunits have been reduced by RNA interference, and we show that depletion of SWI/SNF core subunits changes the relative abundance of alternative transcripts from a subset of genes. This observation, and the fact that a fraction of Brm is not associated with chromatin but with nascent pre-mRNPs, suggest that SWI/SNF affects pre-mRNA processing by acting at the RNA level. Ontology enrichment tests indicate that the genes that are regulated post-transcriptionally by SWI/SNF are mostly enzymes and transcription factors that regulate postembryonic developmental processes. In summary, the data suggest that SWI/SNF becomes incorporated into nascent pre-mRNPs and acts post-transcriptionally to regulate not only the amount of mRNA synthesized from a given promoter but also the type of alternative transcript produced.

  • 26.
    Vintermist, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Böhm, Stefanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Sadeghifar, Fatemeh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Louvet, Emilie
    Mansén, Anethe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    Percipalle, Pergiorgio
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Cell Biology.
    The Chromatin Remodelling Complex B-WICH Changes the Chromatin Structure and Recruits Histone Acetyl-Transferases to Active rRNA Genes2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 4, article id e19184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chromatin remodelling complex B-WICH, which comprises the William syndrome transcription factor (WSTF), SNF2h, and nuclear myosin 1 (NM1), is involved in regulating rDNA transcription, and SiRNA silencing of WSTF leads to a reduced level of 45S pre-rRNA. The mechanism behind the action of B-WICH is unclear. Here, we show that the B-WICH complex affects the chromatin structure and that silencing of the WSTF protein results in a compaction of the chromatin structure over a 200 basepair region at the rRNA promoter. WSTF knock down does not show an effect on the binding of the rRNA-specific enhancer and chromatin protein UBF, which contributes to the chromatin structure at active genes. Instead, WSTF knock down results in a reduced level of acetylated H3-Ac, in particular H3K9-Ac, at the promoter and along the gene. The association of the histone acetyl-transferases PCAF, p300 and GCN5 with the promoter is reduced in WSTF knock down cells, whereas the association of the histone acetyl-transferase MOF is retained. A low level of H3-Ac was also found in growing cells, but here histone acetyl-transferases were present at the rDNA promoter. We propose that the B-WICH complex remodels the chromatin structure at actively transcribed rRNA genes, and this allows for the association of specific histone acetyl-transferases.

  • 27. von Walden, Ferdinand
    et al.
    Casagrande, Vandre
    Farrants, Ann-Kristin Östlund
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Wenner-Gren Institute , Cell Biology.
    Nader, Gustavo A.
    Mechanical loading induces the expression of a Pol I regulon at the onset of skeletal muscle hypertrophy2012In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, ISSN 0363-6143, E-ISSN 1522-1563, Vol. 302, no 10, p. c1523-C1530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    von Walden F, Casagrande V, Ostlund Farrants AK, Nader GA. Mechanical loading induces the expression of a Pol I regulon at the onset of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302: C1523-C1530, 2012. First published March 7, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00460.2011.-The main goal of the present study was to investigate the regulation of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene transcription at the onset of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Mice were subjected to functional overload of the plantaris by bilateral removal of the synergist muscles. Mechanical loading resulted in muscle hypertrophy with an increase in rRNA content. rDNA transcription, as determined by 45S pre-rRNA abundance, paralleled the increase in rRNA content and was consistent with the onset of the hypertrophic response. Increased transcription and protein expression of c-Myc and its downstream polymerase I (Pol I) regulon (POL1RB, TIF-1A, PAF53, TTF1, TAF1C) was also consistent with the increase in rRNA. Similarly, factors involved in rDNA transcription, such as the upstream binding factor and the Williams syndrome transcription factor, were induced by mechanical loading in a corresponding temporal fashion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that these factors, together with Pol I, were enriched at the rDNA promoter. This, in addition to an increase in histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation, demonstrates that mechanical loading regulates rRNA synthesis by inducing a gene expression program consisting of a Pol I regulon, together with accessory factors involved in transcription and chromatin remodeling at the rDNA promoter. Altogether, these data indicate that transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms take place in the regulation of ribosome production at the onset of muscle hypertrophy.

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