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  • 1.
    Espeland, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Molecular Systematics Laboratory.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology department.
    Åkerlund, Monika
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Department.
    Bergh, Jan-Erik
    Dalarna University College.
    Källersjö, Mari
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Molecular Systematics Laboratory.
    Dichlorvos exposure impedes extraction and amplification of DNA from insects in museum collections2010In: Frontiers in Zoology, ISSN 1742-9994, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The insecticides dichlorvos, paradichlorobenzene and naphthalene have been commonly used to eradicate pest insects from natural history collections. However, it is not known how these chemicals affect the DNA of the specimens in the collections. We thus tested the effect of dichlorvos, paradichlorobenzene and naphthalene on DNA of insects (Musca domestica) by extracting and amplifying DNA from specimens exposed to insecticides in two different concentrations over increasing time intervals.

    Results: The results clearly show that dichlorvos impedes both extraction and amplification of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA after relatively short time, whereas paradichlorobenzene and naphthalene do not.

    Conclusion: Collections treated with paradichlorobenzene and naphthalene, are better preserved concerning DNA, than those treated with dichlorvos. Non toxic pest control methods should, however, be preferred due to physical damage of specimens and putative health risks by chemicals.

  • 2.
    Espeland, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    A new species of Goera Stephens: 1829 (Goeridae Trichoptera) from the Solomon Islands2011In: Aquatic Insects, ISSN 0165-0424, E-ISSN 1744-4152, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 185-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male and female of Goera pitisopai sp. nov. from the Solomon Islands are illustrated and described based on recently collected material. This is the first species of the family Goeridae reported from the Solomon Islands, and the sixth from the Australasian region.

  • 3.
    Espeland, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology.
    New species and descriptions of females of the New Caledonian endemic genus Xanthochorema (Trichoptera, Hydrobiosidae)2008In: Zoologia Neocaledonica 6. Biodiversity studies in New Caledonia, Paris: Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle , 2008, p. 79-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Espeland, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology department.
    The diversity and radiation of the largest monophyletic animal group on New Caledonia (Trichoptera: Ecnomidae: Agmina)2010In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 2112-2122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In area, New Caledonia is the smallest of the world's 25 official biodiversity hotspots, but in many taxonomic groups, the island has the highest concentration of species on earth, particularly so in the freshwater insect order Trichoptera. This study aims at applying molecular data and morphology for estimating the real species diversity of the genus Agmina on New Caledonia and investigating potential effects of ultramafic rock substrate on diversification. A dated molecular phylogeny was applied to study diversity and diversification related to geological substrate using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis model, diva and Bayesian ancestral character reconstruction. More than 47 species (> 63%) were unknown to science. Initial radiation occurred on ultramafic substrate followed by several independent dispersal events to nonultramafic substrate. The rate of shift from ultramafic to nonultramafic substrate was significantly higher than the rate of shift in the opposite direction, indicating a possible cost associated with living on ultramafic substrate.

  • 5.
    Espeland, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology department.
    The effect of environmental diversification on species diversification in New Caledonian caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae)2010In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 879-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To test whether environmental diversification played a role in the diversification of the New Caledonian Hydropsychinae caddisflies.

    Location New Caledonia, south-west Pacific.

    Methods The phylogeny of the New Caledonian Hydropsychinae caddisflies was hypothesized using parsimony and Bayesian methods on molecular characters. The Bayesian analysis was the basis for a comparative analysis of the correlation between phylogeny and three environmental factors: geological substrate (ultrabasic, non-ultrabasic), elevation and precipitation. Phylogenetic divergence times were estimated using a relaxed clock method, and environmental factors were mapped onto a lineage-through-time plot to investigate the timing of environmental diversification in relation to species radiation. The correlation between rainfall and elevation was tested using independent contrasts, and the gamma statistic was calculated to infer the diversification pattern of the group.

    Results The diversification of extant Orthopsyche–Caledopsyche species began in the Middle–Late Oligocene, when much of the island of New Caledonia was covered by ultrabasic substrate and mountain forming was prevalent. Most lineages originated in the Middle–Late Miocene, a period associated with long-term climate oscillation. Optimization of environmental factors on the phylogeny demonstrated that the New Caledonian Hydropsychinae group adapted to ultrabasic substrate early in its evolutionary history. The clade living mostly on ultrabasic substrate was far more species-rich than the clade living mostly on non-ultrabasic substrate. Elevation and rainfall were significantly correlated with each other. The lineage-through-time plot revealed that the main environmental diversification preceded species diversification. A constant speciation through time was rejected, and the negative gamma indicates that most of the diversification occurred early in the history of the clade. According to the inferred phylogeny, the genus Orthopsyche McFarlane is a synonym under Caledopsyche Kimmins, and Abacaria caledona Oláh & Barnard should also be included in Caledopsyche.

    Main conclusions The age of the radiation does not support a vicariance origin of New Caledonian Hydropsychinae caddisflies. Environmental diversification pre-dates lineage diversification, and thus environmental heterogeneity potentially played a role in the diversification of the group, by providing a variety of fragmented habitats to disperse into, promoting speciation. The negative gamma indicates that the speciation rate slowed as niches started to fill.

  • 6.
    Espeland, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Entomology Department, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Hovmöller, Rasmus
    Entomology Department, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Early Xanthochorema (Trichoptera, Insecta) radiations in New Caledonia originated on ultrabasic rocks.2008In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 904-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxic and nutrient poor ultrabasic rock substrate covering one-third of New Caledonia greatly influenced on the biogeography and diversity of plants in the island. Studies on the effect of ultrabasic substrate on fauna are almost entirely absent. In this paper we examine whether the diversification of Trichoptera of the New Caledonian endemic genus Xanthochorema Kimmins, 1953 was related to the presence of ultrabasic substrate. The analysis is based on data from a phylogeny derived from DNA sequences of mitochondrial COX1, COX2 and 16S, and nuclear EF1a genes. The study of the relationships between ancestral species and substrate was carried out using dispersal-vicariance analysis and tracing the history of substrate association with ultrabasic and non-ultrabasic distributions representing the terminals in the fully resolved phylogenetic tree. Our results show that (1) the ancestor of all Xanthochorema species was present on ultrabasic substrate, (2) early speciation events were restricted to ultrabasic substrate, (3) younger ancestral species dispersed into non-ultrabasic substrates, and (4) late speciation events were restricted to non-ultrabasic substrate. These results correspond to the hypothesis that New Caledonia once was more extensively covered by ultrabasic rocks than at present.

  • 7.
    Espeland, Marianne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Murienne, Jerome
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University.
    Species diversifications in New Caledonia: towards the end of the museum model?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Fang, Fang
    et al.
    Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Noren, Michael
    Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Liao, Te-Yu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Källersjö, Mari
    Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Kullander, Sven
    Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Molecular phylogenetic interrelationships of the south Asian cyprinid genera Danio, Devario and Microrasbora (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Danioninae)2009In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 237-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences from 159 species of the family Cyprinidae supports the subfamily Danioninae, of which Rasborinae is shown to be a junior synonym. Analysis of combined cytochrome b and a fragment of the nuclear rhodopsin gene from 68 species, including 43 species representing the subfamily Danioninae, supports phylogenetic distinctness of Danio and Devario. In the combined molecular analysis Microrasbora rubescens, Chela, Laubuca, Devario, and Inlecypris form a clade with M. gatesi, M. nana and M. kubotai being in sister group position to the rest. The sister group of this Devario clade is Danio. Inlecypris is synonymized with Devario. Microdevario, new genus, is proposed for M. gatesi, M. nana and M. kubotai, supported by morphological characters. In the cytochrome b analysis, M. rubescens falls outside Devario, and there is no morphological support for including M. rubescens in Devario. In the cytochrome b analysis Esomus+Danionella is the sister group of Danio and Devario clades, whereas in individual rhodopsin and combined analyses Esomus is the sister group of Danio, and of Danio and the

    Devario clade, respectively. Sundadanio presents at least one strong morphological synapomorphy with Danio, but is positioned in molecular trees either as a member of the Cyprininae or as sister group of the remaining Danioninae. In the morphological analysis, small-sized species grouped together based on shared reductions that are not necessarily synapomorphies. In the molecular analysis, small-sized species such as Danionella and Sundadanio possess long branches and their position varies, but they did not group together. This suggests morphological homoplasy, but phylogenetic positions are not well supported in the molecular analyses.

  • 9. Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Fabre, Pierre-Henri
    Batalha-Filho, Henrique
    Jønsson, Knud A.
    Roselaar, Cees S
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Ericson, Per GP
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    The spatio-temporal colonization and diversification across the Indo-Pacific by a ‘great speciator’ (Aves, Erythropitta erythrogaster)2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1759, p. 20130309-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Indo-Pacific region has arguably been the most important area for the formulation of theories about biogeography and speciation, but modern studies of the tempo, mode and magnitude of diversification across this region are scarce. We study the biogeographical history and characterize levels of diversification in the wide-ranging passerine bird Erythropitta erythrogaster using molecular, phylogeographic and population genetics methods, as well as morphometric and plumage analyses. Our results suggest that E. erythrogaster colonized the Indo-Pacific during the Pleistocene in an eastward direction following a stepping stone pathway, and that sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene only locally may have promoted gene flow. A molecular species delimitation test suggests that several allopatric island populations of E. erythrogaster may be regarded as species. Most of these putative new species are further characterized by diagnostic differences in plumage. Our study reconfirms the E. erythrogaster complex as a ‘great speciator’: it represents a complex of up to 17 allopatrically distributed, reciprocally monophyletic and/or morphologically diagnosable species that originated during the Pleistocene. Our results support the view that observed latitudinal gradients of genetic divergence among avian sister-species may have been affected by incomplete knowledge of taxonomic limits in tropical bird species.

  • 10.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Testing the monophyly of Calocidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) based on multiple molecular data2010In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 54, p. 535-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calocidae constitute a hypothesised monophyletic group of caddisflies (Trichoptera) being geographically restricted to New Zealand (one genus) and Australia (five genera). This analysis tests the monophyly of the family based on sequences from five different molecular genes. The complete data set includes 29 species and covers a complete genus representation of the Calocidae as well as representatives of other families in which one or more calocid genera have been classified. Sequences from two mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and 16S) and three nuclear (elongation factor 1-a, RNA polymerase-II, and Cadherin) genes were used, resulting in a 3958 bp data set and 37.1% parsimony informative characters. The Cadherin (CAD) and RNA polymerase-II (POL-II) genes are used for the first time for revealing Trichoptera phylogenies. The character matrix was analyzed by using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian criteria, the latter by applying three different partition strategies for comparison. Two most parsimonious trees were found, differing in the position of one clade within the sister-group to a monophyletic Calocidae. The Bayesian tree based on the maximum number of partitions differs from trees based on a reduced partition analysis with respect to taxa outside the current circumscription of Calocidae. Both the MP and Bayesian analyses left Calocidae monophyletic, with a monophyletic clade of all Australian genera being sister-group to the New Zealand genus. The results from the agreement subtree analysis demonstrates that CAD performs well both separately and in combination with other genes and adds substantial resolution to the calocid phylogeny in a combined MP analysis.

  • 11.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    New species and new records of freshwater Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha) from Sweden2011In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 3115, p. 29-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastrotricha is a small phylum of acoelomatic aquatic invertebrates common in both marine and freshwater environments. The freshwater gastrotrich fauna of Sweden is poorly known and to date only twenty species have been reported. In this study two species of the genus Heterolepidoderma: Heterolepidoderma joermungandri n. sp. and H. trapezoidum n. sp. are described as new to science. Moreover nine species are presented as new to the Swedish fauna. Additional taxonomic information is also given for four species previously reported from the country. In total 7 genera spanning two families, Chaetonotidae and Dasydytidae, are presented and the number of reported freshwater gastrotrichs from the country is increased to 31.

  • 12.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Phylogeny of Chaetonotidae (Gastrotricha) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chaetonotidae is the largest family within Gastrotricha with almost 400 nominal species, represented in both freshwater and marine habitats. The group is probably non-monophyletic and suffers from a troubled taxonomy. Current classification is to a great extent based on shape and distribution of cuticular structures, characters that are highly variable. We present the most densely sampled molecular study so far where 17 out of 31 genera belonging to Chaetonotida are represented. Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches based on 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and COI mtDNA are used to reconstruct relationships within Chaetonotidae. The use of cuticular structures for supra-specific classification within the group is evaluated and the question of dispersal between marine and freshwater habitats is addressed. Moreover the subgeneric classification of Chaetonotus is tested in a phylogenetic context. Our results show high support for a clade containing Dasydytidae nested within Chaetonotidae. Within this clade only 3 genera are monophyletic following current classification. Genera containing both marine and freshwater species never form monophyletic clades and group with other species according to habitat. Marine members of Aspidiophorus appear to be the sister group of all other Chaetonotidae and Dasydytidae, indicating a marine origin of the clade. Halichaetonotus and marine Heterolepidoderma form a monophyletic group in a sister group relationship to freshwater species, pointing towards a secondary invasion to marine environments of these taxa. Our study shows the problems of current classification based on cuticular structures, characters that show homoplasy for deeper relationships.

  • 13. Luksenburg, Jolanda A.
    et al.
    Henriquez, Angiolina
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Molecular and morphological evidence for the subspecific identity of Bryde’s whales in the southern Caribbean2015In: Marine mammal science, ISSN 0824-0469, E-ISSN 1748-7692, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 1568-1579Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Luksenburg, Jolanda
    et al.
    George Mason University.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    New seabird records from Aruba, southern Caribbean, including three pelagic species new for the island2013In: Marine Ornithology, ISSN 1018-3337, E-ISSN 2074-1235, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 183-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Systematic Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    A new classification of the long-horned caddisflies (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) based on molecular dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Leptoceridae is among the three largest families within the order Trichoptera (caddisflies). The current classification is founded on a phylogenetic work from the 1980’s, mainly based on morphological characters from adult males, i.e. wing venation, tibial spur formula and genital morphology. In order to get a second opinion about the relationships within the family, we have undertaken a molecular study of the family based on sequences from five genes; one mitochondrial and four nuclear. 

    Results

    The resulting phylogenetical hypotheses are more or less congruent with the morphologically based classification, with most genera and tribes recovered as monophyletic, but with some major differences. For monophyly of the two subfamilies Triplectidinae and Leptoceriane, one tribe of each had to be removed and erected to subfamily status and the monophyly of some genera and tribes have to be questioned. All clades but the subfamily Leptocerinae were stable across different analysis methods, results presumably based on the taxon sampling.

    Conclusions

    With support from the results obtained here we erect the tribes Grumichellini and Leptorussini to subfamily status, Grumichellinae and Leptorussinae, respectively. We are also confident in the discovery of a few non-valid genera that are synonymised, e.g. Ptochoecetis with Oecetis and Condocerus with Hudsonema.

  • 16.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    A new classification of the long-horned caddisflies (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) based on molecular data2011In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 11, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leptoceridae are among the three largest families of Trichoptera (caddisflies). The current classification is founded on a phylogenetic work from the 1980's, based on morphological characters from adult males, i.e. wing venation, tibial spur formula and genital morphology. In order to get a new opinion about the relationships within the family, we undertook a molecular study of the family based on sequences from five genes, mitochondrial COI and the four nuclear genes CAD, EF-1 alpha, IDH and POL. Results: The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses are more or less congruent with the morphologically based classification, with most genera and tribes recovered as monophyletic, but with some major differences. For monophyly of the two subfamilies Triplectidinae and Leptocerinae, one tribe of each was removed and elevated to subfamily status; however monophyly of some genera and tribes is in question. All clades except Leptocerinae, were stable across different analysis methods. Conclusions: We elevate the tribes Grumichellini and Leptorussini to subfamily status, Grumichellinae and Leptorussinae, respectively. We also propose the synonymies of Ptochoecetis with Oecetis and Condocerus with Hudsonema.

  • 17.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    Madagacerina, a new genus of Leptoceridae (Trichoptera) from MadagascarManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The caddisfly genus Madagacerina, new genus (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) is described for the Madagascaran species Madagacerina forcipata, new species. The genus is characterised by having the tibial spur formula 2, 2, 2; wings with sessile bifurcation of M; genitalia with preanal appendages fused with segment IX and greatly produced posterad, and a tergum X with an anteriorly extended ventral base articulating with a sclerotised spine-like process of the phallic shield. The new genus is most closely related to Blyzophilus, and placed in the tribe Blyzophilini. With this generic addition, the Madagascaran Leptoceridae fauna includes 8 genera.

  • 18.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Systematic Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    University of Turku, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Genetics.
    Highlighting the Trichoptera tree with new molecular markersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We here present phylogenetic hypotheses of the insect order Trichoptera, based on molecular data from four nuclear protein-coding genes, Cadherin-like gene (CAD), Elongation-factor 1 alpha (EF1a), Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and RNA polymerase II (POL), and the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Ribosomal RNA and morphological characters have previously been widely used for reconstructing phylogenetic hypothesis at order level among insects, but were excluded from this study in order to explore the potential of only using easily amplified and aligned protein-coding genes in resolving phylogenies of this level. Analyses were performed to investigate the signal and contribution of each gene in light of the final phylogeny derived from combined data. The study is based on 139 specimens from 46 families of the order Trichoptera, as well as 10 outgroup taxa from the sistergroup Lepidoptera. The results show great similarities to previously published phylogenies mainly based on rRNA and morphology, but differ from those in some interesting aspects. The CAD, IDH and COI genes provided strong signal to the phylogeny, whereas EF1a and POL provided less strong signal, but nevertheless did all the genes contribute well to the combined data phylogenies.

  • 19. Mellows, Andrew
    et al.
    Barnett, Ross
    Dalen, Love
    Sandoval Castellanos, Edson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Linderholm, Anna
    McGovern, Thomas H.
    Church, Mike J.
    Larson, Greger
    The impact of past climate change on genetic variation and population connectivity in the Icelandic arctic fox2012In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, no 1747, p. 4568-4573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have suggested that the presence of sea ice is an important factor in facilitating migration and determining the degree of genetic isolation among contemporary arctic fox populations. Because the extent of sea ice is dependent upon global temperatures, periods of significant cooling would have had a major impact on fox population connectivity and genetic variation. We tested this hypothesis by extracting and sequencing mitochondrial control region sequences from 17 arctic foxes excavated from two late-ninth-century to twelfth-century AD archaeological sites in northeast Iceland, both of which predate the Little Ice Age (approx. sixteenth to nineteenth century). Despite the fact that five haplotypes have been observed in modern Icelandic foxes, a single haplotype was shared among all of the ancient individuals. Results from simulations within an approximate Bayesian computation framework suggest that the rapid increase in Icelandic arctic fox haplotype diversity can only be explained by sea-ice-mediated fox immigration facilitated by the Little Ice Age.

  • 20.
    Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Curini Galletti, Marco
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Hyper-Cryptic Marine Meiofauna: Species Complexes in Nemertodermatida2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e107688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nemertodermatida are microscopically small, benthic marine worms. Specimens of two nominal species, Sterreria psammicola and Nemertinoides elongatus from 33 locations worldwide were sequenced for three molecular markers. Species delimitation and validation was done using gene trees, haplotype networks and multilocus Bayesian analysis. We found 20 supported species of which nine: Nemertinoides glandulosum n.sp., N. wolfgangi n.sp., Sterreria boucheti n.sp., S. lundini n.sp., S. martindalei n.sp., S. monolithes n.sp., S. papuensis n.sp., S. variabilis n.sp. and S. ylvae n.sp., are described including nucleotide-based diagnoses. The distribution patterns indicate transoceanic dispersal in some of the species. Sympatric species were found in many cases. The high level of cryptic diversity in this meiofauna group implies that marine diversity may be higher than previously estimated. 

  • 21.
    Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    A multigene molecular assessment reveals deep divergence in the phylogeny of NemertodermatidaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a comprehensive phylogeny of Nemertodermatida, a taxon of microscopic marine worms, based for the first on molecular marker with consideration of morphological characters. Our dataset comprises three nuclear genes and most nominal and putative species including recently described cryptic species; only species of the genus Ascoparia could not be obtained. We show that the two families of Nemertodermatida, Ascopariidae and Nemertodermatidae, are retrieved as separate clusters, although not in all analyses as sister groups. We also validate sequences published before 2013 against our dataset; some sequences are shown to be chimeric and have falsified prior hypotheses about nemertodermatid phylogeny, other sequences should be assigned new names. We also show that the genus Nemertoderma needs revision. 

  • 22. Olsson, Urban
    et al.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Alström, Per
    Systematic revision of the avian family Cisticolidae based on a multi-locus phylogeny of all genera2013In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 790-799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The avian taxon Cisticolidae includes c. 110 species which are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of the Old World. We estimated the phylogeny of 47 species representing all genera assumed to be part of Cisticolidae based on sequence data from two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers, in total 3495 bp. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in a generally well-supported phylogeny which clarified the position of several previously poorly known taxa. The placement of Drymocichla, Malcorus, Micromacronus, Oreophilais, Phragmacia, Phyllolais, Poliolais and Urorhipis in Cisticolidae is corroborated, whereas Rhopophilus and Scotocerca are removed from Cisticolidae. Urorhipis and Heliolais are placed in the genus Prinia whereas Prinia burnesii is shown to be part of Timaliidae, and is placed in the genus Laticilla. Although not recovered by all single loci independently, four major clades were identified within Cisticolidae, and one of these is here described as a new taxon (Neomixinae).

  • 23.
    Raikova, Olga I.
    et al.
    Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russia; Chair of Invertebrate Zoology, Saint-Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia .
    Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Nervous system and morphology of three species of Nemertodermatida (Acoelomorpha) as revealed by immunostainings, phalloidin staining, confocal and differential contrast microscopyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nemertodermatida are microscopic marine worms likely to be the sister-group to acoels and the earliest extant bilaterian animals. The nervous system of Flagellophora apelti, Sterreria sp. and Nemertoderma westbladi has been investigated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy using anti-tubulin, anti-5-HT and anti-FMFRamide antibodies as well as by phalloidin staining.

    The nervous system of Flagellophora apelti is composed of a large brain neuropile at the level of the statocysts with several fibres surrounding it and innervating the broom organ. Sterreria sp. shows a commissural-like brain and several nerve cords going frontad and caudad from this. At the level of the statocysts there is also a thicker aggregation of IR fibres. The nervous system of N. westbladi consists of a nerve ring lying outside the body wall musculature at the level of the statocyst and a pair of ventro-lateral nerve cords, from which extend numerous fibres innervating the ventral side of the animal. Numerous bottle-shaped glands were observed, innervated by fibres starting both from the brain and the cords. Those nemertodermatids studied to-date display no common nervous system pattern. This study demonstrates that the nemertodermatid nervous system possesses a number of plesiomorphic features and appears more primitive than the nervous system in other worms, except Xenoturbellida. The musculature of Sterreria sp., as revealed by phalloidin-TRITC staining, shows diagonal muscles in the anterior quarter of the body and a simple orthogonal grid in the posterior three quarters. It is more primitive than that of the other nemertodermatids. High-resolution differential contrast microscopy permitted to better visualise some morphological characters such as statocysts, sperm and glands. 

  • 24. Robb, Magnus S.
    et al.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Aliabadian, Mansour
    van den Berg, Arnoud B.
    Constantine, Mark
    Irestedt, Martin
    Khani, Ali
    Musavi, Seyed Babak
    Nunes, João M. G.
    Willson, Maïa Sarrouf
    Walsh, Alyn J.
    The rediscovery of Strix butleri (Hume, 1878) in Oman and Iran, with molecular resolution of the identity of Strix omanensis Robb, van den Berg and Constantine, 20132016In: Avian Research, ISSN 0005-2175, E-ISSN 2053-7166, Vol. 7, article id UNSP 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most species of owls (Strigidae) represent cryptic species and their taxonomic study is in flux. In recent years, two new species of owls of the genus Strix have been described from the Arabian peninsula by different research teams. It has been suggested that one of these species, S. omanensis, is not a valid species but taxonomic comparisons have been hampered by the lack of specimens of S. omanensis, and the poor state of the holotype of S. butleri. Methods: Here we use new DNA sequence data to clarify the taxonomy and nomenclature of the S. butleri complex. We also report the capture of a single S. butleri in Mashhad, Iran. Results: A cytochrome b sequence of S. omanensis was found to be identical to that of the holotype of S. butleri, indicating that the name S. omanensis is best regarded as a junior synonym of S. butleri. The identity of the S. butleri captured in Mashhad, Iran, was confirmed using DNA sequence data. This represents a major (1,400 km) range extension of this species. Conclusions: The population discovered in Oman in 2013 and originally named ‘S. omanensis’ actually represents the rediscovery of S. butleri, which was known from a single specimen and had not been recorded since 1878. The range of S. butleri extends into northeast Iran. Our study augments the body of evidence for the recognition of S. butleri and S. hadorami as separate species and highlights the importance of using multiple evidence to study cryptic owl species.

  • 25.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Controversies over taxonomic and nomenclatural instability: an empirical approach2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Taxonomic names serve two important functions: they reflect hypotheses about the existence of taxa, and they serve as the primary means to communicate about biodiversity. The dual purpose of names is a source of conflict and misunderstanding among taxonomists and end-users of taxonomy. In recent years, proposals have been made to curb nomenclatural change both at the species level and at higher taxonomic levels. However, the causes and extent of taxonomic and nomenclatural instability are poorly known. In this thesis, I focus on two major controversies in systematics. The first of these deals with the question whether taxonomic changes at the species level are real or merely caused by a shift of the species concept. The second deals with the question whether the current rank-based (Linnaean) nomenclatural system should be replaced by an alternative nomenclatural system. Both debates have been dominated by conflicting theoretical arguments in high-profile journals, but with very little input from quantitative empirical studies.

                In manuscript 1, I address the highly influential claim that recent increases of the number of vertebrate species are not real but are due to reinterpretations of previous data under a Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC). To this end, I examine 747 proposals to change the taxonomic rank of birds in the period 1950–2007. The trend to recognize more species of birds started at least two decades before the introduction of PSCs. Most (85%) newly recognized species were supported by new taxonomic data. Proposals to recognize more species resulted from application of all six major taxonomic criteria. Many newly recognized species (63%) were not based exclusively on PSC-based criteria (diagnosability, monophyly and exclusive coalescence of gene trees). Therefore, this study finds no empirical support for the idea that the increase in species is primarily epistemological rather than data-driven. This study shows that previous claims about the causes and effects of taxonomic inflation lack empirical support. I argue that a more appropriate term for the increase in species is ‘taxonomic progress’.

                In manuscript 2, I present a quantitative analysis of nomenclatural instability in birds. The dataset included 826 name-taxon associations in seven major classifications of birds published between 1934 and 2007. High levels of synonymy (38% of taxa, affecting 68% of names) and homonymy (18% of names, affecting 46% of taxa) were found. On average, supra-generic taxa accepted in all seven classifications are known by 3.3 different names, and very few (2%) of these taxa are known by a single name. A significant inverse relationship between taxonomic stability and nomenclatural stability was found. Furthermore, each new classification introduced additional names for previously recognized taxa and re-applied previous names to other taxa. Overall, 94% of synonyms and 69% of homonyms were caused by differences in opinion among taxonomists about the rank of taxa. In addition, variation in the taxonomic contents of names did not become less with increased recognition of names. These findings argue against recent claims that taxonomists using rank-based nomenclature spontaneously settle on a consensus about the choice of taxon names. These results further indicate that rank-based nomenclature so far has failed to accomplish a reasonably stable association of taxonomic names and clades.

                These studies show that at species rank, there is a strong empirical basis for taxonomic (and hence nomenclatural) change. As a consequence, pleas for stability at the species level are unrealistic. However, at higher ranks, the empirical basis for nomenclatural change is weak, and thus attempts should be made to curb unnecessary nomenclatural instability (e.g. by adopting phylogenetic nomenclature). These results underscore that empirical studies of taxonomic practise may usefully inform theoretical debates.

  • 26.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Increasing numbers of bird species result from taxonomic progress, not taxonomic inflation.2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, p. 3185-3191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact and significance of modern taxonomy on other fields in biology have been subjects of much debate. It has been proposed that increasing numbers of vertebrate species are largely owing to ‘taxonomic inflation’. According to this hypothesis, newly recognized species result from reinterpretations of species limits based on phylogenetic species concepts (PSCs) rather than from new discoveries. Here, I examine 747 proposals to change the taxonomic rank of birds in the period 1950–2007. The trend to recognize more species of birds started at least two decades before the introduction of PSCs. Most (84.6%) newly recognized species were supported by new taxonomic data. Proposals to recognize more species resulted from application of all six major taxonomic criteria. Many newly recognized species (63.4%) were not based exclusively on PSC-based criteria (diagnosability, monophyly and exclusive coalescence of gene trees). Therefore, this study finds no empirical support for the idea that the increase in species is primarily epistemological rather than data-driven. This study shows that previous claims about the causes and effects of taxonomic inflation lack empirical support. I argue that a more appropriate term for the increase in species is ‘taxonomic progress’.

  • 27.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Review of: Festschrift for Ned Johnson: Geographic variation and evolution in birds by C Cicero and J V Remsen.2008In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 150, p. 843-Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Review of: Nightjars, Potoos, Frogmouths, Oilbord and Owlet-nightjars of the World by N. Cleere2012In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 154, no 1, p. 220-220Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Review of: Owls of the World: a photographic guide by H. Mikkola.2013In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 155, no 3, p. 691-692Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Review of: Systematic notes on Asian birds 2010 by D R Wells.2011In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 153, p. 452-453Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    The application of species criteria in avian taxonomy and its implications for the debate over species concepts2014In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 199-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate over species concepts has produced a huge body of literature on how species can, may or should be delimited. By contrast, very few studies have documented how species taxa are delimited in practice. The aims of the present study were to (i) quantify the use of species criteria in taxonomy, (ii) discuss its implications for the debate over species concepts and (iii) assess recent claims about the impact of different species concepts on taxonomic stability and the ‘nature’ of species. The application of six species criteria was examined in taxonomic studies of birds published between 1950 and 2009. Three types of taxonomic studies were included: descriptions of new species (N=329), proposals to change the taxonomic rank of species and subspecies (N=808) and the taxonomic recommendations of the American Ornithologists’ Union Committee on Classification and Nomenclature (N=176). In all three datasets, diagnosability was the most frequently applied criterion, followed by reproductive isolation and degree of difference. This result is inconsistent with the popular notion that the Biological Species Concept is the dominant species concept in avian taxonomy. Since the 1950s, avian species-level taxonomy has become increasingly pluralistic and eclectic. This suggests that taxonomists consider different criteria as complementary rather than as rival approaches to species delimitation. Application of diagnosability more frequently led to the elevation of subspecies to species rank than application of reproductive isolation, although the difference was small. Hypotheses based on diagnosability and reproductive isolation were equally likely to be accepted in a mainstream checklist. These findings contradict recent claims that application of the Phylogenetic Species Concept causes instability and that broader application of the Biological Species Concept can stabilise taxonomy. The criteria diagnosability and monophyly, which are commonly associated with Phylogenetic Species Concepts, were used throughout the study period. Finally, no support was found for the idea that Phylogenetic Species Concepts have caused a change in the ‘nature’ of species taxa. This study demonstrates that there is a discrepancy between widely held perceptions of how species are delimited and the way species are actually delimited by taxonomists. Theoretically oriented debates over species concepts thus may benefit from empirical data on taxonomic practice.

  • 32.
    Sangster, George
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    The ring species concept revisitedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ring species may offer important insights into the role of isolation by distance in speciation. In recent years, the study of ring species has been revigorated by the application of phylogeographic methods. The concept of ring species, however, has received little attention since its original formulation in the first half of the twentieth century. A review of the two best-documented cases of putative ring species suggests that different evolutionary patterns have been referred to by the term ‘ring species’. These putative ring species share a circular colonization pattern but have fundamentally different evolutionary histories and patterns of geographic variation. Because these patterns cannot be explained by a single evolutionary model, a terminological distinction is warranted. It is suggested that the term ‘ring species’ be restricted to taxa which form a single evolutionary unit and in which the end-points have diverged as a result of isolation by distance. The new evolutionary term ‘taxon chain’ is suggested for a clade consisting of multiple evolutionary units separated by secondary contact zones. The study of ring species and taxon chains requires an integrative approach, including the description of geographic variation, phylogeographic study of historical divergence, assessment of gene flow, and study of interactions in contact zones.

  • 33.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Alström, Per
    Forsmark, Emma
    Olsson, Urban
    Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of Old World chats and flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly at family, subfamily and genus level (Aves: Muscicapidae).2010In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 57, p. 380-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chats and flycatchers (Muscicapidae) represent an assemblage of 275 species in 48 genera. Defining natural groups within this assemblage has been challenging because of its high diversity and a paucity of phylogenetically informative morphological characters. We assessed the phylogenetic relationships of 118 species and 34 genera of Muscicapidae, and 20 species of Turdidae, using molecular sequence data from one mitochondrial gene and three nuclear loci, in total 3240 bp. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses yielded a well-resolved tree in which nearly all basal nodes were strongly supported. The traditionally defined Muscicapidae, Muscicapinae and Saxicolinae were paraphyletic. Four major clades are recognized in Muscicapidae: Muscicapinae, Niltavinae (new family-group name), Erithacinae and Saxicolinae. Interesting relationships recovered by this analysis include: (i) a clade comprising the ‘blue’ flycatcher genera Niltava, Cyornis, Cyanoptila and Eumyias and some species of Rhinomyias; (ii) the position of Erithacus rubecula in a clade of otherwise exclusively African species; (iii) a close relationship between the shortwing Heinrichia calligyna and the flycatcher Rhinomyias insignis; (iv) a sister relationship between forktails Enicurus and whistling thrushes Myophonus; and (v) a sister relationship of Ficedula and the ‘chats’ Monticola, Phoenicurus, Saxicola and Oenanthe. A high number of traditionally defined genera was found to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Taxonomic implications are discussed.

  • 34.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Collinson, J. Martin
    Crochet, Pierre-Andre
    Kirwan, Guy M.
    Knox, Alan G.
    Parkin, David T.
    Votier, Stephen C.
    Taxonomic recommendations for Western Palaearctic birds: 10th report2015In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 157, no 1, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is the tenth report of the Taxonomic Sub-Committee of the BOU Records Committee. Species-level decisions are based on criteria outlined by Helbig et al. (2002). The ninth report of the Sub-Committee was published by Sangster et al. (2013). Recommendations in this report fall into five categories: (i) recognition of higher taxa not recognised by Voous (Paroidea), (ii) changes in generic allocation (Melanocorypha leucoptera, Calandrella rufescens), (iii) changes in the taxonomic sequence of species (Alaudidae, Prunella), (iv) changes in species limits (Struthio camelus, Thalassarche cauta, Poecile lugubris, Phylloscopus tenellipes, Sylvia cantillans, Oenanthe lugens, Passer italiae), and (v) changes in nomenclature (Sylvia cantillans moltonii).

  • 35.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Collinson, J. Martin
    Crochet, Pierre-Andre
    Knox, Alan G.
    Parkin, David T.
    Votier, Stephen C.
    Taxonomic recommendations for British birds: eighth report2012In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 154, no 4, p. 874-883Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Collinson, J. Martin
    Crochet, Pierre-Andre
    Knox, Alan G.
    Parkin, David T.
    Votier, Stephen C.
    Taxonomic recommendations for Western Palearcticbirds: ninth report2013In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 155, no 4, p. 898-907Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Collinson, J. Martin
    Knox, Alan G.
    Parkin, David T.
    Svensson, Lars
    Taxonomic recommendations for British birds, Sixth Report2010In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 152, p. 180-186Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Collinson, Martin
    Crochet, Pierre-Andre
    Knox, Alan G.
    Parkin, David T.
    Svensson, Lars
    Votier, Stephen C.
    Taxonomic recommendations for British birds: seventh report2011In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 883-892Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    King, Ben F.
    Verbelen, Philippe
    Trainor, Colin R.
    A new owl species of the genus Otus (Aves: Strigidae) from Lombok, Indonesia2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 2, p. e53712-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the World but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25-1350 m and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok.

  • 40.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Rodríguez-Godoy, Felipe
    Roselaar, C. S.
    Robb, Magnus S.
    Luksenburg, Jolanda A.
    Integrative taxonomy reveals Europe’s rarest songbird species, the Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch Fringilla polatzeki2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conservation of endangered taxa often critically depends on accurate taxonomic designations. The status of the Gran Canaria population of the Blue Chaffinch Fringilla t. polatzeki has not been reevaluated since the early 1900s when this taxon was described as a subspecies and combined with the much more common Tenerife Blue Chaffinch F. t. teydea in a single species. We show that multiple diagnostic differences in plumage, songs, calls and morphometrics distinguish F. t. polatzeki from F. t. teydea. Preliminary playback experiments suggest that F. t. polatzeki is able to discriminate between songs of both taxa. Along with previously reported differences in mitochondrial DNA, these findings show that the blue chaffinches on Gran Canaria and Tenerife represent two distinctive species: F. polatzeki and F. teydea. Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch is Europe’s rarest passerine species and should be classified as Critically Endangered. Its long-term survival in the wild currently depends on a very small (<20 km2) area in southwest Gran Canaria. Reclassification of Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch as a species increases the urgency of ongoing conservation efforts. Our study underscores the critical importance of taxonomic clarification of threatened taxa that are currently classified as ‘subspecies’.

  • 41.
    Sangster, George
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    van den Berg, A.B.
    van Loon, A.J.
    Roselaar, C.S.
    Dutch avifaunal list: taxonomic changes in 2004-2008.2009In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, E-ISSN 2213-1175, Vol. 97, p. 373-381Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the third update on the taxonomy of species and higher taxa on the Dutch List since Voous (1977). It summarizes decisions made by the Commissie Systematiek Nederlandse Avifauna (CSNA) between Jan 2004 and Dec 2008. Changes in this report fall into five categories: (1) the sequence within and among some groups is changed to reflect their phylogenetic relationships (flamingos and grebes, eagles, shanks, gulls, terns, swallows and tits); (2) 20 scientific names are changed due to generic revisions (Aquila pennata, A. fasciata, Chroicocephalus genei, C. philadelphia, C. ridibundus, Hydrocoloeus minutus, Onychoprion anaethetus, Sternula albifrons, Hydroprogne caspia, Megaceryle alcyon, Cecropis daurica, Geokichla sibirica, Cyanistes caeruleus, Lophophanes cristatus, Periparus ater, Poecile montanus, P. palustris, Pastor roseus, Agropsar sturninus, Melospiza melodia); (3) two scientific names replace others presently on the list due to the recognition of extralimital taxa as species (Turdus eunomus, T. atrogularis); (4) one species is added because of a split from a species already on the Dutch List (Sylvia subalpina); (5) two species become monotypic due to the recognition of an extralimital taxon as species (Tarsiger cyanurus, Oenanthe pleschanka).

  • 42.
    Strandberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Malm, Tobias
    Partial degeneration - a solution to LBA and saturation problemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are many factors to consider when studying evolutionary relationships. The effect of substitution saturation and compositional heterogeneity may result in erroneous relationships and long-branch attraction artifacts (LBA) are all too real for a researcher in this field. A well-used method of avoiding LBA is removal or degeneration of the faster evolving third codon positions in protein coding genes and while successful, it possibly reduces valuable information in the process. We want to test the effectiveness of degenerating synonymous sites (i.e. degen1 coding) used on only a selective part of a dataset and how it compares to the common methods otherwise used. Testing these methods, two protein coding gene datasets covering Hymenoptera and Diptera, differing in size, hierarchal level and evolutionary age, was analyzed using maximum likelihood. 

    Results: Both data sets, with high support across the trees, displayed LBA in the early lineages when all codon positions were included. Both methods of dataset alteration yielded similar and more likely trees, but the partial degeneration method showed higher number of supported nodes and as well as a higher median support.

    Conclusions: Partial degeneration is able to solve LBA artifacts and is a more efficient method to use when data is poorly sampled or suffers from substitution saturation and/or compositional heterogeneity. 

  • 43.
    Strandberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Barcoding of Swedish biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaise trap samples from different localities in Sweden recently generated several thousands of specimens of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Of these 773 were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI), and found to representing 164 morphological species in 19 genera, 5 tribes and 4 subfamilies. In total 214 barcoding clusters (BINs) were recovered in the neighbor-joining analysis, which indicates that the material includes a higher number of species than based on morphology alone, indicating existence of many cryptic or sibling species in Sweden.

  • 44.
    Strandberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Evolutionary relationships among higher taxa of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) re-evaluated, based on molecular data of five protein-coding genesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the earliest lineages within biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) were traditionally based on morphological characters of adults and juveniles and were not able to produce unambiguous results. Recent hypotheses based on analyses of morphological or DNA sequence data produced better resolution about the relationship among subfamilies and tribes in the family than earlier results, but with ambiguities. By analyzing sequence data combined from fragments of five protein coding genes, carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CAD), triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI), alanyl tRNA synthetase (AATS), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in a phylogenetic analysis we challenge previous ideas about relationships among higher taxa. Approximately 100 species representing 32 genera were included to represent all extant subfamilies and all tribes, except Sphaeromiini s. lat. The Bayesian analysis revealed strong support for a monophyletic Ceratopogonidae as well as all the subfamilies, except Leptoconopinae that is found to be paraphyletic. As found by other authors we recovered Ceratopogonini as paraphyletic. In addition, Palpomyiini was found to be polyphyletic, a configuration not implied earlier. All genera are monophyletic with the exception of a polyphyletic Palpomyia and paraphyletic Bezzia and Forcipomyia.

  • 45.
    Stålstedt, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Mąkol, Joanna
    Matching adults and larvae of Erythraeus spp. velvet mites (Actinotrichida: Erythraeidae) with the help of DNAManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46. Todaro, M. Antonio
    et al.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Dal Zotto, Matteo
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Phylogeny of Thaumastodermatidae (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Sequence Data2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 3, p. e17892-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Phylogenetic relationships within Gastrotricha are poorly known. Attempts to shed light on this subject using morphological traits have led to hypotheses lacking satisfactory statistical support; it seemed therefore that a different approach was needed.

    Methodology/Principal Findings

    In this paper we attempt to elucidate the relationships within the taxonomically vast family Thaumastodermatidae (Macrodasyida) using molecular sequence data. The study includes representatives of all the extant genera of the family and for the first time uses a multi-gene approach to infer evolutionary liaisons within Gastrotricha. The final data set comprises sequences of three genes (18S, 28S rDNA and COI mtDNA) from 41 species, including 29 thaumastodermatids, 11 non-thaumastodermatid macrodasyidans and a single chaetonotidan. Molecular data was analyzed as a combined set of 3 genes and as individual genes, using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Two different outgroups were used: Xenotrichula intermedia (Chaetonotida) and members of the putative basal Dactylopodola (Macrodasyida). Thaumastodermatidae and all other sampled macrodasyidan families were found monophyletic except for Cephalodasyidae. Within Thaumastodermatidae Diplodasyinae and Thaumastodermatinae are monophyletic and so are most genera. Oregodasys turns out to be the most basal group within Thaumastodermatinae in analyses of the concatenated data set as well as in analyses of the nuclear genes. Thaumastoderma appears as the sister taxon to the remaining species. Surprisingly, Tetranchyroderma is non-monophyletic in our analyses as one group of species clusters with Ptychostomella while another appears as the sister group of Pseudostomella.

    Conclusions/Significance

    Results in general agree with the current classification; however, a revision of the more derived thaumastodermatid taxa seems necessary. We also found that the ostensible COI sequences from several species do not conform to the general invertebrate or any other published mitochondrial genetic code; they may be mitochondrially derived nuclear genes (numts), or one or more modifications of the mitochondrial genetic code within Gastrotricha.

  • 47.
    Wahlberg, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Mina observationer: Ett verktyg för rapportering i fält2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Mina observationer har konstruerats med ett flertal anpassade fält för att underlätta rapportering till ArtPortalen, rapportsystem för observationer och information kring svensk flora och fauna. Appen kan dock användas även utan att rapportera till ArtPortalen.

  • 48.
    Wahlberg, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Svenska insekter: En bestämningsapp för svenska insekter2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska insekter är en bestämningsapp som hjälper dig att identifiera insekten du har hittat. Det finns bestämningsnyckel samt information som till exempel hur insekter känns igen och hur många arter som är kända i Sverige. Genom att svara på ett antal frågor i nyckeln leds användaren fram till rätt insekt. Den riktar sig amatörer, nyfikna och som läromedel, men även till proffsen.

  • 49.
    Wahlberg, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Solbreck, Christer
    Hymenoptera flying over a boreal forest landscape2013In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 134, no 4, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hymenoptera were collected in suction traps mounted on a TV-tower in an area of mixed coniferous woodland in western Sweden. Over 32 000 individuals were collected in four traps mounted at 2, 9,43 and 93 m above ground during the summer of 1980. Over 95% of the individuals belonged to Parasitica and only 4.2 and 0.2 % to Aculeata and Symphyta respectively. The height distribution of flying Hymenoptera as a whole is intermediate compared with other insect groups such as aphids, with high densities at high altitudes, and Lepidoptera which tend to fly closer to the ground. However, our study showed large differences between major groups of Hymenoptera. All Symphyta were confined to the lowest traps as were most Aculeata signifying a low tendency to high altitude migratory flight. The ants were an exception among the Aculeata with high numbers in the upper traps, indicative of long downwind flights high in the air. A large percentage (over 40%) of the flying population of Parasitica were found above the forest canopy indicating that many Parasitica regularly engage in long-distance flights high in the air.

1 - 49 of 49
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