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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brief report: Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health. A study on working adults2017In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating. A diary including a one-item self-rating of health ("pre-self-rated health"; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of symptoms, and thereafter a second (identical) health rating ("post-self-rated health") was completed by 820 persons 21 times. Self-rated health worsened significantly ( p < .0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.70-2.74) to 2.77 post-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.75-2.79) and more so in persons who reported more symptoms ( b = .058, p < .05). The results support the notion that subjective health perception is influenced by attending to symptoms, especially so in persons with a high symptom burden.

  • 2.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sustainable Recruitment: Individual Characteristics and Psychosocial Working Conditions Among Swedish Police Officers2018In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection research has typically focused on how to identify suitable candidates, while less is known regarding the long-term effects of various selection factors once the suitable candidates have start-ed working. The overall aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of selection fac-tors (measured during recruitment), and psychosocial working conditions (once candidates started working) for four outcomes, namely (1) job satisfaction, (2) organizational citizenship behavior, (3) occupational retention, and (4) health. Data came from a longitudinal study of newly hired police officers in Sweden (N = 508), including recruitment data and a follow-up after 3.5 years. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that psychosocial working conditions were more important than selection factors in predicting the four outcomes. The findings suggest that employers, to ensure sustainability, need to focus on activities that facilitate newcomers’ enter-ing in the organization and their professions by providing a sound work climate.

  • 3.
    Anton, Rådh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Anställningsbarhet och prestation: indirekta effekter av välmående2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Upplevd anställningsbarhet är ett begrepp som kan användas för att förstå hur

    individer hanterar den ökande flexibiliteten på arbetsmarknaden. Med

    anställningsbarhet menas i bredaste bemärkelse hur individer ser på sina

    möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden. Den här studien undersöker förhållandet

    mellan anställningsbarhet och prestation i bemanningsbranschen och

    hypotesen är att det positiva förhållandet mellan anställningsbarhet och

    prestation medieras av välmående. En enkätundersökning besvarades av

    (N=127) tjänstemän vid ett företag i bemanningsbranschen. Resultatet visar

    att anställningsbarhet har ett samband med prestation och att effekten

    medierades av välmående. Resultatet är i linje med tidigare studier, som visar

    på liknande samband. Studien bidrar till förståelsen av vad upplevelser av

    anställningsbarhet kan leda till i bemanningsbranschen. Hur

    anställningsbarheten upplevs påverkar hur vi mår och presterar.

  • 4.
    Appelbom, Sophia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordin, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kvinnor i ledande positioner i organisatorisk motgång - chefers syn på glasklippan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Glasklippan symboliserar fenomenet att kvinnor oftare befordras till ledande positioner i motgång än framgång. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att hos chefer i Sverige undersöka upplevelser och förhållningssätt till glasklippan, vad den tros bero på samt hur kvinnor anses påverkas av den i arbetslivet. Semistrukturerade intervjuer där ett scenario om glasklippan diskuterades utfördes med 12 chefer. Induktiv tematisk analys användes. Några intervjupersoner hade själva hamnat på glasklippan utan att ha verkat medvetna om det. Deltagarna förde ofta motstridiga resonemang och deras uppfattningar var inte samstämmiga. Det lyftes även hur kvinnors situation ser ut på organisationer idag, varför det är viktigt att medvetandegöra fenomenet, och förklaringar till glasklippan. Trots glasklippans närvaro i organisationer verkar den vara svår att se och förstå. Olika förväntningar som ställs på kvinnor skapar en svårhanterlig situation för dem på glasklippan. Att fenomenet förekommer i Sverige men är svårupptäckt visar på vikten av att uppmärksamma glasklippan.

  • 5.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslösa krav - gränslösa möjligheter2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Solna: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, p. 84-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna skrift har vi försökt ringa in en aspekt – gränslöst arbete – i det mångdimensionella och komplexa fenomen som nu allt oftare benämns digitalisering. En del människor associerar ordet snarast med gränslösa möjligheter, och för andra är upplevelsen snarare gränslösa krav. Vi har i skriften mer betonat möjligheterna än farhågorna genom att lägga stor vikt vid forskning och erfarenheter som kan vägleda och stärka de gränslöst arbetandes kontroll över sitt arbetsliv och sin livssituation. I detta avslutande kapitel sammanfattas vissa tendenser och vi tar på nytt upp en del farhågor som blivit knapphändigt behandlade i kapitlen samt försöker urskilja riskgrupper.

  • 6.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete - introduktion2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Solna: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, p. 11-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den informationstekniska utvecklingen har möjliggjort helt nya sätt att organisera arbete. I rum och på platser som tidigare var reserverade för privatliv har nu det avlönade arbetet tagit sig in, och på den uppkopplade arbetsplatsen finns möjligheter för anställda att via nätet sköta privatlivsärenden. Både på arbetsplatsen, på andra platser och i det uppkopplade hemmet går det att snabbt växla fram och tillbaka mellan arbete och personliga angelägenheter. Denna typ av arbetsvillkor kallas för gränslöst arbete, och det kan också ställas i kontrast till fabriksarbete med höggradig maskinstyrning där arbetaren måste finnas vid sin maskin och genomföra specificerade arbetsuppgifter i tidsintervall som bestäms av maskinernas hastighet. Sådant arbete var vanligt i Sverige för bara några decennier sedan men har nu kraftigt minskat genom teknikutveckling. Höggradigt styrt arbete är dock fortfarande utbrett runt om i världen. De två exemplen är poler i en skala och däremellan finns en stor variation i villkor vad gäller arbetets reglering och tidsmässigt och rumsligt oberoende.

  • 7.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delar av arbetslivet har under de senaste decennierna gått mot mer flexibilitet, inte minst i fråga om när och var man kan utföra sitt arbete. Denna flexibilitet kan innebära fördelar men det gränslösa arbetslivet medför också utmaningar för både arbetsgivare och arbetstagare. 

    I regeringens arbetsmiljöstrategi 2016–2020 fick Arbetsmiljöverket ett uppdrag att i samråd med arbetsmarknadens parter ta fram en vägledning om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv. Den här forskarantologin har tagits fram inom ramen för det uppdraget. Texterna har skrivits av ledande forskare inom området och utgör ett av underlagen till vägledningen. Professor Gunnar Aronsson har varit redaktör för antologin. Både antologin och vägledningen finns att ladda ner från Arbetsmiljöverkets webbplats.

    Projektledare för denna antologi vid Arbetsmiljöverket har varit Tommy Fahlander. Vi vill även tacka övriga kollegor vid Arbetsmiljöverket som varit behjälpliga i arbetet med antologin. 

    De åsikter som uttrycks i denna antologi är författarnas egna och speglar inte nödvändigtvis Arbetsmiljöverkets uppfattning. 

    Christina Jonsson

    Chef för enheten för människa och omgivning, Arbetsmiljöverket, Stockholm i januari 2018

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Tillit2015In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 22-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 10.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Sickness Presenteeism and Attendance-Pressure Factors2018In: Presenteeism at work / [ed] Cary L. Cooper, Luo LU, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 145-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Boo
    Albin, Maria
    Torgén, Margareta
    Nylén, Per
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Vingård, Eva
    Håkansta, Carin
    Healthy workplaces for women and men of all ages2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this knowledge compilation is to contribute with knowledge about the work environment in relation to the ever-older workforce. How do employee needs and possibilities change from a course of life perspective? What should the employer and other work environment actors think about in order for the workforce to be able to and want to work to a high age?

    The Swedish Work Environment Authority wishes to give an overarching knowledge profile of different aspects of the work environment and the ageing workforce, and we therefore asked seven researchers to summarise the research-based knowledge within each of their areas, from a course of life and gender perspective. An eighth researcher acted as an editor for the anthology, and has also written the preface.

    In summary, the report shows that we are becoming even healthier, living ever longer and working to an ever higher age. Older people in the workforce are positive for the economy because productivity increases, and the business sector can make use of competent and experienced staff for a longer time. But for the older labour force to be healthy and want to work at higher ages, one needs to take into consideration how ageing influences health and the capacity to work. With age, all people are affected to different degrees by reduced vision, hearing and physical capacity, as well as longer reaction times. Even their cognitive capacity changes. Certain cognitive abilities are strengthened with rising age, while others deteriorate. With an ageing workforce, more employees have chronic illnesses, which, however, seldom affect the actual working ability. Changes in working life also affect health and wellbeing, for example deregulated work and the technical development. Age and previous experiences impact upon our ability to adapt to these changes. One factor that promotes adaptation is partly resilience (that is to say, resistance and the ability to adapt to the new), partly compensation strategies when the mental and physical resources change. There are no great differences between gender when it comes to the consequences of ageing on health and wellbeing in the work. On the other hand, the public health trend shows increasing differences in health between the lower educated and the higher educated - a difference increasing more quickly among women than among men. The gender-segregated labour market also means that more women than men work in physical and mentally burdensome work. Attitudes at the workplace also affect wellbeing and the will to continue working at higher ages. Men tend to be more sensitive to age discrimination while women run the risk of double discrimination, that is to say based upon both gender and age. Work environment and the attitude to an older workforce are central to the considerations that an employee makes in the choice between continuing to work and retiring. Other prerequisites that influence the decision are one’s own health, private finances and self-fulfilling activities.

    The employer can do a great deal to lengthen and improve their employees’ working life. Systematic work environment management benefits everyone, and it can contribute to everyone keeping their working ability and to older people wanting to and being able to work for longer. Occupational health services of good quality also play an important role. Technical aids and adaptation of the working pace and working tasks are other measures that improve the work environment for the older workforce. The employer can also contribute to stimulating work arrangements and organisational support for the employees in order to strengthen their resilience and promote the development of compensation strategies. 

  • 12.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Ishall, Lars
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa.
    The long arm of the job - work characteristics and recovery windows in social welfare work2019In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 15-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Social welfare work contains elements that may be difficult for employees to put out of their minds when the working day ends, which may affect the recovery. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the length of recovery in relation to different work characteristics and to two types of welfare work. Design/methodology/approach All 1,365 employees, excluding managers, of two municipality administrations were invited to a survey study. Of these, 673 (49 percent) responded. After adjusting for partial missing, the effective sample included 580 employees (43 percent). Retrospective ratings of four recovery windows were analyzed: recovery after one night's sleep, weekends, shorter holidays and vacations. Findings Employees with a university education were less recovered than those with a shorter education. For those with a university education, the long arm of the job mainly involved failures regarding qualitative job demands (task difficulty). For those with a shorter education, quantitative job demands (too much to do) were most prominent for their prolonged recovery. Feedback from managers had consistent and positive associations with all four recovery windows among employees with a university education, but not among those with a shorter education for whom instead having too much to do and social support had significant spillover effects. Originality/value The identified differences may relate to employees with a university education having more problem-solving tasks, which may result in a higher need of work-related feedback but also in difficulties detaching from work. Thus, education and job characteristics have differential associations with self-rated recovery.

  • 13.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Hammarström, Anne
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Träskman-Bendz, Lil
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms.

    METHODS: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used.

    RESULTS: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout.

    CONCLUSION: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 14.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Mälardalens högskola, Sverige .
    Welander, Jonas
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 41-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalsituationen i socialtjänsten framstår som alltmer problematisk med omfattande personalomsättning och rekryteringssvårigheter. Baserat på en nationell enkätstudie undersöks betydelsen av arbetsvillkor och organisatoriska faktorer för handlingsalternativen sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer inom socialtjänsten. Resultaten visar bland annat att styrningen inom socialtjänsten behöver utvecklas i riktning mot färre motstridiga krav och för en öppenhet som tillåter dialog och kritisk reflektion för att behålla och på sikt attrahera nya medarbetare.

  • 15. Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    Hasson, Henna
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    The Need for Dual Openness to Change: A Longitudinal Study Evaluating the Impact of Employees' Openness to Organizational Change Content and Process on Intervention Outcomes2017In: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, ISSN 0021-8863, E-ISSN 1552-6879, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 349-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how individual- and group-level openness to organizational change, concerning change content and process, affects intervention outcomes. The intervention aimed to improve primary health care employees' competence in and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Employees' (n = 1,042) ratings of their openness to the change content and process as well as of their workgroup's openness to the change content before the intervention were used to predict ICT competence and its use 18 months later. Openness to the change process predicted both ICT competence and use of competence, while openness to the change content and group openness predicted use of competence only. These results show that individual- and group-level openness to organizational change are important predictors of successful outcomes. Furthermore, employees should be open both to the content of the change and to the process by which the intervention is implemented in order to maximize outcomes.

  • 16.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Canivet, Catarina
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Östergren, P-O
    The role of social embeddedness for remaining in non-desired workplaces and mental health consequences: Results from Scania Public Health Cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 334-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of social embeddedness on and off the job in relation to remaining in non-desired workplaces (NDWs) and the development of mental health. Method: The study used questionnaire data from the Scania Public Health cohort (N=2410) that were collected in 2000 (T1), 2005 (T2) and 2010 (T3). Logistic regression models were calculated to probe how NDWs and social embeddedness factors measured at baseline (T1) related to NDWs five years later (T2), and to investigate how NDWs and social embeddedness factors at T2 related to poor mental health at T3. Synergy indices were calculated in both analyses to test for additive v. interactive effects between NDWs and social embeddedness factors on the outcomes. Results: NDWs at baseline and low social embeddedness on and off the job was associated with NDWs at T2. For those in a desired workplace, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk to be in an NDW at T2. NDWs and low social embeddedness also associated with impaired mental health (T3). For those in an NDW, low support from co-workers as well as low workplace affinity increased the risk of poor mental health at T3. Conclusions: This study underlines the importance of social embeddedness for NDWs and the development of poor mental health over time. Particularly low social support from co-workers and low workplace affinity seem to be risk factors for future experience of an NDW and impaired mental health.

  • 17.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    How Do We Feel and Behave When We’re Not Permanent Full-Time Employees? The Case of the Diverse Forms of Non-Standard Work2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. 258-275Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how it feels to work in non-standard employment that deviates from the traditional full-time permanent arrangement. Non-standard employmentis frequently used by organizations today and often tailored to organizational needs. Therefore, a diversity of arrangements has developed, which means that employment and working conditions and their consequences for the individual and the organization may vary a lot. The chapter first provides a typology of most commonly used non-standard contracts and discusses their comparability across national employment protection legislation and labour markets. It further illustrates that workers may view alternative employment differently, depending on organizational or labour market structures that create working conditions for specific contracts, and individual perspectives that are shaped by different needs and perceptions of the employment. These structural issues and individual perceptions may well explain the variety of consequences, positive as well as negative, which are discussed in this chapter in terms of work attitudes, organizational behaviour, individual health and well-being and career development.

  • 18.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eib, Constanze
    Griep, Yannick
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    How do Job Insecurity and Organisational Injustice relate to Mental Health Problems? A Multilevel Study on Synchronous and Delayed Effects2018In: Book of Proceedings 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today’s workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, N. Saade, V. Dediu, J. Hassard, L. Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 216-217, article id O15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the continuous changing world of work towards more automatisation, and global competition that requires organisations to cut costs wherever possible, job insecurity is a concern of workers across many different occupations. Job insecurity is a stressful experience and its negative impact on wellbeing and health is well-documented. However, the exact mechanisms for the link between job insecurity and health need further study.

    We argue that job insecurity is a breach of the psychological contract for permanent workers, leading to perceptions that the employer acts unfairly, which is related to immediate (synchronous) and long-term (two years delayed) negative health effects. Thus, we firstly hypothesise indirect effects between job insecurity on depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties via organisational injustice at the within person level. Furthermore, because employees who often experience job insecurity may no longer have security expectations in their psychological contract, we suggest that the strength of the job insecurity-injustice relationship differs between individuals, such that the relationship is weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity over time. Finally, we hypothesised that the relationship between organisational injustice and depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties is stronger for individuals who experience more over time-variation in organisational injustice. We expect this pattern because recent research shows that injustice has stronger effects for individuals whose justice experiences vary as opposed to relatively stable injustice perceptions.

    Method: The study population consisted of participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort survey. We selected only permanent workers over four consecutive data waves (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016) and analyzed the data with multilevel analysis.

    Results: At the within-person level, we found significant direct effects of job insecurity on organisational injustice. Job insecurity and organisational injustice displayed direct synchronous effects on both health outcomes, but few delayed effects were found. The indirect effects were significant for synchronous but not for delayed health outcomes. Significant cross-level interactions were found for between-individual differences in job insecurity, but not for between- individual differences in organisational justice. In particular, as hypothesised, the link between job insecurity and organisational injustice at each wave was weaker for individuals with higher average levels of job insecurity perceptions but stronger for those who rarely experienced job insecurity during the time of the study.

    Discussion: This study is one of the few studies investigating within- and between-person mechanisms that link feelings of job insecurity to the experience of organisational injustice and health outcomes over time. It also adds to the debate whether job insecurity and organisational injustice associate with health via mediation or moderation mechanisms by showing that both mechanisms may operate simultaneously yet on different levels. Furthermore, this study highlights that permanent workers view their organisation as less fair when they experience job insecurity, the more so if their psychological contract is largely intact and builds on security expectations. Both job insecurity and injustice have rather direct effects for health.

  • 19.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Staying in or switching between permanent, temporary and self-employment during 2008-2010: Associations with changing job characteristics and emotional exhaustion2019In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 215-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labour market segmentation theories suggest that permanent and temporary workers are exposed to economic risks to different degrees, and differ in their working life quality and well-being. However, few studies have tested these ideas during times of economic crisis. Also, little is known about how the self-employed compare to permanent and temporary workers and are affected by economic downturns. This study investigated Swedish workers in different labour market segments before and after the financial crisis (2008 and 2010). More specifically, it looked at job characteristics and strain differences between permanent, temporary and self-employed workers. Data (N = 6335) came from SLOSH, a longitudinal representative cohort study of the Swedish workforce. Contradicting segmentation theories, differences between permanent and temporary workers were small. The self-employed stood out with favourable job characteristics, but comparable strain levels. During the crisis, work demands and strain declined for many of the workers studied here.

  • 20.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Christensen, Marit
    Clausen, Thomas
    Mauno, Saija
    The Launch of a New Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Enkätmetodik2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 22.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Acceptera villkor eller aktivt avgränsa?: Gångbara strategier för att hantera krav och hög belastning2018In: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson, Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 114-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23. Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Differences in organizational preconditions for managers in genderized municipal services2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to much research concerned with differences in male and female managers’ leadership strategies, this study focuses on how organizational arrangements vary for managers in differently genderized contexts; it explores the opportunities for frontline managers in municipal services to fulfil their assignment. The organisational preconditions for over 400 managers of municipal health and social care, education and technical services are analysed in a cross-level and comparative research design. The results indicate that managers of feminized care services work in an environment with fewer resources, less organisational support and larger spans of control, than managers in masculinized municipal services. These results shed light on meso-level mechanisms involved in the unequal distribution of health risks among men and women in working life.

  • 24. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Svedberg, Pia
    The associations between job insecurity, depressive symptoms and burnout: The role of performance-based self-esteem2018In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 48-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite agreement on the negative effects of job insecurity, more knowledge needs to be generated on the health effects in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms and for whom job insecurity has these negative effects. The present study aims to investigate the associations between job insecurity and burnout and depressive symptoms respectively, by studying the moderation influences of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE), a form of contingent self-esteem. A population-based sample with 4145 twins was used. The results showed that job insecurity was significantly associated with both burnout and depressive symptoms, and that PBSE acted as a moderator, so that the associations were stronger for individuals with high PBSE than for individuals with low PBSE. The study contributes by including a personality characteristic to gain more knowledge about the mechanisms of job insecurity on mental ill-health, and by illustrating that job insecurity has an impact on severe health outcomes in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms.

  • 25.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Mather, Lisa
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to cortisol and subjective health complaints in women working in the public health care sector2017In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 286-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n=420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n=420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Findings: Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC.

    Practical implications: Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL.

    Originality/value: This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

  • 26.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Task-level work engagement of self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers2017In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 724-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Self-employed workers typically report higher well-being levels than employees. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that lead to differences in work engagement between self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers. Design/methodology/approach - Self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers (N = 167) were compared using a multigroup multilevel analysis. Participants assessed their job control (general level) and reported their work engagement during work tasks (task level) by means of the Day Reconstruction Method. Aspects of job control (autonomy, creativity, and learning opportunities) and task characteristics (social tasks and core work tasks) were contrasted for the two groups as predictors of work engagement. Findings - Self-employed workers reported higher levels of job control and work engagement than organizationally employed workers. In both groups, job control predicted work engagement. Employees with more opportunities to be creative and autonomous were more engaged at work. Self-employed workers were more engaged when they had more learning opportunities. On the task level, the self-employed were more engaged during core work tasks and social tasks. Practical implications - The findings suggest that self-employment is an effective way for high-skilled workers to increase the amount of job control available to them, and to improve their work engagement. From an intervention perspective, self-employed workers may benefit most from more learning opportunities, more social tasks, and more core work tasks. Organizationally employed workers may appreciate more autonomy and opportunities for creativity. Originality/value - This study contributes to a better understanding of the role that job control and task characteristics play in predicting the work engagement of high-skilled self-employed and organizationally employed workers.

  • 27.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions.

  • 28.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.
    Dunne, Sara
    Fink, David
    Gatej, Alexandra Raluca
    Karlsson, Ebba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ruberti, Veronica
    Wronska, Marta Katarzyna
    Why do we enjoy creative tasks? Results from a multigroup randomized controlled study2016In: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 19, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have linked positive emotions with creativity, but it remains unknown why creative activities may enhance positive emotions. We tested how creative tasks influence autonomous self-expression and task absorption, and whether this in turn increases positive emotions. Data from 478 participants were divided into four language samples (English, German, Italian, and Polish) and analyzed in a series of multigroup structural equation models. The indirect effects were replicated in all samples. Creative tasks enhanced positive emotions through an increase in autonomy. However, participants who solved creative tasks also reported lower task absorption, and this has hindered their experience of positive emotions. In total, a small increase of positive emotions was recorded for creative tasks in comparison to non-creative ones. We suggest that creative activities may support autonomous functioning and enhance positive emotions, given that participants will stay sufficiently focused on the task.

  • 29. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 30.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Development of job demands, decision authority and social support in industries with different gender composition - Sweden, 1991-20132019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study aims to explore the development of job demands, decision authority and social support within and between industries with different gender composition in Sweden between 1991 and 2013.

    Methods

    Cross-sectional data from 12 waves of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys (1991 to 2013), comprising in total 109,698 respondents, were used. Industries were classified in 7 categories according to its gender composition and main activity, comprising two female-dominated, three gender-mixed and two male-dominated industries. Proportions of workers reporting high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support between 1991 and 2013 were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate variation across time, using 1991 as the reference category, and between industries, using knowledge intensive services as the reference category. Estimates for high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support were presented as average marginal effects (AMEs).

    Results

    The probabilities of reporting low decision authority were higher in education and health and social care during the whole study period, for both genders, compared with the reference category of knowledge intensive services. The probability of having high job demands were higher for men and women in education, and women in health and social care, compared with the reference category. Men in the male dominated industries had increased job demands over time, compared to the beginning of the study period (1991). The probability of reporting poor social support was higher in the later than in the earliest time period for women in the female-dominated industry health and social care as well as in the gender-mixed labour intensive services industry.

    Conclusions

    There has been a negative development of job demands and decision authority in the female-dominated industries education and health and social care in Sweden, whereas social support has developed more negatively for women in health and social care and in labour intensive services.

  • 31.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Development of Organisational and Psychosocial Work Factors Across Industries with Different Gender Composition in Sweden, 2003-20132018In: Book of proceedings: 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, Luis Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, p. 34-35, article id S2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the development of mental ill-health and sickness absence has been poorer in female-dominated industries compared to others. One possible explanation is the different developments of psychosocial working conditions across industries. Men and women appear to react similarly to the same psychosocial exposures at work, but differences in exposure patterns may prevail. There is to date a lack of studies on the extent to which psychosocial work exposures are associated with the gender segregation on the Swedish labour market at the industry level. This study aims to investigate how organisational and psychosocial work factors have developed over time across industries with different gender composition in Sweden from 2003 to 2013, and to what extent these factors differ between industries.

    Methods: The present study is based on repeated cross-sectional data from the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES). SWES is conducted biennially by Statistics Sweden (SCB) and includes Swedish workers aged 16-64 years. Six waves from 2003 to 2013, comprising a study sample of 45,631 subjects, were analysed, Industries were categorised according to gender composition and divided into seven categories: 1) Goods and energy production; 2) Machine handling; 3) Manual services; 4) Public administration; 5) Knowledge intensive services; 6) Education; 7) Health and social care. Proportions of men and women in each industry who were exposed to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were calculated for each of the six waves. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, educational level and year of response to SWES were performed on the full sample (all six waves), in order to estimate the odds of being exposed to organisational and psychosocial work factors in each industry using the knowledge intensive service industry as the reference category.

    Results: Preliminary results show that in female dominated industries (Education and Health and social care), many organisational and psychosocial work factors developed poorly over the study period. Higher odds of exposure to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were found for several industries when using the industry of Knowledge intensive services as the reference category.

    Conclusion: This study is one of the first of its kind analysing the development of organisational and psychosocial work factors, as well as differences in these factors between industries with different gender compositions in Sweden.

  • 32. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, FrancoSverke, MagnusStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An international perspective2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest edition of this classic text provides a comprehensive and internationally relevant introduction to work and organizational psychology, exploring the depth and diversity of the field in an accessible way without obscuring the complexities of the subject.

    • Third edition of a classic textbook offering a complete introduction to work and organizational psychology for undergraduate and graduate students with no prior knowledge of the field
    • An innovative new six part structure with two-colour presentation focuses the core material around issues that are either Job-Focused, Organization-Focused, or People-Focused
    • Each chapter title is a question designed to engage readers in understanding work and organizational psychology whilst simultaneously inviting discussion of key topics in the field
    • The third edition introduces two new co-editors in Franco Fraccaroli from Italy and Magnus Sverke, who join Nik Chmiel and will increase relevance and appeal for European students.
  • 33. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, Franco
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Introduction2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. xxi-xxivChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34. Corin, Linda
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Managers’ Turnover in the Public Sector: The Role of Psychosocial Working Conditions2016In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 790-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important challenge for public organizations is to attract and retain skilled managers. The present study explores how profiles of psychosocial working conditions, assessed by the combination of managerial-specific job demands and job resources, longitudinally predict managers’ turnover intentions and actual turnover in Swedish municipalities. Considerable effects of managers’ psychosocial working conditions on turnover intentions but not on actual turnover were found. Thus, poor working conditions may result in psychologically detached managers in public organizations, which may have considerable and costly effects on both the organizations and the managers, in terms of decreased commitment, performance, and impaired health.

  • 35. Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Berntson, ErikStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.Tengblad, Stefan
    Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Några av Sveriges främsta ledarskapsforskare ger i denna bok ökad kunskap för att förstå, styra och hantera organisatorisk komplexitet. Chefer i komplexa organisationer behöver hantera osäkerhet och överraskande händelseförlopp för att organisationen ska fungera väl. Det kräver att cheferna har förståelse för de förutsättningar som gäller i sådana organisationer, till exempel att beslut samproduceras i och utanför ledningsgrupper, att professionsföreträdare har ett betydande inflytande och att konkurrerande normsystem är vanliga. Ett annat särdrag är hur emotionellt krävande chefsarbetet är, med tryck inte bara från medarbetare utan även från anhöriga, brukare, den breda allmänheten, granskningsaktörer och media. Samtidigt kännetecknas komplexa organisationer av flertalet system som syftar till att reducera osäkerhet och styrproblematik, men som också i sig ställer särskilda krav på chefsarbetet.

    Kapitlen i denna antologi är fristående och ger ett antal kompletterande bilder av komplexitet – dess problematiker och ibland förslag på lösningar. De många exemplen kommer nästan uteslutande från offentlig sektor, eftersom den vanligen kännetecknas av omfattande komplexitet, men innehållet är relevant för alla komplexa organisationer.

    Boken är skriven för utbildningar i ledarskap på högskolenivå, för organisationsledningar, verksamhetsnära chefer och specialister i chefsfunktioner.

  • 36. Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    Andersson, Pia
    Lindgren, Hans
    En introduktion till ledarskap och organisatorisk komplexitet2018In: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson, Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, 1, p. 9-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37. Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Organizational justice and health: Studying mental preoccupation with work and social support as mediators for lagged and reversed relationships2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 553-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work. Second, based on the affective perception and affective reaction assumption, we investigate if the relationships between different health indicators and organizational justice perceptions are mediated by social support at work. Using a large-scale Swedish panel study (N = 3,236), we test the bidirectional mediating relationships between procedural justice perceptions and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence with a cross-lagged design with 3 waves of data. Significant lagged effects from procedural justice to health were found for models predicting depressive symptoms and sickness absence. Mental preoccupation with work was not found to mediate the longitudinal relationship between procedural justice perceptions and indicators of health. Significant lagged effects from health indicators to procedural justice were found for models involving self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence. Social support mediated the longitudinal relationships between all 3 health indicators and procedural justice. Results are discussed in light of previous studies and implications for theory and practice are outlined.

  • 38.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Karin Schenck
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design: Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting: A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects: Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results: Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention.

  • 39. Ericsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Rydstedt, Leif W.
    Pettersson, Pär
    Augustinsson, Sören
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Återhämtning bland hockeyspelare i Tre Kronor, nattarbetande bagare och skolledare – om asocialitet, sömnlösa nätter och allvarsam lek – en dygnsberättelse2016In: Arbetsliv i omvandling, ISSN 1404-8426, no 2, p. 7-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Återhämtning är den process som återställer individens energi och mentala resurser. Vi betraktar här återhämtning som en dynamisk process av ständig reglering och anpassning av aktivitetsnivån till omgivningens krav. Föreliggande studie är ett första steg i ett projekt som har för avsikt att fördjupa kunskapen om denna process. Vårt antagande är att det finns olika strategier, platser, behov, förutsättningar och möjligheter för återhämtning i arbetslivet. Både vad gäller individuella olikheter men även skillnader som kan hänföras till yrkesgrupp. Fokusgrupper genomfördes med tre olika yrkesgrupper: professionella ishockeyspelare, nattarbetande bagare och skolledare (sammanlagt 29 deltagare). Utgångspunkten för fokusgrupperna var en idé om en dygnsberättelse, inom vilken det fanns tre distinktioner, arbete, fritid och sömn. Samtalen i fokusgrupperna utgick från dygnsberättelsen, men kretsade kring arbetets krav, förväntningar på prestation samt behov och förutsättningar för återhämtning. Vad som exemplifierades var olika strategier för att hantera de psykofysiologiska påfrestningar som de olika yrkesgrupperna ställs inför. Berättelserna från fokusgrupperna är mångfacetterade och förmedlar både bilden av olika ”rum”, likt fönster, för återhämtning men även en avsaknad av sådana förutsättningar. En avsaknad som istället leder till ytterligare energiförbrukning. Det centrala problemet för de nattarbetande bagarna var ofta på ett eller annat sätt relaterat till en fysiologisk nedvarvning och framförallt (bristen på) sömnkvalitet. Det var alltså inte minnet av jobbet som klängde sig kvar hos bagarna när de hade kommit hem efter avslutat pass. Kvardröjande mentala representationer av stressorer, en typ av repetitivt ältande, visade sig däremot hos både ishockeyspelarna och skolledarna. För ishockeyspelarna var återhämtning ofta tätt sammankopplat med prestation. Goda prestationer skapade bättre förutsättningar för att inte ta med arbetet hem. Ältandet och svårigheter att släppa arbetet var ofta relaterat till mindre bra prestationer eller direkta misslyckanden.

  • 40.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsorelaterade besvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken, vilket kan påverka både arbetsmiljö och hälsa. Sektor och yrke behöver därför tas i beaktande när arbetsmiljö och hälsa jämförs mellan kvinnor och män. Denna studie utgår från en modell där arbetsmiljö utgörs av fem dimensioner som tillsammans skapar ett arbetsklimat. De fem dimensionerna består av arbetet, arbetsrollen, arbetsgruppen, ledarskapet och organisationen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsorelaterade besvär bland kvinnor och män som har en liknande arbetssituation, det vill säga som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Dels jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Dels prediceras hälsobesvär utifrån arbetsklimatet för kvinnor och män.

  • 41.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Social status i arbetslivet: Perspektiv från en forskare inom arbets- och organisationspsykologi2016In: Makt och inflytande i arbetslivet / [ed] Margaretha Holmqvist, Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2016, p. 220-239Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetslivet är till sin karaktär hierarkiskt. Trots det fokuserar arbets- och organisationspsykologin inte på maktfrågor, utan mer på den anställdes möjligheter till kontroll över den egna arbetssituationen. Här ges ett perspektiv på betydelsen av social status i arbetslivet.

  • 42.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordgren Selar, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Anställdas syn på lön, motivation och prestation: En undersökning av lönesättning i privat sektor2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lönesättningen i privat sektor sker med olika grad av koppling till den individuellaprestationen. Vissa avtal ger inget eller endast begränsat utrymme för verksamhets- ochindividnära lönesättning. I andra avtal ges stort utrymme, som i varierande gradanvänds av företagen för att koppla samman lön och arbetsresultat. Generellt setthar tjänstemännens avtal betydligt större utrymme för verksamhets- och individnäralönesättning än de avtal som LO-förbunden träffar.

    Syftet med den här rapporten är att undersöka hur anställda i privat sektor, såväl tjänstemän som arbetare, upplever lönesättningen samt att bidra till ökad kunskap om lönens och lönesättningens betydelse för motivation och prestation i arbetet. Någon motsvarande studie av lönesättningen inom privat sektor har inte tidigare gjorts i Sverige. I rapporten beskrivs de anställdas erfarenheter av och uppfattningarom hur deras lön sätts. Här undersöks också hur lön och lönesättning hänger sammanmed motivation och prestation i arbetet. Även andra faktorer – såsom legitimitet ilönesättningen (det vill säga upplevelsen av om lönen sätts på ett sätt som upplevsrättvist), arbetsklimat och personlighet – undersöks i relation till motivation ochprestation.Rapportens resultat baseras på en enkätundersökning som genomfördesår 2016 bland ett nationellt representativt urval av anställda i åldern 20–65 år som arbetade inom fem sektorer: bygg och installation, handel och besöksnäring, industri, service och tjänster samt transport.

    Undersökningen visar att färre än hälften hade haft lönesamtal under det senaste året. Av de som hade haft lönesamtal var det ungefär en tredjedel som inte hade förstått hur chefen hade bedömt deras arbetsinsats. Ungefär 40 procent av samtliga svarande angavatt de inte kände till vilka kriterier deras lön baseras på. Av de som kände till lönekriteriernavar det cirka två tredjedelar som ansåg att lönekriterierna följdes. Resultatenvisar att det fanns en stor variation mellan sektorerna när det gäller erfarenheter avoch uppfattningar om hur lönesättningen går till.

    De flesta ansåg att det fanns skillnader i arbetsprestation mellan anställda med likvärdigaarbetsuppgifter och att skillnader i prestation borde ge skillnad i lön. Närmare60 procent trodde att individuell lönesättning kunde gynna den egna löneutvecklingen.En sådan positiv förväntan var vanligare bland personer med högre lön och bland män.Däremot var det omkring 40 procent som ansåg att löneskillnader mellan anställdamed likvärdig befattning kunde påverka verksamheten i en negativ riktning, medanomkring 40 procent ansåg att sådana skillnader var bra för verksamheten och20 procent inte hade någon åsikt i frågan.

    Anställda som upplevde att den egna lönen i stor eller ganska stor utsträckning varbaserad på deras arbetsutförande var mer nöjda med sin lön än de som inte upplevdeatt lönen var kopplad till prestation. Kvinnor hade en lägre lönetillfredsställelse änmän och rapporterade även generellt något lägre upplevd grad av jämställdhet i lönesättningenän män, oavsett sektor. Graden av legitimitet i lönesättningen (mätt med fyra dimensioner av lönerättvisa) var överlag måttlig till god, men varierade mellan sektorerna. Nivåerna i upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningen var generellt sett högre bland anställda som tyckte att lönekriterierna följdes, som hade haft lönesamtal, som förstodhur chefen hade bedömt deras arbetsinsats och som fick högre grad av återkopplingpå hur de utförde sitt arbete. Chefer rapporterade en högre grad av lönerättvisa jämfört med anställda utan chefsansvar.

    Undersökningen visar att lönen som sådan tycks ha viss betydelse för arbetsmotivationoch arbetsprestation. När hänsyn togs till andra faktorer visade sig olika upplevelser avhur lönesättningen går till, såsom förtroende för chefens bedömning och upplevelser avrättvisa, vara viktigare än lönen i sig. Arbetsklimat, i termer av sådant som autonomii arbetet och tydliga mål, var det område som hade störst betydelse för både motivationoch prestation. Personlighet hade betydelse för arbetsprestationen, men var inte särskiltbetydelsefullt för arbetsmotivationen.

    Undersökningen visar att det finns behov av att arbeta med hur lönesättningen gårtill inom privat sektor om avsikten är att använda lönesättningen för att motivera ochöka de anställdas prestation i arbetet. Även om lönenivån som sådan har viss betydelseför de anställdas arbetsmotivation och arbetsprestation, har upplevelser av hur lönesättningen genomförs, legitimitet i lönesättningen och arbetsklimatet större betydelse. Chefer kan beskrivas som bärare av lönesystemet och har ett ansvar för att skapatransparens avseende hur lönekriterier används och hur anställdas arbetsutförande bedöms, liksom för att forma de anställdas arbetsklimat.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar undersökningen att när lönesättningen fungerar på ett sätt som de anställda upplever som legitimt finns det förutsättningar för att lön och lönesättning kan bidra till ökad motivation och prestation – och därmed även till verksamhetens utveckling. Resultaten antyder att det är viktigt att integrera lönesättningen med andra åtgärder – såsom att främja arbetsklimatet – för att förbättraverksamheten. Lön och lönesättning utgör ett verktyg bland flera i utvecklingen avmedarbetare och företag.

  • 43.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of Abstracts - FALF 2016, 2016, p. 23-23Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken. Det gör att sektor och yrke behöver tas med när hälsoskillnader mellan kvinnor och män ska undersökas. Den här studien undersöker likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Först jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Sedan undersöks sambanden mellan arbetsklimatet och hälsobesvär för kvinnor och män. Resultaten baseras på självrapporter i enkäter från 95 kvinnor och 105 män som arbetade som läkare på ett och samma akutsjukhus i Stockholm. Resultaten visade inga statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan kvinnor och män när det gällde upplevelser av arbetet, arbetsrollen, ledarskapet eller organisationen. Dock rapporterade kvinnorna att de upplevde sammanhållningen och samarbetet i arbetsgruppen som lägre än männen. Kvinnorna rapporterade också mer av både psykiska och fysiska hälsobesvär jämfört med männen. Både sammanhållning och samarbete i arbetsgruppen var relaterade till färre hälsobesvär, men bara för männen. Den här explorativa studien visar att det kan finnas likheter i arbetsklimatet bland kvinnor och män när arbetssituationen är likartad, men tyder också på att en del av de skillnader som finns i den segregerade arbetsmarknaden också tycks vara närvarande för kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, organisation och yrke.

  • 44.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores similarities and differences between women and men with similar working conditions (working within the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of psychological work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

    Design/Methodology: Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden in 2001.

    Results: Results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. Women reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men. Role characteristics (overload/conflict/ambiguity) were related to more health complaints for both women and men. Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men.

    Limitations: The study did not account for women and men often working as physicians in different specialties and/or may perform different work tasks. The non-work domain was not investigated.

    Research/practical implications: This study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the larger structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, the same organization, and in the same occupation.

    Originality: Previous research has underscored the problem of finding samples that are large enough to allow comparing women and men working under similar working conditions.

  • 45.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the same sector, organization and occupation: Similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men physicans2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish labor market is gender segregated. This means that gender differences in health can be confounded by factors associated with sector and occupation. Thus, sector and occupation need to be considered when comparing work environment and health between women and men. This study uses the theoretical model of psychological work climate that specifies the work environment in terms of five dimensions. These five dimensions are characteristics of the job, role, workgroup, leadership and organization. The aim of the present study was to explore similarities and differences between women and men who have similar working conditions (working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

  • 46.
    Forsberg Kankkunen, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Björk, Lisa
    Bejerot, Eva
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Chef i kommunen: Krav och förutsättningar ur ett genusperspektiv2018In: Att leda i en komplex organisation: Utmaningar och nya perspektiv för chefer i offentlig verksamhet / [ed] Anna Cregård, Erik Berntson, Stefan Tengblad, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 58-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Why do General Practitioners Self-Diagnose and Self-Prescribe Drugs?2016In: Book of Proceedings: 12th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: OHP in Times of Change: Society and the workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Vlad Dediu, Nathalie Jean Saade, Juliet Hassard, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2016, p. 203-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Physicians tend to demonstrate inappropriate behavior when it comes to taking care of their own health. Self-prescribing or self-treatment seems to be practiced in many countries, and self-treated illnesses are found to be more common among general practitioners. For the physician such behavior is a threat to their own health, and as a consequence their patients might not be able to receive optimal health care. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between help seeking behavior, sickness presenteeism, exhaustion, and self- treatment among general practitioners.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among GPs employed in one City Council in Sweden using a questionnaire on health and work factors. The criterion variable “To self-diagnose and self-treat” was measured with a single item from the Physician Career Path Questionnaire (PCPQ; Fridner, 2004). Exhaustion was measured with a scale from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, OLBI (α = .82; Demerouti et al., 2001, 2003). “Sickness presenteeism” and “Taking vacation due to stress” was measured with single items, also from the PCPQ (Fridner, 2004). For the analyses, we used hierarchical multiple regression.

    Results: Altogether 193 (63,9%) female GPs and 109 (36,1%) male GPs answered the questionnaire, a 44% response-rate. Among them 46,2% stated they had diagnosed and treated themselves for a condition for which they would have referred a patient to a specialist. Our regression analysis model revealed that those physicians who self-treated themselves were also significantly more sickness present at work. Adding to this, exhaustion among the GPs was also included in the model.

    Conclusions: This study shows that self-treatment is not an isolated behavior, but occurs together with exhaustion and sickness presenteeism, indicating a quite severe situation for their health, which would need to be investigated by other doctors than themselves. This needs to be further investigated and taken into account by the National Board of Health and Welfare, County Councils and Medical Associations, and for future physicians our medical schools. 

  • 48.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Emotional working memory in older adults after total sleep deprivation2017In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, no Suppl. 1, p. e110-e110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though the occurrence of sleep problems increases with age, few studies have focused on the cognitive effects of acute sleep deprivation in elderly. Most previous research indicate that, compared to young, older adults show less impairment in e.g. attention after sleep deprivation. However, little is known of whether the same pattern holds for higher cognitive functions. In addition, while old age is usually related to a general decrease in working memory abilities, performance on working memory tasks may differ depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli, where positive stimuli seem to be beneficial for working memory performance in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory in older adults using two levels of working memory load.

    Materials and methods: A healthy sample of 48 old adults (MAge=66.69 years, SDAge=3.44 years) was randomized into a total sleep deprivation group (TSD; n=24) or a sleep control group (SC; n=24). They performed a working memory task (n-back) containing positive, negative and neutral pictures in a low (1-back) and a high (3-back) working memory load condition. Performance was measured as Accuracy (d'), Omissions and Reaction Time (RT).

    Results: For the d' and Omissions we performed two separate 2x2x3 (sleep, working memory load, valence) repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA). For the RTs, we applied a mixed-effects model. For both d' and RT we found no effect of sleep deprivation (Ps > .05). For valence, we found main effects on both d' (F1,46 = 5.56, P=.005) and RT (F1,95.7 = 4.84, P=.01). d' did not differ for positive and neutral pictures, but was in both cases significantly better than for negative pictures. RTs were significantly faster for positive pictures. However, a working memory loadvalence interaction (F1,95.7 = 4.50, P=.01) further revealed an effect of valence in the low, but not in the high load condition. In the low load condition, RTs were faster for positive than for neutral pictures and faster for neutral than for negative pictures. There was no significant effect of Omissions.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that emotional working memory performance was not significantly affected by one night of sleep deprivation in older adults, which contrast what we found in a sample of young adults from the same project. In line with previous research, our results indicate a beneficial effect of positive stimuli on working memory in older adults. This effect was present in both groups and most pronounced for reaction times in the condition with a lower cognitive demand. We can conclude that, among older adults, the working memory performance is not impaired by sleep deprivation and that the benefits of positive stimuli on working memory seem intact. These findings contribute to a better understanding of older adults' cognitive functioning after sleep deprivation.

  • 49.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory2019In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, no 1, article id e12744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emotional dysregulation and impaired working memory found after sleep loss can have severe implications for our daily functioning. Considering the intertwined relationship between emotion and cognition in stimuli processing, there could be further implications of sleep deprivation in high‐complex emotional situations. Although studied separately, this interaction between emotion and cognitive processes has been neglected in sleep research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1 night of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory. Sixty‐one healthy participants (mean age: 23.4 years) were either sleep deprived for 1 night (n = 30) or had a normal night’s sleep (n = 31). They performed an N‐back task with two levels of working memory load (1‐back and 3‐back) using positive, neutral and negative picture scenes. Sleep deprivation, compared with full night sleep, impaired emotional working memory accuracy, but not reaction times. The sleep‐deprived participants, but not the controls, responded faster to positive than to negative and neutral pictures. The effect of sleep deprivation was similar for both high and low working memory loads. The results showed that although detrimental in terms of accuracy, sleep deprivation did not impair working memory speed. In fact, our findings indicate that positive stimuli may facilitate working memory processing speed after sleep deprivation.

  • 50.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gender differences in Reasons for Sickness Presenteeism - a study among GPs in a Swedish health care organization2016In: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 2052-4374, Vol. 28, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is common that physicians go to work while sick and therefore it is important to understand the reasons behind. Previous research has shown that women and men differ in health and health related behavior. In this study, we examine gender differences among general practitioners who work while sick.

    Methods: General practitioners (GP’s) working in outpatient care in a Swedish city participated in the study (n = 283; women = 63 %; response rate = 41 %). Data were obtained from a large web-based questionnaire about health and organization within primary care. Two questions about sickness presenteeism (going to work while sick) were included; life-long and during the past 12 months, and five questions about reasons. We controlled for general health, work-family conflict and demographic variables.

    Results: Female physicians reported sickness presenteeism more often than male physicians. Work-family conflict mediated the association between gender and sickness presenteeism.

    Women reported reasons related with “concern for others” and “workload” more strongly than men. Men reported reasons related with “capacity” and “money” more strongly than women. These differences are likely effects of gender stereotyping and different family-responsibilities.

    Conclusions: Gender socialization and gender stereotypes may influence work and health-related behavior. Because sickness presenteeism is related with negative effects both on individuals and at organizational levels, it is important that managers of health organizations understand the reasons for this, and how gender roles may influence the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and the reasons that female and male GPs give for their behavior.

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