Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 127
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Hur kan man minska nyrekrytering?: Monoaminerga mekanismer kopplade till personlighet och olika former av psykosocial störningsbild, såsom missbruk och andra beteendestörningar (s. 23-27)2006Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kopplingen mellan personlighet, biologi och social anpassning2013In: Att studera människors utveckling: Resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA 1965-2013 / [ed] Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 171-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    The role of impulsivity in different forms of psychosocial disturbances2008In: 16th AEP Congress: Abstract Book / [ed] Cyril Höschl, Philippe H. Robert, Elsevier, 2008, Vol. 23(Supplement 2), p. S333-S333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the role of impulsivity and aggressiveness in psychosocial disturbances. Despite scientific efforts, several aspects of the relationships between these personality features and Personality Disorders, alcohol/drug abuse, and violence are still controversial. A relevant question concerns the reciprocal relationships between impulsivity and aggressiveness, and their interaction with other “action” personality traits or temperamental traits, e.g., sensation seeking. Another controversial topic is the identification of biological and neuropsychological markers of impulsivity and aggressiveness in order to get more objective measures of these personality traits than those produced by subjects' self-reports, and to obtain a deeper understanding of the phenotypic aspects underlying impulsive and aggressive behaviours as manifested in different forms of psychosocial disturbances. Starting from these considerations, the aim is to shed some light on the implications and consequences of impulsivity for psychosocial disturbances, such as criminality, abuse, and violence. The issue will be discussed in terms of development, possible underlying factors, and attitudes, which can be particularly relevant from both forensic and prevention points of view.

  • 4.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 5.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e013586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results: A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions: Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.

  • 6.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Subjective working and declarative memory in dementia and normal aging2019In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 140, no 2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Subjective memory complaints are common in both elderly individuals and patients with dementia. This study investigated the power of subjective memory, divided into declarative and working memory, to differentiate between patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals.

    Method: Two groups of participants, patients with dementia (n = 117) and normal elderly individuals (n = 117), individually matched with regard to age, gender, and education. All subjects had participated in the third wave of the HUNT population health survey in Nord-Trondelag County in Norway and completed the Meta-Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) in the HUNT study. The MMQ was subdivided into two components, one associated with declarative memory (episodic and semantic) and the other with working memory.

    Results: Patients with dementia reported significantly more subjective memory concerns than normal elderly individuals. The difference between working and declarative memory components was significantly greater in patients with dementia than in normal elderly individuals. This finding made it possible to differentiate patients with dementia from the normal elderly individuals. Mental and somatic health conditions did not significantly add power to differentiating the two groups.

    Conclusion: In clinical and research applications, subjective memory components could contribute to differentiation of patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals by using self-reported impairment in working memory, rather than declarative memory.

  • 7.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Amberla, Kaarina
    Axelman, Karin
    Basun, Hans
    Kinhult-Ståhlbom, Anne
    Lilius, Lena
    Remes, Anne
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Viitanen, Matti
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Graff, Caroline
    Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease2017In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 9. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Birath Scheffel, Christina
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Male violence against women with substance abuse problems: some health aspects2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate to which extent two groups of women with substance abuse problems were exposed to male violence; women with a residence (WR, n= 35) and homeless women (HW, n= 44). The sample thus included 79 women (mean age: 47.8 years), of which 91% had experienced different kinds of male violence: from former partners, male friends or acquaintances, and 71% reported “Countless occasions of violent events”.  Almost half of the women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HW displayed the higher risk (RR 3.78) as compared to WR. Furthermore, one-third of the abused women (26 out of 72) had been forced to commit criminal acts. Compared to the abused women without this experience, they were more likely: to be homeless, to be illicit drug addicts, to have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, to have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, and to have been victims of sexual abuse. Finally, the two groups significantly differed concerning ever having received treatment for mental problems, in that more WR women had received such treatment (74 % as compared to 46 %). In conclusion, it is suggested that experiences of male violence are to be considered in all different forms of treatment facilities for women with substance abuse problems.

  • 10. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Scheffel Birath, Christina
    DeMartinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Facets of Male Violence Against Women With Substance Abuse Problems: Women With a Residence and Homeless Women2018In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 1391-1411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate the type and extent to which women with substance abuse problems have been exposed to male violence during their lifetime, and to examine possible differences between women with a residence (WR) and homeless women (HW). The total sample included 79 women (WR, n = 35; HW, n = 44; M age = 47.8 years). Of the total sample, 72 women (91%) had experienced different kinds of male violence, 88% from former partners, and 26% from male friends or acquaintances. Of the 72 women, 71% further reported “Countless occasions of violent events,” and 36% had been forced to commit criminal acts. Abused women who had been forced to commit criminal acts were significantly more frequently found to be homeless, have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, have been victims of sexual violence, have used illicit drugs as a dominant preparation, and have injected illicit drugs. Almost half of the abused women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where HW showed an almost 4-time higher risk (RR 3.78) than WR. In conclusion there is a particular vulnerability in women with substance abuse to male violence, which has an important impact on their health status. Thus, from a public health perspective, it is suggested that for those women who have experienced male violence, treatment protocols need to include both assessing and addressing the impact of such experience in relation to substance abuse as well as concomitant health concerns.

  • 11. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Health-adjusted neuropsychological test norms based on 463 older Swedish car drivers2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 93-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for improved normative information in particular for older persons. The present study provides neuropsychological test norms on seven cognitive tests used in a sample representing the general older driving population, when uncontrolled and controlled for physical health. A group of 463 healthy Swedish car drivers, aged 65 to 84 years, participated in a medical and neuropsychological examination. The latter included tests of visual scanning, mental shifting, visual spatial function, memory, reaction time, selective attention, and simultaneous capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, when uncontrolled for health, old age was associated with significant impairment on all seven tests. Education was associated with a significant advantage for all tests except most reaction time subtests. Women outperformed men on selective attention. Controlling for health did not consistently change the associations with education, but generally weakened those with age, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.36 SD (residual). In terms of variance explained, impaired health predicted on average 2.5%, age 2.9%, education 2.1% and gender 0.1%. It was concluded (1)that individual regression-based predictions of expected values have the advantage of allowing control for the impact of health on normative scores in addition to the adjustment for various demographic and performance-related variables and (2) that health-adjusted norms have the potential to classify functional status more accurately, to the extent that these norms diverge from norms uncontrolled for physical health.

  • 12. Birath Scheffel, Christina
    et al.
    Beijer, Ulla
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa, Karolinska Institutet.
    Barn till våldsutsatta kvinnor med missbruksproblem2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att utifrån insamlade och bearbetade data från ursprungsprojektet 'Studie om mäns våld mot kvinnor med missbruksproblem' sammanställa resultat som speglar barns psykosociala familjesituation där modern har missbruksproblem och i många fall blivit utsatt för manligt våld av partner och/eller släkting, bekant, eller myndighetsperson. Sammanfattningsvis lyfter resultaten, avseende barnens egen ogynnsamma utveckling och den generationsöverskridande problematiken i föreliggande studie, frågan om betydelsen av tidiga interventioner riktade till barn i riskmiljöer. Detta förefaller vara av särskild vikt för att ge underbyggt stöd för aktivt handlande avseende Barns rätt i samhället enligt Barnkonventionen.

  • 13. Birmingham, Elina
    et al.
    Svärd, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kanan, Christopher
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Exploring emotional expression recognition in aging adults using the Moving Window Technique2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0205341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult aging is associated with difficulties in recognizing negative facial expressions such as fear and anger. However, happiness and disgust recognition is generally found to be less affected. Eye-tracking studies indicate that the diagnostic features of fearful and angry faces are situated in the upper regions of the face (the eyes), and for happy and disgusted faces in the lower regions (nose and mouth). These studies also indicate age-differences in visual scanning behavior, suggesting a role for attention in emotion recognition deficits in older adults. However, because facial features can be processed extrafoveally, and expression recognition occurs rapidly, eye-tracking has been questioned as a measure of attention during emotion recognition. In this study, the Moving Window Technique (MWT) was used as an alternative to the conventional eye-tracking technology. By restricting the visual field to a moveable window, this technique provides a more direct measure of attention. We found a strong bias to explore the mouth across both age groups. Relative to young adults, older adults focused less on the left eye, and marginally more on the mouth and nose. Despite these different exploration patterns, older adults were most impaired in recognition accuracy for disgusted expressions. Correlation analysis revealed that among older adults, more mouth exploration was associated with faster recognition of both disgusted and happy expressions. As a whole, these findings suggest that in aging there are both attentional differences and perceptual deficits contributing to less accurate emotion recognition.

  • 14. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Stordal, Eystein
    Romild, Ulla
    Nordahl, Hans M.
    Prevalence and correlates of successful aging in a population-based sample of older adults: the HUNT study2017In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 431-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors influencing successful aging (SA) are of great interest in an aging society. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of SA, the relative importance across age of the three components used to define it (absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with life), and its correlates. Data were extracted from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006–2008). Individuals aged 70–89 years with complete datasets for the three components were included (N = 5773 of 8,040, 71.8%). Of the respondents, 54.6% were women. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible correlates of SA. Overall, 35.6% of the sample met one of the three criteria, 34.1% met combinations, and 14.5% met all of the three criteria. The most demanding criterion was high function, closely followed by absence of disease, while approximately two-thirds were actively engaged in life. The relative change with age was largest for the high cognitive and physical function component and smallest for active engagement with life. The significant correlates of SA were younger age, female gender, higher education, weekly exercise, more satisfaction with life, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption, whereas marital status was not related to SA. The prevalence of SA in this study (14.5%) is comparable to previous studies. It may be possible to increase the prevalence by intervention directed toward more exercise, non-smoking, and better satisfaction with life.

  • 15. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Nordahl, Hans Morten
    Stordal, Eystein
    Bosnes, Ole
    Myklebust, Tor Åge
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lifestyle predictors of successful aging: A 20-year prospective HUNT study2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0219200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lifestyle factors predicting successful aging as a unified concept or as separate components of successful aging are important for understanding healthy aging, interventions and preventions. The main objective was to investigate the effect of midlife predictors on subsequent successful aging 20 years later. Materials and methods Data were from a population-based health survey, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), with an average follow-up of 22.6 years. Individuals free of major disease at baseline in 1984-86 with complete datasets for the successful aging components in HUNT3 in 2006-08, were included (n = 4497; mean age at baseline 52.7, range 45-59, years). Successful aging was defined either as a unified category or as three components: being free of nine specified diseases and depression, having no physical or cognitive impairment, and being actively engaged with life. The midlife predictors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, obesity and social support) were analysed both as separate predictors and combined into a lifestyle index controlling for sociodemographic variables, using multivariable regression analysis. Results Successful aging as a unified concept was related to all the lifestyle factors in the unadjusted analyses, and all except alcohol consumption in the adjusted analyses. The individual components of successful aging were differently associated with the lifestyle factors; engagement with life was less associated with the lifestyle factors. Non-smoking and good social support were the most powerful predictors for successful aging as a unified concept. When the lifestyle factors were summed into a lifestyle index, there was a trend for more positive lifestyle to be related to higher odds for successful aging. Conclusions Lifestyle factors predicted an overall measure of SA, as well as the individual components, more than 20 years later. Modifiable risk factors in midlife, exemplified by social support, may be used for interventions to promote overall health and specific aspects of health in aging.

  • 16. Burke, Sarah M.
    et al.
    Majid, D. S. Adnan
    Manzouri, Amir H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Sweden.
    Moody, Teena
    Feusner, Jamie D.
    Savic, Ivanka
    Sex differences in own and other body perception2019In: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 474-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Own body perception, and differentiating and comparing one's body to another person's body, are common cognitive functions that have relevance for self-identity and social interactions. In several psychiatric conditions, including anorexia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, gender dysphoria, and autism spectrum disorder, self and own body perception, as well as aspects of social communication are disturbed. Despite most of these conditions having skewed prevalence sex ratios, little is known about whether the neural basis of own body perception differs between the sexes. We addressed this question by investigating brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Body Perception task in 15 male and 15 female healthy participants. Participants viewed their own body, bodies of same-sex, or opposite-sex other people, and rated the degree that they appeared like themselves. We found that men and women did not differ in the pattern of brain activation during own body perception compared to a scrambled control image. However, when viewing images of other bodies of same-sex or opposite-sex, men showed significantly stronger activations in attention-related and reward-related brain regions, whereas women engaged stronger activations in striatal, medial-prefrontal, and insular cortices, when viewing the own body compared to other images of the opposite sex. It is possible that other body images, particularly of the opposite sex, may be of greater salience for men, whereas images of own bodies may be more salient for women. These observations provide tentative neurobiological correlates to why women may be more vulnerable than men to conditions involving own body perception.

  • 17. Chiotis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Saint-Aubert, Laure
    Savitcheva, Irina
    Jelic, Vesna
    Andersen, Pia
    Jonasson, My
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Lubberink, Mark
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wall, Anders
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Imaging in-vivo tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease with THK5317 PET in a multimodal paradigm2016In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1686-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the cerebral distribution of the tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 (also known as (S)-[F-18]THK5117) retention in different stages of Alzheimer's disease; and study any associations with markers of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition. Methods Thirty-three individuals were enrolled, including nine patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia, thirteen with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), two with non-Alzheimer's disease dementia, and nine healthy controls (five young and four elderly). In a multi-tracer PET design [F-18]THK5317, [C-11] Pittsburgh compound B ([C-11]PIB), and [F-18]FDG were used to assess tau pathology, amyloid-beta deposition and cerebral glucose metabolism, respectively. The MCI patients were further divided into MCI [C-11]PIB-positive (n=11) and MCI [C-11]PIB-negative (n=2) groups. Results Test-retest variability for [F-18]THK5317-PET was very low (1.17-3.81 %), as shown by retesting five patients. The patients with prodromal (MCI [C-11]PIB-positive) and dementia-stage Alzheimer's disease had significantly higher [F-18]THK5317 retention than healthy controls (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively) in areas exceeding limbic regions, and their discrimination from this control group (using the area under the curve) was >98 %. Focal negative correlations between [F-18]THK5317 retention and [F-18]FDG uptake were observed mainly in the frontal cortex, and focal positive correlations were found between [F-18]THK5317 and [C-11] PIB retentions isocortically. One patient with corticobasal degeneration syndrome and one with progressive supranuclear palsy showed no [C-11]PIB but high [F-18]THK5317 retentions with a different regional distribution from that in Alzheimer's disease patients. Conclusions The tau-specific PET tracer [F-18]THK5317 images in vivo the expected regional distribution of tau pathology. This distribution contrasts with the different patterns of hypometabolism and amyloid-beta deposition.

  • 18.
    Cortes, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Asperholm, Martin
    Fredborg, William
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Dang, Junhua
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Intranasal Oxytocin and Response Inhibition in Young and Older Adults2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In normal aging, people are confronted with impairment in both socioemotional and cognitive abilities. Specifically, there are age-related declines in inhibitory processes that regulate attention towards irrelevant material. In last years, the intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin has mainly been related to improvements in several domains such as emotion recognition and memory, but to date the effects of oxytocin in aging remain largely unknown. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects study design, we investigated whether oxytocin facilitates inhibitory processing in older adults compared to younger adults. In total, 41 older adults (51% women; age range 65-75 years) and 37 younger adults (49% women; age range 20-30 years) participated in this study two times, receiving a single intranasal dose of 40 IU of placebo and oxytocin in randomized order 45 minutes before engaging in the task. Participants were tested approximately a month apart and mostly at the same hour during both occasions. Inhibition was measured with a Go/NoGo task which included happy and neutral faces as targets (Go stimuli) and distractors (NoGo stimuli) shown on a computer screen. Participants were instructed to press a button any time they saw a target and remain passive when encountering a distractor. Preliminary results indicate effects for happy and neutral faces, but only in the distractor condition. For happy distractors, women rejected correctly happy faces more accurately than men did, both in the placebo and oxytocin conditions. A main effect of age was observed for the neutral distractors, where older adults were more successful in inhibiting responses than younger adults during oxytocin and placebo treatments. We did not observe effects of oxytocin in the different tasks. The role of oxytocin was not clear distinguished in the tasks. In sum, our findings showed that age and gender can influence inhibition but their effects depend on the displayed emotions. This suggests that the ability to inhibit interfering distractors may remain intact despite of age and that deficits in inhibition may be selective. The role of oxytocin in inhibition needs to be further investigated since it is possible that it is context dependent.

  • 19.
    Cortes, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Age differences in judgments of attractiveness, likeability, and trustworthiness of faces2016In: Program of SANS 2016, 2016, p. 58-58, article id B-23Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People constantly evaluate faces to obtain social information. However, the link between aging and social evaluation of faces is not well understood. Todorov and colleagues introduced a data-driven model defined by valence and dominance as the two main components underlying social judgments of faces. They also created a stimulus set consisting of computer-generated faces which systematically vary along various social dimensions (e.g., Todorov et al., 2013, Emotion, 13, 724-38). We utilized a selection of these facial stimuli to investigate age-related differences in judgments of the following dimensions: attractiveness, competence, dominance, extraversion, likeability, threat, and trustworthiness. Participants rated how well the faces represented the intended social dimensions on 9-point scales ranging from not at all to extremely well. Results from 71 younger (YA; mean age = 23.42 years) and 60 older adults (OA; mean age = 69.19 years) showed that OA evaluated untrustworthy faces as more trustworthy, dislikeable faces as more likeable, and unattractive faces as more attractive compared to YA. OA also evaluated attractive faces as more attractive compared to YA, whereas YA did rate likeable and trustworthy faces as more likeable and trustworthy than did OA. In summary, our findings showed that OA evaluated negative social features less negatively compared to YA. This suggests that older and younger persons may use different cues for social evaluation of faces, and is in line with prior research suggesting age-related decline in the ability to recognize negative emotion expressions.

  • 20.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Age-Related Differences in Evaluation of Social Attributes From Computer-Generated Faces of Varying Intensity2019In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 686-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life throughout the life span, people frequently evaluate faces to obtain information crucial for social interactions. We investigated age-related differences in judgments of a wide range of social attributes based on facial appearance. Seventy-one younger and 60 older participants rated 196 computer-generated faces that systematically varied in facial features such as shape and reflectance to convey different intensity levels of seven social attributes (i.e., attractiveness, competence, dominance, extraversion, likeability, threat, and trustworthiness). Older compared to younger participants consistently gave higher attractiveness ratings to faces representing both high and low levels of attractiveness. Older participants were also less sensitive to the likeability of faces and tended to evaluate faces representing low likeability as more likable. The age groups did, however, not differ substantially in their evaluations of the other social attributes. Results are in line with previous research showing that aging is associated with preference toward positive and away from negative information and extend this positivity effect to social perception of faces.

  • 21.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Lindahl, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0178423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations). For the subjective sense of recollection (“remember” hits), neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy.

  • 22.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Oxytocin Induces Brain Activity Reductions to Negative Emotional Stimuli in Younger and Older Adults2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin has mainly been related to improvements in domains such as emotion recognition and memory, but to date the effects of oxytocin in aging remain largely unknown. A major caveat in oxytocin research is that it is almost exclusively based on young men which may reflect an inadequate picture of the potential benefits of oxytocin administration. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects study design, we investigated whether oxytocin affects the recognition of positive and negative stimuli differently in younger and older adults. Forty-four older adults (50% women; M= 69.82) and 44 younger adults (50% women; M= 24.75) participated in this study two times, receiving a single intranasal dose of 40 IUs of placebo and oxytocin in randomized order 40 minutes before engaging in the task. Participants watched short videoclips where actors displayed nine emotions: neutrality, happiness, pride, interest, relief, anger, despair, sadness, and disgust. Preliminary results indicate that oxytocin-induced reductions to negative emotions were found in bilateral fusiform gyrus (Z > 4.16, Family wise error corrected, pFWE < 0.009), hippocampus (Z > 4.53, pFWE < 0.002), insula (Z > 3.69, pFWE < 0.045), and superior temporal gyrus (Z > 4.34, pFWE < 0.008), as well as, right-lateralized reductions in the amygdala (Z = 3.73, pFWE = 0.005). These findings are in line with previous studies showing decreased brain activity to negative stimuli and suggest that this mechanism in not only present in younger adults but it can also be extended to an older population. Future studies should investigate how oxytocin impacts socioemotional and cognitive processes in elderly.

  • 23.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Manzouri, Amirhossein
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Ebner, Natalie
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Increased dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity to negative emotion displays in men but not in women2019In: Program: ISRE 2019 Amsterdam, 2019, article id 18Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a prominentrole in social and emotional cognition. Findings suggest that exogenous intranasal oxytocin administration facilitates emotion recognition in humans, but individual and contextual differences may have moderating effects. A major caveat in this line of work is that it is predominantly based on young males, which limits current knowledge and potential for generalizability across gender. To uncover potential gender effects, the present study included younger and older men and women. Utilizing a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study design, we investigated the effects of a single-dose of 40 IUs intranasal oxytocin administration on emotion recognition of dynamic positive and negative stimuli in 32 men (mean age 45.78, sd. 22.87) and 39 women (mean 47.87, sd. 47.87), 40 minutes prior to MRI scanning. Preliminary analyses show that oxytocin induced brain activity reductions during exposure to negative (relative to positive) stimuli in women, while increasing brain activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in men. We speculate that the effects of oxytocin on emotion recognition may possibly be related to emotion regulation and mentalization processes, and that oxytocin is related to potential sex-differences in these processes. The results also raise concern that previous oxytocin literature on emotion recognition may be biased as there appears to be gender-differential effects of oxytocin on brain activity across adulthood that have been underestimated. In the next stage of the present study, we will investigate the interaction effects among treatment, sex, age, and presentation modality.

  • 24.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Skragge, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Hovey, Daniel
    Westberg, Lars
    Larsson, Marcus
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Mixed support for a causal link between single dose intranasal oxytocin and spiritual experiences: opposing effects depending on individual proclivities for absorption2018In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 921-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) has previously been found to increase spirituality, an effect moderated by OT-related genotypes. This pre-registered study sought to conceptually replicate and extend those findings. Using a single dose of intranasal OT vs placebo (PL), we investigated experimental treatment effects, and moderation by OT-related genotypes on spirituality, mystical experiences, and the sensed presence of a sentient being. A more exploratory aim was to test for interactions between treatment and the personality disposition absorption on these spirituality-related outcomes. A priming plus sensory deprivation procedure that has facilitated spiritual experiences in previous studies was used. The sample (N = 116) contained both sexes and was drawn from a relatively secular context. Results failed to conceptually replicate both the main effects of treatment and the treatment by genotype interactions on spirituality. Similarly, there were no such effects on mystical experiences or sensed presence. However, the data suggested an interaction between treatment and absorption. Relative to PL, OT seemed to enhance spiritual experiences in participants scoring low in absorption and dampen spirituality in participants scoring high in absorption.

  • 25. Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Liu, Ying
    Jiang, Yumeng
    Mao, Lihua
    Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect2016In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 99, p. 121-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to switch costs that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  • 26. Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Zhang, Ting
    Liu, Ying
    Jiang, Bin
    Mao, Lihua
    When the poor excel: Poverty facilitates procedural learning2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 288-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that poverty directly impeded cognitive functions because the poor could be easily distracted by monetary concerns. We argue that this effect may be limited to functions relying on working memory. For functions that rely on proceduralized processes however, monetary concerns elicited by reminding of financial demands would be conducive rather than harmful. Our results supported this hypothesis by showing that participants with lower income reached the learning criterion of the information-integration categorization task faster than their more affluent counterparts after reminding of financial demands.

  • 27.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Makower, Irena
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    The effectiveness of a dynamic multimodal emotion recognition accuracy training program2019In: Program: ISRE 2019 Amsterdam, 2019, p. 165-165, article id 77Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computerized trainings for emotion recognition accuracy (ERA) have shown to be successful, however, are often lacking external validity. The use of still pictures, the focus on the face, and limited response sets limit generalizability of findings. Further, trainings often use between-subjectsdesigns and short time intervals between, or same items for ERA training and outcome measure. In response, we developed and evaluated a multi-modal ERA training in a randomized controlled trial.

    Method: Seventy-two undergraduate students (M=24.7, SD=7.69, 75% women) signed up for the study; 68 completed all measurements. They were randomly assigned to the multimodal ERA training or one of two control conditions. The ERA outcome measure (ERAM; Laukka et al., 2015) assesses 12 emotions separately in three modalities (audio, video, audio-video) using 72 dynamic stimuli. The multimodal training consisted and immediate and extensive feedback using different items. The last training session and the ERA outcome measurement lay approximately one week apart.

    Results and Conclusions: A repeated-measures ANOVA with baseline as covariate showed a main effect of training on the ERAM, F(2/63) = 8.04, p < .001, ηp2 = .20. Bonferroni-corrected posthoc tests revealed the change for the multimodal training was significantly superior to the control conditions (p=.001; p=.003). Detailed results per modality and descriptive statistics will be presented. Due to its multimodal and dynamic nature, delay between training and outcome measure and use of different items, the multimodal training is a promising tool for training ERA in different contexts, like clinical settings, assessment procedures or law enforcement training.

  • 28.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Makower, Irena
    Magnusson, Tova
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Spejare, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Manzouri, Amirhossein
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Effectively training emotion recognition accuracy: The evaluation of two systematic training programs2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents findings about the effectiveness of two computerized training-programs for emotion recognition accuracy that were evaluated in a double-blind randomized controlled study with repeated measures design. Both trainings are effective in training emotion recognition accuracy. The trainings and results are presented in detail and practical implications are discussed.

  • 29. Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Chen, Huaihou
    Porges, Eric
    Lin, Tian
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Feifel, David
    Cohen, Ronald A.
    Oxytocin’s effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex2016In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 69, p. 50-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin’s central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin’s effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala–mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala–mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest.

  • 30. Ebner, Natalie
    et al.
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lin, Tian
    Lussier, Desiree
    Horta, Marilyn
    Frazier, Ian
    Weir, Devon
    Feifel, David
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Neuroplasticity and cognitive benefits associated with chronic intranasal oxytocin administration in aging2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxytocin (OT) is a crucial chemical modulator of social behavior, and intranasal OT administration has potential as treatment for social deficits. Considerably less is known about OT’s effects on non-social cognition, a functional domain of particular relevance in aging. Brain mechanisms underlying OT’s benefits are not well understood but recent animal work suggests that repeated OT administration induces brain changes. To test this neuroplastic role of OT on the human brain and its potential for cognitive improvement in aging, we conducted a randomized double-blind study in older men (> 56 years), with 34 participants self-administering either 24 IUs OT or placebo (P) twice daily. Before and after 4-weeks intranasal administration, participants underwent MRI and processing speed assessment. Using voxel-based morphometry, gray matter (GM) volume was measured on T1-weighted anatomical images. Age, education, physical health, and image quality served as covariates and family-wise error rate determined statistical significance in regions of interest. Analyses were performed without awareness of the assigned treatment labels. Significant interactions between treatment (OT vs. P) and time (pre- vs. post-intervention) on GM volume for left amygdala, hippocampus, and putamen suggested increased regional GM volume following OT but not P. Further, OT-induced enlargement in putamen was associated with improved processing speed, while there was no brain−behavior correlation in the P group. These findings support the notion that amygdala, hippocampus, and putamen are key targets of OT’s neuroplastic potential on the human brain and chronic OT administration may constitute a potential treatment in counteracting cognitive decline in aging.  

  • 31.
    Fischer, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Cortes, Diana S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Manzouri, Amirhossein
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Divergent effects of oxytocin in men and women: Increased dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity to negative emotion displays in men but not in women2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a prominent role in social and emotional cognition. Findings suggest that intranasal oxytocin administration facilitates emotion recognition in humans, but individual and contextual differences may have moderating effects. A major caveat in this line of work is its predominant focus on young males, which limits current knowledge and generalizability across gender. To uncover potential gender effects, the present study included 32 men (mean age 45.78, sd. 22.87) and 39 women (mean 47.87, sd. 22.59). Utilizing a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design, participants self-administered a single-dose of 40 IUs intranasal oxytocin 40 minutes prior to completion of a dynamic emotion recognition task in the MRI scanning. The task paradigm used positive and negative stimuli from the Geneva Multimodal Emotion Portrayals Core Set. Preliminary analyses show that oxytocin induced dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) activity reductions during exposure to negative (relative to positive) stimuli in women, while dmPCF activity was increased under this condition in men. We observed no effect of sex in the behavioral data, however, the results show a similar trend as in brain data. We speculate that the effects of oxytocin on brain activity during emotion recognition may be related to emotion-regulatory and mentalization processes. The observed gender-differential modulatory role of oxytocin raises concern of a bias in the previous oxytocin literature on emotion recognition and associated brain activity by neglecting women in the examination. Next, we will determine the role of age effects on gender-bytreatment interactions, as well as consider modality of the emotion stimulus presentation.  

  • 32. Frazier, I.
    et al.
    Lin, T.
    Sondre, S.
    Feifel, D.
    Cohen, R.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Ebner, N.C.
    Older Adults Show More Trust Than Younger Adults Post-Betrayal in Trust/Lottery Game2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults comprise both the fastest growing population segment in industrialized nations and the majority of political and industry leaders. Regardless of social status, older adults face a constant flow of highly consequential decisions. These decisions are often social in nature, even when they primarily concern health, finance, or politics; in particular, they often require putting trust in others. However, older adults’ social decision making processes relating to trust have not been well researched yet. Trust is an important aspect of maintaining social supports and maintenance of social supports is health protective. This is of particular concern in older adults as aging is linked to increased social loss, isolation, and loneliness. Evidence has indicated that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is linked to several aspects of socioemotional functioning including trust. There is emerging evidence of a possible deficit in OT in older, specifically male, adults. Intranasally administered OT before a trust game has resulted in young adults acting in a more trusting, but not gullible manner. However, the potential effects of OT administration on trust game performance in older adults is unknown. We compared older (N = 54, 56% female) and younger adults’ (N = 48, 48% female) performance on a Trust/Lottery game after intranasal administration of either OT or placebo (P). Participants played the role of investors with ostensible same age social partners (trust) or a computer (lottery). At the beginning of each game investors received monetary units to invest in increments. They were instructed that if money was sent it would be tripled and then the investee (ostensible social partner) would be able to send an amount, or none, back or the lottery would be played (in the lottery condition). The probabilities of the trustee returning behavior in both the trust and lottery conditions were drawn from the same probability distributions, thus the participants faced the same objective risk but only interacted socially in the trust condition. Twelve trust and 12 lottery games were played in a pseudo-randomly, counterbalanced fashion. After half of the trust and lottery trials were played, a feedback screen was presented informing participants that in both the trust and lottery conditions only 50% of their investments bore returns, signifying 50% chance of trust breach or lottery success. While no effects of OT were detected, trust trials older adults increased their investments post betrayal while younger adults decreased their investments (F = 5.53, p = .021). No such differences were found in the lottery game. These results may indicate that older adults are more forgiving of breaching trust than younger adults. However, these results may also indicate vulnerability to being taken advantage of in a social context. To address these interpretations, research examining older adults’ goals in social decision making contexts is warranted.

  • 33.
    Frick, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engman, Jonas
    Wahistedt, Kurt
    Gingnell, Malin
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Anterior cingulate cortex activity as a candidate biomarker for treatment selection in social anxiety disorder2018In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 157-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to identify biomarkers to guide the decision to add selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to psychological treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Forty-eight patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and collection of clinical and demographic variables before treatment with cognitive-behavioural therapy, combined on a double-blind basis with either escitalopram or placebo for 9 weeks. Pre-treatment neural reactivity to aversive faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), but not clinical/demographic variables, moderated clinical outcomes. Cross-validated individual-level predictions accurately identified 81% of responders/non-responders. Dorsal ACC reactivity is thus a potential bio-marker for SAD treatment selection.

  • 34.
    Frick, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Brain changes in social anxiety disorder run in the family2018In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 36, p. 5-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Furmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Frick, Andreas
    Heurling, Kerstin
    Tillfors, Maria
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Hartvig, Per
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Långström, Bengt
    Eriksson, Elias
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Serotonin synthesis rate and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2: G-703T polymorphism in social anxiety disorder2016In: Journal of Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0269-8811, E-ISSN 1461-7285, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1028-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is disputed whether anxiety disorders, like social anxiety disorder, are characterized by serotonin over- or underactivity. Here, we evaluated whether our recent finding of elevated neural serotonin synthesis rate in patients with social anxiety disorder could be reproduced in a separate cohort, and whether allelic variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703T polymorphism relates to differences in serotonin synthesis assessed with positron emission tomography. Eighteen social anxiety disorder patients and six healthy controls were scanned during 60 minutes in a resting state using positron emission tomography and 5-hydroxy-L-[β -11C]tryptophan, [11C]5-HTP, a substrate of the second enzymatic step in serotonin synthesis. Parametric images were generated, using the reference Patlak method, and analysed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). Blood samples for genotyping of the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism were obtained from 16 social anxiety disorder patients (T carriers: n=5, GG carriers: n=11). A significantly elevated [11C]5-HTP accumulation rate, indicative of enhanced decarboxylase activity and thereby serotonin synthesis capacity, was detected in social anxiety disorder patients compared with controls in the hippocampus and basal ganglia nuclei and, at a more lenient (uncorrected) statistical threshold, in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, the serotonin synthesis rate in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex was significantly elevated in TPH2 T carriers in comparison with GG homozygotes. Our results support that social anxiety disorder entails an overactive presynaptic serotonergic system that, in turn, seems functionally influenced by the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism in emotionally relevant brain regions.

  • 36.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Emotional working memory in older adults after total sleep deprivation2017In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, no Suppl. 1, p. e110-e110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though the occurrence of sleep problems increases with age, few studies have focused on the cognitive effects of acute sleep deprivation in elderly. Most previous research indicate that, compared to young, older adults show less impairment in e.g. attention after sleep deprivation. However, little is known of whether the same pattern holds for higher cognitive functions. In addition, while old age is usually related to a general decrease in working memory abilities, performance on working memory tasks may differ depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli, where positive stimuli seem to be beneficial for working memory performance in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory in older adults using two levels of working memory load.

    Materials and methods: A healthy sample of 48 old adults (MAge=66.69 years, SDAge=3.44 years) was randomized into a total sleep deprivation group (TSD; n=24) or a sleep control group (SC; n=24). They performed a working memory task (n-back) containing positive, negative and neutral pictures in a low (1-back) and a high (3-back) working memory load condition. Performance was measured as Accuracy (d'), Omissions and Reaction Time (RT).

    Results: For the d' and Omissions we performed two separate 2x2x3 (sleep, working memory load, valence) repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA). For the RTs, we applied a mixed-effects model. For both d' and RT we found no effect of sleep deprivation (Ps > .05). For valence, we found main effects on both d' (F1,46 = 5.56, P=.005) and RT (F1,95.7 = 4.84, P=.01). d' did not differ for positive and neutral pictures, but was in both cases significantly better than for negative pictures. RTs were significantly faster for positive pictures. However, a working memory loadvalence interaction (F1,95.7 = 4.50, P=.01) further revealed an effect of valence in the low, but not in the high load condition. In the low load condition, RTs were faster for positive than for neutral pictures and faster for neutral than for negative pictures. There was no significant effect of Omissions.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that emotional working memory performance was not significantly affected by one night of sleep deprivation in older adults, which contrast what we found in a sample of young adults from the same project. In line with previous research, our results indicate a beneficial effect of positive stimuli on working memory in older adults. This effect was present in both groups and most pronounced for reaction times in the condition with a lower cognitive demand. We can conclude that, among older adults, the working memory performance is not impaired by sleep deprivation and that the benefits of positive stimuli on working memory seem intact. These findings contribute to a better understanding of older adults' cognitive functioning after sleep deprivation.

  • 37.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Positivity Effect and Working Memory Performance Remains Intact in Older Adults After Sleep Deprivation2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older adults perform better in tasks which include positive stimuli, referred to as the positivity effect. However, recent research suggests that the positivity effect could be attenuated when additional challenges such as stress or cognitive demands are introduced. Moreover, it is well established that older adults are relatively resilient to many of the adverse effects of sleep deprivation. Our aim was to investigate if the positivity effect in older adults is affected by one night of total sleep deprivation using an emotional working memory task.

    Methods: A healthy sample of 48 older adults (60-72 years) was either sleep deprived for one night (n = 24) or had a normal night's sleep (n = 24). They performed an emotional working memory n-back (n = 1 and 3) task containing positive, negative and neutral pictures.

    Results: Performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times was best for positive stimuli and worst for negative stimuli. This positivity effect was not altered by sleep deprivation. Results also showed that, despite significantly increased sleepiness, there was no effect of sleep deprivation on working memory performance. A working memory load x valence interaction on the reaction times revealed that the beneficial effect of positive stimuli was only present in the 1-back condition.

    Conclusion: While the positivity effect and general working memory abilities in older adults are intact after one night of sleep deprivation, increased cognitive demand attenuates the positivity effect on working memory speed.

  • 38.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Positivity effect in older adults after sleep deprivation2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The effect of sleep loss on emotional working memory2016In: Abstracts, 2016, Vol. 25(S1), p. 17-18Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Emotional stimuli differently affect working memory (WM) performance. As sleep deprivation has a known impact on both emotion and WM our aim was to investigate how one night without sleep affects emotional WM performance. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 56; age 18–30 years) were randomized to a total sleep deprivation (TSD) or a rested control (RC) condition. Subjects rated their affective state and performed a 1 and a 3-back WM task consisting of neutral, positive and negative pictures at 3 pm or 6 pm (balanced) the day after sleep manipulation. Accuracy (d’) and target response time (RT) were used as outcomes. Results: In the TSD condition, subjects rated themselves as less positive (P = 0.006) but not more negative than in the RC condition. In the WM task, TSD had a detrimental effect on accuracy (P = 0.03) regardless of difficulty. Moreover, accuracy was higher in the 1-back than in the 3-back (P < 0.001) and higher for neutral compared to both negative and positive stimuli (Ps < 0.05). RT was faster for positive compared to negative and neutral stimuli (Ps < 0.05). The latter effect was particularly pronounced in the TSD condition as shown by a condition*valence interaction (P < 0.03). Conclusions: One night of total sleep loss impaired emotional WM accuracy. Noticeable, RT was faster for positive stimuli compared to negative and neutral stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced after sleep loss. This suggests that sleep loss strengthens the opposing effects of positive and negative stimuli on WM performance, possibly due to increased emotion reactivity.

  • 40.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory2019In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, no 1, article id e12744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emotional dysregulation and impaired working memory found after sleep loss can have severe implications for our daily functioning. Considering the intertwined relationship between emotion and cognition in stimuli processing, there could be further implications of sleep deprivation in high‐complex emotional situations. Although studied separately, this interaction between emotion and cognitive processes has been neglected in sleep research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1 night of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory. Sixty‐one healthy participants (mean age: 23.4 years) were either sleep deprived for 1 night (n = 30) or had a normal night’s sleep (n = 31). They performed an N‐back task with two levels of working memory load (1‐back and 3‐back) using positive, neutral and negative picture scenes. Sleep deprivation, compared with full night sleep, impaired emotional working memory accuracy, but not reaction times. The sleep‐deprived participants, but not the controls, responded faster to positive than to negative and neutral pictures. The effect of sleep deprivation was similar for both high and low working memory loads. The results showed that although detrimental in terms of accuracy, sleep deprivation did not impair working memory speed. In fact, our findings indicate that positive stimuli may facilitate working memory processing speed after sleep deprivation.

  • 41. Gulliford, Desiree
    et al.
    Chen, Huaihou
    Porges, Eric
    Lin, Tian
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Feifel, David
    Cohen, Ronald
    Ebner, Natalie
    Gender-differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on resting-state anterior cingulate activity2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: As individuals age, there is an increased focus on social relationships (Carstensen, 2006). However, age-related changes in the brain can interfere with social functioning (Ebner, et al, 2012; Mather, et al, 2005; Ruffman, et al, 2008). While age-related changes in cognition are well studied, social-cognitive changes in aging are still underinvestigated, especially the brain mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The administration of intranasal oxytocin (OT) has the potential to modulate social cognition (De Dreu, 2014) by altering BOLD signal in regions of the social brain (eg. amygdala and vmPFC) (Ebner, et al, 2016). Currently, there is very little known about the role of OT in human development in aging (Campbell, et al, 2014; Huffmeijer, et al, 2012). Methods: 40 young (18–31 years, 50% female) and 39 older (63–81 years, 59% female) were randomly assigned (in a double-blind design) to self-administer either 24 UIs of intranasal OT or placebo (P) 70-90 minutes prior to resting-state fMRI. T1-weighted anatomical reference images, using an MP-RAGE sequence (sagittal plane, FOV = 240 mm × 240 mm × 170; 1 × 1 × 1 mm isotropic voxels), and functional gradient-echo-planar imaging (EPI) data, during an open-eye, white cross-hair on black background, 8 minute resting-state scan (38 interleaved slices, TR 2 sec, TE 30 msec, FOV 252 × 252 × 133 mm, 80 × 80 × 38 mm matrix, flip angle 90°, in plane resolution of 3.15 × 3.15 mm, slice thickness 3.5 mm, 0 mm skip), were acquired with a 3T Philips Achieva MR Scanner using a 32-channel head coil. Preprocessing, including slice time correction, motion correction with artifact rejection, spatial normalization, and smoothing with an 8 mm Gaussian kernel, were implemented with Functional Connectivity Toolbox (Whitfield-Gabrieli, et al, 2012; http://www.nitrc.org/projects/conn/). Results: Younger individuals showed significantly greater overall anterior cingulate (AC) activity in P condition (p=.044). Intranasal OT administration significantly increased activity in the AC in both younger and older women (p=.024), but not men, when compared to P. The effect was slightly greater in older women than younger, but this effect was not significant potentially due to sample size.There were no significant gender effects in AC activity during rest between males and females in either younger or older P control groups. Conclusions: Intranasal OT has differential gender effects on AC activity during resting-state, increasing activity in women but not men. Additionally, there is evidence for age differences in overall AC activity at rest.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Vergoossen, Hellen P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Neutral pronouns as promoters of gender equality2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43. Han, Laura K. M.
    et al.
    Verhoeven, Josine E.
    Tyrka, Audrey R.
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Wolkowitz, Owen M.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Daniel
    Boks, Marco P.
    Révész, Dóra
    Mellon, Synthia H.
    Picard, Martin
    Accelerating research on biological aging and mental health: Current challenges and future directions2019In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 106, p. 293-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is associated with complex biological changes that can be accelerated, slowed, or even temporarily reversed by biological and non-biological factors. This article focuses on the link between biological aging, psychological stressors, and mental illness. Rather than comprehensively reviewing this rapidly expanding field, we highlight challenges in this area of research and propose potential strategies to accelerate progress in this field. This effort requires the interaction of scientists across disciplines - including biology, psychiatry, psychology, and epidemiology; and across levels of analysis that emphasize different outcome measures - functional capacity, physiological, cellular, and molecular. Dialogues across disciplines and levels of analysis naturally lead to new opportunities for discovery but also to stimulating challenges. Some important challenges consist of 1) establishing the best objective and predictive biological age indicators or combinations of indicators, 2) identifying the basis for inter-individual differences in the rate of biological aging, and 3) examining to what extent interventions can delay, halt or temporarily reverse aging trajectories. Discovering how psychological states influence biological aging, and vice versa, has the potential to create novel and exciting opportunities for healthcare and possibly yield insights into the fundamental mechanisms that drive human aging.

  • 44. Hedman, Annicka
    et al.
    Nygård, Louise
    Malinowsky, Camilla
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Changing everyday activities and technology use in mild cognitive impairment2016In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Knowledge of the conditions under which older adults facing cognitive decline engage in everyday activities is of major importance for occupational therapists in designing supportive interventions. This study aimed to investigate perceived activity involvement over time and its longitudinal relationship to perceived ability to use everyday technology in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Method: Thirty-seven older adults with mild cognitive impairment at inclusion were assessed over 4 years. Overall and item-specific activity involvement were analyzed using mixed-linear-effect modeling and differential item functioning. Furthermore, overall activity involvement and ability in everyday technology use were correlated.

    Results: Overall activity involvement decreased significantly over time. When adjusting for declining ability in the sample, actual differential item functioning indicated descending involvement in seven of 15 activities, while eight activities were stable. All leisure activities descended. The positive correlations between activity involvement and ability in everyday technology use became stronger over time.

    Conclusion: Variations across activities and time-points suggest that occupational therapists should repeatedly monitor the increasingly associated aspects of activity involvement and ability to use everyday technology in persons with cognitive decline.

  • 45. Holding, Benjamin C.
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies2017In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 40, no 11, article id zsx145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task.

    Methods: Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization.

    Results: Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1).

    Conclusions: The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep.

  • 46. Holding, J. B. C.
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Axelsson, John
    Sundelin, Tina
    Total sleep deprivation does not impact emotion categorisation in dynamic stimuli2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have highlighted a deficit in facial emotion recognition after sleep loss. However, while some studies suggest an overall deficit in ability, others have only found effects in individual emotions, or no effect at all. The aim of this study was to investigate this relationship in a large sample and to utilise a dynamic test of emotion recognition in multiple modalities. 145 individuals (91 female, ages 18–45) participated in a sleep-deprivation experiment. Participants were randomised into: one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or normal sleep (8–9 h in bed). The following day participants completed a computerised emotional recognition test, consisting of 72 visual, audio, and audio-visual clips, representing 12 different emotions. The stimuli were divided into “easy” and “hard” depending on the intensity of emotional display. A mixed ANOVA revealed significant main effects of modality and difficulty, P < 0.001, but no main effect of condition, P = 0.31, on emotional recognition accuracy. Additionally, there was no interaction between condition and difficulty, P = 0.96, or modality, P = 0.67. This study indicates that sleep deprivation does not reduce the ability to recognise emotions. Given that some studies have only found effects on single emotions, it is possible that the effects of sleep loss are more specific than investigated here. However, it is also possible that previous findings relate to the types of static stimuli used. The ability to recognise emotions is key to social perception; this study suggests that this ability is resilient to one night of sleep deprivation.

  • 47. Hoppe, Johanna M.
    et al.
    Frick, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Linnman, Clas
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Jonasson, My
    Lubberink, Mark
    Långström, Bengt
    Frans, Örjan
    von Knorring, Lars
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Association between amygdala neurokinin-1 receptor availability and anxiety-related personality traits2018In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 8, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal studies indicate that substance P (SP) and its preferred neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor modulate stress and anxiety-related behavior. Alterations in the SP-NK1 system have also been observed in human anxiety disorders, yet little is known about the relation between this system and individual differences in personality traits associated with anxiety propensity and approach-avoidance behavior, including trait anxiety, neuroticism, and extraversion. Exploring this relation could provide important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human anxiety and the etiology of anxiety disorders, as anxious traits are associated with increased susceptibility to develop psychopathological conditions. Here we examined the relationship between central NK1 receptor availability and selfrated measures of trait anxiety, neuroticism, and extraversion. The amygdala was chosen as the primary region of interest since this structure has been suggested to mediate the effect of the SP-NK1 system on anxiety. Anxious traits and NK1 receptor availability, determined with positron emission tomography and the radiotracer [C-11]GR205171, were measured in 17 healthy individuals. Voxel-wise analyses showed a significant positive correlation between bilateral amygdala NK1 receptor availability and trait anxiety, and a trend in similar direction was observed for neuroticism. Conversely, extraversion was found to be negatively associated with amygdala NK1 receptor availability. Extraversion also correlated negatively with the NK1 measure in the cuneus/precuneus and fusiform gyrus according to exploratory whole-brain analyses. In conclusion, our findings indicate that amygdala NK1 receptor availability is associated with anxiety-related personality traits in healthy subjects, consistent with a modulatory role for the SP-NK1 system in human anxiety.

  • 48. Horta, Marilyn
    et al.
    Ziaei, Maryam
    Lin, Tian
    Porges, Eric C.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Feifel, David
    Spreng, R. Nathan
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Oxytocin alters patterns of brain activity and amygdalar connectivity by age during dynamic facial emotion identification2019In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 78, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is associated with increased difficulty in facial emotion identification, possibly due to age-related network change. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) facilitates emotion identification, but this is understudied in aging. To determine the effects of OT on dynamic facial emotion identification across adulthood, 46 young and 48 older participants self-administered intranasal OT or a placebo in a randomized, double-blind procedure. Older participants were slower and less accurate in identifying emotions. Although there was no behavioral treatment effect, partial least squares analysis supported treatment effects on brain patterns during emotion identification that varied by age and emotion. For young participants, OT altered the processing of sadness and happiness, whereas for older participants, OT only affected the processing of sadness (15.3% covariance, p = 0.004). Furthermore, seed partial least squares analysis showed that older participants in the OT group recruited a large-scale amygdalar network that was positively correlated for anger, fear, and happiness, whereas older participants in the placebo group recruited a smaller, negatively correlated network (7% covariance, p = 0.002). Advancing the literature, these findings show that OT alters brain activity and amygdalar connectivity by age and emotion.

  • 49. Hovey, Daniel
    et al.
    Henningsson, Susanne
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Zettergren, Anna
    Melke, Jonas
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Westberg, Lars
    Emotion recognition associated with polymorphism in oxytocinergic pathway gene ARNT22018In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to correctly understand the emotional expression of another person is essential for social relationships and appears to be a partly inherited trait. The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been shown to influence this ability as well as face processing in humans. Here, recognition of the emotional content of faces and voices, separately and combined, was investigated in 492 subjects, genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes encoding proteins important for oxytocin and vasopressin neurotransmission. The SNP rs4778599 in the gene encoding aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2), a transcription factor that participates in the development of hypothalamic oxytocin and vasopressin neurons, showed an association that survived correction for multiple testing with emotion recognition of audio–visual stimuli in women (n = 309). This study demonstrates evidence for an association that further expands previous findings of oxytocin and vasopressin involvement in emotion recognition.

  • 50.
    Högman, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Johansson, Anette G.M.
    Impaired facial emotion perception of briefly presented double masked stimuli in violent offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders2020In: Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, ISSN 2215-0013, Vol. 19, article id 100163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interactions require decoding of subtle rapidly changing emotional cues in others to facilitate socially appropriate behaviour. It is possible that impairments in the ability to detect and decode these signals may increase the risk for aggression. Therefore, we examined violent offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and compared these with healthy controls on a computerized paradigm of briefly presented double masked faces exhibiting 7 basic emotions. Our hypotheses were that impaired semantic understanding of emotion words and low cognitive ability would yield lowest emotion recognition. SSD exhibited lower accuracy of emotion perception than controls (46.1% compared with 64.5%, p = 0.026), even when considering the unbiased hit rate (22.4% compared with 43%, Z = 2.62, p < 0.01). Raw data showed uncommon but significant misclassifications of fear as sad, disgust as sad, sad as happy and angry as surprise. Once guessing and presentation frequencies were considered, only overall accuracy differed between SSD and healthy controls. There were significant correlations between cognitive ability, antipsychotic dose, speed and emotion accuracy in the SSD group. In conclusion, that there were no specific emotion biases in the SSD group compared to healthy controls, but particular individuals may have greater impairments in facial emotion perception, being influenced by intellectual ability, psychomotor speed and medication dosages, rather than specifically emotion word understanding. This implies that both state and trait factors influence emotion perception in the aggressive SSD group and may reveal one source of potential misunderstanding of social situations which may lead to boundary violations and aggression.

123 1 - 50 of 127
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf