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  • 1.
    Ahlbäck, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Värnpliktsstrecket - en självklarhet som vändes till sin motsats?2019In: Arbetarhistoria : Meddelande från Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, ISSN 0281-7446, no 170-171, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Completed military service as a condition for suffrage – a matter of course that was reversed?

    As a condition for male suffrage in Sweden between 1909 and 1922 citizens were required to have completed military service. This article investigates how this restriction on voting rights, introduced more orless unanimously, was abolished equally unanimously and with little debate only 13 years later. Two main reasons are pointed out. Firstly, since women were given suffrage in 1921, this restriction affected men only and was therefore suddenly perceived to be an unjust discrimination against the latter. Secondly, this restriction was closely linked to the particular political situation in Sweden around the turn of the twentieth century. For decades the twin issues of military and suffrage reform had been interlinked and thus blocked each other until they were resolved in 1901 and 1909 respectively. Once they had been resolved, the political connection between them rapidly became redundant, as did the symbolic and practical expression of this connection, namely completed military service as a condition for suffrage.

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  • 2.
    Ahnland, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The wage share and government job creation in Sweden, 1900-20162020In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores the long-run relationship between the wage share in the non-construction private sector and government efforts to create jobs in public services and construction of infrastructure and houses, in Sweden in 1900 to 2016. In the present article, it is argued that the creation of employment with generous wages by the Swedish government has increased the bargaining power of workers outside of these sectors, thus raising the wage share, up to about 1980. Correspondingly, retrenchment from such policy has been detrimental for the wage share in recent decades. This argument is supported by the results of cointegration tests, estimation of long-run and short-run, speed of adjustment, coefficients, as well as by Impulse-response functions. While government consumption is often found to be an important determinant for the wage share, earlier research has neglected the full labor market effect of government job creation associated with an expansion of the welfare state. Sweden is an ideal case for studying the impact of welfare policy on the wage share, since it has been one of the most extensive welfare states and simultaneously has been one of the most egalitarian countries in the world.

  • 3.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Beyond Mrs consumer: competing femininities in Swedish advertising trade publications, 1900–19392018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 153-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article follows the discussion on female consumers in Swedish advertising journals and handbooks. The aim is to problematise the gendered aspects of Swedish consumer and early advertising history, by studying how the notion of the female consumer intersected with notions of social class, marital status and sexuality. The article also closes in on the persons who were invited to embody the consuming women and what kind of interests they represented. The article concludes that, from the start of the twentieth century, gender and class was prevalent in the advertising literature. The married woman was also from the start seen as the head of the consuming family. Therefore, reaching her through advertising became key for facilitating the relations between producer and consumer. With time, different women's organisations, the weekly press, and new theories of advertising from the US addressing the notion of 'Mrs Consumer' came to influence the Swedish advertising trade press. The result became the favouring of a certain kind of middle class, urban and rational kind of femininity, strongly connected to homemaking and women's roles in purchasing for the family. However, this femininity also paralleled notions of 'the flapper' and the professional woman.

  • 4.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Selling the consumer: the marketing of advertising space in Sweden, ca. 1880-19392019In: Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, ISSN 1755-750X, E-ISSN 1755-7518, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 142-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – By studying the marketing of advertising space, this paper aims to study how class, gender and region were portrayed in terms of economic considerations in adverts selling advertising space to potential advertisers. The paper studies how readers were discursively transformed into consumers in this material and how different consumer groups were depicted, divided and framed during Sweden’s early consumer culture. By doing so, the paper highlights the tensions between aiming at a mass audience, on the one hand, and striving to reach more and more specific consumer groups on the other hand.

    Design/methodology/approach – Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are made in order to follow the changes of highlighted consumer groups in the ads. Intersectional analysis is used to see how notions of class and gender intersected during the analysed period.

    Findings – The sectioning of the press is in the paper stressed as a prerequisite for market segmentation and the economic history of mass media is lifted as essential for understanding it. The gendering and classing of market segments were also based on how common interests were interpreted by political movements and their press forums. For surviving in the long run, however, the paper argues that the political press needed to commercialise their readerships to attract advertisers and survive economically.

    Originality/value – The paper concludes that mass marketing and segmentation processes were in many senses parallel in the studied material. Statements of reaching all social classes diminished over time, but notions of the masses were prevalent in both the worker and the women categories. However, how advertisers choose between different media for their advertising campaigns or how they adopted different marketing methods towards different segments are beyond the scope of this paper.

  • 5.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Sex utan kärlek: Kommentar till Kristina Ahlmark-Michanek, Jungfrutro och dubbelmoral2019In: Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2019, 2, p. 324-328Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Husz, Orsi
    From the great department store with love: Window display and the transfer of commercial knowledge in early twentieth-century Sweden2018In: History of Retailing and Consumption, ISSN 2373-518X, E-ISSN 2373-5171, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 126-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the transfers and practical uses of thecommercial knowledge of window dressing in early twentieth-century Sweden through the analysis of the professional careerand family business of Oscar Lundkvist, Swedish display pioneerand former window dresser in chief of the largest and firstSwedish department store,Nordiska Kompaniet. Building on richsource material including unique written and photographicdocuments from the Lundkvist family, educational material andtrade journals, we show how the innovative and spectacularbecame ordinary and mundane in retail praxis. We argue that theemergence and professionalization of window display broughtwith it the dissemination and trivialization of the same practice.By focusing on not only the most conspicuous aspects andcultural meanings of window displays but also on the materialsand competences involved, we explain how setting up thedisplays became an everyday commercial practice and how it waspositioned between advertising and retail as well as between theartistic and the commercial.

  • 7.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    En maskulin kulturvärld på utdöende?: Introduktion till Könspolitiska nyckeltexter2019In: Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: Från Det går an till #metoo / [ed] Klara Arnberg, Fia Sundevall, David Tjeder, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2019, 2, p. 19-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Sundevall, FiaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.Tjeder, David
    Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Könspolitiska nyckeltexter är en mångfacetterad introduktion till svensk genushistoria. Genom ett pärlband av originaltexter, från C.J.L. Almqvists roman Det går an 1839 till #metoouppropen 2017, ges en fördjupad förståelse av hur kön har diskuterats, politiserats och iscensatts under nästan 200 år. Varje nyckeltext är kommenterad och analyserad av en forskare.

    Arbete, sexuella rättigheter, familjeliv, diskriminering, våld, försörjning, värnplikt, rösträtt, preventivmedel, skönhet och barnomsorg är några exempel på de många frågor som behandlas i boken, nu i omarbetad och utvidgad upplaga.

  • 9.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tolvhed, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Nya plattformar för könspolitik: Kommentar till vittnesmål på sociala medier2019In: Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo / [ed] Klara Arnberg, Fia Sundevall, David Tjeder, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2019, 2, p. 499-506Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Backman, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The European Union's capacities for managing crises2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on a comprehensive new data set of crisis management capacities at the European Union level to highlight key patterns in their development and use. Organised within the categories of detection, sense-making, decision-making, coordination, meaning-making, communication, and accountability, the data show considerable accumulation of capacities in detection and sense-making, while decision-making capacities lag behind. We find that most capacities are sector-oriented rather than cross-sectoral, and reside primarily within the European Commission rather than other EU institutions. Comparing the data to previous studies, we note that capacities overall are increasing and some are undergoing evolution; for example, horizon-scanning tools once limited to collecting information have increasingly been given an analytical, information enrichment function akin to sense-making.

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  • 11.
    Baraibar Norberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The Political Economy of Agrarian Change in Latin America: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay2020Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book makes an original contribution to the discussion about agro-food exporting countries’ governmental policy. It presents a historicized and internationally contextualized exploration of the political economy of agrarian change in three Latin American countries: Argentina, Praguay, and Uruguay. By comparatively examining how these states have acted in a context of global driven market forces and historically formed institutions, the monograph illuminates the differing capacities of state autonomy under the present era of globalized agriculture.

  • 12.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Desecuritizing migrant health: Eurocratic practices between rearticulation, resistance and silencingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Health security in the European Union: Agents, practices and materialities of securitization2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, the notion of ‘health security’ has emerged as a central tenet of European Union (EU) public health policy. This PhD thesis examines the rise and implications of health security cooperation, associated with an imperative to fight ‘bioterrorist attacks’, pandemics and other natural or man-made events. The study is composed of an introductory chapter as well as five related but self-contained papers, based on participant observation and 52 in-depth interviews at the European Commission as well as the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). More specifically, the thesis as a whole explores how security perspectives mattered in different ways for the rise and implications of health security cooperation in the EU. Unlike previous studies which have tended to focus on normative aspects and overarching global dynamics, the thesis examines drivers, contradictions and tensions in a particular, highly institutionalized context. In order to answer a set of empirically motivated questions, the papers draw on various understandings of securitization in critical security studies. The over-all findings cast light on the emergence of a new way of understanding health problems as rapidly emerging, and often external, ‘cross-border threats to health’. The latter may include major infectious disease outbreaks, but also deliberate or accidental release of chemical or biological substances, natural disasters or any other unknown event assumed to threaten not only public health but society as a whole. In the search for potential crises, these are to be rapidly detected and contained rather than prevented in line with traditional public health policy. Partly arising from political speech acts after September 11 as well as bureaucratic practices carving out a role for the EU in public health, these new priorities have also been shaped by EU-specific digital surveillance tools, information sharing platforms and methodologies for managing risk. The findings also point to forms of reflexivity and instances of contestation within the EU institutions themselves, especially in relation to migrant health. As a whole, the thesis thus contributes empirically to a better understanding of how both health and security have come to be pursued within the EU institutions. Theoretically it highlights how approaches to securitization, drawn from partially different scholarly traditions, can be employed as empirically sensitive analytical tools and thereby add to a better understanding of the full prism of securitization processes.

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    Health security in the European Union
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  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Which crisis? The promise of standardized risk ranking in the field of infectious disease controlManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Borg, Stefan
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Assembling European health security: Epidemic intelligence and the hunt for cross-border health threats2019In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The securitization of health concerns within the European Union has hitherto received scant attention compared to other sectors. Drawing on the conceptual toolbox of actor-network theory, this article examines how a ‘health security assemblage’ rooted in EU governance has emerged, expanded, and stabilized. At the heart of this assemblage lies a particular knowledge regime, known as epidemic intelligence (EI): a vigilance-oriented approach of early detection and containment drawing on web-scanning tools and other informal sources. Despite its differences compared to entrenched traditions in public health, EI has, in only a decade’s time, gained central importance at the EU level. EI is simultaneously constituted by, and performative of, a particular understanding of health security problems. By ‘following the actor’, this article seeks to account for how EI has made the hunt for potential health threats so central that detection and containment, rather than prevention, have become the preferred policy options. This article draws out some of the implications of this shift.

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  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Borg, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    European security and early warning systems: from risks to threats in the European Union’s health security sector2018In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 20-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critically examines a poorly understood aspect of the European security landscape: early warning systems (EWSs). EWSs are socio-technical systems designed to detect, analyse, and disseminate knowledge on potential security issues in a wide variety of sectors. We first present an empirical overview of more than 80 EWS in the European Union. We then draw on debates in Critical Security Studies to help us make sense of the role of such systems, tapping into conceptual debates on the construction of security issues as either "threat" or "risk" related. Finally, we study one EWS - the Early Warning and Response System for infectious diseases - to understand how it works and how it reconciles risk versus threat-based security logics. Contrary to assumptions of a clear distinction between risk-and threat-based logics of security, we show that EWSs may serve as a "transmission belt" for the movement of issues from risk into threats.

  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Securitisation across borders: the case of ‘health security’ cooperation in the European Union2019In: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 346-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global health governance has increasingly become articulated and acted upon in ways that emphasise ‘health security’. This article applies a collective securitisation approach to understand how a particular governance regime has evolved at the European level, one concerned with large-scale ‘threats’ to public health and societies at large. The analysis shows that alongside elite-level securitisation moves, transnational professional networks and bureaucratic actors have also taken part both as securitising agents and audience, with outcomes reflected not only in policy change but also new EU-specific surveillance technologies, institutional structures, and information-sharing platforms. While these developments are partially interlinked with global trends, we show that the EU has gradually institutionalised its own approach to health security. This new status quo is enshrined in a legal framework and set of practices with an all-hazards approach targeting preparedness, early detection and containment of ‘serious cross-border threats to health’ of any origin – beyond infectious disease.

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  • 18.
    Berg, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Ericsson, Martin
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rösträtt för alla? Begränsningar i rösträtten efter 19212018In: Rösträttens århundrade: Kampen, utvecklingen och framtiden för demokratin i Sverige / [ed] Ulrika Holgersson, Lena Wängnerud, Makadam Förlag, 2018, p. 219-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 19.
    Bergman, Anna Inez
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    “The Safe Solution of Women's Greatest Hygienic Handicap”: Varufiering och medikalisering i reklam för mensskydd i 1920-talets USA2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    “The Safe Solution of Women's Greatest Hygienic Handicap”: Varufiering och medikalisering i reklam för mensskydd i 1920-talets USA
  • 20. Boin, Arjen
    et al.
    Ekengren, Magnus
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hiding in Plain Sight: Conceptualizing the Creeping Crisis2020In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 crisis is a stark reminder that modern society is vulnerable to a special species of trouble: the creeping crisis. The creeping crisis poses a deep challenge to both academics and practitioners. In the crisis literature, it remains ill-defined and understudied. It is even harder to manage. As a threat, it carries a potential for societal disruption-but that potential is not fully understood. An accumulation of these creeping crises can erode public trust in institutions. This paper proposes a definition of a creeping crisis, formulates research questions, and identifies the most relevant theoretical approaches. It provides the building blocks for the systematic study of creeping crises.

  • 21.
    Borg, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The politics of universal rights claiming: Secular and sacred rights claiming in post-revolutionary Tunisia2017In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 453-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to a theoretical understanding of rights claiming as a specific form of political practice. The article develops and defends a post-foundationalist understanding of rights discourse as a way of making a claim to social change through appealing to a universal and illustrates such an understanding with the contestation over women's rights in post-revolutionary Tunisia. To develop this argument, the article draws on Jacques Ranciere's notion of political subjectification and Ernesto Laclau's engagement with the relation between the universal and the particular. To examine the relevance of such conceptualisation, the article turns to the struggle over women's rights in post-revolutionary Tunisia, where secular and sacred understandings of the universal have been invoked frequently through rights discourse. In this context it is shown that claims to the universal give rhetorical force to rights discourse, and instead of depoliticising social relations, which rights discourse is often charged with, such claims are vital for political efficacy. However, whereas Laclau's position helps us to understand rights as a language of resistance, a more robust defence of the universal is needed to defend rights in terms of emancipatory political change. To pursue this argument, the article turns to Ranciere's defence of axiomatic equality.

  • 22. Bossong, Raphael
    et al.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Terrorism and Transnational Crime in Europe: A Role for Strategy?2018In: EU Security Strategies: Extending the EU System of Security Governance / [ed] Spyros Economides, James Sperling, London: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23. Brattberg, Erik
    et al.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Multilevel Governance and Complex Threats: The Case of Pandemic Preparedness in the European Union and the United States2011In: Global Health Governance, ISSN 1939-2389, E-ISSN 1939-2389, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale of dangers posed by influenza pandemics, combined with a series of actual outbreaks, has led policymakers in both the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) to frame the issue as a security threat and to call for extraordinary action. In the US, the 2006 and 2010 National Security Strategies identified pandemics as a “catastrophic challenge” while the 2006 US Pandemic Plan argued that “pandemics should be viewed as a national security issue.” The EU’s 2008 review of its own European Security Strategy broadened the scope of threats facing the continent to include pandemic influenza. Identifying an influenza pandemic as a security threat, however, is relatively easily done. More challenging is to act upon that designation, through implementing security strategies in practice and managing governance processes in multi-level governance systems. Drawing upon securitization theory and traditional implementation theory, this article compares the extent to which the EU and the US have turned words into action on pandemic preparation. The findings show that increasingly securitized rhetoric following the H5N1 and H1N1 outbreaks has indeed been followed by new policies, structures, and operational capacities. As such, the article provides preliminary evidence that securitizing a public policy problem can increase political leverage over administrative processes of implementation.

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  • 24.
    Bremberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Borg, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Ambiguous power? A relational approach to how the EU exercises power in Morocco and Tunisia2020In: Journal of International Relations and Development, ISSN 1408-6980, E-ISSN 1581-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the question of how the EU exercises power in international politics and, in particular, whether or not there is anything distinctive about the ways in which it does so. Taking a relational approach to power, where the focus is on practical knowledge and perceptions of self and other, the paper departs from the assumption that such a question has to be evaluated in specific settings. Extrapolating from the EU's attempt to influence outcomes in Tunisia and Morocco following the Arab Spring, this paper proposes that the power of ambiguity captures some of the distinctiveness of the EU as a global actor. The paper highlights the ambiguity of what the EU is in the eyes of others, which opens up avenues for exercising power that others lack, not necessarily in accordance with a well-defined agenda, but understood as the production of effects in delimited settings.

  • 25. Camenisch, Chantal
    et al.
    Brázdil, Rudolf
    Kiss, Andrea
    Pfister, Christian
    Wetter, Oliver
    Rohr, Christian
    Contino, Antonio
    Retsö, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Extreme heat and drought in 1473 and their impacts in Europe in the context of the early 1470s2020In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Droughts and heatwaves are both dangerous natural hazards with a potential significant impact on human societies. In order to understand these hazards, it is important to examine such extreme events in the past. During the years 1471 to 1474, warm and dry weather conditions are described in most parts of Europe. Until now, these extraordinary years have not been examined in depth. Moreover, in spring 1473, a great drought and heat occurred in Europe. This heatwave facilitated a fast phenological development. During the summer and the autumn, temperatures were unusually high, and extremely dry weather conditions continued. In many places, the harvest began remarkably early, and there was abundant wine of a good quality. Fruit trees even bloomed for the second time in autumn. The heat and drought had a considerable impact on the environment and also caused damage to agriculture and society, including water shortages, harvest failures and rising food prices. The weather conditions of the years from 1471 to 1474 were outstanding during the fifteenth century and the heatwave and drought, as well as impacts on environment, economy, and society in the year 1473, were comparable to-if not more severe-than those in the year 1540. Learning from past climate anomalies like the 1473 drought in Europe is important for evaluating more recent and future climate extremes under increasing anthropogenic pressure.

  • 26.
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Bloodgood, Elizabeth A.
    Advocacy group effects in global governance: Populations, strategies, and political opportunity structures2019In: Interest Groups & Advocacy, ISSN 2047-7414, E-ISSN 2047-7422, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 255-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global governance is no longer a matter of state cooperation or bureaucratic politics. Since the end of the cold war, advocacy groups have proliferated and enjoyed increasing access to global governance institutions such as the European Union, World Trade Organization, and the United Nations climate conferences. This special issue seeks to push theories of interest groups and international non-governmental organizations forward. We argue that the advocacy group effects on global governance institutions are best understood by examining how groups use and shape domestic and global political opportunity structures. The individual articles examine how, when, and why domestic and global political opportunity structures shape advocacy group effects in global governance, across global institutions, levels of government, advocacy organizations, issue areas, and over time. As special interests are becoming increasingly involved in global governance, we need to better understand how advocacy organizations may impact global public goods provision.

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  • 27.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Legitimacy has risks and benefits for effective international marine management2019In: Predicting Future Oceans: Sustainability of Ocean and Human Systems Amidst Global Environmental Change / [ed] Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, William W.L. Cheung, Yoshitaka Ota, Elsevier, 2019, p. 437-451Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability scientists have long studied what drives effective marine management. This chapter provides an assessment of a largely understudied factor that can alleviate compliance problems in marine management: the legitimacy of marine institutions, defined as stakeholder beliefs in the appropriate use of power by these institutions. This chapter describes the legitimacy of 19 international institutions dealing with marine issues, including the Arctic Council, European Union, and United Nations Environment, in the eyes of different types of stakeholders. The chapter then discusses how challenges arising from these legitimacy patterns could be managed to effectively address compliance problems. Insights from political science help understand that legitimacy can contribute to compliance among stakeholders, but that increased legitimacy may also entail the risk of declining public scrutiny and interest group capture. Based on this assessment, the chapter outlines a research agenda on legitimacy and effectiveness for sustainability scholars.

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  • 28.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Schlipphak, Bernd
    Legitimacy beliefs towards global governance institutions: a research agenda2019In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legitimacy is central to the functioning of global governance institutions (GGIs) such as the European Union (EU) and the United Nations. There is a vibrant debate about legitimacy in International Relations, and a burgeoning literature in comparative politics on public attitudes towards the EU. Yet, these literatures rarely speak to each other, which has resulted in missed opportunities for theoretical advancements on the sources and consequences of citizens’ legitimacy beliefs vis-à-vis GGIs. To assist researchers in advancing on this state of the art, this research note develops a conceptualization of popular legitimacy as a multidimensional belief system including both moral convictions and self-interest. A statistical analysis of public attitudes towards the EU from 1973 to 2012 suggests that commonly used survey measures capture self-interest rather than moral beliefs. This note concludes by suggesting a research agenda intended to push theory and survey research on legitimacy beliefs towards GGIs forward.

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  • 29.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Scholte, Jan Aart
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Institutional sources of legitimacy for international organisations: Beyond procedure versus performance2019In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 627-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses a significant gap in the literature on legitimacy in global governance, exploring whether, in what ways, and to what extent institutional qualities of international organisations (IOs) matter for popular legitimacy beliefs towards these bodies. The study assesses the causal significance of procedure and performance as sources of legitimacy, unpacks these dimensions into specific institutional qualities, and offers a comparative analysis across IOs in three issue areas of global governance. Theoretically, the article disaggregates institutional sources of legitimacy to consider democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of procedure and performance. Empirically, it examines the effects of these institutional qualities through a population-based survey experiment in four countries in different world regions with respect to IOs in economic, security, and climate governance. The findings demonstrate that both procedure- and performance-related aspects of IO policymaking matter for popular legitimacy beliefs. This result holds across democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of IO procedure and performance. Disaggregating the results by issue area indicates that a broader scope of institutional qualities are important for legitimacy beliefs in economic governance compared to security governance and, especially, climate governance. These findings suggest that propositions to reduce the institutional sources of IO legitimacy to single specific qualities would be misguided.

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  • 30.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Why national and international legitimacy beliefs are linked: Social trust as an antecedent factor2020In: The Review of International Organizations, ISSN 1559-7431, E-ISSN 1559-744X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 311-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent public opinion research has established an empirical regularity of unusual stability and strength: citizen beliefs in the legitimacy of national and international institutions are highly linked. The dominant interpretation of this link holds that citizens draw on their perceptions of national institutions as a heuristic when forming opinions about international institutions. This article proposes an alternative mechanism, privileging social trust as an antecedent factor contributing to both national and international legitimacy beliefs. Using original survey data on citizen attitudes toward four international institutions in three countries, the article provides evidence for social trust as an antecedent factor, while granting no support for the dominant interpretation. The article suggests three broader implications: social trust has more far-reaching consequences for international cooperation than previously understood; political efforts to affect the legitimacy of international institutions are constrained by individual predispositions; and a comparative approach is central to the study of public attitudes toward international institutions.

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  • 31.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Eriksson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Ingman, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    A real estate price index for Stockholm, Sweden 1818–2018: putting the last decades housing price boom in a historical perspective2020In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research describes the development of real housing prices as a ‘hockey stick’, i.e. of long stagnation followed by a sharp upturn in recent decades. A problem is that there are very few indices of residential property covering longer periods. Using a database of around 10,900 sales, this study presents a historical housing price index for Stockholm 1818–1875, which extend a previous index by 57 years, one of the longest for any city. A so-called repeated sales index is compared to a sales price appraisals ratio index. We show that in real terms there have been two long upswings, in 1855–1887 and 1993–2018. In other periods, real prices were stagnant or even slightly declining. The nineteenth century upturn did not end in a crash, but was followed by stagnation for a century. There are many similarities between the two upturns. For example, both coincided with the demographic expansion and were preceded by deregulations. During both periods, properties became more expensive relative income levels. 

  • 32.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The Business Cycle in Historical Perspective: Reconstructing Quarterly Data on Swedish GDP, 1913-20142018In: Journal of European Economic History, ISSN 0391-5115, E-ISSN 2499-8281, no 1, p. 33-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an estimation of quarterly GDP for Sweden stretchingback to 1913, using higher frequency series on manufacturing andprivate consumption as indicators and standard methods for tem-poral disaggregation from annual GDP data. Deseasonalization isperformed using JDemetra+ software. We use the Bry-Boschan al-gorithm to identify peaks and troughs, based on which we presentvarious chronologies of the business cycle in Sweden, indicating apartially new picture of the country’s economic growth over the last100 years.

  • 33.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Jacobson, TorWaldenström, Daniel
    Sveriges Riksbank and the History of Central Banking2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Written in celebration of its 350th anniversary in 2018, this book details the history of the central bank of Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank, as presented by Klas Fregert. It relates the bank's history to the development of other major central banks around the world. Chapters are written by some of the more prominent scholars in the field of monetary economics and economic history. These chapters include an analysis of the Bank of England written by Charles Goodhart; the evolution of banking in America, written by Barry Eichengreen; a first account of the People's Bank of China, written by Franklin Allen, Xian Gu, and Jun Qian; as well as a chapter about the brief but important history of the European Central Bank, written by Otmar Issing.

  • 34.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS), Sweden.
    Tarek Gad, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Assessing trade in the mercantilist era: evidence from a new database on foreign trade of Sweden – Finland, 1738–18052018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 226-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a newly constructed database on foreign trade of Sweden–Finland 1738–1805, consisting of all exports and imports that were recorded by the custom houses in this period, and is made available at www.historia.se/Swedish foreign trade 1738_1805.xlsx. The traditional view as presented by Eli Heckscher, who was very critical of the mercantilist policies of the time, was that the overseas trade of Sweden-Finland saw a trend of secular stagnation during the course of the eighteenth century. By contrast, we show that in conjunction with a substantial expansion of the population, total trade nearly increased twofold during the period of study. Despite that, there was a small decrease in the value of exports in relation to GDP, mostly explained by a drop in the relative price of bar iron. The degree of specialisation of Swedish exports saw a declining tendency in this period. While exports from Sweden had a higher degree of specialisation than Finnish exports, imported goods to Finland were more concentrated than Swedish imports. Lastly, the composition of imports did not markedly alter, meaning that a consumer revolution did not take place in either Sweden or Finland.

  • 35. Ericsson, Martin
    et al.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rösträttsbegränsningar i den svenska demokratin - en introduktion till temat2019In: Arbetarhistoria : Meddelande från Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, ISSN 0281-7446, no 170-171, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 36.
    Eriksson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Dick Harrison, Jag har ingen vilja till makt: Biografi över Tage Erlander2018In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 755-757Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Eriksson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Historien förändras, människan gör det inte: kulturen och drifterna som civilisationens historiska lärdomar2020In: Förfluten tid och nutid: 18 försök / [ed] Mattias Hessérus, Peter Luthersson, Stockholm: Axess Publishing AB , 2020Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Eriksson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Ratio, Sverige.
    Massblomstring2020In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 1Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Eriksson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Ratio, Sverige.
    Stad i världen2018In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 9Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Eriksson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Ernkvist, Mirko
    Laurell, Christofer
    Moodysson, Jerker
    Nykvist, Rasmus
    Sandström, Christian
    A revised perspective on innovation policy for renewal of mature economies: Historical evidence from finance and telecommunications in Sweden 1980–19902019In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 147, p. 152-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the role of innovation policy for accomplishing renewal of mature industries in Western economies? Drawing upon an unusually rich dataset spanning 9752 digitized archival documents, we categorize and code decisions taken by policymakers on several levels while also mapping and quantifying the strategic activities of both entrant firms and incumbent monopolists over a decade. Our data concerns two empirical cases from Sweden during the time period 1980–1990: the financial sector and the telecommunications sector. In both industries, a combination of technological and institutional upheaval came into motion during this time period which in turn fueled the revitalization of the Swedish economy in the subsequent decades. Our findings show that Swedish policymakers in both cases consistently acted in order to promote the emergence of more competition and de novo entrant firms at the expense of established monopolies. The paper quantifies and documents this process while also highlighting several enabling conditions. In conclusion, the results indicate that successful innovation policy in mature economies is largely a matter of strategically dealing with resourceful vested interest groups, alignment of expectations, and removing resistance to industrial renewal.

  • 41.
    Fedchenko, Vitaly
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. SIPRI.
    Nuclear Security in the Black Sea Region: Contested Spaces, National Capacities and Multinational Potential2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 42.
    Fleischer, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Universal Spotification? The shifting meanings of "Spotify" as a model for the media industries2020In: Popular Communication, ISSN 1540-5702, E-ISSN 1540-5710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the music streaming service Spotify was launched in 2008, it has been referred to as a model for an ongoing transformation of the media industries. Dozens of other technology startups have promised to deliver a Spotify for books, a Spotify for movies, a Spotify for journalism or even a Spotify for art. Yet, most attempts to replicate the model has actually failed. Analyzing a large body of Swedish and US news articles from 2008-2018, this article demonstrates how the metaphor of Spotify has been filled with very different meaning. Not only has the early promises of relying on advertising to make consumption free but legal been discarded, in favor of subscription-based models. Another major trend in the development of streaming services, including Spotify, has been the shift toward curation and algorithmic recommendation systems, which has added new associations to the metaphor or a Spotify for x.

  • 43.
    Fleischer, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Vad betyder det att musik är ”live”?2018In: Musikens makt / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Arne Jarrick, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2018, p. 217-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 44.
    Fleischer, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Kullenberg, Christopher
    The Political Significance of Spotify in Sweden – Analysing the #backaspotify Campaign using Twitter Data2018In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 301-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the political significance of the streaming music company Spotify in Sweden, taking as a case a coordinated campaign in late spring 2016, known by the hashtag #backaspotify (translated as “support Spotify!”), which was mainly played out on the social media platform Twitter. The campaign is analysed using a set of data retrieved from Twitter, examining both the content and the interactions in 1,791 messages. Results show that the main political issue concerned the lack of access to rented apartments in central Stockholm, and that the main actors in the campaign were predominantly associated with public affairs consultants and the youth wings of political parties belonging to the centre-right. The campaign, however, was very short-lived and had diminished significantly already after two days. We conclude that Spotify transcends its role as a streaming music company, and additionally can be used as a point of reference in political campaigns to promote issues that are of wider scope than the music industry alone.

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  • 45.
    Franzén, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Därför hade medeltiden inga boprisrallyn2018In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 6 september, p. 27-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Franzén, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Medeltida bostadsaffärer: /---/ i Stockholm 1420-16002019In: Företagshistoria, ISSN 2001-7936, no 2, p. 24-24Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tack vare bevarade jord- och tänkeböcker går det att skapa sig en god bild av hur fastighetsmarknaden utvecklades över tid i Stockholm 1420-1600.

  • 47.
    Franzén, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Statsskulden – ett mynt med dubbla ansikten2020In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Coronakrisens stödpaket skapar statsskulder på tusentals miljarder kronor. Av statsskuldens historia, som tog sin början i Italien runt år 1500, lär vi oss att den kan leda till depression. Men för de nationalstater som använt systemet rätt har det också skapat resurser av en helt ny magnitud.

  • 48.
    Franzén, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Söderberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hus, gårdar och gatubodar: Fastighetspriser i Stockholm och Arboga 1300–16002018In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 227-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Houses, yards and sheds: Real property prices in Stockholm and Arboga, 1300-1600

    The article explores real property prices in Swedish trading towns 1297-1600 based on c. 2900 transactions in Stockholm and the smaller town of Arboga. A consumer price index has been used to deflate nominal prices into real values. The analysis shows that houses made of both stone and wood became cheaper over time. In Isoo prices, the median price of a stone house in Stockholm was 343 Swedish marks in the period 1297-1449 compared to 184 marks in the period 1550-1600. For wooden houses the same downward trend was evident: a drop from 84 marks in the first period to 52 marks in the second period. Part of the price decline is due to the fact that building plots became smaller, which suggests an increase in population in Stockholm. Declining real wages of labourers also exerted a downward pressure on the cost of building a house. The slightly negative long-term trend in real property prices in Stockholm and Arboga, amounting to -0.3 and -0.1 percent per year, respectively, diverges from the strong decline in land prices in Eastern Sweden. This is an indication that the towns were less affected by the late medieval crisis than rural areas were. Plague outbreaks are shown to have affected real property prices in Stockholm, where prices fell during plague years, but quickly recovered afterwards. This pattern can be taken as an indication that real property prices were market prices that reacted to external shocks. The analysis also reports tentative results of real property prices as an indicator of economic inequality. The Gini coefficient for Stockholm varied between 0.55 in the period 1297-1449 to o.58 in the period 1450-1499. This is about the same level of inequality that has been calculated for Amsterdam in the mid-sixteenth century. The Gini coefficient for Arboga was also very similar to that of the Dutch towns taken as a whole. There is no clear trend in inequality over time in either Stockholm or Arboga. Finally, the article discusses trends in female ownership of real property by investigating if the position of women in the real property market deteriorated during the period of study. Female sellers of property amounted to nearly zo percent in Stockholm and Arboga, with no discernable time trend. Female property buyers were fewer, amounting to between three and six percent out of the total before 1500 and a somewhat higher percentage share in the sixteenth century.

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  • 49. Geissinger, Andrea
    et al.
    Laurell, Christofer
    Sandström, Christian
    Eriksson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Nykvist, Rasmus
    Digital entrepreneurship and field conditions for institutional change: Investigating the enabling role of cities2019In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 146, p. 877-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital entrepreneurship may result in institutional turbulence and new initiatives are frequently blocked by vested interest groups who posit superior financial and relational resources. In this paper, we explore the role of cities in facilitating digital entrepreneurship and overcoming institutional resistance to innovation. Drawing upon two historical case studies of digital entrepreneurship in the city of Stockholm along with an extensive material on the sharing economy in Sweden, our results suggest that cities offer an environment that is critical for digital entrepreneurship. The economic and technological diversity of a city may provide the field conditions required for institutional change to take place and to avoid regulatory capture.

  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    International reconciliation on the Internet? Ontological security, attribution and the construction of war memory narratives in Wikipedia2020In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the Internet’s often touted potential for facilitating reconciliation. It conceptualises Wikipedia as a site for collective memory construction and analyses the Chinese- and Japanese-language entries on the bilaterally contentious Second Sino-Japanese War. It addresses the question of how to make sense of the construction of these online collective memory narratives theoretically. Both historical determinism and instrumentalism – two influential theoretical approaches to collective memory and reconciliation – have great difficulties in fully accounting for this case. Instead, it is argued that ontological security theory is better equipped for understanding collective memory construction in Wikipedia. It is suggested that ontological security seeking can impede efforts for reconciliation even when, as in Wikipedia, there exist norms seeking to promote more neutral narratives. It is argued that a subtle bias in favour of the in-group and against the out-group functions as a mechanism for ontological security management that protects a positive self-identity.

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