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  • 1.
    Ahlbäck, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Värnpliktsstrecket - en självklarhet som vändes till sin motsats?2019In: Arbetarhistoria : Meddelande från Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, ISSN 0281-7446, no 170-171, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Completed military service as a condition for suffrage – a matter of course that was reversed?

    As a condition for male suffrage in Sweden between 1909 and 1922 citizens were required to have completed military service. This article investigates how this restriction on voting rights, introduced more orless unanimously, was abolished equally unanimously and with little debate only 13 years later. Two main reasons are pointed out. Firstly, since women were given suffrage in 1921, this restriction affected men only and was therefore suddenly perceived to be an unjust discrimination against the latter. Secondly, this restriction was closely linked to the particular political situation in Sweden around the turn of the twentieth century. For decades the twin issues of military and suffrage reform had been interlinked and thus blocked each other until they were resolved in 1901 and 1909 respectively. Once they had been resolved, the political connection between them rapidly became redundant, as did the symbolic and practical expression of this connection, namely completed military service as a condition for suffrage.

  • 2.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Beyond Mrs consumer: competing femininities in Swedish advertising trade publications, 1900–19392018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 153-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article follows the discussion on female consumers in Swedish advertising journals and handbooks. The aim is to problematise the gendered aspects of Swedish consumer and early advertising history, by studying how the notion of the female consumer intersected with notions of social class, marital status and sexuality. The article also closes in on the persons who were invited to embody the consuming women and what kind of interests they represented. The article concludes that, from the start of the twentieth century, gender and class was prevalent in the advertising literature. The married woman was also from the start seen as the head of the consuming family. Therefore, reaching her through advertising became key for facilitating the relations between producer and consumer. With time, different women's organisations, the weekly press, and new theories of advertising from the US addressing the notion of 'Mrs Consumer' came to influence the Swedish advertising trade press. The result became the favouring of a certain kind of middle class, urban and rational kind of femininity, strongly connected to homemaking and women's roles in purchasing for the family. However, this femininity also paralleled notions of 'the flapper' and the professional woman.

  • 3.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Selling the consumer: the marketing of advertising space in Sweden, ca. 1880-19392019In: Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, ISSN 1755-750X, E-ISSN 1755-7518, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 142-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – By studying the marketing of advertising space, this paper aims to study how class, gender and region were portrayed in terms of economic considerations in adverts selling advertising space to potential advertisers. The paper studies how readers were discursively transformed into consumers in this material and how different consumer groups were depicted, divided and framed during Sweden’s early consumer culture. By doing so, the paper highlights the tensions between aiming at a mass audience, on the one hand, and striving to reach more and more specific consumer groups on the other hand.

    Design/methodology/approach – Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are made in order to follow the changes of highlighted consumer groups in the ads. Intersectional analysis is used to see how notions of class and gender intersected during the analysed period.

    Findings – The sectioning of the press is in the paper stressed as a prerequisite for market segmentation and the economic history of mass media is lifted as essential for understanding it. The gendering and classing of market segments were also based on how common interests were interpreted by political movements and their press forums. For surviving in the long run, however, the paper argues that the political press needed to commercialise their readerships to attract advertisers and survive economically.

    Originality/value – The paper concludes that mass marketing and segmentation processes were in many senses parallel in the studied material. Statements of reaching all social classes diminished over time, but notions of the masses were prevalent in both the worker and the women categories. However, how advertisers choose between different media for their advertising campaigns or how they adopted different marketing methods towards different segments are beyond the scope of this paper.

  • 4.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Sex utan kärlek: Kommentar till Kristina Ahlmark-Michanek, Jungfrutro och dubbelmoral2019In: Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2019, 2, p. 324-328Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Husz, Orsi
    From the great department store with love: Window display and the transfer of commercial knowledge in early twentieth-century Sweden2018In: History of Retailing and Consumption, ISSN 2373-518X, E-ISSN 2373-5171, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 126-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the transfers and practical uses of thecommercial knowledge of window dressing in early twentieth-century Sweden through the analysis of the professional careerand family business of Oscar Lundkvist, Swedish display pioneerand former window dresser in chief of the largest and firstSwedish department store,Nordiska Kompaniet. Building on richsource material including unique written and photographicdocuments from the Lundkvist family, educational material andtrade journals, we show how the innovative and spectacularbecame ordinary and mundane in retail praxis. We argue that theemergence and professionalization of window display broughtwith it the dissemination and trivialization of the same practice.By focusing on not only the most conspicuous aspects andcultural meanings of window displays but also on the materialsand competences involved, we explain how setting up thedisplays became an everyday commercial practice and how it waspositioned between advertising and retail as well as between theartistic and the commercial.

  • 6.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    En maskulin kulturvärld på utdöende?: Introduktion till Könspolitiska nyckeltexter2019In: Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: Från Det går an till #metoo / [ed] Klara Arnberg, Fia Sundevall, David Tjeder, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2019, 2, p. 19-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Sundevall, FiaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.Tjeder, David
    Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Könspolitiska nyckeltexter är en mångfacetterad introduktion till svensk genushistoria. Genom ett pärlband av originaltexter, från C.J.L. Almqvists roman Det går an 1839 till #metoouppropen 2017, ges en fördjupad förståelse av hur kön har diskuterats, politiserats och iscensatts under nästan 200 år. Varje nyckeltext är kommenterad och analyserad av en forskare.

    Arbete, sexuella rättigheter, familjeliv, diskriminering, våld, försörjning, värnplikt, rösträtt, preventivmedel, skönhet och barnomsorg är några exempel på de många frågor som behandlas i boken, nu i omarbetad och utvidgad upplaga.

  • 8.
    Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tolvhed, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Nya plattformar för könspolitik: Kommentar till vittnesmål på sociala medier2019In: Könspolitiska nyckeltexter: från Det går an till #metoo / [ed] Klara Arnberg, Fia Sundevall, David Tjeder, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2019, 2, p. 499-506Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Backman, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The European Union's capacities for managing crises2018In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws on a comprehensive new data set of crisis management capacities at the European Union level to highlight key patterns in their development and use. Organised within the categories of detection, sense-making, decision-making, coordination, meaning-making, communication, and accountability, the data show considerable accumulation of capacities in detection and sense-making, while decision-making capacities lag behind. We find that most capacities are sector-oriented rather than cross-sectoral, and reside primarily within the European Commission rather than other EU institutions. Comparing the data to previous studies, we note that capacities overall are increasing and some are undergoing evolution; for example, horizon-scanning tools once limited to collecting information have increasingly been given an analytical, information enrichment function akin to sense-making.

  • 10.
    Baraibar Norberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The Political Economy of Agrarian Change in Latin America: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay2020Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book makes an original contribution to the discussion about agro-food exporting countries’ governmental policy. It presents a historicized and internationally contextualized exploration of the political economy of agrarian change in three Latin American countries: Argentina, Praguay, and Uruguay. By comparatively examining how these states have acted in a context of global driven market forces and historically formed institutions, the monograph illuminates the differing capacities of state autonomy under the present era of globalized agriculture.

  • 11.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Desecuritizing migrant health: Eurocratic practices between rearticulation, resistance and silencingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Health security in the European Union: Agents, practices and materialities of securitization2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, the notion of ‘health security’ has emerged as a central tenet of European Union (EU) public health policy. This PhD thesis examines the rise and implications of health security cooperation, associated with an imperative to fight ‘bioterrorist attacks’, pandemics and other natural or man-made events. The study is composed of an introductory chapter as well as five related but self-contained papers, based on participant observation and 52 in-depth interviews at the European Commission as well as the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). More specifically, the thesis as a whole explores how security perspectives mattered in different ways for the rise and implications of health security cooperation in the EU. Unlike previous studies which have tended to focus on normative aspects and overarching global dynamics, the thesis examines drivers, contradictions and tensions in a particular, highly institutionalized context. In order to answer a set of empirically motivated questions, the papers draw on various understandings of securitization in critical security studies. The over-all findings cast light on the emergence of a new way of understanding health problems as rapidly emerging, and often external, ‘cross-border threats to health’. The latter may include major infectious disease outbreaks, but also deliberate or accidental release of chemical or biological substances, natural disasters or any other unknown event assumed to threaten not only public health but society as a whole. In the search for potential crises, these are to be rapidly detected and contained rather than prevented in line with traditional public health policy. Partly arising from political speech acts after September 11 as well as bureaucratic practices carving out a role for the EU in public health, these new priorities have also been shaped by EU-specific digital surveillance tools, information sharing platforms and methodologies for managing risk. The findings also point to forms of reflexivity and instances of contestation within the EU institutions themselves, especially in relation to migrant health. As a whole, the thesis thus contributes empirically to a better understanding of how both health and security have come to be pursued within the EU institutions. Theoretically it highlights how approaches to securitization, drawn from partially different scholarly traditions, can be employed as empirically sensitive analytical tools and thereby add to a better understanding of the full prism of securitization processes.

  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Which crisis? The promise of standardized risk ranking in the field of infectious disease controlManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Borg, Stefan
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Assembling European health security: Epidemic intelligence and the hunt for cross-border health threats2019In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The securitization of health concerns within the European Union has hitherto received scant attention compared to other sectors. Drawing on the conceptual toolbox of actor-network theory, this article examines how a ‘health security assemblage’ rooted in EU governance has emerged, expanded, and stabilized. At the heart of this assemblage lies a particular knowledge regime, known as epidemic intelligence (EI): a vigilance-oriented approach of early detection and containment drawing on web-scanning tools and other informal sources. Despite its differences compared to entrenched traditions in public health, EI has, in only a decade’s time, gained central importance at the EU level. EI is simultaneously constituted by, and performative of, a particular understanding of health security problems. By ‘following the actor’, this article seeks to account for how EI has made the hunt for potential health threats so central that detection and containment, rather than prevention, have become the preferred policy options. This article draws out some of the implications of this shift.

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Borg, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    European security and early warning systems: from risks to threats in the European Union’s health security sector2018In: European Security, ISSN 0966-2839, E-ISSN 1746-1545, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 20-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critically examines a poorly understood aspect of the European security landscape: early warning systems (EWSs). EWSs are socio-technical systems designed to detect, analyse, and disseminate knowledge on potential security issues in a wide variety of sectors. We first present an empirical overview of more than 80 EWS in the European Union. We then draw on debates in Critical Security Studies to help us make sense of the role of such systems, tapping into conceptual debates on the construction of security issues as either "threat" or "risk" related. Finally, we study one EWS - the Early Warning and Response System for infectious diseases - to understand how it works and how it reconciles risk versus threat-based security logics. Contrary to assumptions of a clear distinction between risk-and threat-based logics of security, we show that EWSs may serve as a "transmission belt" for the movement of issues from risk into threats.

  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Securitisation across borders: the case of ‘health security’ cooperation in the European Union2019In: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 346-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global health governance has increasingly become articulated and acted upon in ways that emphasise ‘health security’. This article applies a collective securitisation approach to understand how a particular governance regime has evolved at the European level, one concerned with large-scale ‘threats’ to public health and societies at large. The analysis shows that alongside elite-level securitisation moves, transnational professional networks and bureaucratic actors have also taken part both as securitising agents and audience, with outcomes reflected not only in policy change but also new EU-specific surveillance technologies, institutional structures, and information-sharing platforms. While these developments are partially interlinked with global trends, we show that the EU has gradually institutionalised its own approach to health security. This new status quo is enshrined in a legal framework and set of practices with an all-hazards approach targeting preparedness, early detection and containment of ‘serious cross-border threats to health’ of any origin – beyond infectious disease.

  • 17.
    Berg, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Ericsson, Martin
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rösträtt för alla? Begränsningar i rösträtten efter 19212018In: Rösträttens århundrade: Kampen, utvecklingen och framtiden för demokratin i Sverige / [ed] Ulrika Holgersson, Lena Wängnerud, Makadam Förlag, 2018, p. 219-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bergman, Anna Inez
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    “The Safe Solution of Women's Greatest Hygienic Handicap”: Varufiering och medikalisering i reklam för mensskydd i 1920-talets USA2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19. Bossong, Raphael
    et al.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Terrorism and Transnational Crime in Europe: A Role for Strategy?2018In: EU Security Strategies: Extending the EU System of Security Governance / [ed] Spyros Economides, James Sperling, London: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20. Brattberg, Erik
    et al.
    Rhinard, Mark
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    Multilevel Governance and Complex Threats: The Case of Pandemic Preparedness in the European Union and the United States2011In: Global Health Governance, ISSN 1939-2389, E-ISSN 1939-2389, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scale of dangers posed by influenza pandemics, combined with a series of actual outbreaks, has led policymakers in both the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) to frame the issue as a security threat and to call for extraordinary action. In the US, the 2006 and 2010 National Security Strategies identified pandemics as a “catastrophic challenge” while the 2006 US Pandemic Plan argued that “pandemics should be viewed as a national security issue.” The EU’s 2008 review of its own European Security Strategy broadened the scope of threats facing the continent to include pandemic influenza. Identifying an influenza pandemic as a security threat, however, is relatively easily done. More challenging is to act upon that designation, through implementing security strategies in practice and managing governance processes in multi-level governance systems. Drawing upon securitization theory and traditional implementation theory, this article compares the extent to which the EU and the US have turned words into action on pandemic preparation. The findings show that increasingly securitized rhetoric following the H5N1 and H1N1 outbreaks has indeed been followed by new policies, structures, and operational capacities. As such, the article provides preliminary evidence that securitizing a public policy problem can increase political leverage over administrative processes of implementation.

  • 21.
    Dellmuth, Lisa M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Bloodgood, Elizabeth A.
    Advocacy group effects in global governance: Populations, strategies, and political opportunity structures2019In: Interest Groups & Advocacy, ISSN 2047-7414, E-ISSN 2047-7422, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 255-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global governance is no longer a matter of state cooperation or bureaucratic politics. Since the end of the cold war, advocacy groups have proliferated and enjoyed increasing access to global governance institutions such as the European Union, World Trade Organization, and the United Nations climate conferences. This special issue seeks to push theories of interest groups and international non-governmental organizations forward. We argue that the advocacy group effects on global governance institutions are best understood by examining how groups use and shape domestic and global political opportunity structures. The individual articles examine how, when, and why domestic and global political opportunity structures shape advocacy group effects in global governance, across global institutions, levels of government, advocacy organizations, issue areas, and over time. As special interests are becoming increasingly involved in global governance, we need to better understand how advocacy organizations may impact global public goods provision.

  • 22.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Legitimacy has risks and benefits for effective international marine management2019In: Predicting Future Oceans: Sustainability of Ocean and Human Systems Amidst Global Environmental Change / [ed] Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, William W.L. Cheung, Yoshitaka Ota, Elsevier, 2019, p. 437-451Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability scientists have long studied what drives effective marine management. This chapter provides an assessment of a largely understudied factor that can alleviate compliance problems in marine management: the legitimacy of marine institutions, defined as stakeholder beliefs in the appropriate use of power by these institutions. This chapter describes the legitimacy of 19 international institutions dealing with marine issues, including the Arctic Council, European Union, and United Nations Environment, in the eyes of different types of stakeholders. The chapter then discusses how challenges arising from these legitimacy patterns could be managed to effectively address compliance problems. Insights from political science help understand that legitimacy can contribute to compliance among stakeholders, but that increased legitimacy may also entail the risk of declining public scrutiny and interest group capture. Based on this assessment, the chapter outlines a research agenda on legitimacy and effectiveness for sustainability scholars.

  • 23.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Schlipphak, Bernd
    Legitimacy beliefs towards global governance institutions: a research agenda2019In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legitimacy is central to the functioning of global governance institutions (GGIs) such as the European Union (EU) and the United Nations. There is a vibrant debate about legitimacy in International Relations, and a burgeoning literature in comparative politics on public attitudes towards the EU. Yet, these literatures rarely speak to each other, which has resulted in missed opportunities for theoretical advancements on the sources and consequences of citizens’ legitimacy beliefs vis-à-vis GGIs. To assist researchers in advancing on this state of the art, this research note develops a conceptualization of popular legitimacy as a multidimensional belief system including both moral convictions and self-interest. A statistical analysis of public attitudes towards the EU from 1973 to 2012 suggests that commonly used survey measures capture self-interest rather than moral beliefs. This note concludes by suggesting a research agenda intended to push theory and survey research on legitimacy beliefs towards GGIs forward.

  • 24.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Scholte, Jan Aart
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Institutional sources of legitimacy for international organisations: Beyond procedure versus performance2019In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 627-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses a significant gap in the literature on legitimacy in global governance, exploring whether, in what ways, and to what extent institutional qualities of international organisations (IOs) matter for popular legitimacy beliefs towards these bodies. The study assesses the causal significance of procedure and performance as sources of legitimacy, unpacks these dimensions into specific institutional qualities, and offers a comparative analysis across IOs in three issue areas of global governance. Theoretically, the article disaggregates institutional sources of legitimacy to consider democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of procedure and performance. Empirically, it examines the effects of these institutional qualities through a population-based survey experiment in four countries in different world regions with respect to IOs in economic, security, and climate governance. The findings demonstrate that both procedure- and performance-related aspects of IO policymaking matter for popular legitimacy beliefs. This result holds across democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of IO procedure and performance. Disaggregating the results by issue area indicates that a broader scope of institutional qualities are important for legitimacy beliefs in economic governance compared to security governance and, especially, climate governance. These findings suggest that propositions to reduce the institutional sources of IO legitimacy to single specific qualities would be misguided.

  • 25.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Why national and international legitimacy beliefs are linked: Social trust as an antecedent factor2018In: The Review of International Organizations, ISSN 1559-7431, E-ISSN 1559-744XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent public opinion research has established an empirical regularity of unusual stability and strength: citizen beliefs in the legitimacy of national and international institutions are highly linked. The dominant interpretation of this link holds that citizens draw on their perceptions of national institutions as a heuristic when forming opinions about international institutions. This article proposes an alternative mechanism, privileging social trust as an antecedent factor contributing to both national and international legitimacy beliefs. Using original survey data on citizen attitudes toward four international institutions in three countries, the article provides evidence for social trust as an antecedent factor, while granting no support for the dominant interpretation. The article suggests three broader implications: social trust has more far-reaching consequences for international cooperation than previously understood; political efforts to affect the legitimacy of international institutions are constrained by individual predispositions; and a comparative approach is central to the study of public attitudes toward international institutions.

  • 26.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    The Business Cycle in Historical Perspective: Reconstructing Quarterly Data on Swedish GDP, 1913-20142018In: Journal of European Economic History, ISSN 0391-5115, E-ISSN 2499-8281, no 1, p. 33-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an estimation of quarterly GDP for Sweden stretchingback to 1913, using higher frequency series on manufacturing andprivate consumption as indicators and standard methods for tem-poral disaggregation from annual GDP data. Deseasonalization isperformed using JDemetra+ software. We use the Bry-Boschan al-gorithm to identify peaks and troughs, based on which we presentvarious chronologies of the business cycle in Sweden, indicating apartially new picture of the country’s economic growth over the last100 years.

  • 27.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Jacobson, TorWaldenström, Daniel
    Sveriges Riksbank and the History of Central Banking2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Written in celebration of its 350th anniversary in 2018, this book details the history of the central bank of Sweden, Sveriges Riksbank, as presented by Klas Fregert. It relates the bank's history to the development of other major central banks around the world. Chapters are written by some of the more prominent scholars in the field of monetary economics and economic history. These chapters include an analysis of the Bank of England written by Charles Goodhart; the evolution of banking in America, written by Barry Eichengreen; a first account of the People's Bank of China, written by Franklin Allen, Xian Gu, and Jun Qian; as well as a chapter about the brief but important history of the European Central Bank, written by Otmar Issing.

  • 28.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS), Sweden.
    Tarek Gad, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Assessing trade in the mercantilist era: evidence from a new database on foreign trade of Sweden – Finland, 1738–18052018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 226-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a newly constructed database on foreign trade of Sweden–Finland 1738–1805, consisting of all exports and imports that were recorded by the custom houses in this period, and is made available at www.historia.se/Swedish foreign trade 1738_1805.xlsx. The traditional view as presented by Eli Heckscher, who was very critical of the mercantilist policies of the time, was that the overseas trade of Sweden-Finland saw a trend of secular stagnation during the course of the eighteenth century. By contrast, we show that in conjunction with a substantial expansion of the population, total trade nearly increased twofold during the period of study. Despite that, there was a small decrease in the value of exports in relation to GDP, mostly explained by a drop in the relative price of bar iron. The degree of specialisation of Swedish exports saw a declining tendency in this period. While exports from Sweden had a higher degree of specialisation than Finnish exports, imported goods to Finland were more concentrated than Swedish imports. Lastly, the composition of imports did not markedly alter, meaning that a consumer revolution did not take place in either Sweden or Finland.

  • 29. Ericsson, Martin
    et al.
    Sundevall, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Rösträttsbegränsningar i den svenska demokratin - en introduktion till temat2019In: Arbetarhistoria : Meddelande från Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, ISSN 0281-7446, no 170-171, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Eriksson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Ernkvist, Mirko
    Laurell, Christofer
    Moodysson, Jerker
    Nykvist, Rasmus
    Sandström, Christian
    A revised perspective on innovation policy for renewal of mature economies: Historical evidence from finance and telecommunications in Sweden 1980–19902019In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 147, p. 152-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the role of innovation policy for accomplishing renewal of mature industries in Western economies? Drawing upon an unusually rich dataset spanning 9752 digitized archival documents, we categorize and code decisions taken by policymakers on several levels while also mapping and quantifying the strategic activities of both entrant firms and incumbent monopolists over a decade. Our data concerns two empirical cases from Sweden during the time period 1980–1990: the financial sector and the telecommunications sector. In both industries, a combination of technological and institutional upheaval came into motion during this time period which in turn fueled the revitalization of the Swedish economy in the subsequent decades. Our findings show that Swedish policymakers in both cases consistently acted in order to promote the emergence of more competition and de novo entrant firms at the expense of established monopolies. The paper quantifies and documents this process while also highlighting several enabling conditions. In conclusion, the results indicate that successful innovation policy in mature economies is largely a matter of strategically dealing with resourceful vested interest groups, alignment of expectations, and removing resistance to industrial renewal.

  • 31.
    Fedchenko, Vitaly
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. SIPRI.
    Nuclear Security in the Black Sea Region: Contested Spaces, National Capacities and Multinational Potential2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Fleischer, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Vad betyder det att musik är ”live”?2018In: Musikens makt / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Arne Jarrick, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2018, p. 217-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Fleischer, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Kullenberg, Christopher
    The Political Significance of Spotify in Sweden – Analysing the #backaspotify Campaign using Twitter Data2018In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 301-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the political significance of the streaming music company Spotify in Sweden, taking as a case a coordinated campaign in late spring 2016, known by the hashtag #backaspotify (translated as “support Spotify!”), which was mainly played out on the social media platform Twitter. The campaign is analysed using a set of data retrieved from Twitter, examining both the content and the interactions in 1,791 messages. Results show that the main political issue concerned the lack of access to rented apartments in central Stockholm, and that the main actors in the campaign were predominantly associated with public affairs consultants and the youth wings of political parties belonging to the centre-right. The campaign, however, was very short-lived and had diminished significantly already after two days. We conclude that Spotify transcends its role as a streaming music company, and additionally can be used as a point of reference in political campaigns to promote issues that are of wider scope than the music industry alone.

  • 34.
    Franzén, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Därför hade medeltiden inga boprisrallyn2018In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 6 september, p. 27-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Franzén, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Medeltida bostadsaffärer: /---/ i Stockholm 1420-16002019In: Företagshistoria, ISSN 2001-7936, no 2, p. 24-24Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tack vare bevarade jord- och tänkeböcker går det att skapa sig en god bild av hur fastighetsmarknaden utvecklades över tid i Stockholm 1420-1600.

  • 36.
    Franzén, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Söderberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hus, gårdar och gatubodar: Fastighetspriser i Stockholm och Arboga 1300–16002018In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 227-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Houses, yards and sheds: Real property prices in Stockholm and Arboga, 1300-1600

    The article explores real property prices in Swedish trading towns 1297-1600 based on c. 2900 transactions in Stockholm and the smaller town of Arboga. A consumer price index has been used to deflate nominal prices into real values. The analysis shows that houses made of both stone and wood became cheaper over time. In Isoo prices, the median price of a stone house in Stockholm was 343 Swedish marks in the period 1297-1449 compared to 184 marks in the period 1550-1600. For wooden houses the same downward trend was evident: a drop from 84 marks in the first period to 52 marks in the second period. Part of the price decline is due to the fact that building plots became smaller, which suggests an increase in population in Stockholm. Declining real wages of labourers also exerted a downward pressure on the cost of building a house. The slightly negative long-term trend in real property prices in Stockholm and Arboga, amounting to -0.3 and -0.1 percent per year, respectively, diverges from the strong decline in land prices in Eastern Sweden. This is an indication that the towns were less affected by the late medieval crisis than rural areas were. Plague outbreaks are shown to have affected real property prices in Stockholm, where prices fell during plague years, but quickly recovered afterwards. This pattern can be taken as an indication that real property prices were market prices that reacted to external shocks. The analysis also reports tentative results of real property prices as an indicator of economic inequality. The Gini coefficient for Stockholm varied between 0.55 in the period 1297-1449 to o.58 in the period 1450-1499. This is about the same level of inequality that has been calculated for Amsterdam in the mid-sixteenth century. The Gini coefficient for Arboga was also very similar to that of the Dutch towns taken as a whole. There is no clear trend in inequality over time in either Stockholm or Arboga. Finally, the article discusses trends in female ownership of real property by investigating if the position of women in the real property market deteriorated during the period of study. Female sellers of property amounted to nearly zo percent in Stockholm and Arboga, with no discernable time trend. Female property buyers were fewer, amounting to between three and six percent out of the total before 1500 and a somewhat higher percentage share in the sixteenth century.

  • 37. Geissinger, Andrea
    et al.
    Laurell, Christofer
    Sandström, Christian
    Eriksson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Nykvist, Rasmus
    Digital entrepreneurship and field conditions for institutional change: Investigating the enabling role of cities2019In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 146, p. 877-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital entrepreneurship may result in institutional turbulence and new initiatives are frequently blocked by vested interest groups who posit superior financial and relational resources. In this paper, we explore the role of cities in facilitating digital entrepreneurship and overcoming institutional resistance to innovation. Drawing upon two historical case studies of digital entrepreneurship in the city of Stockholm along with an extensive material on the sharing economy in Sweden, our results suggest that cities offer an environment that is critical for digital entrepreneurship. The economic and technological diversity of a city may provide the field conditions required for institutional change to take place and to avoid regulatory capture.

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    International reconciliation on the Internet? Ontological security, attribution and the construction of war memory narratives in Wikipedia2020In: International Relations, ISSN 0047-1178, E-ISSN 1741-2862, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the Internet’s often touted potential for facilitating reconciliation. It conceptualises Wikipedia as a site for collective memory construction and analyses the Chinese- and Japanese-language entries on the bilaterally contentious Second Sino-Japanese War. It addresses the question of how to make sense of the construction of these online collective memory narratives theoretically. Both historical determinism and instrumentalism – two influential theoretical approaches to collective memory and reconciliation – have great difficulties in fully accounting for this case. Instead, it is argued that ontological security theory is better equipped for understanding collective memory construction in Wikipedia. It is suggested that ontological security seeking can impede efforts for reconciliation even when, as in Wikipedia, there exist norms seeking to promote more neutral narratives. It is argued that a subtle bias in favour of the in-group and against the out-group functions as a mechanism for ontological security management that protects a positive self-identity.

  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    The History Problem: The Politics of War Commemoration in East Asia, by Hiro Saito. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 20162019In: Social Science Japan Journal, ISSN 1369-1465, E-ISSN 1468-2680, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 312-315Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Hagström, Linus
    Hanssen, Ulv
    Long live pacifism! Narrative power and Japan's pacifist model2019In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 502-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International relations research acknowledges that states can have different security policies but neglects the fact that 'models' may exist in the security policy realm. This article suggests that it is useful to think about models, which it argues can become examples for emulation or be undermined through narrative power. It illustrates the argument by analysing Japan's pacifism-an alternative approach to security policy which failed to become an internationally popular model and, despite serving the country well for many years, has even lost its appeal in Japan. Conventional explanations suggest that Japan's pacifist policies were 'abnormal', and that the Japanese eventually realized this. By contrast, this article argues that narratives undermined Japan's pacifism by mobilizing deep-seated beliefs about what is realistic and unrealistic in international politics, and launches a counter-narrative that could help make pacifism a more credible model in world politics.

  • 41.
    Gänssbauer, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Chinese Studies.
    Olczak, NicholasStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Of forests and humans: Hong Kong contemporary short fiction2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42. Hagström, Linus
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Narrative power: how storytelling shapes East Asian international politics2019In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 387-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are living at a time when people appear to have become more aware of the power of narratives in international politics. Understanding how narratives exercise power is therefore more pertinent than ever. This special issue develops the concept of narrative power for international relations research by focusing on East Asia-the region that has been at the centre of debates about international power shifts since the 1990s. This introduction seeks to elucidate and define four key binary distinctions: (a) narrative power as understood from the perspective of an individualist versus a narrative ontology; (b) narrative power as explanandum versus explanans; (c) narrative power as more prone to continuity or change; and (d) the scholar as a detached observer of narrative power versus the scholar as a narrative entrepreneur and a potential wielder of power. Informed by the individual contributions, the introduction demonstrates how and with what implications research on narrative power can negotiate and traverse these binary distinctions.

  • 43.
    Hammargård, Kajsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Olsson, Eva-Karin
    Explaining the European commission's strategies in times of crisis2019In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing debate over the European Commission's (hereafter, Commission) role in crises, there are few systematic explanations for the variety of actions undertaken by the Commission in times of crisis. This article outlines a heuristic device to explain the Commission's actions during crises, based on the variables 'Commission mandate' and 'member state engagement'. To this end, it examines two crisis events that affected two strategically important policy areas for European Union integration: the early stages of the financial crisis that began in 2008 and the migration following the 2011 Arab Spring. Based on analysis of these cases, this study identifies four strategies applied by the Commission: doer, follower, cooperator and recycler. Our study concludes that member state engagement and Commission mandate are important variables in explaining under which circumstances these strategies are used by the Commission.

  • 44.
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Can capital formation explain why unemployment has increased since the 1970s in the OECD countries?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests to what extent the increase of unemployment in many OECD countries since the 1970s may be explained by capital formation. Using an unbalanced macro panel dataset, this study also controls for a selection of variables pointed out by earlier research such as the unemployment replacement rate and the tax wedge. Novel contributions includes an exploration of heterogeneous correlations across countries and time, and potential interaction effects between capital formation and other explanatory variables. Results indicate that unemployment primarily can be explained by a decrease in capital formation and an increase in long-term real interest rates and the tax wedge. Results do not support interaction effects between capital formation and other variables. Results indicate that capital formation and real interest rate deserves more attention in discussions on unemployment.

  • 45.
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Empirical essays on unemployment and business cycles2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines business cycles in Sweden, and the patterns in and driving forces of short- and long-term movements in unemployment in a selection of high-income countries throughout the 20th century. While this has been studied numerous times before, this dissertation starts from the point of view that there is no consensus in social science on how to understand these phenomena. This study consists of an introductory chapter and four related but self-contained papers. One contribution of this thesis is the use of temporal disaggregation methods to estimate more detailed time series on gross domestic product (GDP) and unemployment. New quarterly estimates of GDP are then used, with the help of the Bry-Boschan algorithm, to reconstruct the Swedish business cycle in the period 1913–2014. This identifies a number of new patterns not visible in the annual data. A second contribution is different analyses of the extent to which unemployment can be explained by macroeconomic indicators such as GDP growth, capital formation and productivity. Different methods, such as band spectrum regression and wavelet analysis, are used to capture longer-term effects. Numerous results are presented that indicate that macroeconomic performance, notably capital formation, can have medium- to long-term effects on unemployment. This is in line with theoretical models on equilibrium unemployment that take account of the possibility of persistence in the return to long-run equilibrium, or models that comprise more than one unemployment equilibria. While this is not unknown in previous research, it contradicts several highly influential versions of equilibrium unemployment models, as well as a great body of research on the subject. These contributions have several important implications for future research. Historical chronologies should take account of the possibility that data of higher or lower frequency may lead to important differences in results. Empirical and theoretical research on labor markets should continue to investigate more deeply the possibility that unanticipated short-term events can have long-term effects on labor market outcomes.

  • 46.
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Testing Okun's law on different frequencies: Reconstructing monthly unemployment and GDP for Sweden 1913–2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis on the relation between unemployment and GDP, famously observed by Okun (1962). Three versions of the law is estimated, using monthly, quarterly, annual and 5-year observations for Sweden 1913–2014: the difference version (unemployment change and real GDP growth), the dynamic version with lags, and the gap version (unemployment and GDP deviations from trends). I find a robust, statistically significant, negative relation between real GDP growth and unemployment, as well as deviation from trends, but with heterogeneous results over frequencies. The difference and dynamic version of Okun's law indicate that an increase of 1 percent annual or 5-year real GDP growth coincides with a 0.1 to 0.19 percentage point decrease in the unemployment rate. Results for monthly and quarterly data are close to zero. A one percent positive deviation of GDP growth from the trend corresponds with a negative deviation for unemployment from the trend with 0.03, 0.03 and 0.09 percentage point for monthly, quarterly and annual data, respectively. Rolling regressions using 13 years of data per sub sample indicate that the correlation between GDP and unemployment is robust for annual data during most of the time period, and not statistically significant for most periods using monthly and quarterly data. The monthly data on unemployment and GDP used for the analysis is estimated through temporal disaggregation of quarterly GDP and annual unemployment.

  • 47.
    Hegelund, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Taalbi, Josef
    What determines unemployment in the long run? Band spectrum regression on ten countries 1913-2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise in unemployment since the 1980s has been predominantly understood as driven by short-term shocks and rigid labor market institutions (Blanchard and Wolfers, 2000; Layard et al., 2005), while others have pointed to 'jobless growth' and job matching (Pissarides, 2000). While most studies focus on short-run explanations, this paper presents an analysis of the long-run determinants of unemployment. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cross-country study has investigated the long-run relationship between unemployment and macroeconomic performance over a time period that stretches before the 1960s. To address this issue, we use wavelet analysis to decompose time series covering ten countries 1913-2016, into short-, medium-, and long-run variations, and band spectrum regressions on the relation between unemployment, GDP, investment, interest rate and productivity. This methodology has several advantages compared to standard econometrical methods and other tools for decomposition. Through estimations of cross-country regression models, we find strong indications that unemployment correlates negatively with the long-run components of investment. About 17 percent of overall variations and 29 percent of long-run variations in unemployment are explained by long-run variations in capital formation. In structural break models on each of the ten countries we find that capital formation explains between 43 percent and 84 percent of variations in unemployment. For most countries, long-run shifts in capital formation are associated with long-run shifts in unemployment in the opposite direction. Our analysis hence suggests the importance of understanding aggregate demand and capital formation if we wish to understand long-term labor market outcomes.

  • 48.
    Hellroth, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Vad kan en enskild forskares arkiv berätta om ekonomisk-historia vid Stockholms universitet?2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här konferenspappret presenterar ett pågående projekt som syftar till att inventera och tillgängliggöra för forskningen en enskild forskares omfattande arkiv- och boksamlingen inom ämnena ekonomisk-historia och nationalekonomi från slutet av 1960-talet till i princip dags dato. Samlingen består totalt av cirka 300 hyllmeter, varav boksamlingen utgör mer än hälften. Arbetet görs i samråd med forskarens familj och finansieras av Tore Browalds och Hedelius stiftelse vid Handelsbanken.

    På grund av samlingens omfattning är det här konferenspappret avgränsat till i första hand det arkivmaterial som rör ämnet ekonomisk historia vid Stockholms universitet. Tids- och rumsligt är det i första hand perioden mellan åren 1963 och 1982 som presenteras. Valet av år 1963 hänger samman med att hen det året hade påbörjade sin forskarutbildning nationalekonomi och ekonomisk historia i USA och som avslutades 1969 med en Ph D vid Northwestern University, Evanston Illinois. Källorna antyder att RH rekryterades till ekonom-historiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet, oklart hur, 1969 eller början av 1970 av dåvarande professorn Rolf Adamson.

    Syftet med det här konferenspappret är att peka på de olika vilka möjligheter arkiv- och boksamlingen har vad gäller ämnet ekonomisk-historiskas utveckling vid Stockholms universitet under de nämnda åren samt något om dess relation till nationalekonomi. Samlingen är spännande då delar av den kom till under period då ämnet ekonomisk-historia stod inför en stor omvandling och dess utveckling mot ett visst mål var oklart. Den kan sålunda bidra till frågan om vad ekonomisk-historia antas skulle vara för ämne under 1970-talet samt dess gränser gentemot inte minst nationalekonomi.

  • 49.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Attempting institutional change: Swedish apprenticeship, 1890-19172016In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden never got an apprentice law after apprenticeship was de-regulated in 1864. This has been attributed to unified opposition to legislation from industry employers and trade unions, with the craft employers as the only advocates. Analysing the pattern of agreement and disagreement in the political struggle over apprenticeship in the Swedish case in 1890–1917, it is clear that opposition was not that uniform, nor was the support from the craft employers that undivided. This article makes use of Kathleen Thelen’s model of institutional change in order to shed new light on the developments in Sweden. The model states that any apprentice law requires a coalition of two or more out of the state, the crafts and the metalworking industries – divided into employers and workers. Legislation, in turn, is a near requirement for the survival of strong apprenticeship. In this article the Swedish case will be discussed in relation to two of Thelen’s cases, Germany and Great Britain. In Germany an apprentice law was passed in 1897, while in Great Britain no modern apprentice law was ever passed. Similarities can be found between both of these cases and the Swedish case.

  • 50.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Mästare, idkare, arbetsgivare? Yrke, fack, klass och stånd i lärlingsfrågan i Sverige 1891-19132020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skulle eller skulle inte Sverige få en lärlingslag? Det var den huvudsakliga frågan i en debatt som kallades för lärlingsfrågan, runt sekelskiftet 1900. Liknande debatter fördes ungefär samtidigt i andra europeiska länder. Flera av dessa länder fick också lärlingslagar. I Sverige blev det dock inte någon lärlingslag. Tidigare forskning har visat att samhällsomvandlingen – framför allt arbetares och arbetsgivares organisering och industrisektorns tillväxt – påverkade lärlingsfrågans utveckling. Denna artikel tar sig an dessa aspekter i de svenska hantverksarbetsgivarnas debatt om lärlingsfrågan, år 1891–1913, i ett begreppshistoriskt bidrag till svensk yrkesutbildningshistoria. En riksdagsdebatt och två statliga lagförslag utgör jämförelsepunkter. Syftet är att fördjupa förståelsen av hur debatten om lärlingsfrågan färgades av samhällsomvandlingen genom att analysera hantverksarbetsgivarnas begreppsbruk inom partsrelationernas semantiska fält via språkbruket kring (1) yrke, fack, klass och stånd, (2) den anställande och den anställda parten i ett arbetsavtal eller lärlingsavtal, (3) vilka grupper som hantverksarbetsgivarna anser sig tillhöra och vilka de inte anser sig tillhöra. I analysen ingår även hantverksarbetsgivarnas erfarenhetsrum och förväntanshorisont eller annorlunda uttryckt deras beskrivningar av dåtid, nutid och framtid. Resultatet visar att hantverksarbetsgivarna såg lärlingslagen som en lösning på konflikten med arbetarna. Tanken var antingen att återetablera en kunskapsbaserad yrkesgemenskap och/eller att lärlingsutbildningens uppfostrande element skulle leda till minskad antagonism. I dessa lösningar var yrkesbegreppet centralt. Partsrelationerna skilde sig också åt mellan hantverk och industri, vilket återspeglas i användning av begreppen mästare, idkare och arbetsgivare. Den begreppshistoriska analysen av partsrelationernas semantiska fält samt hantverksarbetsgivarnas erfarenhetsrum och förväntanshorisont placerar in lärlingsfrågan i en bredare samhällsomvandling under en omvälvande och formativ period.

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