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  • 1.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Moral internalism: An Essay in Moral Psychology1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An ancient but central divide in moral philosophy concerns the nature of opinions about what is morally wrong or what our moral duties are. Some philosophers argue that moral motivation is internal to moral opinions: that moral opinions consist of motivational states such as desires or emotions. This has often been seen as a threat to the possibility of rational argument and justification in morals. Other philosophers argue that moral motivation is external to moral opinion: moral opinions should be seen as beliefs about moral reality, beliefs which may or may not motivate depending on whether the person holding them cares about moral matters.

    In this essay it is argued that although the traditional case for the internalist position fails, the total available evidence and methodological considerations support an internalist theory formulated in terms of a relatively rich psychological model. It is shown how such a theory can explain not only the practical character of moral opinions and their connection to moral emotions but also phenomena that have been taken to suggest an externalist picture, such as the role of inference, inconsistency, argument and explanations in moral discussion, as well as cases of amoralism and psychological disturbance. In the end, it is concluded that externalist explanations of the same phenomena are methodologically inferior for postulating a more complicated psychology.

  • 2.
    Fabellini, Antonella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    El performance en la clase ELE:: La danza, un recurso pedagógico para el desarrollo de la competencia lingüística y sociocultural.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to analyse the use of performance, particularly dance, as a useful didactic tool for the development of linguistic and sociocultural competence in the learning field of Spanish as a foreign language. This professionalizing research is carried out through a comparative analysis of the application of a didactic proposal in two different Spanish learning contexts: an academic institute in the United States and a swedish secondary school.The data, gathered through the interpretative analysis of the responses provided in questionnaires given to the students and teachers at the end of the class and also through the observation process of the sessions, evidence that dance could support the development of linguistic competence since it creates a relaxed learning environment where learners assess their language skills and moreover, generates emotions that promote the specific use of linguistic elements when interaction occurs. Besides, the results demonstrate that the choice of the kind of dance (traditional-folk dance and ethnic dance) and the authenticity of the materials made possible to further the development of cultural competence.

  • 3.
    Grönroos, Gösta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Plato on perceptual cognition2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to spell out and consider Plato' s views on perceptual cog­nition. It is argued that Plato is cornrnitted to the view that perceptual cognition can be rational, and that beliefs about the sensible world need not be confused or ill-founded. Plato' s interest in the matter arises from worries over the way in which his fore­runners and contemporaries conceived of perceptual cognition. They conceived of cognitive processes in terms of corporeal changes and attempted to explain perceptual cognition in causal terms. The problem with such accounts, according to Plato, is that they make perceptual cognition an entirely passive process, and seem incapable of accommodating the freedom of reason. Plato's main target is Protagoras' view on cognition and he accuses him of con­flating different cognitive phenomena that ought to be kept apart. More particularly, he suggests that Protagoras' 'man the measure' thesis is based on the conflation of sen se perception (aisthesis), belief (doxa) and appearing (phantasia), and that Protagoras is cornmitted to the view that beliefs are arrived at in a non-rational way. It is shown how Plato takes issue with Protagoras by disentangling these three cognitive phenomena. It is argued that Plato' s way of understanding these notions leaves room for the possibility that reason plays apart in perceptual cognition and that we arrive at beliefs in a rational way. In the course of spelling out the argument, Plato' s views on a number of topics are scrutinised: the perceptual mechanism; the objects of sense perception; perceptual content; the nature of belief; the eon trast between belief and appearing; the nation of reason.

  • 4.
    Hallström Fritz, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Vad vill du bli när du blir stor?: En undersökning av barns tankar kring sitt framtida yrkesval2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Janvid, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Naturalism and the status of epistemology2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lillsunde, Tom
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Rylander, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Vad motiverar elever i skolarbetet?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien är att få en större inblick i de faktorer som eleverna själva upplever har betydelse för deras motivation till skolarbete. I dagens skola känner sig lärare ofta maktlösa inför elever som är omotiverade och saknar lust till skolarbete. En ökad medvetenhet och förståelse för vilka motivationsfaktorer som påverkar eleverna i deras skolarbete ger lärarna fler och effektivare verktyg att stimulera eleverna. Ofta är brist på motivation situationsbunden, eleven kan mycket väl vara motiverad i andra sammanhang än skolan. Så hur kan lärarna väcka denna lust och nyfikenhet hos omotiverade elever och vilka faktorer påverkar eleverna?

    Särskilt utmanande kan det vara att försöka motivera elever i behov av särskilt stöd. De har ofta en negativ bild av skolan och sig själva som elever. Deras misslyckanden genom skolåren har ofta satt djupa spår i självkänslan. Specialpedagogerna (och skolan) har ett särskilt ansvar för dessa elever. Specialpedagogerna bör se till att lärare får tillgång till den senaste forskningen inom olika områden och de ska ha ett övergripande ansvar för synsätt, åtgärdsprogram, kompensatoriska hjälpmedel och de strategier som skolan använder för att stötta elever i behov av särskilt stöd. Att med hjälp av den motivationsforskning som finns kunna stötta lärare och elever i deras motivationsarbete är antagligen en av specialpedagogens viktigaste uppgifter.

    Denna studie bygger på en enkätundersökning med 55 årskurs 5 elever och 45 årskurs 9 elever. Dessa har svarat på frågor om vilka motivationsfaktorer som de upplever har betydelse respektive inte betydelse för deras motivation till skolarbete. Enkätfrågorna bygger på forskning om vilka motivationsfaktorer som påverkar eleverna i skolan. Genom att jämföra elevernas svar i undersökningen har vi sett vilka motivationsfaktorer som eleverna tycker har störst respektive minst betydelse för deras motivation.

    Resultatet visar att en motivationsfaktor som både pojkar och flickor i årskurs 5 och 9 svarade har betydelse är lärarens bemötande. En slutsats vi drar av detta är att lärarens förmåga att skapa goda relationer kan vara avgörande för en elevs motivation.

    En skillnad mellan flickornas och pojkarnas svar i undersökningen är att en större andel flickor svarade att delaktighet i skolarbetet var viktigt för dem.

    En skillnad mellan årskurserna är att en större andel av årskurs 9 eleverna än av årskurs 5 eleverna svarade att egen tillfredställelse (att känna sig nöjd) har betydelse för deras skolarbete.

    Nyckelord

    motivation

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