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  • 1.
    Ajagán-Lester, Luis
    Stockholm University.
    "De Andra": afrikaner i svenska pedagogiska texter (1768-1965)2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the way in which the image of the Sub-Saharan peoples is presented in the schools texts used in Sweden. The concept of ‘educational texts’ includes both used reading books and school texts for teaching geography. This study primarily concentrates on educational texts from 1768 up to 1965.

    The guiding questions of this research are as follows: What are the social factors that have contributed to shaping a certain image of Africans? What kind of messages concerning Africa may be detected in school texts? What type of emphasis can be perceived (in Africa’s discursive field)? What messages emanating from other cultural contexts have led to the elaboration of Swedish texts about Africa? How was the Swedish mental chart about Africa structured? What social identities led to the making of such texts? What type of ‘knowledge’ has been excluded from these school texts?

    The theoretical guidelines that organise this research are founded in Mikhail Bakthin’s critical discourse analysis and dialogism, the socio-semiotics approach and Raymond Williams’ notion of selective tradition. Raymond Williams’ notions of dominant culture transmission indicate that this process is characterised by selectivity of existing knowledge in a given historical period.

    The material has been classified into four periods. The first embraces the period from 1768 to 1850. It is characterised by its emphasis on the cultural differences between Africans and Europeans, who were considered sub-human and civilised, respectively. The second period - 1850 to 1920 - introduced the racial bias into the corpus of school texts. The metonymic language identifies Blacks with inferiority and Whites with superiority. During this period, school texts reproduce without criticism the colonialist’s arguments. The texts are permeated by oppositions of the type ‘we, the civilised’, ‘they, the barbarians’, ‘culture’ vs. ‘non-culture’, ‘religious’ vs. ‘pagans’, etc.

    The third period covers texts from mid-1920s till the end of the 1950s. School texts are impregnated of virulent scientific racism. Craniology and the idea of hereditary racial superiority or inferiority structure the examined texts.

    School texts of these three periods tend to monology and single-emphasis. In the early 1960’s - the last period under examination - witnesses the emergence of texts without racist contents. This period saw the appearance of books providing space for a large variety of voices and their main feature is dialogical. The stress on the difference between ‘them’ and ‘us’ gives way to the ‘similarity’ among cultures. This was the period of the gradual disappearance of such way of thinking that opposes ‘civilisation’ (us) and ‘barbarous’ (them).

    Our research indicates that the processes of selection of school knowledge play a fundamental role in cultural reproduction. The fact of having conceded a privilege position to some knowledge and disregarded others, led to the emergence - for almost 200 years - of a clear object in school discourse: the “alien-inferior-other”.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Rådjur och raketer: Gatukonst som estetisk produktion och kreativ praktik i det offentliga rummet2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse the visual expressions of Street Art that occurs in the public space, and by doing so, to study this specifi c practice, and also elucidate the relation between public space as a democratic idea, a place for freedom of speech and as a planned, aesthetically shaped place. The intention is to throw light upon a central part of many young peoples lives in a didactic aspect. In this thesis I discuss Street Art as an informal image making in public space that young people use as tools to make meaning, but also as a form of resistance. The methodologies used in the study are ethnography and visual ethnography, where observational studies of Street Art as practice, interviews and interpretation of photographs (my own, and my informants) are performed and analysed. Theoretically, the study has a didactic and semiotic approach but I also rely on Cultural Studies as a research fi eld in order to be able to pick up different kinds of theories. From three platforms; public space and public place and places for Street Art, aesthetic learning processes within this specifi c practice, and fi nally the expanded fi eld of Art and the similarities and differences between formal Art and Street Art I have outlined four themes; ephemerality, the criteria for Street Art practice, how the work is being done, as a collective and individual practice, the struggle of space in public space, and fi nally high and low in Art and culture. By describing and analysing this informal image making light is thrown upon the aesthetic learning process that occurs, the didactic aspect of this practice and the communication that the images articulate. As a result, the study shows that Street Art, in spite of its illegal mark, points out that it is an aesthetic production and a creative practice that consists of resistance, meaning making, achieving knowledge through practice, and above all a way to use the city, to become a part of the city. The thesis contributes with the suggestion that this informal aesthetic learning process is a way to form identity, make meaning, take part of public space, and through symbolic resistance demand ones rights of expression.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Lars
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Militärt ledarskap - när det gäller: svenskt militärt ledarskap med fredsfrämjande insatser i fokus2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1996 peacekeeping operations are a high priority for the Swedish Defence Forces. The experiences from these operations will influence the future military lead-ership education and training and the writing of this thesis should be regarded from that perspective. My main purpose is to examine military leadership in order to im-prove the leadership education and training within the Swedish Defence Forces. I have posed three research questions. What important steps have been taken in the develop-ment of leadership within the Swedish Defence Forces during the last century? How does this development of military leadership stand out in relation to the development in other countries? How is military leadership managed in international operations?

    This thesis begins with a survey of the leadership in the Swedish, Norwegian, American, and Israeli armies. The central part comprises studies of two Swedish bat-talions in Bosnia. The leadership in the Swedish Defence Forces has a very good repu-tation, due to the extensive reforms in educational leadership. However, as a military commander it is not sufficient to be a good and successful educator. You are also ex-pected to be able to conduct your unit in peacekeeping operations as well as at war. In general Swedish officers have not had that kind of experience, foremost due to the fact that Sweden has not been in a war for almost 200 years.

    Throughout the case studies I have used a multi-method technique, in which an im-portant part of the method was direct observation. I stayed with a UN-battalion for three months and with another battalion, which was under NATO command, for one month. In the thesis I give an inside perspective of the leadership of the battalions in Bosnia. I illustrate different leadership problems that have appeared throughout my study and describe the environment that the peacekeepers lived and worked in. In the discussion I change focus from the two case studies to the socialization process of the Swedish officers. I relate to the French sociologist Bourdieus´ theoretical concepts when I explain the role-conflict that Swedish officers are facing during international operations. The Swedish Defence College has started a programme to develop leader-ship for the twenty-first century. The biggest challenge is to deal with the general per-spective of the whole organization and its core values in relationship to the role of leadership. Other challenges are the insufficient coordination in the military leadership education and the existing communication problems between different officer groups. I wrap up the thesis with a proposal of a strategy that will help the progression of the Swedish military leadership.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Mona
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    The early childhood environment rating scale (ECERS) as a tool in evaluating and improving quality in preschools1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Author and title: Andersson Mona: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) as a Tool in Evaluating and Improving Quality in Preschools. Key words: Preschool, preschool classroom, environmental quality, consciousness, process quality, self evaluation, standardization, validity, reliability, quasi-experiment.

    This is an empirical study exploring the use of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) for the evaluation of environmental quality in preschools.

    A standardization of the ECERS to Swedish preschools has been carried out. The procedures and findings of this standardization include several tests performed to ensure that the Swedish version of the ECERS would be both valid and reliable.

    The main hypothesis in this study is that the ECERS can be used to improve environmental quality. This hypothesis was tested in a quasi-experiment. Three separate samples in different preschools were chosen: a Control group, an Information group and an Intervention group. These three groups were evaluated by an independent evaluator before and after the study. The Control group received no information about the ECERS. The Information group as well as the Intervention group received information about the possibility of using the ECERS as a means for the staff to improve quality. In addition, the Intervention group was allowed extra resources such as two hours a month for discussions concerning the results of individual evaluations made by the staff in each classroom.

    The findings showed an improvement in environmental quality, in the Information group from a mean value of 3.8 to 4.6. In the Intervention group the improvement was even more substantial, from 3.2 to 4.7 whereas the Control group showed a small improvement of 4.1 to 4.3. A statistical sign test of significance was carried out. The changes in the Control group were not significant, while the changes in the Information as well as the Intervention groups were found to be significant at the 95 percent level. It seems as if the hypothesis, that the use of the ECERS could improve environmental quality in preschools, is verified.

    In supplementary questionnaires and interviews, it was documented that preschool teachers could make better use of their potential competence as they became more conscious of it through the use of the ECERS.

  • 5.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Den levda läroplanen: en studie av naturorienterande undervisningspraktiker i grundskolan2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to develop knowledge about what students actually learn in lower secondary school science, regardless of intentions and policies. This is conceptualized as a study of the lived curriculum. During the last decades, new ways of organizing classroom work have evolved in Sweden. Students are to an increasing extent expected to take responsibility for what, when, and how they study. The aim of this thesis is therefore delimited to the study of which lived curriculum is constituted in such an individually organized science classroom practice.

    The theoretical foundation is a cultural-historical activity-theoretical perspective on human learning and development. The point of departure is that what we learn must be understood as an aspect of the activities we engage in. The research approach is ethnographic; field studies were conducted in two science classes, grades six and seven (ages 12 to 14 years old), in a Swedish midsized compulsory school during one school-year.

    The first result is that two different practices are discerned in the studied science classroom. One classroom practice is a criteria-based practice, where students work individually with local school criteria determining what students must be able to do in order to get a pass or a pass with distinction in the natural science subjects. The other classroom practice is a laboratory practice, where students do laboratory experiments and write laboratory reports. The second result is that students, in both practices, participate in different actions; either production and reproduction of correct answers or development of conceptual relations. These actions correspond in varying degrees to different motives; as a consequence, different scientific formation is made possible in the two different actions. A third result is that classroom practice supports student participation in the action of reproducing correct answers; while participation in the development of conceptual relations is a more risky and uncertain endeavour. However, there is evidence that students’ ways of participating can change, to a more qualified, as conditions for work change.

    A conclusion is that work in science classroom practice cannot, as suggested in previous research, be comprehended in terms of cultural border-crossings, between a culture of science and student cultures. Rather, work in science classroom practice must be conceptualized in terms of schooling.

  • 6.
    Arfwedson, Gerd B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Reformpedagogik och samhälle: en komparativ studie av pedagogiska reformrörelser i USA och Tyskland från 1890-talet till 1930-talet2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a comparative, text analytical and humanistic approach to the inquiry into the reform movements in education from the 1890'ies to the middle of the 1930'ies in two countries, Germany and the United States of America. The study also utilizes some newer concepts, as Foucault's concepts of 'discourse' and 'regime of truth'.

    The comparison is doublesided; it deals with both progressive or reform practice and progressive or reform theory in the two countries. Both practice and theory is (as always) embedded in a specific social and political context. The primary aim is the understanding and mapping of the reform practice and the reform theory, but a second aim is to understand them with account taken to the background of their different contextual conditions. The study will show, that there are some differences between German and American reform practices, but it will also show that the practices in the two countries are much more alike than the theories. It will be shown that the theories are more dependent of the specific historical and cultural traditions, more dependent of a national consensus and a national political basis than is practice. The whole reform movement can, from a social point of view, be understood as the educational answer to the fact of a new industrial era - from an educational point of view it can be understood as an exhange of one curriculum theory for another.

    The empirical research material, representing reform practice, consists of about a dozen or more rather long discussions of reform schools in each country. In USA these reports and descriptions come from educational researchers visiting schools and in Germany from teachers. The empirical material, representing reform theory consists of philosophical and theoretical issues and discussions among the professors of philosophy and education in each country. A starting-point for the analyses of reform practice is some curriculum principles, expressing the new educational faith in students' freedom, in manual work, and in the need for communication and community life in schools. A starting-point for the inquiry into reform theory is its background of philosohical and ideological views of society and individual, views, that are important features of the theory. During this early reform period several educational sciences were established in both countries. A main interest in this part is first the study of the very kind of sciences which were emerging in USA and Germany, second the differences between them, and third their consequences for the relation between school policy, theory and practice.

  • 7.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Upplevelser och lärande i äventyrssport och skola2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The physicality of sports and outdoor life offers great opportunities for intensive experiences – participants ”feel” the happening in their bodies. As well as looking upon physical activity mainly as something instrumental, as for example in competitive sports and exercise culture, other aspects can also be central, for instance the pure joy of movement. The existential or expressive side of physical activity is examined in this doctoral thesis.

    In order to study such experiential quality more thoroughly, the author’s attention turns to adventure sports participants, as they appear to have a capacity for becoming highly involved and seeking very intense experiences. Who is involved in adventure sports? Why are they engaged in a sport that demands such great hardships and risk-taking? What do they get out of it? The overall objective of the thesis is to shed light on adventure sports as a practice and to discuss the educational significance of flow and other experiential qualities in adventure sports and in schools.

    The analyses are based on three empirical sub-studies. The first began with a questionnaire that 161 adventure sports participants responded to. This was followed by an interview study of eleven men and three women, all of whom had extensive experience in adventure sports. The categories of sport were evenly divided between climbing, off-piste skiing and hang gliding.

    In the second sub-study a detailed investigation of climbing was carried out. A notable sportification has brought about a very clear and interesting change in parts of this activity. Six traditional/adventure climbers and six sport climbers were interviewed, of which half were men and half women. All the climbers were experienced and very much involved in their sport.

    The aim of the third sub-study was to seek an answer as to whether pupils have experiences in their daily school life that are similar to those of adventure sports participants. An ESM (Experience Sampling Method) investigation was carried out with 60 pupils in compulsory school year nine (corresponding to UK schools’ year eleven) from four different schools. The pupils’ parents answered a special parent questionnaire including questions about academic and professional backgrounds, living conditions, habits, interests, attitudes and leisure time activities.

    The results were analysed taking into consideration the phenomenological perspective and structuralistic or more correctly expressed the cultural sociological perspective. Mihály Csikszentmihályi’s theoretical argument on optimal experiences, which in turn is based on the flow concept, constitutes the phenomenological foundation. Pierre Bourdieu’s concept apparatus and theories were used to closely examine the participants’ backgrounds, life histories and current living situations.

    The study shows that a preference for adventure sports is clearly linked to the participants’ backgrounds and earlier life experiences. A behavioural pattern is incorporated and developed into an embodied capacity to master a practice, a result of a long learning process. Participants were clearly concordant in these respects. Participants emphasise the abundant opportunities for intensive experiences that arise from adventure sports. It is a matter of something multidimentional: the active body, outdoor life in natural surroundings, exacting and clear goals, total focus, and about exercising control. This approach presents a model for identification of content qualities, which together create the dynamics that form the meaningful rewards that result from participation in adventure sports. The dimensions include flow experiences, but also go beyond them.

    The deep sense of presence, the physical involvement, the fact that they can choose the path and increase the degree of difficulty themselves – and simultaneously counter this new challenge with increased capacity so that they are engaged at the ”right level” – also provide favourable conditions for a stimulating and successful learning experience.

    The observation was made that it was primarily in the practical and aesthetic subjects that school pupils had the same deep feeling of presence together with a meaningful and pleasurable holistic experience as the adventure sports participants had. Here they were actively involved with their hands or with their whole bodies, and they could make their own choices and be in control of the activity, which for most pupils led to a strong feeling of satisfaction.

  • 8.
    Beckne, Rolf
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Studieavbrott i svensk skola: en uppföljningsstudie av en årskull elever från 10-26 års ålder = [Dropouts in the Swedish school] : [a follow-up study of an age group of students from 10-26 years of age]1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By questionnaires and interviews the reasons or causes of the dropping out have been investigated. The causes of dropout consists of a variety or a pattern of factors. Many reasons should be considered symptoms rather than real causes. The reasons are different in different grades. The earlier the dropout happens more patterns of psychological, social and academic failure and disengagement are observed. So-called school fatigue is a frequent concept in the students vocabulary. This concept is analysed.

  • 9.
    Bjuremark, Anna
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Att styra i namn av akademisk kollegialitet2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study can in greater detail be described as makingan analysis of the role of knowledge, as well as the assumptions inscribedin knowledge, in the practices of governing academic subjects liketeachers and researchers. The point of departure is the new concepts of theinteraction between individual freedoms and social norms that emergedrecently in the context of the political governance of higher education(Management). The study also includes genealogical analyses of how thenew forms of governance are related to historical imaginaries of the Academy(past times), and how such historical material is reproduced and operatesin today’s Swedish University settings.

    The historical material consists of texts regarding the history of theUniversity, public material such as official reports of the State (SOU) andgovernment bills and it also includes reports from a national symposium onthe university in the middle of the 1980’s.

    The empirical material consists of an impressionistic ethnographic fieldstudy from 10 meetings of the deans’ council in the second part of1998 (Study 1), 27 in depth interviews; 10 interviews with deans (Study 2),11 interviews with the members of the university board and finally 4 interviewswith external informants (Study 3).

    The theoretical guidelines, along which this research is organised,are based on Michel Foucault´s notion of gouvernmentalité (governmentality),Nikolas Rose’s reflections regarding the emergence of new liberalrationalities of governing (advanced liberalism) and Judith Butler’s poststructuralfeminist perspective. This theoretical framework is used as apoint of departure to study how power and governance operate in thepractices of the deans’ council; how the assumptions and concepts of thedeans are inscribed in those practices where power and governance areexercised; how the deans construct themselves and each other and finallyhow the construction of identities in those practices are related to the forcesof power that operate inside and outside the university setting.

    The self-governing practices of the deans’ council, that are part ofthe university’s governance policy, are understood by the actors as a movementtowards increased autonomy. A closer scrutiny of those practices,however, reveals that the new management discourse governs the practicesfrom behind, as it were. The activities of the university, it seems, arenow directed towards the aim of realizing the future needs of manpower insociety, preferably within the technological, scientific and medical sector.In order to ensure oneself about efficiency and quality, the previous confidencesystem is replaced by a quality follow-up (quality control) systemwith the starting point in an economic administrative thinking.

  • 10.
    Blomdahl, Eva
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Teknik i skolan: en studie av teknikundervisning för yngre skolbarn2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to find out how technology as a school subject is formed into pedagogical action. Issues addressed are:

    – How does teaching in the school subject of technology differ in terms of content and process?

    – How do frame factors influence teaching in technology?

    As analytic tools, concepts from philosophical thought on technology and education as well as frame factor theory are used to throw light on the way technology education takes shape in the practices of two primary school teachers. The philosophical concepts employed and developed have been inspired by the thinking of Martin Heidegger and John Dewey. These con-cepts are “place” and “shaping of technology,” where the shaping of tech-no¬logy involves the following phases: formulation of the assignment, analysis, visualization/construction and evaluation/reflection.

    The basic questions are investigated in two case studies over a period of one year. Data is collected based on ethnographic methods and consists of observations, video recordings, documentation in the form of teachers’ diaries as well as pupils’ work, taped interviews with pupils, and interviews with the two teachers both before and after the project was finished.

    The overall results of the study show that the two teachers, to a different degree, use place, e.g. they try to use the children’s own experiences and the surrounding environment as a starting point in their teaching. They try to organize their teaching as a process of knowledge construction instead of as a process of transmission. In that process, different forms of represen¬tation are used, such as sketches, model constructions and written docu¬mentation, with the element of model construction providing a common denominator given the availability of tools and material. Another similarity between the practices is that the children are given opportunities to work at problem solving in cases where there are no given solutions. However, they enter problems due to their own embodiment in a pedagogy of transmission, which results in the fact that the shaping of technology becomes difficult to organize. Strict borders between subjects, the fragmented timetable of the school, and the organization of the classroom space and scarce equipment and materials all influence the possibilities of teaching in technology.

  • 11.
    Blommé, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Islam och folkmaktens gränser.: En undersöknning av Sayyid Qutbs, Mawlana Mawdudis och Ali Shariatis teologiska uppfattningar.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    English abstract

    Title: Islam and the limitations of the public will of choice.

    The purpose of this paper have been to investigate how three modern Islamic theorists view the limitations of the public free will of choice based upon their interpretation of the Islamic theology and doctrine.

    The paper focuses to highlight how all three chosen Islamic theorist interpret the Islamic doctrine based upon my elected theses and more specifically pinpoint were the free will of choice ends, and Islam as a religion starts to take hegemony. The paper’s aim is to further an understanding that in the modern world and as a effect of increased literacy, Islam has been somewhat inclined to split into several Islamisms, based upon the variety of fatwa’s on the Islamic doctrine that is available online. Therefore it remains to the modern day Muslim, to individually decide whether they choose to follow the message of the Holy revelation in the Quran or trust a mufti’s fatwa in their everyday life as a Muslim.

    The material used and analyzed in this paper is prime source material. That has been written by my chosen theorists themselves and this prime source material, form the core of their interpretation of Islamic theology which I have used trying answer my theses.

    The conclusions drawn from this paper is that all three theorists share three concepts of the Islamic doctrine and that is the need for tawhid, idjtihad, theology and the umma to form a ample and righteous life in modern day Islam. During the course of the paper it has become evident that the theorist Qutb and Mawdudi do share the doctrine of Islam as the natural religion of the world and that violence can be justified to bring the believers together under Muslim doctrine and rule, therefore limiting the public will of choice based upon their interpretation of Islamic theology.      

     

  • 12.
    Boström, Agneta
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication(LHS).
    Sharing lived experience: How upper secondary school chemistry teachers and students use narratives to make chemistry more meaningful 2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation concerns the place of teachers’ and students’ narratives in making school chemistry more meaningful to students. The material was collected at upper secondary school courses and consists of interviews with six experienced chemistry teachers, five adult students attending evening classes and six younger students. The methodological and theoretical approach is mainly inspired by John Dewey’s (1925, 1938) notion of continuity and by narrative inquiry as formulated by Clandinin & Connelly (2000). In defining narratives as a way of knowing, Bruner’s (1996, 2002) distinction between paradigmatic and narrative cognition is used, as well as his ideas about the past, the present and the possible.

    The findings show how teachers use narratives from their own lived experience as well as from other people’s lives in order to make chemistry more meaningful. Moreover, they use a narrative format to make their scientific explanations meaningful. Students use narratives or stories connected to their own lived experience to make sense of chemistry. These results show how chemistry can be made part of a meaningful context through sharing lived experience by means of storytelling. Narratives are used to make everyday life and chemistry class experiences continuous in the sense suggested by Dewey (1938). In accordance with his thoughts on experience, narratives are of help in the science classroom not only in making science more relevant and interesting, but also easier to understand. In the dissertation numerous examples of such stories are given and their role in learning chemistry is discussed.

    The stories of the teachers and students in the study are retold and analysed according to additional analytic tools in order to further document their role in teaching chemistry. It is argued that the collected narratives constitute an ingredient in teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, PCK, according to Shulman (1986). How they can be used in different content areas of science and chemistry is discussed. The content of the narratives is also related to the Swedish curriculum, to the findings of the ROSE project and to Roberts’s (1982) knowledge emphases. The content analyses show that narratives make chemistry in class pluralistic in allowing the lived experiences of teachers and students to interact with the scientific facts.

    The final discussion concerning narrative inquiry is inspired by what Clandinin & Connelly (2000) wrote about “clashes at the boundaries”. The specific boundary in this dissertation is situated between canonical science teaching methods on the one hand and the use of narratives in teaching and narrative inquiry as research method on the other hand. Reductionism alone cannot explain nature and the complexity of life (Dewey 1925, 1938 and Midgley 2004), and the results of this dissertation show that narratives are used by both students and teachers in order to make sense of chemistry. Narratives constitute a way to make the reductionist knowing of science part of a more meaningful whole in accordance with Dewey’s holistic ideas about education.

    The results of this study suggest that teaching narratives can – and should – be used in science as a complement to other, more scientifically oriented educational methods. Thus, it supports many of the efforts made within context-based approaches, such as Case Studies, LCP (Large Context Problems), PBL (Problem-Based Learning), the Salter’s method and the Storyline method. Further implications of the results for teaching, learning, teacher education and research are explored.

  • 13.
    Bronäs, Agneta
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Demokratins ansikte: en jämförande studie av demokratibilder i tyska och svenska samhällskunskapsböcker för gymnasiet2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to compare German and Swedish textbooks in socialscience focused on how democracy takes form in the text. What kind ofrepresentations appears through texts and illustrations? What is said and how is itsaid? What is emphasized? What is excluded? How does the text present differentconcepts and relate them to democracy? The study also focuses on how knowledgeand learning is described and to whom the text is addressed.This dissertation has a semiotic-didactic perspective based on the dialogicalprinciple that emanates from Bakhtin’s theoretical perspective and Bakhtin’sthoughts of how to analyze texts.The empirical material consists of textbooks in social science, published since 1950.The study is restricted to books written for upper secondary school and books havebeen selected to achieve variation in the descriptions of democracy.The analysis has focused on themes and concepts appearing in the textbooks.Different themes appearing in the text are the basis for the creation of a time-line.Four different periods have been found in each country, but the division of time isslightly different.The dominant themes in German textbooks are “the good and the evil”, “thegood and bad democracy”, “action groups – to be or not to be” and “unity oreminance”. There is more than one theme in Swedish textbooks, but the mostdominant themes are “governing and obedience”, “governing and autonomy”, “theautonomous citizen”, and “governing or empowerment”.There are many representations of democracy in the textbooks and most of therepresentations are vague and full of contradictions. Some of the images evencontradict the official image of democracy. Citizens in German textbooks aredescribed as active, autonomous and responsible, but the only way to influencepoliticians is through participation in elections. Citizens described in Swedishtextbooks are portrayed as passive, ignorant and irresponsible, except when voting.The dominant view of knowledge and learning is reproductive. Knowledge isportrayed as monological and the students are expected to learn some basics facts,without being able to reflect and deliberate on issues. However, texts can be openand create opportunities for students to reflect and take a stance on their own. Anopen and dialogical text is more common in German textbooks than in Swedishtextbooks.

  • 14.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Spår: Om brädsportkultur, informella lärprocesser och identitet2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society is subject to an increased importance of aesthetics and an increasing individualism. New trends are adopted early by young people, which make it interesting to focus on how identity is formed and meanings are constructed in a youth culture context and in relation to ongoing societal processes of change.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to interpret and analyse the construction of meaning within the skateboard and snowboard communities in the social and cultural contexts. In particular, this dissertation is about the relationship between three levels, cultural, practice and individual. The title “Traces” alludes to four analytical themes taking different tracks in the book; consumption, gender, place and identity that are reflected in different chapters. However, the individual leaves traces in culture as culture does in the individual. Furthermore, skaters and snowboarders leave actual tracks in their local geography.

    Theoretically the study has a culture analysis approach with a semiotic base where five theories are intertwined. Johan Fornäs contributes with his interpretation on culture as system of signs and signifying practices, Stuart Hall adds the concept of representations, Kirsten Drotner provides her argumentation regarding aesthetic practices whilst Ulf Hannerz enriches the dissertation with his discussion on transnational culture-flows and the social diffusion of culture. Roger Säljö proposes a socio-cultural perspective of learning where learning is about participation in knowledge and skills. The method used is ethnographical. The multifaceted empirical material, from field studies and interviews, Swedish skateboard and snowboard magazines between 1978 to 2002, skateboard and snowboard videos, press articles, and websites, has been triangulated. In addition, there are three personal albums of skateboarder, snowboarder and surfer Ants Neo.

    The study shows that there are stereotyped notions about what boarding means and what it means to be a boarder. These notions both create and are created by the boarders themselves but are also used by advertisers for products not related to board sports at all. These notions, based as they are on ideas of resistance and radicalism, serve to emphasise that boarding is masculine. Resistance takes concrete form in its attitude to organized sports and to multinational brands and in the unusual use of places in the urban environment. To be a boarder is, apart form the boarding skills required, to be also part and parcel of these attitudes.

    The study explains how meaning and identity are created through informal learning processes in youth culture contexts. In these group-forming processes, both the individual and the community are formulated in social, cultural and aesthetic terms.

  • 15.
    Cardell, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Trenätsmodellen: ett systemteoretiskt redskap för att beskriva helhet och komplexitet i pedagogisk praktik : exemplet värnpliktsutbildning2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On an empiristic level this dissertation is about military training of conscripts. Etnographic research at two units showed manifoldness and complexity, order and chaos, ideas and processes. The aim of the dissertation is to produce a theoretical tool to handle all this. The starting point is the idea of the General System Theory that terms referring to systems may be transferred from one theoretic field or level to another. Following this idea resulted in a set of terms emergence, feedback, homeostasis, and coding.

    Using such terms in describing educational, e.g. subsystem, self-(re)organization, practice gives a rough description since the terms do not reflect all patterns typical of educational practice. The remedy was to create new adequate terms. Such work gave a set of terms called the Triple Network Model (TNM). This name relates to three aspects of reality: complexes, intentions and processes, here represented by the terms networks of needs, of strategies and of causes. Strategies originates from ideas called strategens; a strategenom is a set of strategens and may be seen as a verbal vision. The strategens reflect the teacher’s ideas about what is needed; a network of strategies reflects a network of needs. A teacher uses both co-ordinated and concurrent strategies. Needs of systems of subsystems give a network of needs that may produce rational and emotional motivation in a network of motivation. Initial and reflexive activities produce disorder, self-(re)organisation, causal spirals and circles.

    In a network of causes you find not only the teachers’ strategic thinking and acting but also their personal needs etc. There may be conflicts between needs of individuals, overlapping and conducting systems. The TNM-analysis of the military units showed not only relations between needs, ideas, actions, processes, order and chaos, but also that TNM is an adequate and fruitful theoretical tool for such an analysis. 

  • 16.
    Carlsson, Carl-Gustaf
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Ungdomars möte med yrkesutbildning: en jämförelse mellan ungdomar i kommunal och företagsförlagd gymnasieutbildning2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose in this thesis was to study young persons and their encounter with vocational education and training as related to industrial work. Another was to compare the situation for these persons in two school organizations, a municipal upper secondary school and an industrial upper secondary school situated within a private company.

    The approach was to investigate the interplay in vocational training between the teacher's arrangement of the teaching and the student's view of this situation. The study was analysed using a theoretical model designed to focus on the interaction between student prerequisites and experiences and teacher and school influences.

    Data was collected from one class at a municipal upper secondary school and another class at an industrial upper secondary school that were followed for three years during their vocational education. The result has been analysed by interviews with teachers and students, student marks, student questionnaire and observa-tions of education.

    The students had started their industrial training with differing experien-ces. The common factor was an interest in technology. At the beginning of their education a marked difference was noted in the students' self-confi-dence, mainly between the groups in the two school organizations. The stu-dents in the company-based school showed considerably more self-confi-dence than those in the municipal school.

    The students can be divided into those who are theory-oriented and practice-oriented respectively. The former group had great confidence in theoretical explanations and seldom questioned these, carefully following instructions. The practice-oriented group used a more questioning and examining way of learning.

    The students at the municipal upper secondary school have difficulties in adjusting to educational situations, which they cannot see the use of, espe-cially those students who are practice-oriented. At the industrial upper secondary school, which has a more restricted educational process, the students adjust to the situations.

  • 17.
    Emsheimer, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärarstudenten som subjekt och objekt: kritiskt tänkande och disciplinering i lärarutbildning2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation poses the problem of control in teacher training. Control is defined as a process in which someone wants someone else to adapt to a specific model of knowledge, to thought patterns, social relationships, and obedience. The main question is:

    How is control performed in teacher education and what is the relationship between control and exploration?

    The purpose is to expose problems in teacher training that are related to forming and controlling student teachers, vs encouraging exploration and experimentation and studying how students critical thinking is developed. Data in this dissertation were gathered from interviews with 13 students participating in teacher education. The theorization based on the empirical study is made after the presentation of the material. A hermeneutical approach was used to interpret the interviews.

    Results are reported in eight chapters in which the interviewees' statements are categorized according to themes. The categories are based on the authors' understanding of the statements in the material. Among other things, students report that they rarely have opportunities to discuss two or more opposing viewpoints that are presented at the same time and with equal importance. Differences between teachers are neglected and sometimes hidden, which will make critical examination more difficult. Interviewees also report that there are small possibilities to work with own experiences from their practice in schools. The education is often perceived as fragmented. Moreover, modeling as a working principle in teacher education is discussed. It can encourage critical discussions if the model is used as something to examine but if it is presented as the only one it can lead to imitative learning. However, the interviewees perceive the education as an uplifting life experience which has forced them to exceed their previous capacities. It has also played an important role in the development of their thinking.

    The theoretical part is focused upon seeking answers on mainly existential issues, in order to highlight the theoretical possibilities of free and critical thinking. The questions of human freedom, tradition and possibilities to break traditions are discussed. Another question is the disadvantages and advantages of taking into consideration learners previous experiences. In an interpretation of Deweys' educational philosophy, the fundamental character of reflection and its consequences for critical thinking in education is examined.

    The concluding discussion emphasizes the necessity for education to be open to allow and encourage students' testing of arguments. Only on the basis of what is explicit and in a variety of alternating models it is possible to make a personal choice and develop critical thinking.

  • 18.
    Englund, Boel
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Skolans tal om litteratur: Om gymnasieskolans litteraturstudium och dess plats i ett kulturellt återskapande med utgångspunkt i en jämförelse av texter för litteraturundervisning i Sverige och Frankrike1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the main study literary anthologies and textbooks used in the mother tongue subjects at upper secondary schools in Sweden and France around 1920 and 1980 are analysed with reference to the conception of literature-what counts as literature and why-and the proposed way of studying literary texts. Conclusions are drawn as to the potential functions of the study of literature, the character of the literary studies and their place in a process of cultural re-production. In the second part of the thesis, the results from the main study are used as a starting-point for an analysis where the characteristics of the different discourses on literature are connected to the educational institution and society. In the case of France, the roots of these characteristics are sought in the very long tradition of an education of the mind of the French secondary school. The results from the study may be summarized as follows:

    • The discourse on literature of the school is understandable above all as part of a cultural re-production which concerns other things than literature; as an element of broader social control.
    • This discourse has undergone great changes in Sweden during the period of study, but not in France, although the transformation of the economic structure in both countries and the increase in the fraction of a generation attending upper secondary school are much the same. One possible part of an explanation is a difference in the social anchorage of the state; another that the French study of literature has all the time represented a socially valid discourse.
    • In France, the conception of literary texts and the way of approaching them, in the second half of the 20th century-according to textbooks accepted by the educational institution-still bore the mark of a tradition which is that of the education of the mind. This conception of texts, and this way of treating them, are such that there seems to have been question of a cultural reproduction in the strong sense, a reproduction of mental structures.
  • 19.
    Engström, Lil
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Möjligheter till lärande i matematik: Lärares problemformuleringar och dynamisk programvara2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the first Swedish empirical evidence on how teachers employ a dynamic mathematical software when teaching mathematics in upper secondary school. The study examines: a) How teachers formulate mathematical problems? b) How they use the experience the students have gained? and c) What use they make of the software’s potential? These questions are examined through classroom observations followed up by discussions with the teachers.

    The study comprises three teachers and shows that they have very different mathematical experiences and teaching skills. A questionnaire was sent to the teachers prior to the classroom visits to collect relevant background information; e.g., the teachers were asked to describe their teacher training, their view of mathematics and of how a dynamic software could contribute to their teaching.

    The results show that the teachers’ ability to pose thought-provoking openended problems is the most important factor as it significantly influences what the students learn. The way a mathematical problem is formulated could, in conjunction with a dynamic software, actually limit the students’ achievement.

    However, this study confirms that it could also provide an opportunity for students to discover new mathematical relations, draw conclusions, generalise and formulate hypotheses. This could in turn lead to an in formally proving a mathematical relation. A conclusion of the study is that to be successful, teachers need a good mathematical background with a firm knowledge base and an understanding of the software’s potential, but they also need the skill to formulate open-ended problems that will enable their students to work successfully with a dynamic mathematical software.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Göta
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Tidig aritmetisk kunskapsbildning: Ett radikalkonstruktivistiskt perspektiv2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From a Radical Constructivist (RC) perspective this thesis deals with children’s construction of early arithmetic learning as an evolving process through the cognitive system of self-regulation and self-organising. Thus the child’s learning must guide teaching. RC views early arithmetic as verbal and preceding the system of written arithmetic.

    The purpose in my thesis is to build hypothetical models of the child’s conceptual progression, in the case of four fundamental rules of arithmetic, and thereby construct the ontogenesis of arithmetic. The material for this is documentations of longitudinal research of the child’s arithmetic carried out over a lot of years and with different children within the RC paradigm. Through analysing about 250 transcriptions from video recordings, included in my material, I construct what concept is lying behind the child’s counting activity, when it solves problems with its counting scheme. Following children’s progression longitudinally, I could make my hypothesis of the child’s knowledge viable.

    In short, my results show that the child gives through five counting schemes qualitatively changeable meanings to numbers. It begins with perceptual and figurative collections in two pre-numerical counting schemes. In the three subsequent numerical schemes the significations of numbers are a numerical composite, an abstract composite unit and an iterable unit of one.

    The models provide the discipline of special education a starting point for didactical decisions how to assess and influence the child’s early arithmetic learning. Research is needed to document the children’s progression in the course of schooling in order to elaborate or modify the models. This theoretical perspective makes both teaching and researching viable through longitudinal approaches. Further, it highlights the need to bring research into the practice of education.

  • 21.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    De små konstruktörerna: flickor och pojkar om kvinnligt och manligt i relation till kropp, idrott, familj och arbete2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Fellenius, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Reading acquisition in pupils with visual impairments in mainstream education1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on five empirical studies of pupils with visual impairments, their reading ability and processes of reading acquisition within the framework of mainstream education in comprehensive schools. The aim of the thesis is to increase our understanding and knowledge of reading acquisition in pupils with visual impairments in mainstream education. A further aim is to find factors, which influence reading acquisition from an individual, as well as an environmental, perspective. Developmental theories regarding the individuals' possibilities to acquire an optimal development in interaction with their environment offer a theoretical framework for the thesis.

    Different research designs, descriptive and explorative, have been used to fulfil the purpose. The studies have revealed a heterogeneous group of readers with visual impairments bearing in mind functional visual ability, reading media (print and braille) and reading ability. As a result of these studies, it was possible to divide the readers into three groups with regard to reading performance. About one quarter of the population was average or high achievers, another quarter extremely low achievers, irrespective of visual acuity, reading media or reading devices. In most cases, additional impairments, intellectual impairment or language problems caused low achievement. The largest group, about half of the population, consisted of readers who were able to read but demonstrated difficulties in other ways. Visual acuity and reading media varied greatly in this group. There were uncertain readers, readers with low reading rate but good comprehension, readers with less stamina and readers who did not use their reading ability except for schoolwork. The pupils were well equipped with optical devices, lighting and special desks but seldom used the facilities for reading. In general, the pupils with visual impairments read less compared with their sighted peers. Nor were they exposed to text in natural situations in society, which decrease their incidental reading training. Consequently, a large group of readers with visual impairments need an adapted reading program in order to stimulate reading from the start and to use their potential ability. Competence in the school and home environment is necessary for compensating lack of training and preventing the visual impairment being the reason for reading difficulties.

    Reading disabilities due to biological factors were significant for a smaller group. Visual impairment as a reading handicap is, in this thesis, identified when a person, able to read, does not have access to the text in an appropriate reading medium or format, reading and writing tools are missing or reading must be performed in a badly adapted environment. Increased knowledge and effective environmental measures could reduce a reading handicap caused by a visual impairment for a larger group of children and young people.

  • 23.
    Flodin, Ann-Mari
    Stockholm University.
    Sångskatten som socialt minne: en pedagogisk studie av en samling skolsånger1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an attempt to study a treasury of songs compiled by the students of the Swedish teacher training colleges in 1941. The students answered a questionnaire from a primary school teacher in southernmost Sweden, sent out to all the teacher training colleges. The question was: which (school) songs did they remember from the time before they entered their colleges. Their answers, lists of song titles written by hand, are the main focus of my work. Among the 90,000 songs there are around 240 that most of the students had in common. A special study of these songs and, in particular, the songs written by the students of the teacher training college in Stockholm make up the principal part of the thesis. In the analysis of the material I have categorized the songs, first into 17 categories and later into four main ones: Nature, Relationships, Time and Territory. These four concepts represented powerful metaphors to the students. The core songs are most often short, written in a major key and in four-fourths time.

    Theories on collective memory and social memory, used by Maurice Halbwachs, and theories of cultural reproduction constitute the main theoretical frames of reference of how a treasury of songs is created and preserved for the future. The role of social memory in the interpretation and reconstruction of the past is investigated.

    The first part of my study is concentrated on which song titles the students had on their lists and how their memories had functioned as a form of social memory. In the second part my principal interest is the songs themselves: what did they look like, how could they be categorized, and what symbols were used? The third part of my work is taken up by the analysis of which factors had influenced the students' choice of songs. What seemed to have a special effect on them was the fact that they were studying to become school teachers. Social memory in the form of strong traditions were active in the teacher training college.

  • 24.
    Forsslund, Titti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Frisk och stark med skolradion: Pedagogik och retorik i hälsoprogram 1930-19592002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the history of the Swedish School Radio Broadcasting service from its start in the end of the 1920s through the 1950s. The focus of the research is radio programmes for health education. These are studied from a rhetorical point of view and a gender perspective, complemented by Mikhail Bakhtin’s notion of responsive understanding.

    The aim of the study is to investigate changes of the rhetorical and pedagogical strategies used in these early multimedia packages, which consisted of radio programmes and booklets with pictures and text. An in-depth study of one programme and the accompanying booklet has been carried out for each decade; the 1930s, the 1940s and the 1950s. The continuing programmes in the series as well as other programmes on health education are also studied, but in less detail.

    The results show that the rhetoric, the pedagogy and the subjects of the health programmes changed due to changing programme presenters, Sweden’s war preparedness, the growth of the welfare state and the extension of health education as a subject in the national curriculum in 1955.

    The School Radio doctor in 1930-34 presented biological facts and new research findings about health-related subjects in lectures, as background knowledge for the young listeners to use in their learning about health. The listeners’ responsive understanding, their experiences of success or difficulties in implementing new ideas were presented in follow-up-programmes based on children’s letters. This acknowledged children as potential voices and actors in the modernisation process.

    In the 1940s the focus of the health radio programmes was more on obedience to rules for healthy behaviour. The programme series developed with increased professionalism including inserted drama scenes, interviews and songs. The programmes’ rhetoric and pedagogy continued to be authoritative and reproductive.

    The multitude of health programmes in the 1950s make a mix of authoritative and dialogic pedagogy. The subjects shifted towards psychology and social science and the controversial subject of sexual education. Radio plays as well as reportage from modern social health services offered new ingredients for indirect learning. Listeners were given opportunities to shape their own listening ethos, which is assumed to enhance listeners’ internally persuasive learning.

    While both girls and boys were represented as good models in the 1930s, girls were later marginalized, and most of the programmes represented boys.

  • 25.
    Fransson, Göran
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Att se varandra i handling: En jämförande studie av kommunikativa arenor och yrkesblivande för nyblivna fänrikar och lärare2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to describe and analyse the process of professionalisation of newly commissioned second lieutenants and newly qualified school teachers. The professionalisation of these two occupational categories is examined from a comparative perspective and concentrates on the communicative conditions and institutional arenas that affect the professionalisation process.

    The theoretical framework of the thesis is comprised of communication theory and concepts of sense making found in institutional theory models. The empirical data was collected during the first year after second lieutenants received their officer’s commissions and teachers received their teaching credentials. Four second lieutenants and four teachers were interviewed three times during their first year of professional service. Some observations are also included in the thesis.

    The dissertation’s main conclusions are connected, in part, to issues of transparency in communicative conditions and, in part, to incentives connected to supervision, support and control. On the one hand, the commissioned officers’ and one of the teacher’s process of sensemaking appeared visible and collective in character, where the rules of conduct and meaning emerge clearly without ambiguity. On the other hand, the majority of the certified teachers’ process of sense making appeared private, concealed, inaccessible and diverse in character.

    It was observed that incentives for supervision, support and control are strong among commissioned officers because they are directly dependent on each other’s work. The same incentives are weaker among certified teachers because they are not as dependent on each other’s work. One conclusion to draw from this difference is that the professionalisation of commissioned officers is collective-oriented while the professionalisation of certified teachers is less so.

  • 26.
    Frisch, Tove
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Fågel, fisk eller förundran?: En studie av förhållningssätt i existentiella frågor, baserad på uppsatser skrivna på ett mångkulturellt vuxengymnasium2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fågel, fisk eller förundran? A study of existential attitudes based on essays written in a multicultural upper secondary school for adults

    The aim of this study is to survey and interpret outlooks on life as expressed in 175 essays written (1999-2001) in a multicultural Swedish suburb by adult students learning Swedish, Swedish as a Foreign Language, and Philosophy. What are the recurring themes in these essays? How do they reflect the fundamental existential problems of their authors?

    The theoretical background rests on existential hermeneutics with Sartre (1943, 1946, 1984) as the most important philosophical source. Other sources are Ödman (1994) and Hellesnes (1989, 2000).

    All-pervading themes are: God, Meaning of Life, Death, and The Soul. The various ways in which students describe their reflections are gathered in 11 categories on the subject of God, 13 on The Meaning of Life, and 9 on Death.

    I examine expressions which come across as "extreme" ("existentialism", "determinism", "reason", and "emotion"). Most students, however, express contradictory views. I am, therefore, mainly concerned with contradiction, searching and testing different ideas. Active and passive strategies come to the fore in conflicts between experienced or imagined obstacles and the urge to develop.

    I also seek to view the essays from a stricter Sartrian perspective, as opposed to the Sartrian-flavoured one in the earlier parts of the study. For this purpose, I rely on Sartre´s phenomenological ontology (1943), his thoughts on freedom and facticity, and other concepts, e.g. anguish.

    The ontological conflict is examined from a broader perspective, viewing the texts in a socio-cultural context in which identity, religion, and language play important parts.

    Finally, I discuss my results and try to state the ways in which my former understanding has changed and the surprises I have had.

  • 27.
    Gars, Christina
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Delad vårdnad?: föräldraskap och förskolläraruppgift i den offentliga barndomen2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Geijer, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Samtal för samverkan: En studie av transprofessionell kommunikation och kompetensutveckling om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis is to study whether and how professionals from such different areas as medicine, preschool and school develop and reorganize, through inter-disciplinary focus group discussions, their competence regarding reading-and-writing difficulties/dyslexia.

    The theoretical framework is based on sociocultural theory of mediated action, focusing on notions such as alterity, intersubjectivity, dialogicality, mastery, appropriation, practical consciousness and discursive consciousness.

    The data consists of participant field observations, seven individual interviews and fifteen focus group interviews, as well as narratives and written documents concerning collaboration between pre-schools and schools. The method relates to ethnographic and action research.

    The data is collected over three years. The interviews are audio-recorded and transcribed as close to oral language as possible.

    The data is analysed with regard to alterity, intersubjectivity, dialogicality, mastery and appropriation, and with regard to professional languages, professional boundaries and domains of responsibility as well as competencies.

    The results from the individual interviews show that each participant’s conception of dyslexia is closely attached to her or his own field of pracitice. The focus group results show that, over time, the participants changed their conception of dyslexia, and their way of communicating about dyslexia. And, that they thereby deepened their competence on the issue.

    The written documents show a similar development during the focus group discussions. From hastily scrawled notes they developed into computerised, and well-structured plans of actions for supporting children of special needs. Both the spoken and written data show that inter-disciplinary co-operation leads to the development of inter-disciplinary competence, and a change in organising reading and writing for children of preschool and school.

  • 29.
    Germeten, Sidsel
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Grenser for undervisning?: frihet og kontroll i 6-åringenes klasserom2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gleichmann, Lee
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Föräldraskap mellan styrning och samhällsomvandling: En studie av syn på föräldrar och relation mellan familj och samhälle under perioden 1957-19972004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study sought to illustrate how the way parents were viewed was expressed, and how it developed between 1957 and 1997, as seen from child-health-care recordcard material, a professional journal and public reports on instruction for parents. The study also describes and analyses the relationship between family and society during the same period. The starting point is the state´s intention to strengthen the social standing of children and support their parents in their task of upbringing. The material reveals a line of development in which during the first twenty years, parents were viewed with a certain distrust. The family was portrayed as a partly dangerous isolate while parents were described in long paragraphs as less than fully knowledgeable and aware, and in need of expert guidance. Hence attempts were made to usher the parents and their child onto the lighted stage of public concern. A generally directed parental training scheme run by the community was considered necessary and was, moreover, expected to be able to fashion the parents into more social-politically committed citizens. The goal was ultimately to promote democracy and equality. Hope lay in the inherent development potential parents are nevertheless considered to possess, and in the collective upbringing provided by public child care in pedagogically stimulating surroundings. From the end of the 1970s till the last year of the 1990s the perspective shifted toward greater reliance on parental competence. At the same time national control changed towards more decentralisation, which also affected the relation between family and society. Towards the end of the period under study parents were being viewed as adult and competent. Respect for parental autonomy and freedom of choice were now at the focal point of the state view. Parents had become customers in a market much reflecting the urge towards globalisation then making itself felt. The responsibility for support to parents shifted out to the local community which, through local mobilisation, was expected to be available with support and resources when parents themselves so wished. Instead of being governed by the state, parents, through selfgovernance, were to be responsible for choise of life-style, pre-school and school alike. Their task was, in harmony with the local community surrounding them and with the UN children´s convention, to act in their child´s best interests.

  • 31.
    Gougoulakis, Petros
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Studiecirkeln: Livslångt lärande - på svenska!: En icke-formell mötesplats för samtal och bildning för alla2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is a study of a pedagogical phenomenon; an account of one of the flagships of Swedish popular education; an attempt to understand the study circle as a learning environment.

    Study circle work has a special place in the country’s adult education, and assumes the dimensions of a mass-phenomenon in present-daySweden. An estimated 1.2 to 1.6 million people every day take part in one of the approximately 330,000 study circles arranged by the country’s 11 study associations, where they can study any imaginable subjects and practice different skills.

    The present research approach is qualitative and based on the fundamental concept of discourse. The concept is used as an analytical instrument for delimiting, structuring and creating meaning in the phenomena studied. The phenomenon popular education in general and the study circle in particular are elucidated from three central perspectives:

    • the development of modern civil society during the twentieth century,
    • national (popular) educational policy during the same period, and
    • that of contemporary study-circle members.

    Insights gained from the first two perspectives – the ”ideal” and the ”political” – have formed an important backdrop of understanding against which it has been possible to render the third perspective - the ”experienced” – comprehensible. The study-circle-member perspective is examined using a qualitative interview survey with circle members and circle leaders from nine socially-oriented study circles.

    The results indicate that the language of popular education has remained basically unchanged since the beginning of the twentieth century. It has enjoyed a relative autonomy vis-à-vis both the organisations of civil society and the state, despite a very intimate relation with these. At the same time the state and civil society have been able to make use of popular education to fulfil their respective purposes; civil society to achieve political influence and the state to implement its educational-policy goals. The most obvious change in the discourse of popular education appears to have occurred during the latter part of the twentieth century with the focus on the private individual’s educational projects. In virtue of its time-honoured pedagogical concept there is much to indicate that popular education is establishing itself as a competitive actor on the open educational market. At the same time the popular educational institutions constitute a societal opportunity structure for the education of all, adapted to the challenges and the demands for life-long learning of the new era – the Information Age.

    The study circle can also function as a network of individuals in civil society, representing an environment for collaborative learning and democratic education for citizenship.

  • 32.
    Gustavsson, Hans-Olof
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    "Utan bok är det ingen riktig undervisning": En studie av skolkulturella referensramar i sfi2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences of teachers in SFI, Swedish for (adult) Immigrants, indicate that during their schooling earlier in life, SFI students have developed skills, abilities, values, ideas and expectations about teaching and learning that differ somewhat from the prevailing communicative oriented theory of second language teaching which is emphasized in SFI. In the thesis these aspects are referred to as different school cultural frames of reference.

    The aim of the thesis is to generate knowledge about SFI-students’ school cultural frames of reference of relevance for SFI teaching. The considerable number of immigrants from Iraqi Kurdistan during the 1990s has led to an empirical focus related to this geographical area.

    From a critical perspective, in some respects a research interest of this kind can be seen as contributing to a division between ‘us’ and ‘them’, in a wider sense a part of exclusion and a maintenance of the segregated Swedish society. In a special section is given an account of this research ethic question, together with arguments from intercultural pedagogy that support a focus on school cultural frames of reference.

    The theoretical platform for the thesis is sociocultural theory. The concepts of social representations, pedagogical code, classification, framing, power distance, diaspora and distinctions of knowledge also are used.

    The thesis is based on two data materials. The first consists of data from interviews and talks with students and teachers in SFI, all from Iraqi Kurdistan. The second consists of data gathered through observations, classroom observations, interviews and talks during two visits in the KDP-administrated region of Iraqi Kurdistan, each visit being for a period of about one month. This data material also includes text materials, mainly textbooks in EFL for grade five and six, and course books about EFL teaching used in teacher education.

    The thesis illuminates several aspects that provide an understanding as to why SFI students from Iraqi Kurdistan can have certain abilities, values, ideas and expectations about teaching, learning materials, learning, teacher and student roles that differ from the communicative oriented second language teaching emphasized in SFI. However, results from the study also underline the importance of a ‘weak’ use of this understanding in a SFI teaching context.

  • 33.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    De liknade varandra men inte mer än andra: begåvningshandikapp och interpersonellt samspel1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a model for analysing interpersonal interaction. Thereafter, based on the foundation of this model, construct an analysis of research as well as a content and methodological analysis. This model is then to be replicated in an empirical study within the framework of self contained special educational classes consisting of pupils with mental retardation.

    The model of interaction is developed from a structuralistic perspective. It is based on the work of Kylén and theorists such as Piaget and Bronfenbrenner. Interpersonal interaction between two or more persons is seen as the function of their relationship and their interpersonal behaviour, personal characteristics of the individuals and properties of the environment in which the interaction occurs. The analysis of research includes 155 articles published in international research journals between 1970 and 1989. The content and methodological analysis is based on Kuhn. The empirical study which focused on interpersonal interaction is based on observational data collected from 24 special educational classes under natural class-room conditions.

    One of the results from the analysis of research was that mental retardation with high probability leads to deviating interpersonal interaction. This however can not be explained by the individuals intellectual disability, as supported by studies of the relationship between intelligence and interaction. Results from the methodological and content analysis showed that selection of methods as well as subject matter cannot be explained solely by scientifically based statements of a methodological and theoretical nature. Implications for the validity of the scientifically based knowledge of the area are discussed. Results from the empirical study illustrated that within the majority of the classes interpersonal interaction was scarce and often no interaction occurred at all. It also showed that a majority of the interaction sequences were <15 seconds. Implications for the development of students interpersonal skills are discussed. Results also showed that the utilized pedagogical strategies were not optimal for stimulating interpersonal interaction or the development of interpersonal skills. The findings are discussed in relation to traditionally and historically based concepts regarding the role of school, which has primarily been to assist students in accomplishing academic achievements. In the final chapter the results from the different sections of the study are discussed from the perspective of normalization and integration. The results are also discussed from the perspective of their implications for future research on interpersonal interaction.

  • 34.
    Hammarberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    En sund själ i en sund kropp: hälsopolitik i Stockholms folkskolor 1880-19302001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sound mind in a sound body is a study of the health policy in Stockholm's elementary schools. One of the city's schools is used as a representative focus: the Maria Elementary School. The efforts of the school's leadership, medical staff and corps of teachers to create clean and healthy children, are broadly described. Not only the children should become influenced by summer holiday camps, regular bathing and medical checkups, even the homes should become influenced by the cleanliness and wholesome living. Hygiene was a new inword, defined as the key to reach and keep health, both mentally and bodily. The period covered by this dissertation begins just when the great "Folkhem" (welfare state) was taking off. Many of the institutions described then still exist and function today. Inasmuch as the concept hygiene is so farreaching, the study focuses on around fifteen separate social areas: from the moral panic early film-viewing was creating, to schoolbuildings and care of schoolgardens.

    The book gives a picture of a school where the discourse of hygiene had a leading role. The local board of education was the key to 10 000-30 000 children and their families, offering its message. The low level of knowledge of hygiene and childrearing in the families of the time was seen as a major threat to the school's efforts. There was a deep conviction of society's right and duty to take direct action, where the home was considered deficient. The dissertation also gives a description of the school's close cooperation with the philanthropic work and of the cooperation between teachers and doctors.

    The interpretations are inspired by Michel Foucault's analyses of power and knowledge. Discourse, bio-politics and governmentality are concepts that are examined. The findings in the dissertation can be seen as good examples of bio-politics. Foucault presents two regulating principles: disciplinary measures and population regulation. He describes the disciplining measures as an anatomical policy for the human body, which expresses itself in different forms of drill. This is expressed in the material by the positions the children are demanded to use when they sit and write, when they do gymnastics, are marching in and out of classrooms, and in the discipline within the play. The other form is very obvious in the material, for example in the different techniques used to change the children's lifestyles: the height and weight measurements, schoolbaths and summercamps' in-built pronouncements.

  • 35.
    Hedlund, Erik
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Yrkesofficersutbildning, yrkeskunnande och legitimitet: En studie av yrkesofficersprogrammet i spänningsfältet mellan förändring och tradition2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish Armed Forces will be radically different from the previous invasion-oriented defence and the Armed Forces will be a smaller and more flexible organization, better adapted to the international sphere. With the aim of meeting up with the demands of the transformed Armed Forces posture for professional competence, the Regular Officer Programme (YOP) was introduced in the autumn of 1999.

    This dissertation aims at attempting to illustrate, address the problems and investigate to what degree the basic officer training of the Regular Officer Programme (Swedish: YOP) and the professional competence of newlygraduated Second Lieutenants can be seen as being legitimate within the scope of professional practices of the Swedish Armed Forces, and how this legitimacy can be described and understood.

    The theoretical framework of the dissertation is comprised of a sociocultural perspective and institutional theory. The five central concepts of the dissertation are: professional practice, institutional rules, professional competence, learning and legitimacy. The empirical elements of the dissertation were collected during 2001 and 2002 and comprise data from six part-studies. The informants were officer cadets after their first year of the Basic Officer Training Programme (YOP) and officers up to the rank of general. The methods for collecting data have been in the form of a questionnaire study, focus group conversations at thirteen military units, three document studies and a study with questions via e-mail. The questionnaire study was processed by using the computer programme SAS. The focus group conversations, the document studies and the answers via e-mail to questions were analyzed and put into categories contents wise according to the sentence category principle in positive and negative statements, respectively, in relation to YOP and the professional competence of the newly-graduated Second Lieutenants. Results show that both YOP as well as the professional competence of the newly-graduated Second Lieutenants cannot be regarded as being fully legitimate among the informants or within the all the professional practices of the Armed Forces.

  • 36.
    Heimdahl Mattson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The School Situation of Students with Motor Disabilities: Interaction of individual prerequisites and environmental demands1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of five scientific articles as well as a framework and is to a great extent based on interviews with students with motor disabilities, their parents and school personnel.

    The aim of the thesis is to study phenomena such as self-reliance, independence and autonomy, focusing on students of various ages and types of motor disabilities, in varying kinds of segregated and integrated school environments. The work is based on an interactional approach, and analyses how students' individual prerequisites interact with organizational and educational influences.

    It was found that the more segregated school system often gave priority to therapy goals, in order to develop the student's independence, i.e. the ability to manage the practical side of life. The student's development of autonomy, defined as the ability to make one's own decisions and control one's own life, was thereby subordinated, since it required knowledge of reading, writing, information-seeking, critical examination, e.g. typical educational goals.

    Students with less severe or less visible disabilities in integrated school systems, i. e. regular classes, were often treated in a way similar to their non-disabled peers. It was obvious that if the disability was ignored, it might lead to a minor disability developing into a significant handicap in the interaction with the surrounding school environment. The student's possibilities of influencing his/her situation were slight, and the autonomous development wa s limited. On the contrary, students with more severe disabilities in regular classes appeared to have better access to physical and educational adaptations. Their handicap thus decreased, and their opportunities of influencing their lives and developing autonomous attitudes increased.

    A conclusion is that the student's possibilities of developing either independence or autonomy are not necessarily decided by whether or not the system is integrated or segregated, but rather by how the organization and the methods of co-operation are realized within each system.

  • 37.
    Hensvold, Inger
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Fyra år efter examen: Hur förskollärare erfar pedagogiskt arbete och lärarutbildningens spår2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Heurlin-Norinder, Mia
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Platser för lek, upplevelser och möten: Om barns rörelsefrihet i fyra bostadsområden2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is the result of two studies concerning children’s independent mobility, which means the freedom for children to walk or bike on their own or together with friends but without being escorted by parents. The studies are accomplished in four different areas and are also searching for different environmental qualities. The areas differ concerning traffic planning and architecture but also concerning commercial and cultural choice. The aim is to understand and describe how places are constructed and designed when they are used and experienced in a positive – or a negative – way by children. I emphasize, that we – through the responses in meeting with other people – learn hidden and visible rules and also how to change perspective and roles. I therefore focus on the meeting between children and other people but also on meeting between children and places. The issue is: What do places look like – what qualities or qualifications – can be notified as important to children to perceive coherence that consequently make them learn to control their environment and develop to harmonious grown-ups. The main questions are: In what degree can children’s independent mobility be related to the planning and design in the four areas? Why do some neighbourhoods/places appear as more important to children than others, making children use them in a varied way? Is it possible to describe qualities in neighbourhoods in a way that can be interpreted as meaningful for children’s development?

    In the first study 732 children in grade two and five in compulsory school, filled in a questionnaire and the questions focused on how they got to school, to friends, to activities etc. The results showed that in the area with more traffic than the other three areas, children were more often taken by car to school and to leisure activities. Even international research in the nineties did show that children had lost the accessibility to their neighbourhood. In the second study, 32 children in the same areas guided me around in their environment showing me the way to school and places they used to visit. At the same time they told me what they liked or disliked in their neighbourhood. Afterwards they were interviewed and they also had the opportunity to fill in so called “mobility maps”. The content in this text mainly focuses the second study. From the children’s statements, a summary of the most important differences looks as follows:

    I The accessibility in neighbourhoods and places: i.e. children’s independent mobility – or if they had to be escorted by grown-ups – and if they could fiddle about.

    II Children’s play and activities: i.e. if they had something to do, if they played in pairs or in groups and if play could take place without planning.

    III Children’s experiences of places and people: i.e. if they had something to show me and to tell me, if there were any meetings with other persons, if the children talked about their own yard and appreciated green areas, if they had fun or not, if they were afraid being out and if they told me any memories from some places.

    The theoretical framework is based on Johan Asplund’s theory on social responsivity and G. H. Mead’s theory on social relations and his view of the importance of objects. The study also is based on three different place theories as expressed by David Canter, Christian Norberg-Schulz and Clarence Crafoord and Asplund’s view of place and placelessness. This study has made it clear that everything children do in their neighbourhood can be related to concrete places and things but it differed concerning what and how they played, what they experienced and what the meetings looked like – if any.

    Environmental qualities arise, as I have interpreted my results, when neighbourhoods and places are safe, when there are landmarks, places for meetings, possibility of orientation and sense of locality and when the places are varied and challenging. Conclusions are drawn regarding differences in social responsivity, if there is a sense of having a place of one’s own – that in the same time is shared by other people – and if places are responding. From these statements place identity can be seen as a merging of the qualities in places and the perceived sense of place as described above. To have opportunity to investigate the neighbourhood is also an important part of children’s informal learning. They learn how to read the surroundings and how to find the way in a town or in an environment. They get to know the neighbourhood and the world outside and so they also learn how to behave and how to control themselves and even the life. Results showed though that the children in the four areas made those experiences but, certainly, in different ways.

  • 39.
    Hultqvist, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Segregerande integrering: en studie av gymnasieskolans individuella program2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the encounter between a group of "less able" pupils and the upper-secondary school individual programme. This encounter results from the educational-policy ambition to give all young people a three-year upper-secondary school education. To meet the needs of even the "weaker" pupils an alternative curriculum has been created, termed the individual programme (IV). The pedagogical configuration of this encounter was analysed from the perspective of educational sociology. The analysis is based on observations of and interviews with pupils and teachers from three different IV classes and a comparison class from a national programme. The result gives a composite picture of the teaching approach used in the IV classes. This rests on the notion of individualised teaching, i.e. the teaching should be adapted to the needs and interests of individual pupils. The starting point is also that such a goal is best furthered in fairly small groups.

    The pupils' perspective emerging in the enquiry complicated the assumptions of individualised teaching. The teaching is seen by many pupils as "slack" and the advantage expected from individualising the teaching approach is seen not infrequently as the expression of negative special treatment, i.e. not being in an "ordinary class". The pupils' encounter with the individual programme is analysed using Basil Bernstein's, the British educational sociologist's, concepts of "classification" and "framing".

    The individual programme can be viewed as yet one more in a series of attempts to find a political and pedagogical solution to the problems of integration and differentiation. In a special section, the study analyses the change in recruitment to the grammar/upper-secondary school. The analysis reveals tension between the struggles for integration and for differentiation. In the extension of the educational system above comprehensive level, the crucial question was how to effect differentiation in the new upper-secondary-school system. Formerly disparate secondary-school streams were integrated in the 1965 secondary school, at the same time as a differentiated school form was created - the vocational training school. With the 1970 secondary-school reform the all-embracing upper-secondary school was built. Secondary school, vocational training school and trade school were gathered in a common school. A form of integration had taken place, but the streams remained differentiated. Shortly after the 1970 secondary-school reform an enquiry was started with the chief task of achieving a more even social and sexually equitable recruitment to various upper-secondary paths. With the design of the 1991 upper-secondary school, with a block of theoretical subjects common for all national programmes, the conflict between theoretical and practical streams was bridged over. And for the pupils who did not manage the subject requirements, a study path of their own was created - the individual programme. 

  • 40.
    Hägglund, Kent
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Ester Boman, Tyringe helpension och teatern: drama på en reformpedagogisk flickskola 1909-19362001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been taken for granted that no serious drama work was done in Swedish schools before the 1950s. However, at the Tyringe Helpension – a progressive education girls’ boarding school that existed between the years 1909-1936 – drama was used as a method in many school subjects, as well as for social training. Ester Boman, the founder and principal of Tyringe, even talked about theatre as an experimental laboratory of the humanities. This study explores how that drama work evolved and why it has been forgotten.

    The study uses traditional history research methods with an emphasison hermeneutics, and with some addition from recent critical text analysis.

    The educational drama at the Tyringe Helpension is contextualized from five aspects: 1) The life and work of Ester Boman. 2) The private Swedish girls’ school system. 3) The international and the Swedish progressive education movement – Ester Boman was strongly influenced by Sofi Almquist and Ellen Key. She was also a member of the New Education Fellowship. 4) The teaching methods of the Tyringe Helpension as a whole. 5) Previous and contemporary use of drama in education and the theory of the dramatic instinct. The study shows that these five contexts were all important for the evolution of educational drama at the Tyringe Helpension and contributedin making the drama work there exceptionally rich and varied. These contexts are also crucial for the explanation of why this work was so quickly forgotten. However, it also had some importance that the Swedish drama pioneers of the 1950s were not particularly interested in what had been done before

  • 41.
    Höjlund, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Social and Cultural Studies in Education .
    Vocational skills formation in communities of practice: Experiences from primary school and the informal economy in Tanzania2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the relationship between school and working life in Tanzania; what goes on inside school in relation to what goes on outside. The focus is on vocational skills formation by which is understood the process whereby individuals develop skills necessary for everyday life and gainful employment. The form and content of vocational skills formation, that is, tasks, activities, tools and social organization in primary schooling and in the informal economy, were studied.

    A total of 19 classes in four primary schools in Morogoro Municipality were observed in the school subject Stadi za Kazi (Vocational Skills): mat-weaving, clay-stove moulding, cake-baking, paper-bag-making, washing of woollen clothes, brick-making, setting out the foundation of a house and goat-raising. In addition the nine teachers of these classes were interviewed.

    The out-of-school sub-study comprised observation of and interviews with artisan and apprentices intertwined in eight artisan communities within the following crafts and trades: basketry, carpentry, paper craft, radio repair, garages, mattress-making, charcoal stove-making and all around women’s group activities. Still-photography was an integrated part of the fieldwork in both settings, and the photos were used as basis for subsequent interviews.

    The study has an ethnographic approach, indicating that it is not an ethnographic study as such but shares some of its considerations, such as, research practice which consists of observing, making sense in the field, using a variety of techniques and constructing texts. The theoretical framework that constitutes the tool for analysing the skills formation in both contexts is the situated model, “legitimate, peripheral participation in communities of practice”, outlined by Lave and Wenger (1991) and further developed by Wenger (1998).

    The skills formation in the informal economy was embedded in special forms of apprenticeship. Common traits were: an apprenticeship scheme built on a mutual understanding, a non-fixed duration and skills formation determined by the work of the day rather than a built-in stepwise order, a low level of technology and a total absence of texts. Observing and doing were the common formation instruments and co-working, hand-on-hand and asking questions the “unique” instruments, that is, connected to specific crafts/trades.

    In school pupils worked on tasks that belong to the household sphere rather than working life and these tasks were categorized as academic tasks, experimental tasks, simulation, and producing for exercise. Academic tasks comprised copying teacher’s notes on the blackboard; facts, functions, tools and composition of materials. Experimental tasks were tasks that aimed at changing a practice while, simulation was an operative model of out-of-school practice. Producing for exercise meant working with objects that were disposed of after completion. It is concluded that skills formation became vocational skills orientation. Some reason for this direction of skills formation were: it did not build upon experience gained outside school, the selected skills varied from one grade to another, depending on the preferences of the teacher, the professional background of the teachers, the crowded classes of a minimum of 40 pupils and a maximum of 200 in the urban schools, the lack of individuals practice owing to the lack of materials and other such factors.

    The concluding chapter of the thesis discusses some aspects of the relationship between the two formation contexts. In general it is concluded that there was no relation in space and time. However, pupils and teachers brought tools and material from home to school and this relationship may be characterized as extensional, but of household chores. Here schooling is also revisited by a comparison with the “education for self-reliance” of the passed as well as current global trends. A new Nyereian vision is proposed to be built on diversity; schools may embrace many “school is work” communities and at the same time be a garage, a shop, a hairdressing salon, mobile-repair workshop and the like.

  • 42.
    Irisdotter, Sara
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication(LHS).
    Mellan tradition, demokrati och marknad: - en analys av lärares identitetskonstruktion, i samtal kring etiska frågor i läraryrket2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the construction of teacher identity in the field of tension between teacher tradition, democratization and a free economic market. The main purpose is to analyze what aspects of teacher identity are constructed as teachers talk about ethical questions in their practice. The theoretical framework is inspired by the critical discourse analysis of mainly Norman Fairclough. This theoretical perspective makes it possible to interpret what influences teachers’ construction of professional identity, as they talk about their practice from an ethical perspective. These influences are understood as different discourses.

    A total of eighteen conversations in three different groups of teachers have been studied. Three main themes were dominating the conversations; talk about the student, talk about the teacher’s fostering tasks, and talk about integrity, limits and private spheres. In the conversations, different approaches and discursive patterns can be identified. The teachers’ discursive practice includes a traditionally dominating, conventional discourse, which can lead to the reproducing of hierarchical power relations in school and in society. The discursive practice also includes elements from a marketisized discourse, in which values of efficiency and goal reaching are central. This discourse also tends to reproduce asymmetrical power relations.

    A third influence is identified as a dialogical, communicative discourse, which emphasizes equality, dialog, openness to other perspectives and plurality. The aspects of teacher identity that are constructed within a dialogical, communicative teachers’ discourse, can be seen as the result of a promising ambition among the teachers to develop their school practice in a democratic, pluralistic direction. This ambition can however be further developed, explicit, and theoretically well-founded by a discourse ethical approach. The work of mainly Seyla Benhabib is proposed and argued in this thesis, as a fruitful theoretical platform for ethically legitimate fostering and teaching.

  • 43.
    Jorfeldt, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att utbilda sig till sjuksköterska: Ett genusperspektiv på lärares och studenters beskrivningar av utbildningen2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the subject of nursing in nursing education and how it is understoodby both male and female teachers and students respectively. Through the Care 77 reform nurse education was transformed from vocational training to university education. As a consequence the concept of nursing has been further theorised and developed. Of those who study, teach, research and write textbooks in nursing, the majority are women. Given this preponderance of women over men in nurse education, the aim of this study was to describe and understand from a gender perspective both students´ and teachers´ perceptions and understanding of nursing as a subject. The questions I attempt to answer are: 1) What is the relation between male and female teachers´ description of nursing as a specific subject? 2) What is the relation between male and female nursing students´ description of nursing as a specific subject? 3) Are there educational factors which facilitate a more balanced sex distribution or which render a more balanced sex distribution more difficult? Data have been gathered through interviews and questionnaires. The interview study included 20 participants and the inquiry study 32 participants. There were equal numbers of male and female, teachers and students respectively, at nine nursing university colleges covering Sweden as a whole. The analyses have been done from a gender perspective. The gender theory terms of Connell and Thurén have inspired the construction of a gender analysis model, which has been the practical tool of the analyses, including the terms gender symmetry, gender asymmetry, gender neutrality and gender instability. As an aid for interpretation to be able to understand individual meaningful units and the pattern of the text the terms separation, female subordination, work distribution, symbolic sex, separation, closeness, hegemonic masculinity and gender dizziness have been used. The result show that both teacher groups experience the academisation of nursing as a specific subject. Both student groups commented on a lack of corresponding between their theoretical and their clinical nursing studies. The theoretical contents of nursing as a specific subject has had little impact on clinical activity. Students suggested three main reasons for this lack of clinical relevance: perceived lack of time, the vague interest of nursing professional groups and the hegemonic position of other medical and technical professionals. Apart from professional nursing knowledge, students with a strong identity and actors with ability to face the challenges of establishing a new research area within the same domain as already established once, are required in order to bring about changes. The findings of this study show no evidence that male should be less suitable or have less interest in theoretical studies in nursing as a specific subject. They have, however, less interest in it in clinical studies, in favour of medical science and technology. Male students, for example, at an early stage of their studies, often choose their special focus on emergency nursing. In the continued education women students more than men students tend to hope for inservice education in their workplace. It is within the medical-technical domain, and not in nursing as a specific subject that both students groups state a need for continued learning. Circumstances that will influence the balance of sex distribution in studies and profession seem to be: men‚s exposure to work with patients´ and other nursing professional groups´ observance of their choice of profession; lack of co-operation with other nursing professional groups; a rigid social milieu; and men’s experience of difficulties in providing intimate body care, also including dialogue with patients and relatives. A comprehensive interpretation of the results is that the biased sex distribution may be an outcome of society´s attitudes to what is defined as female or male work.

  • 44.
    Juhlin Svensson, Ann-Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nya redskap för lärande: studier av lärarens val och användning av läromedel i gymnasieskolan2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of previously published reports with a summary. The main purpose of the empirical studies is to describe and analyse the function and use of educational media in teaching through the understanding and actions of teachers and librarians. The theoretical frames of reference are "framefactor", curriculum and steering theories. In the summary a new theoretical perspective is adopted. Based on new institutional and sociocultural theory, the use of textbook and information technology is reanalysed as cultural tools.

    The result is based on three empirical studies. In six upper-secondary schools 35 teachers, librarians and school principals were interviewed about their understanding of textbooks and information technology and the results indicated that the pedagogical aim and structure of textbooks are the main reasons for their use. To obtain a deeper investigation an observation study of three teachers use of educational media in the classroom was carried through. Their use of different types of educational media indicated that their own style/strategy in the classroom determined in what way the textbook was tied to teaching. The case studies were followed by a survey of twenty upper-secondary schools. The main result confirmed the tradition with textbooks and showed that teachers who often use textbooks had more traditional ways of acting in the classroom than teachers who more seldom or never used textbooks. More flexible learning strategies for pupils appeared when teachers had a positive attitude towards information technology.

    The last part of the dissertation analyses the significance of the historical formal and informal rules and traditions for educational media as mediated means and the possibility for change. The textbook is a cultural tool shaped for the school with its institutional limits. Information technology, in contrast to textbooks, has not been shaped as a unique artefact for education. Teachers used information technology according to the restraints and rules in the activity system as a complex technology they still have not completely appropriated.

  • 45.
    Kapborg, Inez
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Evaluation of Swedish nursing education and professional practice1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis summarizes five papers reporting on different evaluations. The purpose of all the evaluations has been to investigate the relevance of nursing education to future professional practice. The evaluations were performed with the aid of a theory-based educational interaction model. Two of the papers treat the nursing students' experiences of education and professional practice (program evaluation). Three papers report on nurses' knowledge of mathematics and drug dosage calculation in relation to their educational background (individual evaluation). Evaluation is discussed in relation to the concept of quality assurance.

  • 46.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Stockholm University. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Conditions of Dance in Morocco: Interviews and observations of Adults and Children involved in Dance activities in Marrakech2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study was to deepen our knowledge about dance in general and about

    dance activities for children in particular, in Morocco. Consequently, we attempted to gain insight and

    understanding of the social and political premises to dance in this context. We further intended to

    study how children were involved in dance activities. A qualitative study was carried out during a stay

    of eight weeks in Marrakech. Data was mainly collected through participant observations in the field

    of dance and children and adults were interviewed. In addition, a quantitative based opinion survey

    was carried out among seven dance teachers.

    The results showed that in spite of the fact that traditional folk dancing is frequently practiced in the

    Moroccan culture, there was a difficulty for the art of dance to gain ground. The access to dance

    activities was limited due to insufficient political and economical support and also because of the

    social conceptions prevailing in the Moroccan society. However, dance was highly valued by children

    that took part in dance education. Both children and dance teachers expressed that dancing enhanced

    the children's self esteem, emotional communication and aesthetic experiences. In the light of the

    theory of multiple intelligences the respondents foremost referred to the personal intelligence as being

    promoted by dancing. The perspective of the child did not receive much attention in governmental

    policies. The access to dance activities for children was much relying on the cultural and economic

    capital of the family. Among people involved in the general field of dance, the knowledge on dance

    showed broad and despite the obvious challenges they were eager to continue their work for the art of

    dance.

     

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Malene
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Perspektiv på familjedaghem2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Karlsson, Ove
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Att utvärdera - mot vad?: om kriterieproblemet vid intressentutvärdering1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to make a critical analysis of the criteria problem inherent in stakeholder evaluation, especially the problem of how to select different criteria in a situation of rapid political change and conflict among different stakeholder groups in the programme context. The aim is also to make a critical examination of the possibilities for a fair and just evaluation of official educational and social programmes.

    The study is composed of four sections. In the first section the research problem and the aims of the study are introduced. Then the theoretical basis of the study and the connection with the theories of evaluation are discussed. The second section of the thesis contains a deeper analysis of political changes in society and an examination of the circumstances and development lines of the evaluation and the stakeholder evaluation.

    In the third section the case study and an analysis of different judgement criteria and conflicts of the interest groups are presented. The fourth section contains a discussion of strategies for handling the problems emerging in the shape of general criteria, e.g. social justice, or of contextual equity criteria. Possibilities for a powerffee dialogue between the interest groups, in order to agree upon certain common criteria, are examined in a critical way. How different judgements can be structured together by consensus is analysed from a cognitive and an action-oriented perspective. At the end, some reflections are done about the stakeholder evaluation, its political dimensions and the connections between evaluation theory and political philosopy and political theory.

    The thesis shows that evaluation of official programmes places the evaluation in the centre of a political context with different stakeholder groups and conflicts. The thesis makes clear that a more explicit perspective of political theory could be a constructive way forward for the further development of evaluation theory.

  • 49.
    Kjellman, Ann-Christin
    Stockholm University.
    "Hurra för valfriheten" - men vad ska vi välja?: val av grundskola i Stockholm åren 1994-962001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Education in Sweden has during the 1990's gone through several radical changes. By introducing school vouchers, the number of independent schools has increased. This development has been especially quick in the City of Stockholm where in 1991 it was decided that all parents should have the right to choose a school. The groups of parents who tended to choose independent schools were either highly educated or immigrant parents, two groups that are frequent in the inner city areas of Stockholm. Another important part of the reform was to increase the power of parents by allowing their choice to steer supply and demand. In the reform, the school economy was delegated to the individual schools. This fact combined with the added power of parents choice, as well as the rapid change to more pedagogic alternatives led to the quick rise of independent schools in Stockholm.

    It cannot be proven that social segregation has increased, either in public or in independent schools. However, it is too early to draw a final conclusion, as this is still an inner city phenomenon.

  • 50.
    Kristjánsson, Baldur
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Barndomen och den sociala moderniseringen: om att växa upp i Norden på tröskeln till ett nytt millenium2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the context of modern childhood in the Nordic countries, and to some extent in the Western world as well. The study may be divided into two approximately equal sections. The first, the theory section, lays out a theoretical and conceptual framework considered necessary for a meaningful representation of modern childhood as a cultural and historical construct. The second section contains a presentation of research findings from the so-called Basun Study, a study on modern childhood in the five Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, The sample, analysed in this thesis consisted of 87 five year-old children living in their families of origin. All the families represented a modern lifestyle in the sense that both parents were in paid employment, and the children attended out-of-home daycare. In the thesis, the everyday life of the children and their families is described and analysed from several analytical angles. Thus, the division of roles in the family (including the roles of the child) is studied, and some implications for the modern family life's split between different social settings (home, school or preschool, and the parental work places) are dwelt upon, especially the time constraints this split places upon the family. An analysis of the parent-child social interactions indicates that time related issues, such as the timing of everyday events and the tempo of daily chores, are common sources of conflicts. The everyday situations, carrying the biggest conflict potential are the domestic morning preparations, the home-to-daycare transition and leaving daycare in the afternoon. It is argued that it is especially in everyday situations like these that children are expected to adapt their biological time rhythms with social time, and furthermore that these situations strengthen their notion of time as a limited resource that needs to be controlled and maximised. Tangible socialising efforts to this end are more common among the Basun sample's middle-class parents than among their working class counterparts. Although time-related demands often invite conflicts, parents almost invariably employ different kinds of strategies in order to avoid conflicts with their children. Thus, the parents strongly convey the notion that family life should be relaxed and enjoyable. On the whole, the parents are so successful in these efforts that the children, in general, live a rather relaxed everyday life. However, it is tight everyday schedules and the resulting fatigue. A core idea, underlying the theoretical section of this thesis, is that in order to gain a deeper understanding of modern childhood, it has to be studied not only in the present, but in the past as well. In other words, the conditions of childhood must be viewed within the framework of contemporary everyday life as well as against the background of history. The historical perspective suggests two things. Firstly, that contemporary childhood must be seen against the backdrop of childhood conditions of earlier generations and secondly, that salient features of the social modernisation process should be identified and projected on the everyday social interactions of children and their parents. As a consequence, the study of modern childhood carried out in this thesis is eclectic, integrating theoretical insights from disciplines as diverse as psychology, pedagogy, history, and sociology.

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