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  • 1.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 2.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Eriksson, E. Anders
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    Johansson, Bengt
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Systematic exploration of scenario spaces2016In: Foresight, ISSN 1463-6689, E-ISSN 1465-9832, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Scenarios have become a vital methodological approach in business as well as in public policy. When scenarios are used to guide analysis and decision-making, the aim is typically robustness and in this context we argue that two main problems at scenario set level is conservatism, i.e. all scenarios are close to a perceived business-as-usual trajectory and lack of balance in the sense of arbitrarily mixing some conservative and some extreme scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to address these shortcomings by proposing a methodology for generating sets of scenarios which are in a mathematical sense maximally diverse. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, we develop a systematic methodology, Scenario Diversity Analysis (SDA), which addresses the problems of broad span vs conservatism and imbalance. From a given set of variables with associated states, SDA generates scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best span the whole set of feasible scenarios. Findings - The usefulness of the methodology is exemplified by applying it to sets of storylines of the emissions scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This ex-post analysis shows that the storylines were not maximally diverse and given the challenges ahead with regard to emissions reduction and adaptation planning, we argue that it is important to strive for diversity when developing scenario sets for climate change research. Originality/value - The proposed methodology adds significant novel features to the field of systematic scenario generation, especially with regard to scenario diversity. The methodology also enables the combination of systematics with the distinct future logics of good intuitive logics scenarios.

  • 3. Caron, Patrick
    et al.
    Ferrero y de Loma-Osorio, Gabriel
    Nabarro, David
    Hainzelin, Etienne
    Guillou, Marion
    Andersen, Inger
    Arnold, Tom
    Astralaga, Margarita
    Beukeboom, Marcel
    Bickersteth, Sam
    Bwalya, Martin
    Caballero, Paula
    Campbell, Bruce M.
    Divine, Ntiokam
    Fan, Shenggen
    Frick, Martin
    Friis, Anette
    Gallagher, Martin
    Halkin, Jean-Pierre
    Hanson, Craig
    Lasbennes, Florence
    Ribera, Teresa
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schuepbach, Marlen
    Steer, Andrew
    Tutwiler, Ann
    Verburg, Gerda
    Food systems for sustainable development: proposals for a profound four-part transformation2018In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 1774-0746, E-ISSN 1773-0155, Vol. 38, no 4, article id 41Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative. Our starting point is that agriculture and food systems' policies should be aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This calls for deep changes in comparison with the paradigms that prevailed when steering the agricultural change in the XXth century. We identify the comprehensive food systems transformation that is needed. It has four parts: first, food systems should enable all people to benefit from nutritious and healthy food. Second, they should reflect sustainable agricultural production and food value chains. Third, they should mitigate climate change and build resilience. Fourth, they should encourage a renaissance of rural territories. The implementation of the transformation relies on (i) suitable metrics to aid decision-making, (ii) synergy of policies through convergence of local and global priorities, and (iii) enhancement of development approaches that focus on territories. We build on the work of the Milano Group, an informal group of experts convened by the UN Secretary General in Milan in 2015. Backed by a literature review, what emerges is a strategic narrative linking climate, agriculture and food, and calling for a deep transformation of food systems at scale. This is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The narrative highlights the needed consistency between global actions for sustainable development and numerous local-level innovations. It emphasizes the challenge of designing differentiated paths for food systems transformation responding to local and national expectations. Scientific and operational challenges are associated with the alignment and arbitration of local action within the context of global priorities.

  • 4. Chen, Shuzhen
    et al.
    Wu, Desheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    A revealed damage cost method to evaluate environmental performance of production: Evaluating treatment efficiency of emissions and scaling treatment cost bounds2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 194, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental performance indices are in great demand for environmental policy support. This paper addresses the particular problem of evaluating environmental performance of industries and identifying the worst performed industries that should be strictly regulated. Specifically, an input-output analysis method is developed to disentangle the environmental pressures of production processes; treatment costs are introduced to reveal the damage costs of relevant pressures which is integrated in the DEA based index to restrict the weight assignment. The proposed method is advantageous in data requirements as well as definition of process boundaries and can alleviate the underestimation of damages from predominant pressures. The results of evaluation provide a more reliable reference to industrial regulation.

  • 5.
    Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Meso-scale Hydrological Modeling Framework2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ericsdotter Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Howells, Mark
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Bhatt, Vatsal
    Bazilian, Morgan
    Rogner, Hans-Holger
    Connecting the resource nexus to basic urban service provision – with a focus on water-energy interactions in New York City2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 31, p. 83-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water and energy systems are crucial for sustainably meeting basic service demands in cities. This paper proposes and applies a technology-independent “reference resource-to-service system” framework for concurrent evaluation of urban water and energy system interventions and their ‘nexus’ or ‘interlinkages’. In a concrete application, data that approximate New York City conditions are used to evaluate a limited set of interventions in the residential sector, spanning from low-flow toilet shifts to extensive green roof installations. Results indicate that interventions motivated primarily by water management goals can considerably reduce energy use and contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly, energy efficiency interventions can considerably reduce water use in addition to lowering emissions. However, interventions yielding the greatest reductions in energy use and emissions are not necessarily the most water conserving ones, and vice versa. Useful further research, expanding the present analysis should consider a broader set of resource interactions, towards a full climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) nexus approach. Overall, assessing the impacts, trade-offs and co-benefits from interventions in one urban resource system on others also holds promise as support for increased resource efficiency through integrated decision making.

  • 7. Green, Tom L.
    et al.
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Insurance Value of Green Infrastructure in and Around Cities2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1051-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of climate change and urbanization projected to occur until 2050 poses new challenges for land-use planning, not least in terms of reducing urban vulnerability to hazards from projected increases in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Interest in investments in green infrastructure (interconnected systems of parks, wetlands, gardens and other green spaces), as well as in restoration of urban ecosystems as part of such adaptation strategies, is growing worldwide. Previous research has highlighted the insurance value of ecosystems in securing the supply of ecosystem services in the face of disturbance and change, yet this literature neglects urban areas even though urban populations are often highly vulnerable. We revisit the insurance value literature to examine the applicability of the concept in urban contexts, illustrating it with two case studies: watersheds providing drinking water for residents of Vancouver, Canada; and private gardens ensuring connectedness between other parts of urban green infrastructure in London, UK. Our research supports the notion that investments in green infrastructure can enhance insurance value, reducing vulnerability and the costs of adaptation to climate change and other environmental change. Although we recommend that urban authorities consider the insurance value of ecosystems in their decision-making matrix, we advise caution in relying upon monetary evaluations of insurance value. We conclude by identifying actions and management strategies oriented to maintain or enhance the insurance value of urban ecosystems. Ecosystems that are themselves resilient to external disturbances are better able to provide insurance for broader social-ecological systems.

  • 8.
    Rudén, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Adams, Julie
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Brock, Theo C. M.
    Poulsen, Veronique
    Schlekat, Christian E.
    Wheeler, James R.
    Henry, Tala R.
    Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making2017In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 652-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of expert judgment by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance aspects also need to be considered by scientists when designing, performing, and reporting ecotoxicological studies to facilitate their use in ERA. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:652-663.

  • 9.
    Treep, Daniël
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    An analysis of CO2 emission reducing policies for passenger transport in the Netherlands2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The passenger transport sector is responsible for a high share of the CO2-equivalent emissions in the Netherlands. Significant reductions in emissions are needed to stay under the two degrees warming as aimed for in the Paris agreement. Unintended feedback effects often arise from policy interventions in complex systems such as the passenger transport system. Especially when multiple policies are applied there is a need to understand all the dynamics within the system, to be able to assess whether policies will reach the desired effect. This study first analyses the Dutch passenger transport system and its emissions using relevant literature and publicly available data. The analysis was used in the creation of a causal loop diagram which has been used to assess the systemic effects of emission reducing policies. The results of this study indicate that effective policy making should focus on reducing emissions from car use,by combining policies that aim to reduce the total kilometres driven by cars and policies that aim to reduce the emission intensity (g/km) of cars. Both policy types are needed to transition passenger transport into a sustainable sector.

  • 10. Zelli, Fariborz
    et al.
    Gupta, Aarti
    van Asselt, Harro
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Horizontal institutional interlinkages2012In: Global environmental governance reconsidered / [ed] Frank Biermann and Philipp Pattberg, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2012, p. 175-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 10 of 10
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