1 - 29 of 29
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 10:00 Ahlmannsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Ratcovich, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    International Law and the Rescue of Refugees at Sea2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International law provides a duty to rescue everyone in distress at sea. Rescue at sea often entails recovering survivors and bringing them on board ships or other rescue units. While their subsequent delivery and disembarkation may not always be controversial, they frequently are if those assisted are refugees and migrants. Coastal states are especially likely to be reluctant to accept disembarkation within their territories if the distress situation and rescue operation occurred in the course of attempts to enter the coastal state in a clandestine or otherwise irregular way. The controversial but unavoidable question in such situations is where refugees and migrants rescued at sea shall be brought for disembarkation.

    Until recently, international law was strikingly silent in this regard. However, following amendments to the two main treaties on maritime search and rescue — the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue — international maritime rescue law now requires that everyone rescued at sea be delivered to a ‘place of safety’. The responsibility to provide such a place or to ensure that it is provided lies with the state party responsible for the search and rescue region in which the survivors were recovered. However, ‘place of safety’ is not defined in these or any other treaty. Instead, the application is guided by a set of guidelines from the International Maritime Organization (IMO). However, the guidelines are not legally binding and many questions remain unanswered.

    This thesis examines the meaning of the concept of ‘place of safety’ against the background that many of those rescued at sea are refugees and migrants. Using a legal perspective, it asks how the meaning of this concept can be understood in the wider context of international law. The emphasis on the legal context links to the applicable standard of interpretation, which requires the meaning to be determined with reference to not only the text but also the context and the object and purpose of the treaty.

    Drawing on an explorative survey of the international legal framework for irregular maritime migration covering norms under the international law of the sea, international refugee law, international human rights law and international law against transnational organised crime and on a dedicated discussion of the applicable standard of interpretation, this thesis analyses the interpretation of the concept of ‘place of safety’. In keeping with the general legal framework of the interpretation of treaties, it explains that this concept cannot be understood with reference to the law of the sea exclusively, as it imports norms from other areas of international law. Due to the contribution of these other norms, including some of a primarily humanitarian character such as those dealing with non-refoulement, right to life and non-discrimination, this thesis argues that the meaning of the concept is broader than it first may seem. To conclude, this thesis summarises a ‘place of safety’ as a location where not only the maritime safety but also the basic security of survivors is no longer threatened.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Guccini, Valentina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nanocellulose: Energy Applications and Self-Assembly2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies based on renewable materials are required to decrease the environmental cost and promote the development of a sustainable society. In this regard, nanocellulose extracted from wood finds many applications thanks to its intrinsic mechanical and chemical properties as well as the versatility in its manufacturing processes. In this thesis, I present the results of the investigations on carboxylated cellulose nanofibres (CNF) as ionic conductive membranes and electrode component in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries. Moreover, I also show the results of the assembly of CNF suspension and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) - lepidocrocite nanorods (LpN) hybrids.

    The fuel cell performance of CNF-based proton conductive membranes was evaluated as a function of intrinsic material parameters such as membrane thickness and surface charge density as well as extrinsic parameters such as the relative humidity (RH). It was found that the proton conductivity is about 2 mS cm-1 at 30 °C between 65 and 95 % RH. At the same time, the water uptake of the membrane was measured and correlated with the structural evolution of the membrane using small angle X-ray scattering.

    The performance of the CNF-based separator in lithium ion batteries was investigated as a function of membrane porosity and protonation of the functional groups. The Li-ion battery assembled with the protonated separators showed stable and good rate performance.

    The CNF was also tested as binder in lithium ion battery, showing that the morphology and mechanical properties of the cathode depend on the nanofibre surface charge and degree of defibrillation. In particular, high surface charge and medium degree of defibrillation give the best electrochemical performance.

    Pyrolysed CNF (cCNF) improved the electrochemical performance of silicon nanoparticles-based anode thanks to the carbon network derived from the nanofibres. Si-cCNF has a capacity retention of 72.2 % after 500 cycles at 1 C and better performance rate than the pristine silicon nanoparticles.

    Regarding the assembly of nanocellulose, the nematic order of CNF suspension at different nanofibre concentrations (0.5 – 4.9 wt%) was studied by small angle X-ray scattering, polarized optical microscopy and rheological measurements. The order parameter reaches a maximum value of 0.8 depending on the CNF concentration. Small angle neutron scattering with contrast matching experiments reveals that the natural alignment of CNC and LpN can be switched using a combination of magnetic fields of up to 6.8 T and varying the amount of LpN incorporated in the CNC.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 10:00 hörsal 9, hus D, Stockholm
    Andersson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Något betydelsefullt: Leonid Dobyčins möten bortom orden i den sovjetiska samtiden2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the 1931 short story collection Portret [The Portrait] by the Russian author Leonid Ivanovich Dobychin (1894–1936?). My main argument is that the principal theme in Dobychin’s writings arises out of the complexities of human encounters. 

    My approach is based on affirmative interpretations that I call “encountering” readings. They draw on critical practices developed by Boris Gasparov, who argues in his 2013 study of Pasternak Boris Pasternak: Po tu storonu poėtiki (Filosofiia. Muzyka. Byt) that the key to Pasternak’s work lies not in the dominant feature of their linguistic texture, but in the momentary states of everyday life that the author captures, and Henri Meschonnic’s Critique du rythme: Anthropologie historique du langage (1982). Meschonnic focuses on rhythm as an intrinsic aspect of the text that requires the reader to participate actively in appreciating the text as a work of art by following the interplay between rhythm, the active subject and what is expressed. Both scholars reflect a turn away from the linguistically informed theoretical approaches that dominated the academic study of literature in the twentieth century. 

    Similarly, I approach Dobychin’s characters on the level of their personal conflicts and everyday lives by simulating an interpersonal encounter in an anti-theoretical search for meaning that is congenial to both the central theme of the stories and the way in which they reveal human encounters “beyond words,” as it were, both within the works and with the reader, through suggestive associations and not yet categorized, “precategorial” experiences in everyday life. 

    The “unoutspokenness” (nedogovorënnost’)—i.e. reticence, a deliberate avoidance of explicitness that Dobychin’s contemporary critics ascribed to his writings and often disparaged as “incomprehensibility”—serves as a starting point for a critical discussion of both earlier research on Dobychin and theoretical approaches to literature more generally. In searching for a dominant formal feature, a ‘key’ or ‘code’, in Dobychin’s writings, earlier scholars have tended to describe it in terms of an anti-aesthetic. The alleged lack of plot, inner coherence and meaning is explained as deliberate, intended to performatively mirror the absurdness and inadequacies, the disorientation and loss of meaning in Soviet reality itself. In this thesis, I argue instead that there is no such lack or incoherence in Dobychin’s works. The “nedogovorënnost’” of his short stories is instead understood as an exact and purposeful way of conveying meaning through what is experienced and shared beyond words in a time that was overburdened with idealistic ideological discourses. At the heart of Dobychin’s stories are moments of fragile human interaction that underlie trivial dialogues and actions in banal everyday existence. The stories let the reader experience the sudden and unexpected human connections that the characters encounter in their everyday impressions. The contrasts and plurality of human perspectives thus perceived evoke a potential interaction beyond societal roles. These brief encounters are presented as something precarious in a Soviet society striving towards a single true ideology. Such a reading suggests that Dobychin is not so much a deliberately enigmatic author as a writer who aspires to express in words that which is profoundly wordless: the encounters between people outside of the ideological categories and discourses of their language.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 10:00 Seminarierummet, SCORE, Västra Nobelhuset, Stockholm
    Tsoukalas, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Apprentice Cosmopolitans: Social identity, community, and learning among ERASMUS exchange students2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation is an ethnographic study of the Erasmus Programme, the European Union’s student exchange programme. This programme has, for the last three decades, resulted in an unprecedented exchange of ideas and people within the European Union, and it has quite radically changed the conditions for, and the appearance of, student life in many European universities. Over the years the community has developed a distinctive lifestyle, replete with partying and travel, and is characterized by a strong social cohesion and exclusive ethos.  Empirically the study is a multi-local field study involving participant observation and interviews in two European capitals, namely Stockholm and Athens. Both present and former Erasmus students have been included in the study and were followed for an extended period of time. The study takes a close look at some of the experiential and social processes of the ‘Erasmus lifestyle’ and tries to understand them in the light of wider cultural and political processes such as the European unification process, cosmopolitanism, youth culture, and tourism. In the process it surveys part of the programme’s political history, local configuration, social dynamics, communication practices and global interfaces. According to the present thesis, the Erasmus Programme can be seen as a learning apprenticeship through which the young students gain entrance to and get valuable training in the reality of living in an increasingly interconnected world. The strong experiences engendered by the programme, both emotionally and cognitively, lead to a transformation in the student’s self-perception, social representations and social identity. For some students the programme leads to a drastic reconfiguring of their social networks and extant allegiances (e.g., towards their nation, culture), prompting them, after the end of their sojourn, to explore new venues in terms of career development, family life, and place of residence. Although the students do not seem to integrate with the host country to any significant degree, their extended experience of transnational mobility and their first-hand acquaintance with cultural diversity within the group encourages them to develop a more cosmopolitan outlook on the world and their place within it.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 13:00 sal FD41, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Duivenvoorden, Adriaan Judocus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Probing the early Universe with B-mode polarization: The Spider instrument, optical modelling and non-Gaussianity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main goals of modern observational cosmology is to constrain or detect a stochastic background of primordial gravitational waves. The existence of such a background is a generic prediction of the inflationary paradigm: the leading explanation for the universe's initial perturbations. A detection of the gravitational wave signal would provide strong evidence for the paradigm and would amount to an indirect probe of an energy scale far beyond that of conventional physics. Several dedicated experiments search for the signal by performing highly accurate measurements of a unique probe of the primordial gravitational wave background: the B-mode signature in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A part of this thesis is devoted to one of these experiments: the balloon-borne Spider instrument. The analysis of the first dataset, obtained in two (95 and 150 GHz) frequency bands during a January 2015 Antarctic flight, is described, along with details on the characterisation of systematic signal and the calibration of the instrument. The case of systematic signal due to poorly understood optical properties is treated in more detail. In the context of upcoming experiments, a study of systematic optical effects is presented as well as a numerically efficient method to consistently propagate such effects through an analysis pipeline. This is achieved by a `beam convolution' algorithm capable of simulating the contribution from the entire sky, weighted by the optical response, to the instrument's time-ordered data. It is described how the algorithm can be employed to forecast the performance of upcoming CMB experiments. In the final part of the thesis, an additional use of upcoming B-mode data is described. Constraints on the non-Gaussian correlation between the large-angular-scale B-mode field and the CMB temperature or E-mode anisotropies on small angular scales constitute a rigorous consistency check of the inflationary paradigm. An efficient statistical estimation procedure, a generalised bispectrum estimator, is derived and the constraining power of upcoming CMB data is explored.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Aronsson, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    När förskolan möter neurovetenskap: Kunskapsteoretiska möten i teori och i praktik2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis in Early Childhood Education reports on encounters between the theories and practices of Swedish preschool and research-based neuroscience knowledge. Thus, this thesis concerns epistemological encounters and didactic consequences. The scientific problem pertains to the relation between scientifically generated knowledge and educational practices in preschool, with specific attention to the requirement that preschool, as the first level in the Swedish education system, should be based on scientific knowledge and verified experience-based knowledge. The didactic problem emerging from this scientific problem concerns how this might affect the daily practices of responsible preschool teachers and educators at large.

    The thesis adopts a relational ontology with a multi-epistemological and methodological approach, based primarily on Stengers’ (e.g., 2018) and Mols’ (e.g., 2002) respective scholarship. The aims of the thesis are to investigate, firstly; what is produced in epistemological encounters within and between the research fields of Early Childhood Education and neuroscience. Secondly; what is produced between these fields and preschool didactic practices. The focus for the latter is on the didactic practices relying on the extended language concept in the Swedish preschool curriculum.

    To explore these aims in more detail, a series of so-called cartography mapping exercises have been conducted. On the one hand, in the analyses of the literature aimed at bringing the two fields together. On the other hand, cartography mapping has been conducted with educators in three preschools collaboratively analyzing their literacy practices. The Deleuze-inspired (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987) methodology of cartography mapping aspire to simultaneously critically deconstruct and productively experiment with underlying lines of thinking emerging from scientific or philosophical problems that concern development and learning, and especially language development and skills of literacy during the preschool years (Lenz Taguchi, 2016a, 2016b).

    The knowledge that this thesis produces is summarized below. Cartography mapping can be used both as a research method and as a method in pedagogical practice. In addition, cartography mapping can accommodate issues in different epistemologies and in different practices, such as research practice and preschool didactic practice. That is, practices that are related and share an overarching aim, but which are nevertheless not the same. The method reveals the different epistemologies present and how they can operate simultaneously within preschool didactic practice. The results from the thesis support the Swedish preschool curriculum goals which encompasses a dual assignment of learning (group and individual), that require different epistemological and didactic methods to be fulfilled.

    A preschool practice based on scientific evidence and verified experience-based knowledge thus requires the use of a wide range of theories and epistemologies to guide preschool staff. Hence, the results of this thesis show not just the presence, but also the possibility of developing a multi-epistemological didactic repertoire in preschool development and learning practices.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 13:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Eriksson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Flickblickar: Visuella berättelser om, av och genom gymnasieelevers kroppar2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates enactments of femininities, bodies and images among young women in two art and design classes at urban Swedish upper-secondary schools. The theoretical framework combines visual culture, performativity and new materialism, contributing to art education research and girlhood studies. Based on a nine-month ethnographic field study, including the collection of a) ethnographic field notes, b) photo documentation of the participants’ images created in classrooms and during spare time, and c) photo-elicitation-based interviews, the study explores students’ everyday engagement with images, referred to as visual narratives. These were investigated in relation to norms surrounding the becoming of girls, at a time when the schools in the study were both strongly promoting gender equality and some public debates suggested a postfeminist condition, i.e. that feminism has moved beyond the balance of equality. The thesis suggests that the relationships between visual narratives and bodies revolve around a particular type of gaze: the girl gaze, i.e. practices of looking, a communicative and aesthetic activity, in which the participants see themselves, their bodies and the world around them. Girl gazes consist of other gazes, such as the female gaze, the oppositional gaze, the transgender gaze or the white gaze. Each of these is investigated in three analytical chapters. In the chapter ‘White gazes’, theories of visual culture theory are combined with critical whiteness studies to analyse how certain bodies will not pass as white in a white school space in art teaching. Whilst talk about race in the Swedish antiracist classroom is taboo and silenced, race is indeed visible. For example, a subordinated non-white femininity is a theme in one actual school assignment. Colour-blindness, in a Swedish school context, should thus be understood not as a problem of seeing colour but as a taboo-laden silence when faced with stereotypes. The chapter ‘Screen gazes’ investigates how emotions circulate when visual narratives are produced on screens. Social media is often talked about as a female arena, and the making of selfies as narcissistic. However, allowing images that explore femininity and emotions to flow on social media might be a way to give femininity a place in the limelight. The study also discusses the humorous side of girl gazes, which may work as feminist counter-narratives by ridiculing gender norms. Finally, the chapter ‘Future gazes’ deals with aspirational identities – the embodiment of aesthetic ideals and future gazes. Tattoo culture, fitness culture and feminist statements in the form of art bricolage are studied as examples of work on bodies in relation to aesthetic ideals. These examples also came together in a common desire among the participants to become someone – to become known and recognised. In sum, in this thesis, the media-oriented term girl gaze – hitherto found with a hashtag in front of it, revealing its connection not with a scientific sphere but with social media – is a gaze constructed by gender and generation and other intersectional nexus points of social categories. Despite the commitment to gender equality in the classroom, the results show that equality is rather contested and continuously negotiated. The concept of the girl gaze can help to direct the analytical focus towards what is not yet visible, and to bring paradoxes surrounding girlhood and femininity to the surface.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 13:00 hörsal 12, hus F, Stockholm
    Svanfeldt-Winter, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Where Scholars are Made: Gendered Arenas of Persona Formation in Finnish Folkloristics, 1918–19322019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates how two Finnish folklorists, Elsa Enäjärvi (1901–1951) and Martti Haavio (1899–1973), obtained information about perceptions of what constituted good and acknowledged scholars and how they responded to these implicit and explicit expectations and requirements. The dissertation uses the concept of scholarly persona as an analytical tool to identify notions of good scholars as well as Enäjärvi’s and Haavio’s processes to form themselves as such. The analysis is based on a deep reading of private and public documents, with an emphasis on Enäjärvi’s and Haavio’s diaries and private letters to each other and friends in academia.

    The dissertation’s timeframe, 1918–1932, covers Enäjärvi’s and Haavio’s earliest years at university, from attending university to obtaining doctoral degrees. Being new to the academic community meant that these two young folklorists were in acute need of information regarding expectations and requirements in their discipline. Reflecting over observations of other scholars and sharing these observations with peers were important means of forming oneself as a scholar. This formation process was often articulated by making normative descriptions of the personal qualities, behaviour and research of other academics. By describing what was desirable, acceptable or inept in scholars, Enäjärvi and Haavio established what they themselves were like as scholars. The analysis also shows that the early phase of scholarly persona formation included informal rites of passage that integrated the students deeper into the academic community. The letters to friends offered a forum to make and test these formative descriptions and to reflect upon and give meaning to these rites of passage.

    The dissertation makes a systematic analysis of six arenas of Enäjärvi’s and Haavio’s academic life, where scholarly personae were formed: the university, the capital Helsinki, fieldwork, the transnational exchange with Estonian academics, international scholarly communities in Western Europe, and the scholarly home. The analysis shows that these arenas activated different dimensions of the folklorists’ persona. Moreover, the analysis shows that the different arenas activated different gendered practices and expectations of scholars and academic life. 

  • Public defence: 2019-09-23 13:00 sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Nyholm, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Supernova surroundings on circumstellar and galactic scales2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some stars cease to be in a bright and destructive display called a supernova. This thesis explores what we can learn about supernovae (SNe) by studying their immediate surroundings, and what the SNe can teach us about their environments. The work presented is mostly based on the rich harvest of observations from 2009-2017 by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and its successor, the intermediate PTF (iPTF). The PTF/iPTF was an untargeted sky survey at Palomar Observatory, aimed at finding and following up astronomical transients, such as SNe. During its existence, a massive star typically loses several solar masses of material. If much mass is lost in the decades or centuries before the SN, this material around the star (the circumstellar medium, CSM) will be quickly swept up by the ejecta of the eventual SN. This interaction can contribute strongly to the luminosity of the SN and make the light curve of an interacting SN carry signs of the progenitor star mass loss history. SNe with a hydrogen-rich CSM are called SNe Type IIn. A SN of this type, iPTF13z, found and followed by iPTF, had a slowly declining lightcurve with at least 5 major rebrightenings ("bumps") indicating rich structure in the CSM. Archival images clearly shows a precursor outburst about 210 days before the SN discovery, demonstrating the iPTF13z progenitor to be restless before its demise. Type IIn supernovae are heterogeneous, but only limited statistics has been done on samples. From PTF/iPTF, a sample of 42 SNe Type IIn was therefore selected, with photometry allowing their light curve rise times, decline rates and peak luminosities to be measured. It was shown that more luminous events are generally more long-lasting, but no strong correlation was found between rise times and peak luminosities. Two clusters of risetimes (around 20 and 50 days, respectively) were identified. The less long-lasting SNe Type IIn dominate the sample, suggesting that stars with a less extended dense CSM might be more common among SN Type IIn progenitors. Thermonuclear SNe (SNe Type Ia) are useful as standardisable candles, but no secure identification has yet been made of the progenitor system of a SN Type Ia. Using a late-time spectrum from the Nordic Optical Telescope of the nearby thermonuclear SN 2014J, a search for material ablated from a possible non-compact companion gave the upper limit of about 0.0085 solar masses of hydrogen-rich ablated gas. One likely explanation is that the SN 2014J progenitor system was a binary white dwarf. Supernovae are also useful tracers of the star formation history in their host galaxies, with SNe Type Ia tracing earlier epochs of star formation and exploding massive stars tracing more recent. For active galactic nuclei (AGN, the luminous centres of galaxies harbouring accreting supermassive black holes) SNe allows the so-called unification model to be tested. The unification model assumes that the main distinction between the two types of AGN is the viewing angle towards the central black hole, and that other properties (e.g. star formation history) of the host galaxies should be the same for the two AGN types. Matching 2190 SNe from PTF/iPTF to about 89000 AGN with spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a significantly higher number of SNe in the hosts of AGN type 2 was found, challenging the unification model.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-25 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Boström, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Education, skills and gender: The impact of a grading reform and the business cycle on labor market outcomes2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays in economics, all concerned with different aspects of education and labor market outcomes. The abstracts of the three studies are as follows.

    A flight of hurdles? Effects on graduation and long-term labor market outcomes of a nationwide grading reform.

    In the academic year 1994/1995, a grading reform was implemented in Swedish upper secondary schools. The reform replaced norm-referenced grading with criteria-referenced grading that raised the hurdle to graduate on time. By exploiting exogenous variation in exposure to the reform due to exact date of birth coupled with implementation date, the effects on upper secondary school completion and subsequent long-term labor market outcomes are explored in a difference-in-discontinuity design. Results indicate that the probability to graduate from upper secondary school decreased throughout the ability distribution, with the strongest effects at the left tail. Furthermore, many of these individuals still lack a degree at age 33. Nevertheless, the grading reform does not seem to have had any clear effects on long-term labor market outcomes.

    The effects of graduating from college in a recession: The case of Sweden

    This paper studies the long-term labor market consequences of graduating college into the Swedish economic crises of the 1990s. I use a sample of Sweden born men who graduated college between the years 1985 and 1998. I estimate the effects of labor market conditions at the time of graduation on labor market outcomes using a panel covering 12 years post-graduation. Since the timing of graduation might be affected by economic conditions, I instrument the unemployment rate at graduation using the unemployment rate at age 25, which is the modal age of graduation. I find a significant negative effect on real annual earnings that last up to 5 years after graduation before fading out. The heterogeneity analysis reveals that graduates in the lower end of the distribution of cognitive abilities experience a substantial earnings loss that persists for at least eight years before fading out, while individuals with high cognitive ability are unaffected. Furthermore, I find that graduates well-endowed with noncognitive abilities, individuals we would expect to perform well on the labor market, also experience significant earnings losses.

    Gender and field of study: The impact of graduating college into a recession.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate if there are gender differences from entering the labor market during an economic downturn. Using a sample of Swedish college graduates who completed their first college degree between 1996 and 2007, I estimate short- and medium-term effects of graduating into adverse labor market conditions on a range of labor market outcomes such as annual earnings, nonemployment and skill-mismatch. I find that the overall differences between the genders of graduating college into a recession are driven by the choice of field of study and the fact that females outnumber male graduates with degrees aimed towards occupations in the public sector. The analysis shows only small differences between the genders when I compare outcomes within Business, Law and Engineering graduates, degrees leading to occupations that typically require workers to maintain a high degree of labor market attachment.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-26 10:00 FA31 sal, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Marks, Kess
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Experimental investigations of model catalytic surface reactions on metal and metal oxide surfaces2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of renewable energies catalysis plays an important role, for example in the production of H2 gas that drives fuel cells, or in the decomposition of annoying by-products of renewable energy production. Most catalysts and catalytic processes currently used in the industry have their roots in macroscopic empirical investigations and trial and error-based optimization. In order to be able to design novel catalytic processes more efficiently, detailed understanding of the catalyst-reactant interaction and the dynamics of the microscopic reaction steps is needed. The present thesis aims to contribute to the fundamental understanding of catalyst reactant systems by means of experiments using model systems in Ultra High Vacuum. For this purpose, several surface science techniques were employed such as vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and femtochemistry.

    In the present thesis the results of three different projects are presented. The first concerns the adsorption and decomposition of naphthalene on Ni(111). Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) we identify the adsorption energy and geometry of the naphthalene molecule. Using SFG and TPD we investigate the temperature dependent breakdown of the naphthalene molecule and identify geometrical changes of the adsorbate as an intermediate step in the decomposition reaction. Additionally, we observe poisoning of the surface due to graphene growth using both STM and XPS and explore the possible effect of co-adsorption with oxygen on the reaction pathway and the poisoning of the catalyst.

    The second section concerns the adsorption and decomposition of ethanol and methanol on cuprous oxide (Cu2O). Using mainly XPS and SFG we show that ethanol adsorbs dissociatively on Cu2O(100) and (111) and that methanol adsorbs dissociatively on the (100) but molecularly on the (111) surface. Furthermore, we identify intermediate surface species and products of the temperature dependent dehydrogenation of both alcohols and show that the (111) surface is the more effective catalyst for decomposition.

    The third section explores the physics of non-thermal excitation methods and discusses CO oxidation on ruthenium (0001) induced by an optical laser and by X-rays from a free electron laser. Based on these femtochemistry experiments we discuss in particular the energy transfer both for direct excitation and for substrate mediated excitations. We show that we were able to control the branching ratios of competing mechanisms and understand the role of non-thermal electrons in the mechanisms of optical laser excitation. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to induce CO oxidation by direct X-ray core hole excitation and can rationalize the relaxation process that leads to CO oxidation.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-26 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Ndi, Mama
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structure and Biogenesis of Membrane Proteins2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane proteins make up about one-third of the cellular proteome. The diverse roles that membrane proteins have in cells include major life-sustaining processes, making them major drug targets. The respiratory chain comprises a series of complexes of membrane proteins residing in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which serve as major drivers of ATP synthesis. Assembly of the respiratory chain complexes (RCC) requires coordinated synthesis of nuclear and mitochondrial subunits. Cbp3-Cbp6 complex binds to the mitoribosome as translational activator for cytochrome b synthesis and binds the nascent polypeptide to facilitate its hemylation. Cbp3 consists of an N-terminal domain specific to mitochondrial homologues and a conserved C-terminal ubiquinol-cytochrome c chaperone domain. In this thesis I present the first crystal structure of the C-terminal domain from a bacterial homologue that has enabled us to identify the interaction sites of yeast Cbp3 with Cbp6 and cytochrome b using site-specific photo-crosslinking. Our finding suggests that Cbp3 contacts the mitoribosome via the N-terminal domain in a manner that positions the substrate binding site close to the tunnel exit. In the second project, we have analyzed the effects of disease causing cytochrome b mutations, on bc1 complex assembly. We found that complex III assembly is blocked at either intermediate 0 or I due to impaired insertion of bL or bH heme respectively, which indicates that assembly processes are involved in disease development. We then focused on NADH; a product of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDH) catalyzed citric acid cycle reaction and one of the substrates that supply electron to the respiratory chain. Kgd4 is a novel subunit of this enzyme complex and two functional variants (Kgd4S and Kgd4L) of unknown origins exist in yeast. We report in our work that Kgd4L originates from a UUG alternative start site, 90 nucleotides upstream and in frame of the annotated start codon. The sequence context upstream of UUG determines the efficiency of recognition of this alternative start codon. Finally, Na+/H+ antiporters are present in all species and are involved in regulation of intracellular pH, cell volume and sodium concentration. ATP formed during oxidative phosphorylation serves as energy source for Na+/K+ ATPase to generate Na+ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which drives local Na+/H+ antiporters. We show that K305 is involved in proton transport and responsible for the electrogenicity of NapA, while human NHA2 shows electroneutral antiporter activity.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-26 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, NOD-huset, Kista
    Käck, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Digital Competence and Ways of Thinking and Practising in Swedish Teacher Education: Experiences by teachers with a foreign teaching degree2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government recognises foreign academic education and the professional qualifications of its immigrants by allocating resources to programmes that bridge the gap between immigrants’ education and the specific requirements for work in Sweden. The context of inquiry for this thesis is teachers with a foreign teaching degree, who come from 57 countries or regions and are studying at four Swedish universities. They attend a bridging programme called “Further Education for Foreign Teachers” (in Swedish, Utländska Lärares Vidareutbildning). The purpose of this thesis is to study the unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising teachers with a foreign teaching degree encounter in Swedish teacher education, emphasising digital competence. Five different theoretical frameworks and models are used in this thesis: ways of thinking and practising, redefined transformative learning, the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), the European Digital Competence Frameworks for Citizens (DigComp 2.1), and the Digital Competence of Educators framework (DigCompEdu). A convergent mixed methods research design was applied; the combined datasets consisted of: (a) a web survey to which 228 teachers responded; (b) five focus groups each consisting of 25 teachers; (c) nine individual interviews; (d) 30 reflective texts written by 15 teachers. Findings show that the participants are not a homogenous group and cannot be treated as such. The common ground is that they are foreign-born teachers who have all immigrated to Sweden. The diversity covers a range, from being quite familiar to being unfamiliar with the Swedish educational context. This thesis reveals the diversity of their digital competence, as they score from foundational proficiency levels to highly specialised ones in TPACK as well as in the European framework DigComp 2.1. Furthermore, their expressed digital competence is found within all role descriptors in the European framework for the digital competence of educators DigCompEdu, from newcomer to pioneer. Diversity was found in teaching philosophy, the role of a teacher, view of the students, how learning occurs, and finally, comprehension of the relationship between education and society. Moreover, the findings highlight that some ways of thinking and practising were unfamiliar to the participants, such as teaching and learning methods, new learning environments, examination practices, further, the communication between teachers and students. Unfamiliarity was also found regarding the extent to which society demands digital competence in the curricula. The participants expressed that their roles as teachers in a new country were unfamiliar and took time to get used to. Therefore, placement supervisors were found to be of great importance for the development of teachers’ digital competence, as they function as mediators and model what it is to be a teacher in Sweden. The analysis shows that all teachers, not only teachers with a migrant background, need digital competence at an advanced level to develop digital competence among students. Thus, educators must identify unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising, plan for authentic competence development, and address the diversity in digital competence. This thesis contributes to empirical findings, developing tools and models to assist teacher educators to change monocultural teaching to an inclusive practice in which diversity is integrated.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Salvatore, Marco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Science for Life Laboratory.
    Predicting the route: from protein sequence to sorting in eukaryotic cell2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins need to be localised in the correct compartment of a eukaryotic cell to function correctly. Therefore, a protein needs to be transported to the right location. Specific signals present in the protein sequence direct proteins to different subcellular localisations. The correct transport is essential for the life of the cell, while, possible errors during the transport can cause irreversible damage and interfere with the activities of surrounding proteins. For more than 30 years, the development of methods to identify the localisation of proteins using both experimental and computational approaches has been an important research area. The objective of this thesis is to develop better computational methods for the classification of the subcellular localisation of eukaryotic proteins. I first describe the development of a consensus method, SubCons, which improves the subcellular prediction of human proteins. Next, I present the SubCons web-server as well as an additional benchmark using protein annotation from novel mass-spectrometry studies in two eukaryotic organisms Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster. Then, I present the new version of TargetP and how deep learning can improve the identification of N-terminal sorting signals by focusing on relevant biological signatures. Finally, I describe the development of a novel method for sub-nuclear localisation prediction. Here, I show that the performance of a deep convolutional neural network is improved when using an augmented dataset of homologous proteins.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 10:00 sal P216, Stockholm
    Kyryliuk, Dmytro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Baltic Sea from Space: The use of ocean colour data to improve our understanding of ecological drivers across the Baltic Sea basin – algorithm development, validation and ecological applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal areas are the most densely populated areas in the world and thus are under immense anthropogenic pressure. To ensure their function and ecological role, coastal areas require continuous monitoring and management. The rapidly emerging field of satellite remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor both land and oceans from Space. This thesis explores recent developments in ocean colour remote sensing, tests several image processing algorithms, evaluates and maps water quality indicators – both on local and Baltic Sea-wide scale – as well as provides essential monitoring data to complement already existing ship-based monitoring and modelling techniques. The overall aim of the thesis is to broaden our understanding and applicability of ocean colour remote sensing for improved modelling and management of the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas.

    The thesis deals with four independent research topics. In paper I the spatial distribution of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) during the summer season is evaluated using the European Space Agency’s (ESA) MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The TSM distribution and concentration is retrieved quantitatively from MERIS data for the HELCOM-defined Baltic Sea sub-basins for the summer seasons 2009, 2010, 2011, and summarized in a 3-year summer composite image. Manuscript II deals with the correspondence between satellite, in situ and modelled data in Bråviken bay, NW Baltic proper, which is optically dominated by Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM). Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) and Secchi depth data are analyzed along a horizontal transects reaching from the inner coastal bay out into the open sea. The study addresses the scarcity of in situ monitoring data in comparison to satellite and modelled data. Further, an empirical relationship is established between modelled total nitrogen and CHL-a derived from satellite, potentially allowing to infer information on the distribution of total nitrogen from satellite data. Paper III evaluates the performance of MERIS’s successor – the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) launched on board Sentinel-3A (S3A) satellite. The water quality products derived from S3A OLCI using the Case-2 Regional CoastColour Processor are evaluated via several dedicated validation campaigns (2016-2018) in the NW Baltic proper. In manuscript IV, the in-water relationship between particle scatter at 440 nm and Inorganic Suspended Particulate Matter (ISPM) is used to develop a novel algorithm to derive ISPM from satellite-derived scatter. This algorithm was applied to OLCI data and tested on an independent dataset. The algorithm allows to map the distribution of ISPM across the Baltic Sea basin and to assess the influence of coastal processes.

    The key outcome of this thesis are reliable water-quality products generated on a Baltic Sea-wide scale, using state-of-the-art Ocean Colour data. Specifically, the thesis highlights the benefits of using remote sensing to improve our understanding of coastal and dynamical processes, as well as Baltic Sea ecology on a wider scale, which simply is not possible by any other scientific means. 

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 10:00 hörsal 11, hus F, Stockholm
    Oraby, Tarek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A Darwinian Theory of International Conflict2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to advance the current understanding of the general conditions affecting the likelihood of military conflicts and wars between states. To that end, the dissertation develops a Darwinian theory of international conflict. This theory is developed by generalizing Darwinian principles as they are used in the study of biological entities, and applying those principles to study states and their behavior. Though states are markedly different from life forms, the same Darwinian principles—at a high level of abstraction—provide a parsimonious explanation of states’ conflict behaviors. Based on this Darwinian theory, the key substantive argument of this thesis is that military conflicts between states are more probable when the use of force is likely to enhance the material power of the involved states. The specifics of this argument entail novel predictions about the likelihood of conflict occurrence that differ in important respects from existing claims in the study of international relations. Among other things, and contrary to the prediction of the influential neorealist tradition, this thesis predicts that states are more likely to join the strong side of an ongoing conflict than the weak. This, and other Darwinian-based predictions are statistically evaluated in this thesis using all incidents of conflict initiation, conflict reciprocation, and conflict joining occurring in the international system over the period from 1816 through 2010. The results of these statistical analyses are largely consistent with the Darwinian-based predictions. Moreover, the variables derived from the Darwinian framework are found to have a large substantive effect in predicting whether a state will participate in conflict. Indeed, the substantive effects of the Darwinian variables match (and occasionally exceed) the substantive effects of some of the most important determinants of conflict identified in the literature, such as those related to geographical proximity, the democratic character of states, and the presence of military alliances between states.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 11:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens Hus, Stockholm
    Abdollahian Barough, Somaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Event conceptualisation and aspect in L2 English and Persian: An application of the Heidelberg–Paris model2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present project investigates the impact of the grammaticalised progressive on event conceptualisation in English and Persian. It applies the Heidelberg–Paris framework using single event descriptions for analysis at the sentence level and story re-narrations at the discourse level. The empirical data test the hypothesis that the progressive has an impact on information selection and discourse structuring in event conceptualisation in terms of infrequent endpoint encodings and language-specific patterns of perspective-taking in structuring discourse. Languages lacking the grammaticalised progressive clearly show different effects.

    There are system-based similarities/differences in aspect between English and Persian. They have the progressive in common but differ with respect to the imperfective–perfective distinction. This difference is manifested as an increase in the use of the progressive in English. In contrast, the Persian system with two aspectual non-past forms which are possible for expressions of ongoingness leads to decreased use of the particular dāštan-progressive.

    The key finding for the single, motion event descriptions is that the dāštan-progressive in Persian shows less frequent endpoint encodings, like in English, as compared to languages lacking the progressive. However, the imperfective bare mi-form is associated with frequent endpoints while English shows no such association because the progressive must always be used.

    In narratives, differences emerge again due to the different typology. When the uses of the progressives in re-narrations are differentiated for clause type, the progressive in English is used equally in main and sub-clauses, though more dominantly in sub-clauses in Persian. These sub-results speak about differences in perspective-taking between these L1s.

    The analysis of the complexities involved in aspect establishes that the bare mi-form in Persian can denote ongoingness in cases where the progressive is obligatory in English as it has no optional verb form. Consequently, the typological difference of the absence/presence of the imperfective–perfective categories leads to a significant increase in the use of the progressive in English, which results in a cross-linguistically different, and L1-specific, patterns of perspective-taking in the narrative discourse in English and Persian. Thus, despite the fact that the L1s have the progressive aspect, their principles of use differ as they are dependent on the relevant aspectual system.

    Relating the results to linguistic relativity and cross-linguistic influence, the study shows that owing to the grammatical category of the progressive in common, event conceptualisation is similar in English and Persian in terms of infrequent endpoint encodings in single motion event descriptions, despite the overall typological difference. However, L1-related influence on the principles of use of the progressive in L2 English is considerable in the narrative discourse of the advanced L2 users of English as they seemingly proceed from the principles of use in L1 Persian towards those in L1 English.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-28 09:00
  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 13:00 sal E306, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Ring, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    In vivo analysis of amino acid permease folding in yeast2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma membrane (PM) proteins are critical for cells to respond to environmental cues, such as the availability of nutrients. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to sense extracellular amino acids using the SPS sensing system. Activation of the multimeric PM-localized SPS(Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5)-sensor complex occurs upon binding of external amino acids to Ssy1, inducing a conformational change. In a Ptr3-mediated event, the catalytic activity of the Ssy5 endoprotease is unfettered, leading to the proteolytic processing of two latent transcription factors, Stp1 and Stp2. Ssy1, the primary sensor component, is a non-transporting member of the amino acid permease (AAP) family of transport proteins, a family of eighteen complex integral membrane proteins comprised of 12 transmembrane segments (TMS). The AAPs exhibit a common requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized membrane chaperone Shr3 to fold and to be transported to the PM. The absence of Shr3 leads to the accumulation of misfolded AAP species that are targeted for ER-associated degradation. Thus, proper Shr3 function is required as the most upstream and most downstream component of the SPS sensing system. In paper I, we investigate the chaperone function of Shr3. We report a surprisingly low level of sequence specificity underlies Shr3-AAP interactions. We used a split-ubiquitin approach to probe Shr3-AAP interactions in vivo. The Shr3-AAP interactions initiate early after the first two-to-four TMS of AAPs insert into the ER membrane, successively strengthening and then diminishing after all 12 TMS partition into the membrane. In paper II, we clarified the localization and trafficking determinants of Ssy1. A study by Kralt et al. 2015 reported that Ssy1 primarily localizes to the ER and is sorted to ER-PM tethers. These reported findings are clearly incompatible with the accepted model of amino acid sensing by the SPS-sensor. We critically re-examined the localization of Ssy1 and found that it indeed localizes to the PM, and importantly does so independent of ER-PM tethers. We also identified a novel ER exit motif in the carboxy-terminal tail of Ssy1 required for proper PM localization and SPS-sensor function. In paper III, we report that Ssy5 is able to cleave substrates in unusual contexts, i.e., an engineered substrate carrying rearranged recognition and cleavage determinants placed ectopically at the carboxy terminus of Stp1, and an ER-anchored substrate with Stp1 fused to the carboxy terminus of Shr3. Strikingly, Ssy5 catalyzed cleavage of Shr3-Stp1 in cells lacking ER-PM tethers, indicating that once activated, Ssy5 can find and cleave substrates distant from the PM. Consequently, cells must be able to rein in the activity of the Ssy5 protease to prevent spurious and improper proteolysis. Consistent with this notion, we report that the catalytic domain of Ssy5 is ubiquitylated in a Ptr3 and Yck1/2 dependent manner, and under amino acid-inducing conditions is subject to degradation. We propose a model that degradation of the Ssy5 catalytic domain is essential for resetting the SPS sensing system and a requisite for cells to regain the ability to correctly sense extracellular amino acids.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Morosow, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Side Effects: Unintended Consequences of Family Leave Policies2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to parenthood is a major life event and a critical juncture in terms of gender equality within a couple. How a couple divides paid and unpaid work following the birth of a child has long lasting consequences for their relationship, their economic situation and their children’s development. Family policy plays a crucial part in this process. Today, job protected family leaves – maternity-, paternity-, parental- and/or childcare leave – are available across most developed countries to support parents in combining work and family and to enhance gender equality. However, there exists large variation in provision and leave lengths across countries, as well as disparities in take-up within countries. Further, different types of family leaves share different aims that may be contradictory. Whether family leaves achieve their stated objectives, or whether they produce unintended consequences or ‘side effects’ is an important part of policy research.

    This dissertation consists of an introductory chapter, followed by four empirical studies which analyse the consequences of family leave. The dissertation departs from a comparative study, before the case of Finland is investigated in the remaining three studies. Two main questions are addressed throughout this dissertation. First, do family leave policies have unintended consequences in terms of labour market and family outcomes? Second, are individuals with specific characteristics disproportionately advantaged or disadvantaged by family leave?

    Comparing 20 countries, Study I analyses the association between paid family leave length and mother’s labour force status. Existing research has yet to distinguish between the non-employment categories: unemployed and inactive. Results point towards a trade-off where longer leaves are associated with higher unemployment risks, while shorter leaves are associated with higher inactivity among mothers.

    Study II investigates whether single mothers are disproportionately disadvantaged by longer family leave compared to partnered mothers in Finland. This study finds heterogeneous leave consequences in terms of unemployment risks to single mothers’ detriment, which are not merely due to selection, but potentially due to discrimination or work-family reconciliation problems. No differences in earnings consequences were found for partnered and single mothers, however, conditional on being employed.

    Turning to fathers, Study III examines whether fathers’ fears of economic penalties when taking leave are justified. Assessing penalties across fathers’ wage distribution, this study finds that only fathers at the lower end of the distribution face wage penalties, while fathers at the upper end of the distribution show wage premiums. The study concludes that even some progressive policies fail to address the disproportional penalties among the least-advantaged fathers.

    Study IV turns to family outcomes and examines whether childcare leave affects family stability in the short and long run. Results suggest lower union dissolution risks during take-up but not thereafter, and indicate that the temporary gendered division of labour and income loss of mothers may lead to postponement of separation.

    Family leave policies are an important part of gender egalitarian policy schemes with great advantages. Nevertheless, this dissertation shows that family leave policies may have unintended consequences. Family leave can affect family stability temporarily, while lengthy family leaves lead to negative labour market effects for both men and women and can reproduce social inequality. Unintended consequences and disproportional disadvantages need to be evaluated in order to develop more universal and socially just forms of family leave.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 09:30 Vivi Täckholmssalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Salgado, Marco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University.
    The actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata: interpreting its symbiotic adaptations by omics-based comparisons with model and non-model organisms2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen is the element that most often limits plant growth and development. Common agricultural practices rely on the application of large quantities of industrially-produced nitrogen fertilizer, which poses a worldwide environmental threat. Sustainable agriculture encourages the use of biologically fixed nitrogen. However, access to this is still limited to a restricted group of dicotyledonous plants that share among them the ability to form a root nodule symbiosis. After an intricate molecular dialogue, these plants accommodate in the cells of a newly root-derived organ - the nodule - a class of bacteria that produce the nitrogenase enzyme by which they are able to reduce di-nitrogen from air to bioavailable ammonia. This mutualism allows the plant access to nitrogen in exchange for carbon. This thesis focuses particularly on the actinorhizal symbioses established between the North American plant Datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales) and Frankia actinobacteria from cluster II (Frankiaceae, Frankiales).

    The main aim of this thesis was to improve our understanding about the genetic basis underlying the evolution of root nodule symbioses. Genome-wide comparative analysis indicated that the loss or fragmentation of genes coding for Nodule Inception (NIN) and/or Rhizobium-directed Polar Growth was a major event for the loss of nodulation in close relatives of plants that are able to form a root nodule symbiosis. To acquire more information about the requirements in plant adaptations to meet a symbiosis with Frankia cluster II strains, the nodule transcriptome of D. glomerata was compared with that of Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (Rhamnaceae, Rosales). This study suggested that cluster II Frankia strains use lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors to signal to their host plants. In addition, it suggested that the nitrogen metabolism likely differs between these symbioses: while transcript profiles from nodules of D. glomerata supports pathways for arginine catabolism, which was previously suggested, those from nodules of C. thyrsiflorus support pathways for asparagine biosynthesis. Since nodules of both plants house Frankia strains from cluster II, the differences in nitrogen metabolism are most likely a feature of the host plant and not of the bacterial symbiont.

    As part of an approach to establish D. glomerata as a model organism for actinorhizal Cucurbitales, the effects of phytohormones towards expression of genes putatively involved in signaling for nodule development were investigated. In D. glomerata, similarly to legume plants, the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin were proposed to play a central role in nodule development as they exert a positive effect on the expression of NIN as well as on that of genes whose promoters are presumably transactivated by NIN.

    Furthermore, transporter proteins expressed in nodules of D. glomerata and of Casuarina glauca (Casuarinaceae, Fagales), which probably act in supplying C-metabolites to intracellular Frankia, were characterized for their substrate specificity. Results indicated that citrate, and not malate, might be the C-metabolite supplied to both Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 and Frankia casuarinae CcI3 strains in symbiosis.

    To explore the option of D. glomerata-mediated control towards its microsymbiont, a nodule-specific defensin-like peptide was characterized (DgDef1). Whereas DgDef1 acts as an antimicrobial peptide against Gram-negative strains in a range compatible with a role in symbiosis, no differentiation was shown in assays with the Gram-positive Streptomyces coelicolor. Nonetheless, DgDef1 induced changes in membrane integrity of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 as well as in its transcription profile, e.g., on transcription of genes associated with dicarboxylate uptake. Thus, a role for DgDef1 in acting against ineffective microsymbionts is suggested. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that actinorhizal nodule-specific defensins and legume nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides share a common origin, which in an evolutionary scenario of symbiont shift leads to the hypothesis that these peptides have been lost in most legumes lineages.

    Collectively, the data presented in this thesis support the idea that root nodule symbioses share more mechanisms than previously assumed, e.g., in the defense against ineffective microsymbionts (“bacterial cheaters”), supporting the new paradigm that the common ancestor of legumes and actinorhizal plants had evolved a symbiosis that was later lost in most lineages.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Quaranta, Alessandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Development and application of alternative methods for profiling proteins N-glycosylation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycosylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) that exerts profound structural and functional effects on the modified protein. Glycan synthesis and conjugation to proteins are regulated by a myriad of factors, both genetic and environmental, and are also influenced by external stressors. Glycosylation patterns are known to vary in correlation to a large number of diseases; therefore, it is possible to study such alterations to identify reliable biomarkers and help elucidate mechanisms underlying the disease. For these reasons, the development of analytical methods able to investigate the glycosylation of proteins in complex samples and to measure and characterize disease-related alterations is of great importance.

    In this thesis, the development and application of rapid and small-scale methods for the analysis of the glycosylation pattern on specific proteins in biological fluids, with a high degree of automation and potential for parallel sample treatment, is presented.

    Paper I illustrates a profiling method based on a microfluidic compact disc (CD) and its application to humans serum samples. The workflow integrated all the sample preparation steps, allowing a high degree of automation and sample treatment parallelization, significantly reducing the required processing time. In Paper II, a bead-based procedure for the immunoaffinity extraction of selected proteins from complex biological matrices was developed. This procedure improved and extended the applicability of the microfluidic CD method, increasing the flexibility and maintaining a good potential for automation. Paper III included a derivatization procedure in the bead-based methodology, to stabilize sialic acids for matrix-assisted lased desorption/ionization (MALDI) and to discriminate between connectivity isomers. Additionally, the method was applied to different biological fluids in order to highlight interpersonal variations of glycosylation. To increase the sample throughput, the method was scaled to a multi-wells format in Paper IV and subsequently applied to the investigation of alterations in the glycosylation pattern correlated to Alzheimer’s disease.

    Papers V and VI focus on applications based on electrospray ionization (ESI). In Paper V, a source for paper spray ionization (PSI) was modified to create a new set-up to extend the applicability of this mass spectrometry (MS) technique to large biomolecules. It was possible to measure intact proteins, identifying many glycoforms together with other PTMs, as well as to characterize released glycans, performing structural analysis by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In Paper VI ESI-MS and the bead-based sample preparation method developed in Papers II, III, and IV were used for quantification of various glycoforms of intact proteins. Additionally, a travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) MS/MS method was developed to structurally characterize the related N-glycans after enzymatic release.

    The methods proposed in this thesis show valid approaches, which could be applied to investigate alterations of glycosylation at different levels, with potential implementation for biomarker investigation and development.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 10:00 Reinholdsalen, Juristernas hus, Stockholm
    Dane, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Den reglerade invandringen och barnets bästa: Barns rätt till familjeliv och privatliv enligt barnkonventionen, Europakonventionen, EU-rätten och svensk utlänningslagstiftning2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the principle of the best interests of the child and the right to private and family life in relation to the societal interest of controlling immigration. The aim of the thesis is to contribute to ensuring more predictable and transparent legislation and decision-making.

    States, generally, have the right to control immigration. At the same time, a child’s right to family and private life is a human right – regulated, for example, by the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child, the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. This means that states can only restrict these rights when such interference is justified. In migration cases concerning private and family life, an assessment therefore must be made as to whether a decision to refuse residence is proportional. When a child is affected by such a decision, the child's best interests must be carefully assessed and taken into consideration. 

    This thesis examines what is legally required of a correct decision in migration cases concerning a child’s right to private and family life. Particular attention is given to those requirements imposed on lawmakers and legal actors by the public law principles of legality, objectivity and proportionality, as well as the duty to give reasoned decisions. This thesis charts the development and foundations of Swedish migration law including those requirements arising from EU and public international law. The focus thereafter is more specifically on the assessments made balancing the interests of children's rights and immigration control.

    Whether a restriction of the right to private and family life is proportionate is determined by the specific circumstances in the individual case. However, the research conducted demonstrates that there is a lack of guidance concerning which circumstances Swedish legal actors can and should consider, as well as the weight that should be attributed to the considered circumstances. The interest of immigration control is particularly ambiguous. The thesis identifies four types of circumstances that the Swedish lawmaker appears to suggest legal actors consider within this interest; (a) public order and security, (b) maintenance and enforcement of immigration control, (c) national economic well-being (including number of migrants), and (d) protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

    Lack of clear guidance is problematic, particularly in light of the principles of legality, objectivity and proportionality, as the outcomes of cases depend on what individual legal actors choose to consider. Vague guidance on what constitutes relevant circumstances may also contribute to the problem of poorly formulated decisions as identified in previous research. In order to increase the probability of legal actors rendering more correct decisions – on the basis of applicable law – a five-step model is presented: (1) identifying private and/or family life (2) identifying the child's best interests (3) identifying the underlying motivations linked to the interest of immigration control (4) listing the arguments for and against granting residence in Sweden and (5) determining which interests should prevail.

    The thesis concludes with a number of recommendations aimed mainly at lawmakers that could contribute to strengthening children's rights and increasing adherence to the rule of law in migration cases concerning children's right to private and family life.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Zirra, Maria Ioana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. Ghent University.
    Visual Poetic Memory: Ekphrasis and Image-Text in Seamus Heaney, Derek Walcott and Wopko Jensma2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation traces ekphrastic and image-textual references to European, African and Caribbean visual memory in the work of the three Anglophone poets Seamus Heaney (Northern Ireland), Derek Walcott (St. Lucia) and Wopko Jensma (South Africa). Visual poetic memory, which affords a comparative lens through which to explore political and aesthetic aspects of poetry, refers here to mentions, evocations and prolonged ekphrastic and image-textual interpellations of visual art and artists. The introduction details the main conceptual framework and argument of the dissertation, namely that ekphrasis and image-text can be understood as intermedial, politically-oriented, material and art-historical tools for analysing visual memory in the work of the three poets. The first chapter explores historical consciousness and responsibility in relation to paintings by Goya in Seamus Heaney’s North (1975) with the help of Walter Benjamin’s concept of “constellation” in the first half, while in the second part, I delve into Heaney’s more process-oriented and personal view of memory and responsibility in Station Island (1984). The second chapter is concerned with following notions of problematic visual memory inheritance in Walcott’s illustrated poetry volume Tiepolo’s Hound (2000). I elaborate on issues of marginalisation encoded in the memory regimes of museums using Spivak’s concept of the postcolonial “double bind”, and chart Walcott’s reparative readings that highlight race and the Caribbean within art history. The third chapter is concerned with the multiple visual and verbal ways in which Wopko Jensma eschews hierarchical comparisons by bringing together European and South African artists in his illustrated poetic work in i must show you my clippings (1977) and Sing for Our Execution (1973). Jensma’s engagement with expressionism is the main theme analysed in the chapter’s first half. It plays a part in his critique of apartheid racial commodification in a comparison with George Grosz’s artistic philosophy, and is used to commemorate the plight of black South African expressionists in the late 1960s. In the second part of the chapter, Jensma interpellates the figure of Vincent van Gogh in two poems and a photographic installation to chart the embattled positions of visual artists critical of apartheid and marginalised by society.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-05 09:00
  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 14:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens Hus, Stockholm
    Olsson, Jonna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Work, wealth, and well-being: Essays in macroeconomics2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        Structural transformation of the labor market and the aggregate economy

    Women's increased involvement in the economy has been the most significant change in labor markets during the past century. In this paper, I account for this period of structural change of the labor market in a macroeconomic model, and study how the increase in female labor force participation has affected the economy's response to aggregate shocks. I explicitly model heterogeneity in gender and household composition as well as the historical decrease of the gender wage gap. The model captures the salient features of historical data, including a strong increase in employment among married women, low crowding-out of married men, and relatively stable employment over time for single women. I then study how the changing labor force composition affects the economy's aggregate employment dynamics. The underlying trend in employment, driven by growth in female labor force participation, contributed to the perceived quick employment recovery after recessions before 1990. In general, incorporating both one- and two-person households matters for employment dynamics, with single households reacting more strongly to shocks and employment responses by subgroups changing over time.

     

    Labor supply in a quantitative heterogeneous-agent model

    Since long, the labor-supply channel has played a central role in macroeconomic analysis. Nevertheless, it has almost exclusively focused on representative-agent behavior. The aim of this paper is to examine frameworks that are significantly richer in terms of heterogeneity and uncertainty, and assess whether the predictions yielded by the starker frameworks are robust to these extensions.

     

    Subjective life expectancies, time preference heterogeneity and wealth inequality

    There is substantial heterogeneity in statistical and perceived life expectancy in the population. In this paper we document a systematic bias in survival beliefs: individuals with low survival probability relative to their peers underestimate their life expectancies, while individuals with high survival probability overestimate. To gauge the effect of heterogeneity in life expectancy on savings rates and ultimately wealth inequality, we introduce shocks to survival beliefs into an otherwise standard overlapping-generations model. We show that such a model exhibits counter-factual savings behavior as individuals increase their savings when their life expectancy drops. Nevertheless, overall wealth inequality in the economy is virtually unaffected by heterogeneity in survival beliefs, contrary to previous literature.

     

    Health dynamics and heterogeneous life expectancies

    In this paper, we provide improved estimates for age-dependent health transitions and survival probabilities for different subsamples of the US population. The estimated yearly transition matrices can be used in any life-cycle model where health and survival dynamics is of interest. The results show substantial heterogeneity in life expectancy in the population. For a 70-year-old man in excellent health, the probability of reaching his 80th birthday is around 75%, while the corresponding probability for a man in poor health is just below 40%.

      

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 09:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Johansson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lära historia genom källor: Undervisning och lärande av historisk källtolkning i grundskolan och gymnasieskolan2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with how students learn historical source interpretation and the design of facilitating teaching practices. Source interpretation is at the core of historians’ professional practice and, while being a key aspect of historical learning, it is sometimes misunderstood or misrepresented in history teaching. To better understand these issues two educational design research field studies were conducted in middle and upper secondary schools to explore how students learn historical source interpretation. The historical content in upper secondary school concerned the process of democratisation in Sweden, while the middle school content was the Viking Age. Source materials in upper secondary school included various text sources, while archaeological artefacts were used in middle school.

    The research object was historical source interpretation, or the ability to understand the meaning of sources in relation to the historical questions and contexts formulated and dealt with in history teaching. Source interpretation is one element of the ability to reason historically. It is a theoretical construct that has a heuristic function along with the development of historical consciousness. Four research questions are addressed: i) What do middle and upper secondary school students know when they have developed the ability to reason historically when engaged in source interpretation, ii) What are critical aspects of learning to reason historically when engaged in source interpretation, iii) What are similarities and differences between middle and upper secondary school students' learning of historical reasoning in source interpretation, and iv) How can history teaching facilitate the learning of historical reasoning through source interpretation?

    An interventionist and theory-informed research methodology, in the form of learning study, was used to develop teaching practices while generating empirical data. A compilation of four peer-reviewed articles simultaneously contribute knowledge to the practice of history teaching and to the theory of history didactics. Two articles address the first two questions of the qualitative meaning of learning source interpretation using phenomenography and variation theory to analyse students' perceptions and to identify the critical aspects of discernment that students must learn. From the perspective of variation theory, it is argued that learning source interpretation can be regarded as obtaining differentiated ways of seeing, as previous experiences are supplemented with more complex perceptions.

    The third question is addressed by comparing students’ developing of source interpretation skills in middle and upper secondary school. One finding of the comparison is that younger students’ learning reflects an increasing understanding of what history is, whereas older students learn to use the disciplinary tools and methods of history. Two articles address the final question regarding the role of teaching by combining content-based conversation analysis with variation theory to analyse students' learning processes when working with source interpretation tasks. It is argued that students’ preunderstandings can be regarded and used as resources in teaching and learning. Finally, seven design principles are suggested to guide teachers in organising their teaching practice. These include motivating historical research through source work and activating historical consciousness through sources.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskaps hus, Stockholm
    Höpner, Friederike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Multiple perspectives on absorbing aerosols over the northern Indian Ocean and Asia2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere scatter and absorb solar radiation, and thereby affect the Earth's energy budget, but the magnitude of the overall radiative effect due to aerosol-radiation interactions is uncertain. In particular, the impact of absorbing aerosol particles, mainly black carbon (BC), organic carbon and dust, is not completely understood. A large variety of absorbing aerosols can be found in Asia and over adjacent oceans due to huge urban, biomass burning and desert areas. This thesis focuses on the investigation of atmospheric aerosols over the northern Indian Ocean and Asia from multiple perspectives. This includes surface and vertical observations of physical and chemical particle properties by in-situ and remote sensing instruments as well as an investigation of the representation of absorbing aerosols in general circulation models. One main focus is on the identification of BC-containing particles at the marine remote Maldives Climate Observatory in Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) which is frequently influenced by continental air masses containing anthropogenic aerosols. During an intensive field campaign, vertical measurements of aerosol particles were performed with a Lidar and unmanned aerial vehicles. Elevated layers of absorbing aerosol above the marine boundary layer were found frequently when air masses had their source over the northern Indian Peninsula. However, determining a complete profile of particle absorption only from Lidar measurements is linked to high uncertainties. Long-term surface measurements of particle absorption and scattering together with observations of aerosol chemical composition at MCOH are used to evaluate purely optical methods for aerosol characterization. These optical methods are found to give reasonable estimates of particle types but they can not replace detailed chemical measurements. An additional comparison study of various instruments for determination of BC mass give potentially very diverse results, highlighting the complexity of the quantification of BC-containing particles. The investigation of the representation of absorbing aerosols over Asia in general circulation models reveals firstly that the particle absorption is generally underestimated in global climate models, and secondly that the range in aerosol absorption determined from major changes of emissions, meteorology and particle optical properties can not reach the large inter-model diversity. 

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 10:00 De Geer salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Hus Y, plan 2, Stockholm
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Om skyddet mot retroaktiv beskattning: En studie i konstitutionell rätt2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What kind of protection exists concerning retroactive taxation? The purpose of this study is to examine the overall protection against retroactive taxation in Swedish law, including the European Convention on Human Rights and European Union law. Furthermore the study aims to clarify the interpretive aspects of the problem of retroactivity. The methods used are a combination of critical legal positivism and interpretivism.

        The protection against retroactive taxation in Swedish law is regulated at the constitutional level in the Instrument of Government, Chapter 2 § 10 sec. 2, which has been in force since 1980. The protection is not absolute as there are two exceptions. The first exception is used regularly and allows for a special legislative procedure where the government, through a written communication to the parliament, issues an authoritative forewarning that a retroactive change in the tax law is to be expected. This has created a system of “prospective retroactivity”, where taxpayers are able to foresee, to a certain degree, the situations to which the written communication procedure will apply. The second exception regards the use of retroactive tax legislation in times of war or severe economic crisis, but has never been used. This constitutional provision provides for a rigorous protection against retroactive taxation, but is limited in scope. It only concerns legislative acts by the parliament and the government and the protection mainly concerns retroactivity, not retrospectivity. The Swedish model as a whole appears to be compatible with the human rights protection laid down in the European Convention of Human Rights as well as European Union law.

        Nevertheless, an active principle-based protection in other areas outside the scope of the constitutional provision seems desirable in order to achieve a more effective protection against retroactive taxation throughout the whole legal system.

        The study suggests that the concept of retroactivity is an interpretive concept and that the foremost solution to problems of retroactivity is through the balancing of supporting and competing principles or policies. The dichotomy of retroactive and retrospective, that is commonly referred to in legal practice is thus rejected, since it cannot provide for an assessment of what is at stake for the individual.

        A model for the interpretation of the protection against retroactive taxation based on the principle of proportionality is presented in the study. The principle of proportionality is at the forefront in this respect with its different aspects; legitimacy, necessity, suitability and proportionality stricto sensu. The principle of human dignity is proposed as being decisive regarding the legitimacy of a retroactive interference. Delimiting principles such as the principle of necessity and the principle of the abuse of law are also discussed as a means of justifying retroactive interference. The model has been developed according to the results of a study of the overall protection against retroactive taxation, especially the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union as well as interpretivist theories.

        The study also discusses the need for clear strategies for the legislator as well as the courts and the tax authorities on how to avoid retroactivity and achieve reasonable transitions, and includes various proposals in this regard.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Menéndez Hurtado, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structured Learning for Structural Bioinformatics: Applications of Deep Learning to Protein Structure Prediction2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are the basic molecular machines of the cell, performing a broad range of tasks, from structural support to catalysisof chemical reactions. Their function is determined by their 3D structure, which in turn is dictated by the order of their components, the amino acids.

    This thesis is dedicated to applications of machine learning to the problems of contact prediction, ab-initio, and model quality assessment. In particular, my research has been focused on developing methods that are both effective, and easy to use.

    In the first paper, we improved the already state-of-the-art model quality assessment (MQA) program ProQ3 replacing the underlying machine learning algorithm from svm to Deep Learning, baptised ProQ3D. The correlation between predicted and true scores was improved from 0.85 to 0.90, using the same training data and features.

    The second paper joined several programs into a single pipeline for ab-initio structure prediction: contact prediction,folding, and model selection. We attempted to predict the structures of all 6379 PFAM families with unknown structure, ofwhich 558 we believe to be accurate. Of these, 415 had not been reported before.

    The third paper uses advances in machine learning to build a contact predictor, PconsC4, that is fast and easy to deployin large-scale studies, since it requires a single Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA), and no external dependencies. The predictions are state-of-the-art, yielding a 12% improvement in precision over PconsC3, and 244 times faster.

    With ProQ4, in the fourth paper, we introduce a novel way of training deep networks for MQA in a way that minimises the bias of the training data, and emphasises model ranking, and demonstrate its viability with a minimal description ofthe protein. The ranking correlation was improved with respect to ProQ3D from 0.82 to 0.90.

    Lastly, in the fifth paper, weshow the results of ProQ3D and ProQ4 in a completely blind test: CASP13.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-11 13:00 Auditorium (215), Manne Siegbahnhusen, Stockholm
    Manker, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Förlagd form: Designkritik och designpraktik i Sverige 1860–18902019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this doctoral dissertation is to present an analysis of the design processes related to serial articles produced in Sweden between 1860 and 1890. In the dissertation, the interconnections between aesthetic theories, design languague, production processes, and the commercial market are explored. 

    The starting-point is the notion of 'popular aesthetics', derived from a handbook of aesthetics by German Art Historian Carl Lemcke, published in 1865. His aesthetics, as well as other German scholars as Jakob von Falke and Gottfried Semper, and the Norwegian Lorentz Dietrichson (working in Sweden at the time), differs from the more well-known and well-cited aesthetics propounded by other writers, including John Ruskin. Falke et. al. realised they had to work together with manufacturing business instead of against them. However, their aesthetics relied on idealistic notions and have consequently been dealt with by most researchers as an aesthetics which is informed by a conservative attitude. In this dissertation, focus is directed towards their collaboration with manufacturing businesses and their aesthetics, as an endeavour within modernity, is investigated. 

    The thesis follows two trajectories. The first engages in popular aesthetics that was disseminated by means of advice literature, engineering’s journals, and women's journals. Central to this trajectory lies an investigation into how illustrations were used as actors with regards to the aestheticism that is described. The first trajectory declares popular aesthetics to be a design critique, while the second interpret the design process as an ‘element design’. The object of study in this part of the thesis is the manufacturing and retailing of paraffin lamps, where two different manufacturers function as case studies, which elaborate how design processes within the production- and consumption businesses were performed.  

    The theoretical approach used in this investigation relies on the concepts of heterogeneity, actors, networks, agency, relations, and intra-action, as articulated by sociologists Bruno Latour and John Law, and by science theorist Karen Barad. The analysis discusses ornamental prints, pattern sheets, and design models as actors in the emerging field of design, due to their heterogenic constitution. Methodologically, the dissertation includes close readings of these actors. To trace how agency works, cultural theorist Mieke Bal's notion of ‘travelling concepts’ is elaborated on in the study; and is subsumed under the term migration. Further to this, 'design' is understood as an intermingling process between production–consumption–mediation, as suggested by design historian Grace Lees-Maffei.