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  • Disputas: 2020-02-28 09:00 Aula NOD, NOD-huset, Kista
    McGregor, Moira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Social Order of the Co-Located Mobile Phone: Practices of collaborative mobile phone use2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines mundane practices of everyday phone use to make conceptual, empirical and methodological contributions to ongoing research on mobile technology. It argues that we do not yet have a clear understanding of how the mobile phone is used–who does what, when and why. Yet these details are important if we are to judge the impact of mobile technology, understand the possibilities and dangers it offers, or evaluate claims about its broader impact on our sociality.

    The participation of both the phone user and those co-located is examined–to understand how we actively create and maintain a new ‘social order’ with mobile phones. Across five separate studies, a mix of methods is used to look closely at phone use. Drawing extensively on in situ video recording of device use, as well as interviews and ethnographic observations, the empirical chapters cover three different types of device use: search, messaging, and way-finding. The chapters look at the specifics of how the applications manifest themselves in practice (such as message notifications, or the ‘blue dot’ in map apps), as well as the practices adopted to use, manage and balance those applications within ongoing co-located, face-to-face interactions.

    Empirically, the studies document how co-located phone use is dependent upon the technology, but is also reliant upon new practices of collaboration and co-operation. I discuss how participation is managed (who is involved), the temporal organisation of action (when use occurs), and the recurrent actions and materiality of those practices (what happens). Moment-by-moment analysis of the practices highlights the importance and value of making phone use publicly accountable to avoid disturbing the ‘local order’, but also for sharing knowledge and making sense of the world together, as well as having fun and maintaining friendships.

    The methodological contribution is found in the hybridity of methods adopted to meet the challenge of collecting and analysing data relevant to studying what is happening when we use our phones. A combination of ethnography with video and conversation analysis, and the creative use of probes to support interviews is proposed, to gain access to a broader perspective on phone use. Through reliance upon empirical observation, we can avoid abstract and reductive generalisations about phone use, discussing instead the observable action and resources that do occur recurrently around mobile phone use–how things get done with mobiles.

    Conceptually, the thesis draws on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis for a perspective on how we make sense of the day-to-day interactions we have with one another–how we bring about and sustain the ‘local’ social order. I argue that practices of mobile phone use are constituent parts of local order in everyday life, and that their examination is key to understanding what social order is now like. A conceptual ‘diamond’ of mobile phone practice, broken down into elements of time, body, materiality, and repair is proposed. In conclusion, the thesis highlights the prevalence of phone practices beyond individual, task-oriented pursuits and I finish by reflecting on possible future research to enhance the collaborative, social aspects of mobile technology.

  • Disputas: 2020-02-28 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Kapaca, Elina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    A journey towards complete structure determination of zeolites by electron crystallography methods2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron crystallography has recently become very successful for structural studies of materials with sub-micrometer sized crystals. In this thesis two major techniques have been applied for structure elucidation – 3-dimensional electron diffraction (3D ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging. Both can provide information about the structure at the atomic level and have been used for structure determination. During the last decade, two 3D ED methods have been used in our group; the stepwise rotation electron diffraction (RED) method developed in our lab and continuous rotation electron diffraction (cRED) where improvements on the already existing RED method were implemented. Both 3D ED methods can be used for fast structure determination of ordered crystalline materials. HRTEM imaging is very useful for structure determination of more complex and severely disordered materials. For complex structures it is often necessary to combine several methods including powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD).

       Zeolites are microporous crystalline materials. They have complex structures and often synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The aforementioned electron crystallography methods have unique advantages in elucidation of atomic structures of such zeolites. In this thesis, the development of 3D ED methods, especially from RED to cRED, is described through the journey of structure determination of four zeolites; a known pure silicate silicalite-1 for testing the RED method, and three new zeolites. The new zeolites include two extra-large pore germanosilicates ITQ-56 and SYSU-3 and one small-pore aluminosilicate EMM-37. The thesis shows the limitations and advantages of the RED and cRED methods and how different challenges in the structure determination of zeolites are tackled by the advances of 3D ED methods. Finally the thesis presents a detailed structural study of disorders in an aluminosilicate zeolite ITQ-39 by combining HRTEM, RED with sample preparation by ultramicrotomy. The structure of ITQ-39 was determined in 2012 by our group. Here three new zeolite polytypes of ITQ-39 were identified from the HRTEM images and their structure models are proposed.

       A complete structure determination of zeolites includes elucidation of the framework structure, guest species such as structure directing agent (SDA) molecules and ions in the pores, and any structural disorder in the crystal. This thesis reflects to all of these structural characteristics of zeolites, presenting the power of electron crystallography.

  • Disputas: 2020-02-28 13:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Svahn, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    The Dynamics of Extratextual Translatorship in Contemporary Sweden: A Mixed Methods Approach2020Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with Swedish translators and the society in which they work. It begins with an exploration of the concept of translatorship, leading up to a three-part distinction of 1) textual translatorship, 2) paratextual translatorship, and 3) extratextual translatorship. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the empirical body of the thesis consists of three studies in which different aspects of extratextual translatorship – defined as the translator’s social role – are investigated. In doing so, the thesis makes new and valuable contributions to the field of agent-oriented translation sociology.

    The first study explores translators’ perceptions of translatorship using data collected through a widely distributed questionnaire. It employs a comparative approach derived from questionnaire-based studies originally designed by Helle V. Dam and Karen Korning Zethsen and previously conducted in Denmark and Finland. Although the group of respondents are fractionalised in many respects, perceptions concerning both the profession’s characteristics and its value on a societal level are highly unanimous. Statistical tests, however, reveal interesting nuances within the broader unanimity. Furthermore, in relation to previous research on translator status conducted in Denmark and Finland, the results display significant similarities but also some noteworthy differences. The second study investigates the ongoing socialisation of two groups of translation students in the process of becoming translators through a longitudinal focus group study. The data, collected over the course of two years, are analysed through deductive thematic analysis. A special emphasis is placed upon exploring the contextual structures in which the students’ socialisation processes are embedded and the structural factors influencing it. In the third study, in-depth interviews were conducted with five individual translators with different specialisations. Using deductive thematic analysis, the functions of their translatorships are investigated from an individual-centred perspective focusing on their respective roles as translators on an individual, professional and societal level, which correspond, respectively, to a concern for personal satisfaction, a sense of social community, and a higher purpose. Such a framework distinguishes and differentiates individual translators’ approaches to the profession while simultaneously providing an encompassing picture of the different functions of translatorship in translators’ lives.

    Overall, the thesis adopts a mixed methods approach in order to generate greater understanding of the dynamics of translatorship in contemporary Sweden. Targeting different levels of translatorship, it unravels a number of significant social dimensions of translatorship, such as the social recognition needed in order to become a translator. Together, the studies also point towards a number of common features as especially relevant for translatorship in contemporary Sweden, namely individualism, entrepreneurialism, collectiveness, translator status, responsibility and exit, i.e. the prospect of leaving the profession. Taken as a whole, the thesis demonstrates the value of a mixed methods approach in the field of agent-oriented translation sociology by shedding considerable light on the links between the translator and society and indicating further avenues through which these links can continue to be explored.

  • Disputas: 2020-02-28 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hegelund, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer.
    Empirical essays on unemployment and business cycles2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines business cycles in Sweden, and the patterns in and driving forces of short- and long-term movements in unemployment in a selection of high-income countries throughout the 20th century. While this has been studied numerous times before, this dissertation starts from the point of view that there is no consensus in social science on how to understand these phenomena. This study consists of an introductory chapter and four related but self-contained papers. One contribution of this thesis is the use of temporal disaggregation methods to estimate more detailed time series on gross domestic product (GDP) and unemployment. New quarterly estimates of GDP are then used, with the help of the Bry-Boschan algorithm, to reconstruct the Swedish business cycle in the period 1913–2014. This identifies a number of new patterns not visible in the annual data. A second contribution is different analyses of the extent to which unemployment can be explained by macroeconomic indicators such as GDP growth, capital formation and productivity. Different methods, such as band spectrum regression and wavelet analysis, are used to capture longer-term effects. Numerous results are presented that indicate that macroeconomic performance, notably capital formation, can have medium- to long-term effects on unemployment. This is in line with theoretical models on equilibrium unemployment that take account of the possibility of persistence in the return to long-run equilibrium, or models that comprise more than one unemployment equilibria. While this is not unknown in previous research, it contradicts several highly influential versions of equilibrium unemployment models, as well as a great body of research on the subject. These contributions have several important implications for future research. Historical chronologies should take account of the possibility that data of higher or lower frequency may lead to important differences in results. Empirical and theoretical research on labor markets should continue to investigate more deeply the possibility that unanticipated short-term events can have long-term effects on labor market outcomes.

  • Disputas: 2020-03-05 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Helmfrid, Sigrun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Socialantropologiska institutionen.
    Cotton and Cabaret: Domestic Economy and Female Agency in Burkina Faso2020Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the functioning of the domestic economy of smallholder cotton farmers with the overall aim of interrogating female agency, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Burkina Faso in the mid-1990s. The thesis addresses the following interrelated research questions: How were the smallholder domestic economies organized and how did they function? What were the mechanisms for economic inequality and social stratification? To what extent did women benefit from cotton farming? What economic strategies were available to women? And finally, how could female agency be conceptualized in relation to the domestic unit under male headship? Permeating the analysis is the insight that domestic economies of many West African farming societies consist of separate but interconnected economic domains, the “common” economy of the farming unit and the “individual” economies of its male and female members. It demonstrates that women have vested interests in both the common economy and their individual ones, since women’s individual undertakings, to a large extent, are motivated by their gendered responsibilities towards the domestic group. The study argues for an agency concept that captures the different modes in which women exercise agency, both as individuals and as members of social bodies.

  • Disputas: 2020-03-06 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Fält, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    New urban horizons in Africa: A critical analysis of changing land uses in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    African cities increasingly aspire global recognition and this has prompted a rapid transformation of the built environment in many urban locales. This thesis provides empirical and conceptual insights into this recent trend through a critical analysis of contemporary land use changes in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. More specifically, this thesis examines the prevailing discourses on desirable urban development amongst urban planners and policy makers in this city region; how and by whom certain city visions are integrated into the built environment; how certain marginalised groups (represented by ‘informal’ street vendors and former residents of an ‘informal settlement’) respond to dominant city visions; and the socio-spatial consequences of contemporary urban interventions.

    The present thesis is based upon three qualitative case studies of transforming urban areas in the Greater Accra Region. The methods used include semi-structured interviews, observations and policy analysis. Theoretically, this thesis combines critical urban theory, the governmentality perspective and post-colonial urban theory to examine different aspects of the processes behind changing land uses and their consequences. The three cases are analysed in separate papers and discussed together in a comprehensive summary.

    The first paper analyses the logics behind a state-led demolition of a centrally located informal settlement. The paper shows that ‘conflicting rationalities’ exist between marginalised residents of informal settlements and state actors regarding their understanding of Accra’s built environment. While the demolished settlement constituted a place of affordable housing, place-specific livelihood strategies and sociability to the former residents, state authorities perceived the neighbourhood as problematic and made use of market-driven, ‘generative’ and ‘dispositional’ rationalities to justify the demolition and make space for new urban developments.

    The second paper explores the everyday governance of informal street trade in Osu, a rapidly transforming inner suburb of Accra. The paper highlights the important role played by individual landowners in the regulation of street trade in public space and demonstrates that street vendors, state authorities and landowners express ambiguous attitudes on the contemporary and future presence of informal trading in Accra due to prevailing aspirations of making Accra a globally recognised city.

    The third paper analyses the planning and materialisation of Appolonia City, a new satellite city under construction in peri-urban Accra. The paper demonstrates that far-reaching processes of privatisation in terms of land ownership, urban planning and city management are taking place through this project. Appolonia City has been enabled by state- and traditional authorities, together with the private developer, on the basis of multiple rationalities. The paper suggests that Appolonia City will become an elite development in contrast to the project’s stated goal of social sustainability.

    On the basis of the aggregated findings of the three case studies, this thesis concludes that a strong ‘global city’ ideal informs contemporary urban transformation in the Greater Accra Region; that the privatisation of communal land plays a key role in enabling (new types of) urban intervention; and that the needs of the urban poor are largely disregarded in these processes.

  • Disputas: 2020-03-06 13:00 hörsalen, Frescati backe, Stockholm
    Winerdal, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Det dubbla ansvaret: Polisförhör med barn och unga som misstänks för att ha utövat dödligt våld2020Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The over-arching aim of this doctoral thesis is to describe, analyze, theorize and problematize how the Swedish police interrogate children and youth suspected of committing the crime of homicide. This thesis will therefore focus on the investigative interview practices with children below the age of criminal responsibility, who cannot be prosecuted, as well as youth, who have reached the age of criminal responsibility and can thus be prosecuted, and, if found guilty, sentenced. The thesis particularly conceptualizes the “dual responsibility” of the police when interrogating children and youth. The police are, in accordance with the law, obliged to both investigate the actual crime and the issue of guilt and the need of social support for the well-being of the suspected child or youth. The quintessential question is, thus if, and, if so, to what extent, the investigative interview practices being studied responds to the legal obligation of this dual responsibility.

    The empirical data that the thesis analyzes are the investigative interviews conducted by police officers in Swedish police authorities from 1995 to 2013, comprising a total of forty-seven case files. These files include seven children, five to fourteen years old, and forty-seven youths, fifteen to seventeen years old, all of whom are suspected of having committed the crime of homicide. A total of 101 transcribed interviews are included in the study.

    The thesis identifies five main empirical findings. The first is that the investigative interview practices comprise three main themes, namely, interrogative topics (what the police ask about), questions (how the police ask question to get to know about the topics), and strategies (how the police try to make the children and the youth talk about the actual topics). The second main finding is that all three investigative interview practices exclusively concern nothing but issues of crime and guilt - including the description of the crime, its time and place, weapon(s) involved and motive(s). The third main finding is that there are no significant differences in how children and youth are being interrogated. The fourth main finding, then, is that only one of the two legal responsibilities is in focus in the interviews. That is, the investigation of the facts of the crime and the determination of guilt. The fifth finding is that when focusing on crime and guilt the police use of questions is often not in compliance with existing recommendations for best practices, which means that leading questions are often used.

    These findings are then theorized by applying Mary Douglas’ theory of how institutions think. This theorization shows that the investigative interview practices are strongly informed by a thought style which is manifested throughout the interrogative topics, questions and strategies. This thought style influences the institutional approach in such a way that one half of the dual responsibility is completely overlooked. That is, the legal obligation to investigate the need of social support for the wellbeing of a suspected child or youth, both during interrogation and afterwards in their lives following the investigations.

    The thesis ends by identifying a number of problems, possibilities and dilemmas that need to be met to ensure that the investigative interview practices fully address the legal obligations of the dual responsibility.

  • Disputas: 2020-03-10 13:00 hörsal 9, hus D, Stockholm
    Alnevall, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Women’s Discursive Representation: Women as Political Representatives, Mothers, and Victims of Men’s Violence in the Mexican Parliament2020Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how Mexican women political representatives are constituted through parliamentary language in the national Chamber of Deputies during a time when compulsory electoral gender quotas are introduced. Women’s political representation has increased considerably worldwide, due to gender quotas or laws requiring guaranteed seats for women. Mexico, which is the case studied in the dissertation, is one example where a significant growth in the number of elected female politicians have increased due to an electoral quota law. However, despite this development women parliamentarians are still reported to face obstacles when in office. Drawing on the ‘representative claims’ theory and critical discourse studies, this study seeks to understand how constructions of women hinder as well as provide opportunities for female politicians. The dissertation develops a theoretical and methodological framework that makes it possible to identify and analyze the representative claims and the subject positions that are constituted by these claims.

    The empirical section analyzes records of debates in the Mexican parliaments from two periods, one before and one after the implementation of the 2002 electoral quota law, which is a major change in the Mexican political system. The construction of the three subject positions women as representatives, women as mothers and women as victims of men’s violence are detailed. Focusing on the constitutive aspects of representation, as the dissertation seeks to understand how the construction of these three subject positions affect what female politicians can say and do in parliament.

    Previous research on women’s political representation has offered a rich understanding of descriptive, substantive, and symbolic representation. This study broadens the field further by introducing the discursive representation approach, which contribute to the understanding of the obstacles women politicians (still) meet. The study uncovers how Mexican women are situated in a political context dominated by men, in which they constantly have to negotiate their presence.

  • Disputas: 2020-03-13 09:30 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Silberstein, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer.
    Humanity Washed Ashore: Visual representations of practices, people, and the borders of Europe2020Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, Frontex (European Border and Coast Guard Agency) has emerged as a central actor for the European Union’s migration and border policies. This doctoral dissertation examines the role of Frontex in constructing understandings of borders, practices, and people present in these spaces as well as more ambivalent representations of risk, unease, and (in)security. The study is based on material produced by Frontex during the period 2010-2016. More specifically, the dissertation explores how borders, practices, and people as well as risk, unease, and (in)security are produced through representational practices. In doing so, this dissertation examines how Frontex is normalised as the EU’s central actor at Europe’s borders. Unlike previous studies on Frontex, which have tended to focus on either the practices of the agency, its legal context, or use of technology, this dissertation examines Frontex as a producer of different discourses. Secondly, this dissertation adds to the existing research on Frontex by examining their visual material. Likewise, in contrast to much of the research in the field of Critical Border Studies (CBS), which has focused on the performative aspects of how borders are produced, this dissertation adds to the field of CBS by examining how borders are performed through representational practices of visual material. In order to examine representational practices of (in)securitisation by which Frontex is normalised as the EU’s central actor at Europe’s borders, this dissertation draws primarily on the research on (in)securitisation while adding a visual aspect to create a framework termed visual (in)securitisation. The overall findings cast light on the complexity of processes of (in)securitisation and the performances of borders and offers new ways of understanding both processes. The findings point to the role of images in shaping conditions for processes of (in)securitisation, influencing how borders, practices, and people in these spaces are understood. Empirically, this dissertation demonstrates the significance of integrating images whilst analysing how (in)security and borders are produced and how Frontex are normalised as the EU’s central actor at Europe’s borders. Theoretically, it highlights the relationship between images and ambiguity, ambivalence, risk, and unease in processes of (in)securitisation as well as the role of images in performing borders.

  • Disputas: 2020-03-13 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Martínez-Carranza, Markel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Structural Insights into Botulinum Neurotoxins and the ALFA-tag System: Structural and Functional Studies of Proteins Related to the Botulinum Neurotoxins and Design of a Novel Epitope Tag2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is divided into two sections; the first part describes our work in the field of botulinum neurotoxins (presented in papers I, II, III, and manuscript IV) and the second part summarizes our work involving the design of a new biochemical tool (presented in paper V).

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to date. They have a conserved structure that consists of three domains (receptor-binding, translocation, and catalytic domain), each of which has a distinct function. The receptor-binding domain binds to neuronal receptors, and after endocytosis the translocation domain shuttles the catalytic domain into the cytosol, where it cleaves neuronal proteins of the SNARE family, which are part of the vesicle-membrane fusion machinery.

    In paper I, we studied proteins of unknown function (OrfX1, OrfX2, OrfX3, and P47), which are co-expressed with certain BoNTs. We solved the crystal structures of OrfX2 and P47, and their structural resemblance to tubular lipid binding proteins (TULIP) together with lipid binding studies, led us to conclude that OrfX1 and P47 are able to bind phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIPs) in vitro.

    In paper II, we studied the binding of BoNT/B, /DC and /G to their protein receptor synaptotagmin (Syt). We determined their affinities to synaptotagmins from different species, and concluded that residue F50 in bovine Syt-II is responsible for its increased affinity towards BoNT/DC. In addition, we studied the interaction between BoNT/G and Syt-II via STD-NMR. Our results showed the binding to be similar to BoNT/B and Syt-II, and that the N-terminal region of the Syt peptide is important for the binding of BoNTs to synaptotagmin, even though it is not part of the binding interface.

    In paper III and manuscript IV, we present the identification of a novel BoNT serotype named BoNT/X. We showed that BoNT/X cleaves the non-canonical substrates VAMP4, VAMP5 and Ykt6, as well as the canonical substrate VAMP1-3 at a new cleavage site, distinct from other BoNTs. In addition, we present the cryo-EM structure of BoNT/X in complex with its non-toxic interaction partner NTNH. Our pH stability experiments revealed that BoNT/X-NTNH remain bound at neutral to moderately high pH, in contrast with what is observed for BoNT/A-NTNH.

    In paper V we present the design of a novel epitope tag named the ALFA system. The ALFA tag is a short α-helical protein tag that is highly stable and electroneutral. The ALFA nanobody has a very high affinity for the tag and is small enough to allow for high performance in high-resolution microscopy. The crystal structure of the ALFA nanobody in complex with the tag led to a modified version of the ALFA nanobody that can release the tag via competitive elution with free ALFA peptide. Our results showed that this system outperforms several commercially available systems in protein purification and high-resolution microscopy.

  • Disputas: 2020-03-13 13:00 hörsal 11, hus F, Stockholm
    Ördén, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Securing Judgement: Rethinking Security and Online Information Threats2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The contemporary debate in democracies routinely describes online information threats such as misinformation, disinformation and deception as security-issues in need of urgent attention. Despite this pervasive discourse, policymakers often appear incapable of articulating what security means in this context. Turning to EU policy and previous research on cybersecurity, this dissertation empirically unpacks, critically interrogates and theoretically rethinks the meaning of security in relation to online information threats. In so doing, the articles elucidate a new ‘referent object’ implicitly guiding securitization. Contemporary interventions can be seen as grounded in assumptions about the protection of human judgement. Using Hannah Arendt’s writings on ‘political judgement’ as a point of reference for critically evaluating contemporary policy, the dissertation points to several problems with existing approaches to security in a democratic context where free debate constitutes a legitimizing element of political authority. The rethinking of security departs from this problematic and shows that treating human judgement as a ‘referent object’ – if firmly grounded in the interplay between independent human communicating subjects – can better address some problematic questions about legitimate authority and political community currently haunting security interventions in cyberspace.